Simple Two-way Messaging using the Amazon SQS Temporary Queue Client

Post Syndicated from Rachel Richardson original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/simple-two-way-messaging-using-the-amazon-sqs-temporary-queue-client/

This post is contributed by Robin Salkeld, Sr. Software Development Engineer

Amazon SQS is a fully managed message queuing service that makes it easy to decouple and scale microservices, distributed systems, and serverless applications. Asynchronous workflows have always been the primary use case for SQS. Using queues ensures one component can keep running smoothly without losing data when another component is unavailable or slow.

We were surprised, then, to discover that many customers use SQS in synchronous workflows. For example, many applications use queues to communicate between frontends and backends when processing a login request from a user.

Why would anyone use SQS for this? The service stores messages for up to 14 days with high durability, but messages in a synchronous workflow often must be processed within a few minutes, or even seconds. Why not just set up an HTTPS endpoint?

The more we talked to customers, the more we understood. Here’s what we learned:

  • Creating a queue is often easier and faster than creating an HTTPS endpoint and the infrastructure necessary to ensure the endpoint’s scalability.
  • Queues are safe by default because they are locked down to the AWS account that created them. In addition, any DDoS attempt on your service is absorbed by SQS instead of loading down your own servers.
  • There is generally no need to create firewall rules for the communication between microservices if they use queues.
  • Although SQS provides durable storage (which isn’t necessary for short-lived messages), it is still a cost-effective solution for this use case. This is especially true when you consider all the messaging broker maintenance that is done for you.

However, setting up efficient two-way communication through one-way queues requires some non-trivial client-side code. In our previous two-part post series on implementing enterprise integration patterns with AWS messaging services, Point-to-point channels and Publish-subscribe channels, we discussed the Request-Response Messaging Pattern. In this pattern, each requester creates a temporary destination to receive each response message.

The simplest approach is to create a new queue for each response, but this is like building a road just so a single car can drive on it before tearing it down. Technically, this can work (and SQS can create and delete queues quickly), but we can definitely make it faster and cheaper.

To better support short-lived, lightweight messaging destinations, we are pleased to present the Amazon SQS Temporary Queue Client. This client makes it easy to create and delete many temporary messaging destinations without inflating your AWS bill.

Virtual queues

The key concept behind the client is the virtual queue. Virtual queues let you multiplex many low-traffic queues onto a single SQS queue. Creating a virtual queue only instantiates a local buffer to hold messages for consumers as they arrive; there is no API call to SQS and no costs associated with creating a virtual queue.

The Temporary Queue Client includes the AmazonSQSVirtualQueuesClient class for creating and managing virtual queues. This class implements the AmazonSQS interface and adds support for attributes related to virtual queues. You can create a virtual queue using this client by calling the CreateQueue API action and including the HostQueueURL queue attribute. This attribute specifies the existing SQS queue on which to host the virtual queue. The queue URL for a virtual queue is in the form <host queue URL>#<virtual queue name>. For example:

https://sqs.us-east-2.amazonaws.com/123456789012/MyQueue#MyVirtualQueueName

When you call the SendMessage or SendMessageBatch API actions on AmazonSQSVirtualQueuesClient with a virtual queue URL, the client first extracts the virtual queue name. It then attaches this name as an additional message attribute to each message, and sends the messages to the host queue. When you call the ReceiveMessage API action on a virtual queue, the calling thread waits for messages to appear in the in-memory buffer for the virtual queue. Meanwhile, a background thread polls the host queue and dispatches messages to these buffers according to the additional message attribute.

This mechanism is similar to how the AmazonSQSBufferedAsyncClient prefetches messages, and the benefits are similar. A single call to SQS can provide messages for up to 10 virtual queues, reducing the API calls that you pay for by up to a factor of ten. Deleting a virtual queue simply removes the client-side resources used to implement them, again without making API calls to SQS.

The diagram below illustrates the end-to-end process for sending messages through virtual queues:

Sending messages through virtual queues

Virtual queues are similar to virtual machines. Just as a virtual machine provides the same experience as a physical machine, a virtual queue divides the resources of a single SQS queue into smaller logical queues. This is ideal for temporary queues, since they frequently only receive a handful of messages in their lifetime. Virtual queues are currently implemented entirely within the Temporary Queue Client, but additional support and optimizations might be added to SQS itself in the future.

In most cases, you don’t have to manage virtual queues yourself. The library also includes the AmazonSQSTemporaryQueuesClient class. This class automatically creates virtual queues when the CreateQueue API action is called and creates host queues on demand for all queues with the same queue attributes. To optimize existing application code that creates and deletes queues, you can use this class as a drop-in replacement implementation of the AmazonSQS interface.

The client also includes the AmazonSQSRequester and AmazonSQSResponder interfaces, which enable two-way communication through SQS queues. The following is an example of an RPC implementation for a web application’s login process.

/**
 * This class handles a user's login request on the client side.
 */
public class LoginClient {

    // The SQS queue to send the requests to.
    private final String requestQueueUrl;

    // The AmazonSQSRequester creates a temporary queue for each response.
    private final AmazonSQSRequester sqsRequester = AmazonSQSRequesterClientBuilder.defaultClient();

    private final LoginClient(String requestQueueUrl) {
        this.requestQueueUrl = requestQueueUrl;
    }

    /**
     * Send a login request to the server.
     */
    public String login(String body) throws TimeoutException {
        SendMessageRequest request = new SendMessageRequest()
                .withMessageBody(body)
                .withQueueUrl(requestQueueUrl);

        // This:
        //  - creates a temporary queue
        //  - attaches its URL as an attribute on the message
        //  - sends the message
        //  - receives the response from the temporary queue
        //  - deletes the temporary queue
        //  - returns the response
        //
        // If something goes wrong and the server's response never shows up, this method throws a
        // TimeoutException.
        Message response = sqsRequester.sendMessageAndGetResponse(request, 20, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
        
        return response.getBody();
    }
}

/**
 * This class processes users' login requests on the server side.
 */
public class LoginServer {

    // The SQS queue to poll for login requests.
    // Assume that on construction a thread is created to poll this queue and call
    // handleLoginRequest() below for each message.
    private final String requestQueueUrl;

    // The AmazonSQSResponder sends responses to the correct response destination.
    private final AmazonSQSResponder sqsResponder = AmazonSQSResponderClientBuilder.defaultClient();

    private final AmazonSQS(String requestQueueUrl) {
        this.requestQueueUrl = requestQueueUrl;
    }

    /**
     * Handle a login request sent from the client above.
     */
    public void handleLoginRequest(Message message) {
        // Assume doLogin does the actual work, and returns a serialized result
        String response = doLogin(message.getBody());

        // This extracts the URL of the temporary queue from the message attribute and sends the
        // response to that queue.
        sqsResponder.sendResponseMessage(MessageContent.fromMessage(message), new MessageContent(response));  
    }
}

Cleaning up

As with any other AWS SDK client, your code should call the shutdown() method when the temporary queue client is no longer needed. The AmazonSQSRequester interface also provides a shutdown() method, which shuts down its internal temporary queue client. This ensures that the in-memory resources needed for any virtual queues are reclaimed, and that the host queue that the client automatically created is also deleted automatically.

However, in the world of distributed systems things are a little more complex. Processes can run out of memory and crash, and hosts can reboot suddenly and unexpectedly. There are even cases where you don’t have the opportunity to run custom code on shutdown.

The Temporary Queue Client client addresses this issue as well. For each host queue with recent API calls, the client periodically uses the TagQueue API action to attach a fresh tag value that indicates the queue is still being used. The tagging process serves as a heartbeat to keep the queue alive. According to a configurable time period (by default, 5 minutes), a background thread uses the ListQueues API action to obtain the URLs of all queues with the configured prefix. Then, it deletes each queue that has not been tagged recently. The mechanism is similar to how the Amazon DynamoDB Lock Client expires stale lock leases.

If you use the AmazonSQSTemporaryQueuesClient directly, you can customize how long queues must be idle before they is deleted by configuring the IdleQueueRetentionPeriodSeconds queue attribute. The client supports setting this attribute on both host queues and virtual queues. For virtual queues, setting this attribute ensures that the in-memory resources do not become a memory leak in the presence of application bugs.

Any API call to a queue marks it as non-idle, including ReceiveMessage calls that don’t return any messages. The only reason to increase the retention period attribute is to give the client more time when it can’t send heartbeats—for example, due to garbage collection pauses or networking issues.

But what if you want to use this client in a fleet of a thousand EC2 instances? Won’t every client spend a lot of time checking every queue for idleness? Doesn’t that imply duplicate work that increases as the fleet is scaled up?

We thought of this too. The Temporary Queue Client creates a shared queue for all clients using the same queue prefix, and uses this queue as a work queue for the distributed task. Instead of every client calling the ListQueues API action every five minutes, a new seed message (which triggers the sweeping process) is sent to this queue every five minutes.

When one of the clients receives this message, it calls the ListQueues API action and sends each queue URL in the result as another kind of message to the same shared work queue. The work of actually checking each queue for idleness is distributed roughly evenly to the active clients, ensuring scalability. There is even a mechanism that works around the fact that the ListQueues API action currently only returns no more than 1,000 queue URLs at time.

Summary

We are excited about how the new Amazon SQS Temporary Queue Client makes more messaging patterns easier and cheaper for you. Download the code from GitHub, have a look at Temporary Queues in the Amazon SQS Developer Guide, try out the client, and let us know what you think!