Tag Archives: apt

N O D E’s Handheld Linux Terminal

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/n-o-d-es-handheld-linux-terminal/

Fit an entire Raspberry Pi-based laptop into your pocket with N O D E’s latest Handheld Linux Terminal build.

The Handheld Linux Terminal Version 3 (Portable Pi 3)

Hey everyone. Today I want to show you the new version 3 of the Handheld Linux Terminal. It’s taken a long time, but I’m finally finished. This one takes all the things I’ve learned so far, and improves on many of the features from the previous iterations.

N O D E

With interests in modding tech, exploring the boundaries of the digital world, and open source, YouTuber N O D E has become one to watch within the digital maker world. He maintains a channel focused on “the transformative power of technology.”

“Understanding that electronics isn’t voodoo is really powerful”, he explains in his Patreon video. “And learning how to build your own stuff opens up so many possibilities.”

NODE Youtube channel logo - Handheld Linux Terminal v3

The topics of his videos range from stripped-down devices, upgraded tech, and security upgrades, to the philosophy behind technology. He also provides weekly roundups of, and discussions about, new releases.

Essentially, if you like technology, you’ll like N O D E.

Handheld Linux Terminal v3

Subscribers to N O D E’s YouTube channel, of whom there are currently over 44000, will have seen him documenting variations of this handheld build throughout the last year. By stripping down a Raspberry Pi 3, and incorporating a Zero W, he’s been able to create interesting projects while always putting functionality first.

Handheld Linux Terminal v3

With the third version of his terminal, N O D E has taken experiences gained from previous builds to create something of which he’s obviously extremely proud. And so he should be. The v3 handheld is impressively small considering he managed to incorporate a fully functional keyboard with mouse, a 3.5″ screen, and a fan within the 3D-printed body.

Handheld Linux Terminal v3

“The software side of things is where it really shines though, and the Pi 3 is more than capable of performing most non-intensive tasks,” N O D E goes on to explain. He demonstrates various applications running on Raspbian, plus other operating systems he has pre-loaded onto additional SD cards:

“I have also installed Exagear Desktop, which allows it to run x86 apps too, and this works great. I have x86 apps such as Sublime Text and Spotify running without any problems, and it’s technically possible to use Wine to also run Windows apps on the device.”

We think this is an incredibly neat build, and we can’t wait to see where N O D E takes it next!

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Google Asked to Remove 3 Billion “Pirate” Search Results

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/google-asked-to-remove-3-billion-pirate-search-results-171018/

Copyright holders continue to flood Google with DMCA takedown requests, asking the company to remove “pirate links” from its search results.

In recent years the number of reported URLs has exploded, surging to unprecedented heights.

Since Google first started to report the volume of takedown requests in its Transparency Report, the company has been asked to remove more than three billion allegedly infringing search results.

The frequency at which these URLs are reported has increased over the years and at the moment roughly three million ‘pirate’ URLs are submitted per day.

The URLs are sent in by major rightsholders including members of the BPI, RIAA, and various major Hollywood studios. They target a wide variety of sites, over 1.3 million, but a few dozen ‘repeat offenders’ are causing the most trouble.

File-hosting service 4shared.com currently tops the list of most-targeted domains with 66 million URLs, followed by the now-defunct MP3 download site MP3toys.xyz and Rapidgator.net, with 51 and 28 million URLs respectively.

3 billion URLs

Interestingly, the high volume of takedown notices is used as an argument for and against the DMCA process.

While Google believes that the millions of reported URLs per day are a sign that the DMCA takedown process is working correctly, rightsholders believe the volumes are indicative of an unbeatable game of whack-a-mole.

According to some copyright holders, the takedown efforts do little to seriously combat piracy. Various industry groups have therefore asked governments and lawmakers for broad revisions.

Among other things they want advanced technologies and processes to ensure that infringing content doesn’t reappear elsewhere once it’s removed, a so-called “notice and stay down” approach. In addition, Google has often been asked to demote pirate links in search results.

UK music industry group BPI, who are responsible for more than 10% of all the takedown requests on Google, sees the new milestone as an indicator of how much effort its anti-piracy activities take.

“This 3 billion figure shows how hard the creative sector has to work to police its content online and how much time and resource this takes. The BPI is the world’s largest remover of illegal music links from Google, one third of which are on behalf of independent record labels,” Geoff Taylor, BPI’s Chief Executive, informs TF.

However, there is also some progress to report. Earlier this year BPI announced a voluntary partnership with Google and Bing to demote pirate content faster and more effectively for US visitors.

“We now have a voluntary code of practice in place in the UK, facilitated by Government, that requires Google and Bing to work together with the BPI and other creator organizations to develop lasting solutions to the problem of illegal sites gaining popularity in search listings,” Taylor notes.

According to BPI, both Google and Bing have shown that changes to their algorithms can be effective in demoting the worst pirate sites from the top search results and they hope others will follow suit.

“Other intermediaries should follow this lead and take more responsibility to work with creators to reduce the proliferation of illegal links and disrupt the ability of illegal sites to capture consumers and build black market businesses that take money away from creators.”

Agreement or not, there are still plenty of pirate links in search results, so the BPI is still sending out millions of takedown requests per month.

We asked Google for a comment on the new milestone but at the time of writing, we have yet to hear back. In any event, the issue is bound to remain a hot topic during the months and years to come.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

More Raspberry Pi labs in West Africa

Post Syndicated from Rachel Churcher original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/pi-based-ict-west-africa/

Back in May 2013, we heard from Dominique Laloux about an exciting project to bring Raspberry Pi labs to schools in rural West Africa. Until 2012, 75 percent of teachers there had never used a computer. The project has been very successful, and Dominique has been in touch again to bring us the latest news.

A view of the inside of the new Pi lab building

Preparing the new Pi labs building in Kuma Tokpli, Togo

Growing the project

Thanks to the continuing efforts of a dedicated team of teachers, parents and other supporters, the Centre Informatique de Kuma, now known as INITIC (from the French ‘INItiation aux TIC’), runs two Raspberry Pi labs in schools in Togo, and plans to open a third in December. The second lab was opened last year in Kpalimé, a town in the Plateaux Region in the west of the country.

Student using a Raspberry Pi computer

Using the new Raspberry Pi labs in Kpalimé, Togo

More than 400 students used the new lab intensively during the last school year. Dominique tells us more:

“The report made in early July by the seven teachers who accompanied the students was nothing short of amazing: the young people covered a very impressive number of concepts and skills, from the GUI and the file system, to a solid introduction to word processing and spreadsheets, and many other skills. The lab worked exactly as expected. Its 21 Raspberry Pis worked flawlessly, with the exception of a couple of SD cards that needed re-cloning, and a couple of old screens that needed to be replaced. All the Raspberry Pis worked without a glitch. They are so reliable!”

The teachers and students have enjoyed access to a range of software and resources, all running on Raspberry Pi 2s and 3s.

“Our current aim is to introduce the students to ICT using the Raspberry Pis, rather than introducing them to programming and electronics (a step that will certainly be considered later). We use Ubuntu Mate along with a large selection of applications, from LibreOffice, Firefox, GIMP, Audacity, and Calibre, to special maths, science, and geography applications. There are also special applications such as GnuCash and GanttProject, as well as logic games including PyChess. Since December, students also have access to a local server hosting Kiwix, Wiktionary (a local copy of Wikipedia in four languages), several hundred videos, and several thousand books. They really love it!”

Pi lab upgrade

This summer, INITIC upgraded the equipment in their Pi lab in Kuma Adamé, which has been running since 2014. 21 older model Raspberry Pis were replaced with Pi 2s and 3s, to bring this lab into line with the others, and encourage co-operation between the different locations.

“All 21 first-generation Raspberry Pis worked flawlessly for three years, despite the less-than-ideal conditions in which they were used — tropical conditions, dust, frequent power outages, etc. I brought them all back to Brussels, and they all still work fine. The rationale behind the upgrade was to bring more computing power to the lab, and also to have the same equipment in our two Raspberry Pi labs (and in other planned installations).”

Students and teachers using the upgraded Pi labs in Kuma Adamé

Students and teachers using the upgraded Pi lab in Kuma Adamé

An upgrade of the organisation’s first lab, installed in 2012 in Kuma Tokpli, will be completed in December. This lab currently uses ‘retired’ laptops, which will be replaced with Raspberry Pis and peripherals. INITIC, in partnership with the local community, is also constructing a new building to house the upgraded technology, and the organisation’s third Raspberry Pi lab.

Reliable tech

Dominique has been very impressed with the performance of the Raspberry Pis since 2014.

“Our experience of three years, in two very different contexts, clearly demonstrates that the Raspberry Pi is a very convincing alternative to more ‘conventional’ computers for introducing young students to ICT where resources are scarce. I wish I could convince more communities in the world to invest in such ‘low cost, low consumption, low maintenance’ infrastructure. It really works!”

He goes on to explain that:

“Our goal now is to build at least one new Raspberry Pi lab in another Togolese school each year. That will, of course, depend on how successful we are at gathering the funds necessary for each installation, but we are confident we can convince enough friends to give us the financial support needed for our action.”

A desk with Raspberry Pis and peripherals

Reliable Raspberry Pis in the labs at Kpalimé

Get involved

We are delighted to see the Raspberry Pi being used to bring information technology to new teachers, students, and communities in Togo – it’s wonderful to see this project becoming established and building on its achievements. The mission of the Raspberry Pi Foundation is to put the power of digital making into the hands of people all over the world. Therefore, projects like this, in which people use our tech to fulfil this mission in places with few resources, are wonderful to us.

More information about INITIC and its projects can be found on its website. If you are interested in helping the organisation to meet its goals, visit the How to help page. And if you are involved with a project like this, bringing ICT, computer science, and coding to new places, please tell us about it in the comments below.

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Some notes on the KRACK attack

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/10/some-notes-on-krack-attack.html

This is my interpretation of the KRACK attacks paper that describes a way of decrypting encrypted WiFi traffic with an active attack.

tl;dr: Wow. Everyone needs to be afraid. (Well, worried — not panicked.) It means in practice, attackers can decrypt a lot of wifi traffic, with varying levels of difficulty depending on your precise network setup. My post last July about the DEF CON network being safe was in error.

Details

This is not a crypto bug but a protocol bug (a pretty obvious and trivial protocol bug).
When a client connects to the network, the access-point will at some point send a random “key” data to use for encryption. Because this packet may be lost in transmission, it can be repeated many times.
What the hacker does is just repeatedly sends this packet, potentially hours later. Each time it does so, it resets the “keystream” back to the starting conditions. The obvious patch that device vendors will make is to only accept the first such packet it receives, ignore all the duplicates.
At this point, the protocol bug becomes a crypto bug. We know how to break crypto when we have two keystreams from the same starting position. It’s not always reliable, but reliable enough that people need to be afraid.
Android, though, is the biggest danger. Rather than simply replaying the packet, a packet with key data of all zeroes can be sent. This allows attackers to setup a fake WiFi access-point and man-in-the-middle all traffic.
In a related case, the access-point/base-station can sometimes also be attacked, affecting the stream sent to the client.
Not only is sniffing possible, but in some limited cases, injection. This allows the traditional attack of adding bad code to the end of HTML pages in order to trick users into installing a virus.

This is an active attack, not a passive attack, so in theory, it’s detectable.

Who is vulnerable?

Everyone, pretty much.
The hacker only needs to be within range of your WiFi. Your neighbor’s teenage kid is going to be downloading and running the tool in order to eavesdrop on your packets.
The hacker doesn’t need to be logged into your network.
It affects all WPA1/WPA2, the personal one with passwords that we use in home, and the enterprise version with certificates we use in enterprises.
It can’t defeat SSL/TLS or VPNs. Thus, if you feel your laptop is safe surfing the public WiFi at airports, then your laptop is still safe from this attack. With Android, it does allow running tools like sslstrip, which can fool many users.
Your home network is vulnerable. Many devices will be using SSL/TLS, so are fine, like your Amazon echo, which you can continue to use without worrying about this attack. Other devices, like your Phillips lightbulbs, may not be so protected.

How can I defend myself?

Patch.
More to the point, measure your current vendors by how long it takes them to patch. Throw away gear by those vendors that took a long time to patch and replace it with vendors that took a short time.
High-end access-points that contains “WIPS” (WiFi Intrusion Prevention Systems) features should be able to detect this and block vulnerable clients from connecting to the network (once the vendor upgrades the systems, of course). Even low-end access-points, like the $30 ones you get for home, can easily be updated to prevent packet sequence numbers from going back to the start (i.e. from the keystream resetting back to the start).
At some point, you’ll need to run the attack against yourself, to make sure all your devices are secure. Since you’ll be constantly allowing random phones to connect to your network, you’ll need to check their vulnerability status before connecting them. You’ll need to continue doing this for several years.
Of course, if you are using SSL/TLS for everything, then your danger is mitigated. This is yet another reason why you should be using SSL/TLS for internal communications.
Most security vendors will add things to their products/services to defend you. While valuable in some cases, it’s not a defense. The defense is patching the devices you know about, and preventing vulnerable devices from attaching to your network.
If I remember correctly, DEF CON uses Aruba. Aruba contains WIPS functionality, which means by the time DEF CON roles around again next year, they should have the feature to deny vulnerable devices from connecting, and specifically to detect an attack in progress and prevent further communication.
However, for an attacker near an Android device using a low-powered WiFi, it’s likely they will be able to conduct man-in-the-middle without any WIPS preventing them.

‘Pirate’ EBook Site Refuses Point Blank to Cooperate With BREIN

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/pirate-ebook-site-refuses-point-blank-to-cooperate-with-brein-171015/

Dutch anti-piracy group BREIN is probably best known for its legal action against The Pirate Bay but the outfit also tackles many other forms of piracy.

A prime example is the case it pursued against a seller of fully-loaded Kodi boxes in the Netherlands. The subsequent landmark ruling from the European Court of Justice will reverberate around Europe for years to come.

Behind the scenes, however, BREIN persistently tries to take much smaller operations offline, and not without success. Earlier this year it revealed it had taken down 231 illegal sites and services includes 84 linking sites, 63 streaming portals, and 34 torrent sites. Some of these shut down completely and others were forced to leave their hosting providers.

Much of this work flies under the radar but some current action, against an eBook site, is now being thrust into the public eye.

For more than five years, EBoek.info (eBook) has serviced Internet users looking to obtain comic books in Dutch. The site informs TorrentFreak it provides a legitimate service, targeted at people who have purchased a hard copy but also want their comics in digital format.

“EBoek.info is a site about comic books in the Dutch language. Besides some general information about the books, people who have legally obtained a hard copy of the books can find a link to an NZB file which enables them to download a digital version of the books they already have,” site representative ‘Zala’ says.

For those out of the loop, NZB files are a bit like Usenet’s version of .torrent files. They contain no copyrighted content themselves but do provide software clients with information on where to find specific content, so it can be downloaded to a user’s machine.

“BREIN claims that this is illegal as it is impossible for us to verify if our visitor is telling the truth [about having purchased a copy],” Zala reveals.

Speaking with TorrentFreak, BREIN chief Tim Kuik says there’s no question that offering downloads like this is illegal.

“It is plain and simple: the site makes links to unauthorized digital copies available to the general public and therefore is infringing copyright. It is distribution of the content without authorization of the rights holder,” Kuik says.

“The unauthorized copies are not private copies. The private copy exception does not apply to this kind of distribution. The private copy has not been made by the owner of the book himself for his own use. Someone else made the digital copy and is making it available to anyone who wants to download it provided he makes the unverified claim that he has a legal copy. This harms the normal exploitation of the
content.”

Zala says that BREIN has been trying to take his site offline for many years but more recently, the platform has utilized the services of Cloudflare, partly as a form of shield. As readers may be aware, a site behind Cloudflare has its originating IP addresses hidden from the public, not to mention BREIN, who values that kind of information. According to the operator, however, BREIN managed to obtain the information from the CDN provider.

“BREIN has tried for years to take our site offline. Recently, however, Cloudflare was so friendly to give them our IP address,” Zala notes.

A text copy of an email reportedly sent by BREIN to EBoek’s web host and seen by TF appears to confirm that Cloudflare handed over the information as suggested. Among other things, the email has BREIN informing the host that “The IP we got back from Cloudflare is XXX.XXX.XX.33.”

This means that BREIN was able to place direct pressure on EBoek.info’s web host, so only time will tell if that bears any fruit for the anti-piracy group. In the meantime, however, EBoek has decided to go public over its battle with BREIN.

“We have received a request from Stichting BREIN via our hosting provider to take EBoek.info offline,” the site informed its users yesterday.

Interestingly, it also appears that BREIN doesn’t appreciate that the operators of EBoek have failed to make their identities publicly known on their platform.

“The site operates anonymously which also is unlawful. Consumer protection requires that the owner/operator of a site identifies himself,” Kuik says.

According to EBoek, the anti-piracy outfit told the site’s web host that as a “commercial online service”, EBoek is required under EU law to display its “correct and complete business information” including names, addresses, and other information. But perhaps unsurprisingly, the site doesn’t want to play ball.

“In my opinion, you are confusing us with Facebook. They are a foreign commercial company with a European branch in Ireland, and therefore are subject to Irish legislation,” Zala says in an open letter to BREIN.

“Eboek.info, on the other hand, is a foreign hobby club with no commercial purpose, whose administrators have no connection with any country in the European Union. As administrators, we follow the laws of our country of residence which do not oblige us to disclose our identity through our website.

“The fact that Eboek is visible in the Netherlands does not just mean that we are going to adapt to Dutch rules, just as we don’t adapt the site to the rules of Saudi Arabia or China or wherever we are available.”

In a further snub to the anti-piracy group, EBoek says that all visitors to the site have to communicate with its operators via its guestbook, which is publicly visible.

“We see no reason to make an exception for Stichting BREIN,” the site notes.

What makes the situation more complex is that EBoek isn’t refusing dialog completely. The site says it doesn’t want to talk to BREIN but will speak to BREIN’s customers – the publishers of the comic books in question – noting that to date no complaints from publishers have ever been received.

While the parties argue about lines of communication, BREIN insists that following this year’s European Court of Justice decision in the GS Media case, a link to a known infringing work represents copyright infringement. In this case, an NZB file – which links to a location on Usenet – would generally fit the bill.

But despite focusing on the Dutch market, the operators of EBoek say the ruling doesn’t apply to them as they’re outside of the ECJ’s jurisdiction and aren’t commercially motivated. Refusing point blank to take their site offline, EBoek’s operators say that BREIN can do its worst, nothing will have much effect.

“[W]hat’s the worst thing that can happen? That our web host hands [BREIN] our address and IP data. In that case, it will turn out that…we are actually far away,” Zala says.

“[In the case the site goes offline], we’ll just put a backup on another server and, in this case, won’t make use of the ‘services’ of Cloudflare, the provider that apparently put BREIN on the right track.”

The question of jurisdiction is indeed an interesting one, particularly given BREIN’s focus in the Netherlands. But Kuik is clear – it is the area where the content is made available that matters.

“The law of the country where the content is made available applies. In this case the EU and amongst others the Netherlands,” Kuik concludes.

To be continued…..

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Sean Hodgins’ Haunted Jack in the Box

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/sean-hodgins-haunted-jack-box/

After making a delightful Bitcoin lottery using a Raspberry Pi, Sean Hodgins brings us more Pi-powered goodness in time for every maker’s favourite holiday: Easter! Just kidding, it’s Halloween. Check out his hair-raising new build, the Haunted Jack in the Box.

Haunted Jack in the Box – DIY Raspberry Pi Project

This project uses a raspberry pi and face detection using the pi camera to determine when someone is looking at it. Plenty of opportunities to scare people with it. You can make your own!

Haunted jack-in-the-box?

Imagine yourself wandering around a dimly lit house. Your eyes idly scan a shelf. Suddenly, out of nowhere, a twangy melody! What was that? You take a closer look…there seems to be a box in jolly colours…with a handle that’s spinning by itself?!

Sidling up to Sean Hodgins' Haunted Jack in the Box

What’s…going on?

You freeze, unable to peel your eyes away, and BAM!, out pops a maniacally grinning clown. You promptly pee yourself. Happy Halloween, courtesy of Sean Hodgins.

Clip of Sean Hodgins' Haunted Jack in the Box

Eerie disembodied voice: You’re welco-o-o-ome!

How has Sean built this?

Sean purchased a jack-in-the-box toy and replaced its bottom side with one that would hold the necessary electronic components. He 3D-printed this part, but says you could also just build it by hand.

The bottom of the box houses a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B and a servomotor which can turn the windup handle. There’s also a magnetic reed switch which helps the Pi decide when to trigger the Jack. Sean hooked up the components to the Pi’s GPIO pins, and used an elastic band as a drive belt to connect the pulleys on the motor and the handle.

Film clip showing the inside of Sean Hodgin's Haunted Jack in the Box

Sean explains that he has used a lot of double-sided tape and superglue in this build. The bottom and top are held together with two screws, because, as he describes it, “the Jack coming out is a little violent.”

In addition to his video walk-through, he provides build instructions on Instructables, Hackaday, Hackster, and Imgur — pick your poison. And be sure to subscribe to Sean’s YouTube channel to see what he comes up with next.

Wait, how does the haunted part work?

But if I explain it, it won’t be scary anymore! OK, fiiiine.

With the help of a a Camera Module and OpenCV, Sean implemented facial recognition: Jack knows when someone is looking at his box, and responds by winding up and popping out.

View of command line output of the Python script for Sean Hodgins' Haunted Jack in the Box

Testing the haunting script

Sean’s Python script is available here, but as he points out, there are many ways in which you could adapt this code, and the build itself, to be even more frightening.

So very haunted

What would you do with this build? Add creepy laughter? Soundbites from It? Lighting effects? Maybe even infrared light and a NoIR Camera Module, so that you can scare people in total darkness? There are so many possibilities for this project — tell us your idea in the comments.

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"Responsible encryption" fallacies

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/10/responsible-encryption-fallacies.html

Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein gave a speech recently calling for “Responsible Encryption” (aka. “Crypto Backdoors”). It’s full of dangerous ideas that need to be debunked.

The importance of law enforcement

The first third of the speech talks about the importance of law enforcement, as if it’s the only thing standing between us and chaos. It cites the 2016 Mirai attacks as an example of the chaos that will only get worse without stricter law enforcement.

But the Mira case demonstrated the opposite, how law enforcement is not needed. They made no arrests in the case. A year later, they still haven’t a clue who did it.

Conversely, we technologists have fixed the major infrastructure issues. Specifically, those affected by the DNS outage have moved to multiple DNS providers, including a high-capacity DNS provider like Google and Amazon who can handle such large attacks easily.

In other words, we the people fixed the major Mirai problem, and law-enforcement didn’t.

Moreover, instead being a solution to cyber threats, law enforcement has become a threat itself. The DNC didn’t have the FBI investigate the attacks from Russia likely because they didn’t want the FBI reading all their files, finding wrongdoing by the DNC. It’s not that they did anything actually wrong, but it’s more like that famous quote from Richelieu “Give me six words written by the most honest of men and I’ll find something to hang him by”. Give all your internal emails over to the FBI and I’m certain they’ll find something to hang you by, if they want.
Or consider the case of Andrew Auernheimer. He found AT&T’s website made public user accounts of the first iPad, so he copied some down and posted them to a news site. AT&T had denied the problem, so making the problem public was the only way to force them to fix it. Such access to the website was legal, because AT&T had made the data public. However, prosecutors disagreed. In order to protect the powerful, they twisted and perverted the law to put Auernheimer in jail.

It’s not that law enforcement is bad, it’s that it’s not the unalloyed good Rosenstein imagines. When law enforcement becomes the thing Rosenstein describes, it means we live in a police state.

Where law enforcement can’t go

Rosenstein repeats the frequent claim in the encryption debate:

Our society has never had a system where evidence of criminal wrongdoing was totally impervious to detection

Of course our society has places “impervious to detection”, protected by both legal and natural barriers.

An example of a legal barrier is how spouses can’t be forced to testify against each other. This barrier is impervious.

A better example, though, is how so much of government, intelligence, the military, and law enforcement itself is impervious. If prosecutors could gather evidence everywhere, then why isn’t Rosenstein prosecuting those guilty of CIA torture?

Oh, you say, government is a special exception. If that were the case, then why did Rosenstein dedicate a precious third of his speech discussing the “rule of law” and how it applies to everyone, “protecting people from abuse by the government”. It obviously doesn’t, there’s one rule of government and a different rule for the people, and the rule for government means there’s lots of places law enforcement can’t go to gather evidence.

Likewise, the crypto backdoor Rosenstein is demanding for citizens doesn’t apply to the President, Congress, the NSA, the Army, or Rosenstein himself.

Then there are the natural barriers. The police can’t read your mind. They can only get the evidence that is there, like partial fingerprints, which are far less reliable than full fingerprints. They can’t go backwards in time.

I mention this because encryption is a natural barrier. It’s their job to overcome this barrier if they can, to crack crypto and so forth. It’s not our job to do it for them.

It’s like the camera that increasingly comes with TVs for video conferencing, or the microphone on Alexa-style devices that are always recording. This suddenly creates evidence that the police want our help in gathering, such as having the camera turned on all the time, recording to disk, in case the police later gets a warrant, to peer backward in time what happened in our living rooms. The “nothing is impervious” argument applies here as well. And it’s equally bogus here. By not helping police by not recording our activities, we aren’t somehow breaking some long standing tradit

And this is the scary part. It’s not that we are breaking some ancient tradition that there’s no place the police can’t go (with a warrant). Instead, crypto backdoors breaking the tradition that never before have I been forced to help them eavesdrop on me, even before I’m a suspect, even before any crime has been committed. Sure, laws like CALEA force the phone companies to help the police against wrongdoers — but here Rosenstein is insisting I help the police against myself.

Balance between privacy and public safety

Rosenstein repeats the frequent claim that encryption upsets the balance between privacy/safety:

Warrant-proof encryption defeats the constitutional balance by elevating privacy above public safety.

This is laughable, because technology has swung the balance alarmingly in favor of law enforcement. Far from “Going Dark” as his side claims, the problem we are confronted with is “Going Light”, where the police state monitors our every action.

You are surrounded by recording devices. If you walk down the street in town, outdoor surveillance cameras feed police facial recognition systems. If you drive, automated license plate readers can track your route. If you make a phone call or use a credit card, the police get a record of the transaction. If you stay in a hotel, they demand your ID, for law enforcement purposes.

And that’s their stuff, which is nothing compared to your stuff. You are never far from a recording device you own, such as your mobile phone, TV, Alexa/Siri/OkGoogle device, laptop. Modern cars from the last few years increasingly have always-on cell connections and data recorders that record your every action (and location).

Even if you hike out into the country, when you get back, the FBI can subpoena your GPS device to track down your hidden weapon’s cache, or grab the photos from your camera.

And this is all offline. So much of what we do is now online. Of the photographs you own, fewer than 1% are printed out, the rest are on your computer or backed up to the cloud.

Your phone is also a GPS recorder of your exact position all the time, which if the government wins the Carpenter case, they police can grab without a warrant. Tagging all citizens with a recording device of their position is not “balance” but the premise for a novel more dystopic than 1984.

If suspected of a crime, which would you rather the police searched? Your person, houses, papers, and physical effects? Or your mobile phone, computer, email, and online/cloud accounts?

The balance of privacy and safety has swung so far in favor of law enforcement that rather than debating whether they should have crypto backdoors, we should be debating how to add more privacy protections.

“But it’s not conclusive”

Rosenstein defends the “going light” (“Golden Age of Surveillance”) by pointing out it’s not always enough for conviction. Nothing gives a conviction better than a person’s own words admitting to the crime that were captured by surveillance. This other data, while copious, often fails to convince a jury beyond a reasonable doubt.
This is nonsense. Police got along well enough before the digital age, before such widespread messaging. They solved terrorist and child abduction cases just fine in the 1980s. Sure, somebody’s GPS location isn’t by itself enough — until you go there and find all the buried bodies, which leads to a conviction. “Going dark” imagines that somehow, the evidence they’ve been gathering for centuries is going away. It isn’t. It’s still here, and matches up with even more digital evidence.
Conversely, a person’s own words are not as conclusive as you think. There’s always missing context. We quickly get back to the Richelieu “six words” problem, where captured communications are twisted to convict people, with defense lawyers trying to untwist them.

Rosenstein’s claim may be true, that a lot of criminals will go free because the other electronic data isn’t convincing enough. But I’d need to see that claim backed up with hard studies, not thrown out for emotional impact.

Terrorists and child molesters

You can always tell the lack of seriousness of law enforcement when they bring up terrorists and child molesters.
To be fair, sometimes we do need to talk about terrorists. There are things unique to terrorism where me may need to give government explicit powers to address those unique concerns. For example, the NSA buys mobile phone 0day exploits in order to hack terrorist leaders in tribal areas. This is a good thing.
But when terrorists use encryption the same way everyone else does, then it’s not a unique reason to sacrifice our freedoms to give the police extra powers. Either it’s a good idea for all crimes or no crimes — there’s nothing particular about terrorism that makes it an exceptional crime. Dead people are dead. Any rational view of the problem relegates terrorism to be a minor problem. More citizens have died since September 8, 2001 from their own furniture than from terrorism. According to studies, the hot water from the tap is more of a threat to you than terrorists.
Yes, government should do what they can to protect us from terrorists, but no, it’s not so bad of a threat that requires the imposition of a military/police state. When people use terrorism to justify their actions, it’s because they trying to form a military/police state.
A similar argument works with child porn. Here’s the thing: the pervs aren’t exchanging child porn using the services Rosenstein wants to backdoor, like Apple’s Facetime or Facebook’s WhatsApp. Instead, they are exchanging child porn using custom services they build themselves.
Again, I’m (mostly) on the side of the FBI. I support their idea of buying 0day exploits in order to hack the web browsers of visitors to the secret “PlayPen” site. This is something that’s narrow to this problem and doesn’t endanger the innocent. On the other hand, their calls for crypto backdoors endangers the innocent while doing effectively nothing to address child porn.
Terrorists and child molesters are a clichéd, non-serious excuse to appeal to our emotions to give up our rights. We should not give in to such emotions.

Definition of “backdoor”

Rosenstein claims that we shouldn’t call backdoors “backdoors”:

No one calls any of those functions [like key recovery] a “back door.”  In fact, those capabilities are marketed and sought out by many users.

He’s partly right in that we rarely refer to PGP’s key escrow feature as a “backdoor”.

But that’s because the term “backdoor” refers less to how it’s done and more to who is doing it. If I set up a recovery password with Apple, I’m the one doing it to myself, so we don’t call it a backdoor. If it’s the police, spies, hackers, or criminals, then we call it a “backdoor” — even it’s identical technology.

Wikipedia uses the key escrow feature of the 1990s Clipper Chip as a prime example of what everyone means by “backdoor“. By “no one”, Rosenstein is including Wikipedia, which is obviously incorrect.

Though in truth, it’s not going to be the same technology. The needs of law enforcement are different than my personal key escrow/backup needs. In particular, there are unsolvable problems, such as a backdoor that works for the “legitimate” law enforcement in the United States but not for the “illegitimate” police states like Russia and China.

I feel for Rosenstein, because the term “backdoor” does have a pejorative connotation, which can be considered unfair. But that’s like saying the word “murder” is a pejorative term for killing people, or “torture” is a pejorative term for torture. The bad connotation exists because we don’t like government surveillance. I mean, honestly calling this feature “government surveillance feature” is likewise pejorative, and likewise exactly what it is that we are talking about.

Providers

Rosenstein focuses his arguments on “providers”, like Snapchat or Apple. But this isn’t the question.

The question is whether a “provider” like Telegram, a Russian company beyond US law, provides this feature. Or, by extension, whether individuals should be free to install whatever software they want, regardless of provider.

Telegram is a Russian company that provides end-to-end encryption. Anybody can download their software in order to communicate so that American law enforcement can’t eavesdrop. They aren’t going to put in a backdoor for the U.S. If we succeed in putting backdoors in Apple and WhatsApp, all this means is that criminals are going to install Telegram.

If the, for some reason, the US is able to convince all such providers (including Telegram) to install a backdoor, then it still doesn’t solve the problem, as uses can just build their own end-to-end encryption app that has no provider. It’s like email: some use the major providers like GMail, others setup their own email server.

Ultimately, this means that any law mandating “crypto backdoors” is going to target users not providers. Rosenstein tries to make a comparison with what plain-old telephone companies have to do under old laws like CALEA, but that’s not what’s happening here. Instead, for such rules to have any effect, they have to punish users for what they install, not providers.

This continues the argument I made above. Government backdoors is not something that forces Internet services to eavesdrop on us — it forces us to help the government spy on ourselves.
Rosenstein tries to address this by pointing out that it’s still a win if major providers like Apple and Facetime are forced to add backdoors, because they are the most popular, and some terrorists/criminals won’t move to alternate platforms. This is false. People with good intentions, who are unfairly targeted by a police state, the ones where police abuse is rampant, are the ones who use the backdoored products. Those with bad intentions, who know they are guilty, will move to the safe products. Indeed, Telegram is already popular among terrorists because they believe American services are already all backdoored. 
Rosenstein is essentially demanding the innocent get backdoored while the guilty don’t. This seems backwards. This is backwards.

Apple is morally weak

The reason I’m writing this post is because Rosenstein makes a few claims that cannot be ignored. One of them is how he describes Apple’s response to government insistence on weakening encryption doing the opposite, strengthening encryption. He reasons this happens because:

Of course they [Apple] do. They are in the business of selling products and making money. 

We [the DoJ] use a different measure of success. We are in the business of preventing crime and saving lives. 

He swells in importance. His condescending tone ennobles himself while debasing others. But this isn’t how things work. He’s not some white knight above the peasantry, protecting us. He’s a beat cop, a civil servant, who serves us.

A better phrasing would have been:

They are in the business of giving customers what they want.

We are in the business of giving voters what they want.

Both sides are doing the same, giving people what they want. Yes, voters want safety, but they also want privacy. Rosenstein imagines that he’s free to ignore our demands for privacy as long has he’s fulfilling his duty to protect us. He has explicitly rejected what people want, “we use a different measure of success”. He imagines it’s his job to tell us where the balance between privacy and safety lies. That’s not his job, that’s our job. We, the people (and our representatives), make that decision, and it’s his job is to do what he’s told. His measure of success is how well he fulfills our wishes, not how well he satisfies his imagined criteria.

That’s why those of us on this side of the debate doubt the good intentions of those like Rosenstein. He criticizes Apple for wanting to protect our rights/freedoms, and declare they measure success differently.

They are willing to be vile

Rosenstein makes this argument:

Companies are willing to make accommodations when required by the government. Recent media reports suggest that a major American technology company developed a tool to suppress online posts in certain geographic areas in order to embrace a foreign government’s censorship policies. 

Let me translate this for you:

Companies are willing to acquiesce to vile requests made by police-states. Therefore, they should acquiesce to our vile police-state requests.

It’s Rosenstein who is admitting here is that his requests are those of a police-state.

Constitutional Rights

Rosenstein says:

There is no constitutional right to sell warrant-proof encryption.

Maybe. It’s something the courts will have to decide. There are many 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Amendment issues here.
The reason we have the Bill of Rights is because of the abuses of the British Government. For example, they quartered troops in our homes, as a way of punishing us, and as a way of forcing us to help in our own oppression. The troops weren’t there to defend us against the French, but to defend us against ourselves, to shoot us if we got out of line.

And that’s what crypto backdoors do. We are forced to be agents of our own oppression. The principles enumerated by Rosenstein apply to a wide range of even additional surveillance. With little change to his speech, it can equally argue why the constant TV video surveillance from 1984 should be made law.

Let’s go back and look at Apple. It is not some base company exploiting consumers for profit. Apple doesn’t have guns, they cannot make people buy their product. If Apple doesn’t provide customers what they want, then customers vote with their feet, and go buy an Android phone. Apple isn’t providing encryption/security in order to make a profit — it’s giving customers what they want in order to stay in business.
Conversely, if we citizens don’t like what the government does, tough luck, they’ve got the guns to enforce their edicts. We can’t easily vote with our feet and walk to another country. A “democracy” is far less democratic than capitalism. Apple is a minority, selling phones to 45% of the population, and that’s fine, the minority get the phones they want. In a Democracy, where citizens vote on the issue, those 45% are screwed, as the 55% impose their will unwanted onto the remainder.

That’s why we have the Bill of Rights, to protect the 49% against abuse by the 51%. Regardless whether the Supreme Court agrees the current Constitution, it is the sort right that might exist regardless of what the Constitution says. 

Obliged to speak the truth

Here is the another part of his speech that I feel cannot be ignored. We have to discuss this:

Those of us who swear to protect the rule of law have a different motivation.  We are obliged to speak the truth.

The truth is that “going dark” threatens to disable law enforcement and enable criminals and terrorists to operate with impunity.

This is not true. Sure, he’s obliged to say the absolute truth, in court. He’s also obliged to be truthful in general about facts in his personal life, such as not lying on his tax return (the sort of thing that can get lawyers disbarred).

But he’s not obliged to tell his spouse his honest opinion whether that new outfit makes them look fat. Likewise, Rosenstein knows his opinion on public policy doesn’t fall into this category. He can say with impunity that either global warming doesn’t exist, or that it’ll cause a biblical deluge within 5 years. Both are factually untrue, but it’s not going to get him fired.

And this particular claim is also exaggerated bunk. While everyone agrees encryption makes law enforcement’s job harder than with backdoors, nobody honestly believes it can “disable” law enforcement. While everyone agrees that encryption helps terrorists, nobody believes it can enable them to act with “impunity”.

I feel bad here. It’s a terrible thing to question your opponent’s character this way. But Rosenstein made this unavoidable when he clearly, with no ambiguity, put his integrity as Deputy Attorney General on the line behind the statement that “going dark threatens to disable law enforcement and enable criminals and terrorists to operate with impunity”. I feel it’s a bald face lie, but you don’t need to take my word for it. Read his own words yourself and judge his integrity.

Conclusion

Rosenstein’s speech includes repeated references to ideas like “oath”, “honor”, and “duty”. It reminds me of Col. Jessup’s speech in the movie “A Few Good Men”.

If you’ll recall, it was rousing speech, “you want me on that wall” and “you use words like honor as a punchline”. Of course, since he was violating his oath and sending two privates to death row in order to avoid being held accountable, it was Jessup himself who was crapping on the concepts of “honor”, “oath”, and “duty”.

And so is Rosenstein. He imagines himself on that wall, doing albeit terrible things, justified by his duty to protect citizens. He imagines that it’s he who is honorable, while the rest of us not, even has he utters bald faced lies to further his own power and authority.

We activists oppose crypto backdoors not because we lack honor, or because we are criminals, or because we support terrorists and child molesters. It’s because we value privacy and government officials who get corrupted by power. It’s not that we fear Trump becoming a dictator, it’s that we fear bureaucrats at Rosenstein’s level becoming drunk on authority — which Rosenstein demonstrably has. His speech is a long train of corrupt ideas pursuing the same object of despotism — a despotism we oppose.

In other words, we oppose crypto backdoors because it’s not a tool of law enforcement, but a tool of despotism.

Bringing Clean and Safe Drinking Water to Developing Countries

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/keeping-charity-water-data-safe/

image of a cup filling with water

If you’d like to read more about charity: water‘s use of Backblaze for Business, visit backblaze.com/charitywater/

charity: water  + Backblaze for Business

Considering that charity: water sends workers with laptop computers to rural communities in 24 countries around the world, it’s not surprising that computer backup is needed on every computer they have. It’s so essential that Matt Ward, System Administrator for charity: water, says it’s a standard part of employee on-boarding.

charity: water, based in New York City, is a non-profit organization that is working to bring clean water to the nearly one in ten people around the world who live without it — a situation that affects not only health, but education and income.

“We have people constantly traveling all over the world, so a cloud-based service makes sense whether the user is in New York or Malawi. Most of our projects and beneficiaries are in Sub Saharan Africa and Southern/Southeast Asia,” explains Matt. “Water scarcity and poor water quality are a problem here, and in so many countries around the world.”

charity: water in Rwanda

To achieve their mission, charity: water works through implementing organizations on the ground within the targeted communities. The people in these communities must spend hours every day walking to collect water for their families. It’s a losing proposition, as the time they spend walking takes away from education, earning money, and generally limits the opportunities for improving their lives.

charity: water began using Backblaze for Business before Matt came on a year ago. They started with a few licenses, but quickly decided to deploy Backblaze to every computer in the organization.

“We’ve lost computers plenty of times,” he says, “but, because of Backblaze, there’s never been a case where we lost the computer’s data.”

charity: water has about 80 staff computer users, and adds ten to twenty interns each season. Each staff member or intern has at least one computer. “Our IT department is two people, me and my director,” explains Matt, “and we have to support everyone, so being super simple to deploy is valuable to us.”

“When a new person joins us, we just send them an invitation to join the Group on Backblaze, and they’re all set. Their data is automatically backed up whenever they’re connected to the internet, and I can see their current status on the management console. [Backblaze] really nailed the user interface. You can show anyone the interface, even on their first day, and they get it because it’s simple and easy to understand.”

young girl drinkng clean water

One of the frequent uses for Backblaze for Business is when Matt off-boards users, such as all the interns at the end of the season. He starts a restore through the Backblaze admin console even before he has the actual computer. “I know I have a reliable archive in the restore from Backblaze, and it’s easier than doing it directly from the laptop.”

Matt is an enthusiastic user of the features designed for business users, especially Backblaze’s Groups feature, which has enabled charity: water to centralize billing and computer management for their worldwide team. Businesses can create groups to cluster job functions, employee locations, or any other criteria.

charity: water delivery clean water to children

“It saves me time to be able to see the status of any user’s backups, such as the last time the data was backed up” explains Matt. Before Backblaze, charity: water was writing documentation for workers, hoping they would follow backup protocols. Now, Matt knows what’s going on in real time — a valuable feature when the laptops are dispersed around the world.

“Backblaze for Business is an essential element in any organization’s IT continuity plan,” says Matt. “You need to be sure that there is a backup solution for your data should anything go wrong.”

To learn more about how charity: water uses Backblaze for Business, visit backblaze.com/charitywater/.

Matt Ward of charity: water

Matt Ward, System Administrator for charity: water

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The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

Post Syndicated from Nuala McHale original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/coderdojo-girls-initiative/

In March, the CoderDojo Foundation launched their Girls Initiative, which aims to increase the average proportion of girls attending CoderDojo clubs from 29% to at least 40% over the next three years.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

Six months on, we wanted to highlight what we’ve done so far and what’s next for our initiative.

What we’ve done so far

To date, we have focussed our efforts on four key areas:

  • Developing and improving content
  • Conducting and learning from research
  • Highlighting role models
  • Developing a guide of tried and tested best practices for encouraging and sustaining girls in a Dojo setting (Empowering the Future)

Content

We’ve taken measures to ensure our resources are as friendly to girls as well as boys, and we are improving them based on feedback from girls. For example, we have developed beginner-level content (Sushi Cards) for working with wearables and for building apps using App Inventor. In response to girls’ feedback, we are exploring more creative goal-orientated content.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

Moreover, as part of our Empowering the Future guide, we have developed three short ‘Mini-Sushi’ projects which provide a taster of different programming languages, such as Scratch, HTML, and App Inventor.

What’s next?

We are currently finalising our intermediate-level wearables Sushi Cards. These are resources for learners to further explore wearables and integrate them with other coding skills they are developing. The Cards will enable young people to program LEDs which can be sewn into clothing with conductive thread. We are also planning another series of Sushi Cards focused on using coding skills to solve problems Ninjas have reported as important to them.

Research

In June 2017 we conducted the first Ninja survey. It was sent to all young people registered on the CoderDojo community platform, Zen. Hundreds of young people involved in Dojos around the world responded and shared their experiences.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

We are currently examining these results to identify areas in which girls feel most or least confident, as well as the motivations and influencing factors that cause them to continue with coding.

What’s next?

Over the coming months we will delve deeper into the findings of this research, and decide how we can improve our content and Dojo support to adapt accordingly. Additionally, as part of sending out our Empowering the Future guide, we’re asking Dojos to provide insights into their current proportions of girls and female Mentors.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

We will follow up with recipients of the guide to document the impact of the recommended approaches they try at their Dojo. Thus, we will find out which approaches are most effective in different regional contexts, which will help us improve our support for Dojos wanting to increase their proportion of attending girls.

Role models

Many Dojos, Champions, and Mentors are doing amazing work to support and encourage girls at their Dojos. Female Mentors not only help by supporting attending girls, but they also act as vital role models in an environment which is often male-dominated. Blogs by female Mentors and Ninjas which have already featured on our website include:

What’s next?

We recognise the importance of female role models, and over the coming months we will continue to encourage community members to share their stories so that we bring them to the wider CoderDojo community. Do you know a female Mentor or Ninja you would like to shine a spotline on? Get in touch with us at [email protected] You can also use #CoderDojoGirls on social media.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

Empowering the Future guide

Ahead of Ada Lovelace Day and International Day of the Girl Child, the CoderDojo Foundation has released Empowering the Future, a comprehensive guide of practical approaches which Dojos have tested to engage and sustain girls.

Some topics covered in the guide are:

  • Approaches to improve the Dojo environment and layout
  • Language and images used to describe and promote Dojos
  • Content considerations, and suggested resources
  • The importance of female Mentors, and ways to increase access to role models

For the next month, Dojos that want to improve their proportion of girls can still sign up to have the guide book sent to them for free! From today, Dojos and anyone else can also download a PDF file of the guide.

The CoderDojo Girls Initiative

We would like to say a massive thank you to all community members who have shared their insights with us to make our Empowering the Future guide as comprehensive and beneficial as possible for other Dojos.

Tell us what you think

Have you found an approach, or used content, which girls find particularly engaging? Do you have questions about our Girls Initiative? We would love to hear your ideas, insights, and experiences in relation to supporting CoderDojo girls! Feel free to use our forums to share with the global CoderDojo community, and email us at [email protected]

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Low-tech Raspberry Pi robot

Post Syndicated from Rachel Churcher original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/low-tech-raspberry-pi-robot/

Robot-builder extraordinaire Clément Didier is ushering in the era of our cybernetic overlords. Future generations will remember him as the creator of robots constructed from cardboard and conductive paint which are so easy to replicate that a robot could do it. Welcome to the singularity.

Bare Conductive on Twitter

This cool robot was made with the #PiCap, conductive paint and @Raspberry_Pi by @clementdidier. Full tutorial: https://t.co/AcQVTS4vr2 https://t.co/D04U5UGR0P

Simple interface

To assemble the robot, Clément made use of a Pi Cap board, a motor driver, and most importantly, a tube of Bare Conductive Electric Paint. He painted the control interface onto the cardboard surface of the robot, allowing a human, replicant, or superior robot to direct its movements simply by touching the paint.

Clever design

The Raspberry Pi 3, the motor control board, and the painted input buttons interface via the GPIO breakout pins on the Pi Cap. Crocodile clips connect the Pi Cap to the cardboard-and-paint control surface, while jumper wires connect it to the motor control board.

Raspberry Pi and bare conductive Pi Cap

Sing with me: ‘The Raspberry Pi’s connected to the Pi Cap, and the Pi Cap’s connected to the inputs, and…’

Two battery packs provide power to the Raspberry Pi, and to the four independently driven motors. Software, written in Python, allows the robot to respond to inputs from the conductive paint. The motors drive wheels attached to a plastic chassis, moving and turning the robot at the touch of a square of black paint.

Artistic circuit

Clément used masking tape and a paintbrush to create the control buttons. For a human, this is obviously a fiddly process which relies on the blocking properties of the masking tape and a steady hand. For a robot, however, the process would be a simple, freehand one, resulting in neatly painted circuits on every single one of countless robotic minions. Cybernetic domination is at (metallic) hand.

The control surface of the robot, painted with bare conductive paint

One fiddly job for a human, one easy task for robotkind

The instructions and code for Clément’s build can be found here.

Low-tech solutions

Here at Pi Towers, we love seeing the high-tech Raspberry Pi integrated so successfully with low-tech components. In addition to conductive paint, we’ve seen cardboard laptops, toilet roll robots, fruit drum kits, chocolate box robots, and hamster-wheel-triggered cameras. Have you integrated low-tech elements into your projects (and potentially accelerated the robot apocalypse in the process)? Tell us about it in the comments!

 

The post Low-tech Raspberry Pi robot appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

PureVPN Logs Helped FBI Net Alleged Cyberstalker

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/purevpn-logs-helped-fbi-net-alleged-cyberstalker-171009/

Last Thursday, Ryan S. Lin, 24, of Newton, Massachusetts, was arrested on suspicion of conducting “an extensive cyberstalking campaign” against his former roommate, a 24-year-old Massachusetts woman, as well as her family members and friends.

According to the Department of Justice, Lin’s “multi-faceted campaign of computer hacking and cyberstalking” began in April 2016 when he began hacking into the victim’s online accounts, obtaining personal photographs, sensitive information about her medical and sexual histories, and other private details.

It’s alleged that after obtaining the above material, Lin distributed it to hundreds of others. It’s claimed he created fake online profiles showing the victim’s home address while soliciting sexual activity. This caused men to show up at her home.

“Mr. Lin allegedly carried out a relentless cyber stalking campaign against a young woman in a chilling effort to violate her privacy and threaten those around her,” said Acting United States Attorney William D. Weinreb.

“While using anonymizing services and other online tools to avoid attribution, Mr. Lin harassed the victim, her family, friends, co-workers and roommates, and then targeted local schools and institutions in her community. Mr. Lin will now face the consequences of his crimes.”

While Lin awaits his ultimate fate (he appeared in U.S. District Court in Boston Friday), the allegation he used anonymization tools to hide himself online but still managed to get caught raises a number of questions. An affidavit submitted by Special Agent Jeffrey Williams in support of the criminal complaint against Lin provides most of the answers.

Describing Lin’s actions against the victim as “doxing”, Williams begins by noting that while Lin was the initial aggressor, the fact he made the information so widely available raises the possibility that other people got involved with malicious acts later on. Nevertheless, Lin remains the investigation’s prime suspect.

According to the affidavit, Lin is computer savvy having majored in computer science. He allegedly utilized a number of methods to hide his identity and IP address, including TOR, Virtual Private Network (VPN) services and email providers that “do not maintain logs or other records.”

But if that genuinely is the case, how was Lin caught?

First up, it’s worth noting that plenty of Lin’s aggressive and stalking behaviors towards the victim were demonstrated in a physical sense, offline. In that respect, it appears the authorities already had him as the prime suspect and worked back from there.

In one instance, the FBI examined a computer that had been used by Lin at a former workplace. Although Windows had been reinstalled, the FBI managed to find Google Chrome data which indicated Lin had viewed articles about bomb threats he allegedly made. They were also able to determine he’d accessed the victim’s Gmail account and additional data suggested that he’d used a VPN service.

“Artifacts indicated that PureVPN, a VPN service that was used repeatedly in the cyberstalking scheme, was installed on the computer,” the affidavit reads.

From here the Special Agent’s report reveals that the FBI received cooperation from Hong Kong-based PureVPN.

“Significantly, PureVPN was able to determine that their service was accessed by the same customer from two originating IP addresses: the RCN IP address from the home Lin was living in at the time, and the software company where Lin was employed at the time,” the agent’s affidavit reads.

Needless to say, while this information will prove useful to the FBI’s prosecution of Lin, it’s also likely to turn into a huge headache for the VPN provider. The company claims zero-logging, which clearly isn’t the case.

“PureVPN operates a self-managed VPN network that currently stands at 750+ Servers in 141 Countries. But is this enough to ensure complete security?” the company’s marketing statement reads.

“That’s why PureVPN has launched advanced features to add proactive, preventive and complete security. There are no third-parties involved and NO logs of your activities.”

PureVPN privacy graphic

However, if one drills down into the PureVPN privacy policy proper, one sees the following:

Our servers automatically record the time at which you connect to any of our servers. From here on forward, we do not keep any records of anything that could associate any specific activity to a specific user. The time when a successful connection is made with our servers is counted as a ‘connection’ and the total bandwidth used during this connection is called ‘bandwidth’. Connection and bandwidth are kept in record to maintain the quality of our service. This helps us understand the flow of traffic to specific servers so we could optimize them better.

This seems to match what the FBI says – almost. While it says it doesn’t log, PureVPN admits to keeping records of when a user connects to the service and for how long. The FBI clearly states that the service also captures the user’s IP address too. In fact, it appears that PureVPN also logged the IP address belonging to another VPN service (WANSecurity) that was allegedly used by Lin to connect to PureVPN.

That record also helped to complete another circle of evidence. IP addresses used by
Kansas-based WANSecurity and Secure Internet LLC (servers operated by PureVPN) were allegedly used to access Gmail accounts known to be under Lin’s control.

Somewhat ironically, this summer Lin took to Twitter to criticize VPN provider IPVanish (which is not involved in the case) over its no-logging claims.

“There is no such thing as a VPN that doesn’t keep logs,” Lin said. “If they can limit your connections or track bandwidth usage, they keep logs.”

Or, in the case of PureVPN, if they log a connection time and a source IP address, that could be enough to raise the suspicions of the FBI and boost what already appears to be a pretty strong case.

If convicted, Lin faces up to five years in prison and three years of supervised release.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Debian 9.2 released

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/735740/rss

The Debian 9.2 point release is available; it includes fixes for a long
list of problems. “As a special case for this point release, those
using the ‘apt-get’ tool to perform the upgrade will need to ensure that
the ‘dist-upgrade’ command is used, in order to update to the latest kernel
packages.

Raspberry Coulis’s night vision camera

Post Syndicated from Rachel Churcher original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/night-vision-camera/

We’ve all been there: zombies at the door, Daleks on the driveway, creatures from the Upside Down in the walls. You want to be able to monitor their movements, but how do you do that without attracting their attention? Wesley Archer (AKA Raspberry Coulis) has the answer: a Pi-powered Night Vision Camera, perfect for catching unearthly creatures on the prowl — and for wildlife spotting, birdwatching, and home security too, I guess…

Wesley's Pi-powered Night Vision Camera

Wesley’s Pi-powered Night Vision Camera

Black box

To build his Night Vision Camera, Wesley ordered an infrared Lisiparoi LED Light Ring, a Cyntech Raspberry Pi case, a Pi NoIR Camera Module, and USB WiFi adapter. He based this project around a Raspberry Pi Model B that was in need of a good home, but there’s no reason why you couldn’t use a more up-to-date model with built-in wireless networking.

Wesley set about adapting the case to hold the camera and the infrared light, cutting a hole for the camera lens and attaching the LED Light Ring to the front of the box. The light ring acts as an infrared floodlight, invisible to the zombies, but when combined with the NoIR Camera Module, capable of capturing useful images in the dark. His blog includes helpful step-by-step instructions for this process — unlike Wesley, we recommend using a metal file from your toolbox, and not a nail file belonging to another member of your family. If you’re surrounded by the undead hordes, domestic harmony is essential.

Cyntech Raspberry Pi case with a hole for the Camera Module - Night Vision Camera

Cutting holes in the case. Please don’t use your spouse’s nail file for this job …

Monitoring

When your hardware is complete, it’s time to install the software. Wesley chose MotionEyeOS to run his camera, and his blog explains the process of downloading and installing the software on your Pi. When everything is set up, and the Pi is connected to your WiFi network, all you need is the Pi’s IP address to view the feed from the camera. Type the IP address into a browser on the same WiFi network, log in, and you’ll soon be spotting intruders (supernatural or otherwise), or possibly watching the fluffy residents of your bird box. Whatever makes you happy.

Visibility

While a camera with night vision is obviously useful, both the Lisiparoi Light Ring and the Camera Module are available for use with the visible spectrum. You can order the Light Ring with infrared or standard white LEDs, and the standard Camera Module works with visible light. If you don’t mind attracting attention, both options could be used to monitor your perimeter for threats.

Saving the world

We think this project would be an amazing inspiration for the current Pioneers challenge, Only you can save us! Set up a camera to control entry to your secret bunker, even when the lights fail. Fend off attacks from zombies, Daleks, or giant spiders, and help save humanity from catastrophe!

Cute knitted zombies dancing - Night Vision Camera

Save yourselves!

Have you built a security system to keep your property safe from marauding zombies? Or even from regular burglars? Has your Pioneers team used infrared monitoring in your build? Tell us about it in the comments!

The post Raspberry Coulis’s night vision camera appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

[$] Steps toward a privacy-preserving phone

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/735597/rss

What kind of cell phone would emerge from a concerted effort
to design privacy in from
the beginning, using free software as much as possible? Some
answers are provided by a crowdfunding campaign launched in
August by Purism SPC, which has used two such
campaigns successfully in the past to build a business around secure
laptops. The Librem 5, with a five-inch screen and radio chip for
communicating with cell phone companies, represents Purism’s hope to bring
the same privacy-enhancing vision to the mobile space, which is much more
demanding in its threats, technology components, and user experience.

Dynamic Users with systemd

Post Syndicated from Lennart Poettering original http://0pointer.net/blog/dynamic-users-with-systemd.html

TL;DR: you may now configure systemd to dynamically allocate a UNIX
user ID for service processes when it starts them and release it when
it stops them. It’s pretty secure, mixes well with transient services,
socket activated services and service templating.

Today we released systemd
235
. Among
other improvements this greatly extends the dynamic user logic of
systemd. Dynamic users are a powerful but little known concept,
supported in its basic form since systemd 232. With this blog story I
hope to make it a bit better known.

The UNIX user concept is the most basic and well-understood security
concept in POSIX operating systems. It is UNIX/POSIX’ primary security
concept, the one everybody can agree on, and most security concepts
that came after it (such as process capabilities, SELinux and other
MACs, user name-spaces, …) in some form or another build on it, extend
it or at least interface with it. If you build a Linux kernel with all
security features turned off, the user concept is pretty much the one
you’ll still retain.

Originally, the user concept was introduced to make multi-user systems
a reality, i.e. systems enabling multiple human users to share the
same system at the same time, cleanly separating their resources and
protecting them from each other. The majority of today’s UNIX systems
don’t really use the user concept like that anymore though. Most of
today’s systems probably have only one actual human user (or even
less!), but their user databases (/etc/passwd) list a good number
more entries than that. Today, the majority of UNIX users in most
environments are system users, i.e. users that are not the technical
representation of a human sitting in front of a PC anymore, but the
security identity a system service — an executable program — runs
as. Event though traditional, simultaneous multi-user systems slowly
became less relevant, their ground-breaking basic concept became the
cornerstone of UNIX security. The OS is nowadays partitioned into
isolated services — and each service runs as its own system user, and
thus within its own, minimal security context.

The people behind the Android OS realized the relevance of the UNIX
user concept as the primary security concept on UNIX, and took its use
even further: on Android not only system services take benefit of the
UNIX user concept, but each UI app gets its own, individual user
identity too — thus neatly separating app resources from each other,
and protecting app processes from each other, too.

Back in the more traditional Linux world things are a bit less
advanced in this area. Even though users are the quintessential UNIX
security concept, allocation and management of system users is still a
pretty limited, raw and static affair. In most cases, RPM or DEB
package installation scripts allocate a fixed number of (usually one)
system users when you install the package of a service that wants to
take benefit of the user concept, and from that point on the system
user remains allocated on the system and is never deallocated again,
even if the package is later removed again. Most Linux distributions
limit the number of system users to 1000 (which isn’t particularly a
lot). Allocating a system user is hence expensive: the number of
available users is limited, and there’s no defined way to dispose of
them after use. If you make use of system users too liberally, you are
very likely to run out of them sooner rather than later.

You may wonder why system users are generally not deallocated when the
package that registered them is uninstalled from a system (at least on
most distributions). The reason for that is one relevant property of
the user concept (you might even want to call this a design flaw):
user IDs are sticky to files (and other objects such as IPC
objects). If a service running as a specific system user creates a
file at some location, and is then terminated and its package and user
removed, then the created file still belongs to the numeric ID (“UID”)
the system user originally got assigned. When the next system user is
allocated and — due to ID recycling — happens to get assigned the same
numeric ID, then it will also gain access to the file, and that’s
generally considered a problem, given that the file belonged to a
potentially very different service once upon a time, and likely should
not be readable or changeable by anything coming after
it. Distributions hence tend to avoid UID recycling which means system
users remain registered forever on a system after they have been
allocated once.

The above is a description of the status quo ante. Let’s now focus on
what systemd’s dynamic user concept brings to the table, to improve
the situation.

Introducing Dynamic Users

With systemd dynamic users we hope to make make it easier and cheaper
to allocate system users on-the-fly, thus substantially increasing the
possible uses of this core UNIX security concept.

If you write a systemd service unit file, you may enable the dynamic
user logic for it by setting the
DynamicUser=
option in its [Service] section to yes. If you do a system user is
dynamically allocated the instant the service binary is invoked, and
released again when the service terminates. The user is automatically
allocated from the UID range 61184–65519, by looking for a so far
unused UID.

Now you may wonder, how does this concept deal with the sticky user
issue discussed above? In order to counter the problem, two strategies
easily come to mind:

  1. Prohibit the service from creating any files/directories or IPC objects

  2. Automatically removing the files/directories or IPC objects the
    service created when it shuts down.

In systemd we implemented both strategies, but for different parts of
the execution environment. Specifically:

  1. Setting DynamicUser=yes implies
    ProtectSystem=strict
    and
    ProtectHome=read-only. These
    sand-boxing options turn off write access to pretty much the whole OS
    directory tree, with a few relevant exceptions, such as the API file
    systems /proc, /sys and so on, as well as /tmp and
    /var/tmp. (BTW: setting these two options on your regular services
    that do not use DynamicUser= is a good idea too, as it drastically
    reduces the exposure of the system to exploited services.)

  2. Setting DynamicUser=yes implies
    PrivateTmp=yes. This
    option sets up /tmp and /var/tmp for the service in a way that it
    gets its own, disconnected version of these directories, that are not
    shared by other services, and whose life-cycle is bound to the
    service’s own life-cycle. Thus if the service goes down, the user is
    removed and all its temporary files and directories with it. (BTW: as
    above, consider setting this option for your regular services that do
    not use DynamicUser= too, it’s a great way to lock things down
    security-wise.)

  3. Setting DynamicUser=yes implies
    RemoveIPC=yes. This
    option ensures that when the service goes down all SysV and POSIX IPC
    objects (shared memory, message queues, semaphores) owned by the
    service’s user are removed. Thus, the life-cycle of the IPC objects is
    bound to the life-cycle of the dynamic user and service, too. (BTW:
    yes, here too, consider using this in your regular services, too!)

With these four settings in effect, services with dynamic users are
nicely sand-boxed. They cannot create files or directories, except in
/tmp and /var/tmp, where they will be removed automatically when
the service shuts down, as will any IPC objects created. Sticky
ownership of files/directories and IPC objects is hence dealt with
effectively.

The
RuntimeDirectory=
option may be used to open up a bit the sandbox to external
programs. If you set it to a directory name of your choice, it will be
created below /run when the service is started, and removed in its
entirety when it is terminated. The ownership of the directory is
assigned to the service’s dynamic user. This way, a dynamic user
service can expose API interfaces (AF_UNIX sockets, …) to other
services at a well-defined place and again bind the life-cycle of it to
the service’s own run-time. Example: set RuntimeDirectory=foobar in
your service, and watch how a directory /run/foobar appears at the
moment you start the service, and disappears the moment you stop
it again. (BTW: Much like the other settings discussed above,
RuntimeDirectory= may be used outside of the DynamicUser= context
too, and is a nice way to run any service with a properly owned,
life-cycle-managed run-time directory.)

Persistent Data

Of course, a service running in such an environment (although already
very useful for many cases!), has a major limitation: it cannot leave
persistent data around it can reuse on a later run. As pretty much the
whole OS directory tree is read-only to it, there’s simply no place it
could put the data that survives from one service invocation to the
next.

With systemd 235 this limitation is removed: there are now three new
settings:
StateDirectory=,
LogsDirectory= and CacheDirectory=. In many ways they operate like
RuntimeDirectory=, but create sub-directories below /var/lib,
/var/log and /var/cache, respectively. There’s one major
difference beyond that however: directories created that way are
persistent, they will survive the run-time cycle of a service, and
thus may be used to store data that is supposed to stay around between
invocations of the service.

Of course, the obvious question to ask now is: how do these three
settings deal with the sticky file ownership problem?

For that we lifted a concept from container managers. Container
managers have a very similar problem: each container and the host
typically end up using a very similar set of numeric UIDs, and unless
user name-spacing is deployed this means that host users might be able
to access the data of specific containers that also have a user by the
same numeric UID assigned, even though it actually refers to a very
different identity in a different context. (Actually, it’s even worse
than just getting access, due to the existence of setuid file bits,
access might translate to privilege elevation.) The way container
managers protect the container images from the host (and from each
other to some level) is by placing the container trees below a
boundary directory, with very restrictive access modes and ownership
(0700 and root:root or so). A host user hence cannot take advantage
of the files/directories of a container user of the same UID inside of
a local container tree, simply because the boundary directory makes it
impossible to even reference files in it. After all on UNIX, in order
to get access to a specific path you need access to every single
component of it.

How is that applied to dynamic user services? Let’s say
StateDirectory=foobar is set for a service that has DynamicUser=
turned off. The instant the service is started, /var/lib/foobar is
created as state directory, owned by the service’s user and remains in
existence when the service is stopped. If the same service now is run
with DynamicUser= turned on, the implementation is slightly
altered. Instead of a directory /var/lib/foobar a symbolic link by
the same path is created (owned by root), pointing to
/var/lib/private/foobar (the latter being owned by the service’s
dynamic user). The /var/lib/private directory is created as boundary
directory: it’s owned by root:root, and has a restrictive access
mode of 0700. Both the symlink and the service’s state directory will
survive the service’s life-cycle, but the state directory will remain,
and continues to be owned by the now disposed dynamic UID — however it
is protected from other host users (and other services which might get
the same dynamic UID assigned due to UID recycling) by the boundary
directory.

The obvious question to ask now is: but if the boundary directory
prohibits access to the directory from unprivileged processes, how can
the service itself which runs under its own dynamic UID access it
anyway? This is achieved by invoking the service process in a slightly
modified mount name-space: it will see most of the file hierarchy the
same way as everything else on the system (modulo /tmp and
/var/tmp as mentioned above), except for /var/lib/private, which
is over-mounted with a read-only tmpfs file system instance, with a
slightly more liberal access mode permitting the service read
access. Inside of this tmpfs file system instance another mount is
placed: a bind mount to the host’s real /var/lib/private/foobar
directory, onto the same name. Putting this together these means that
superficially everything looks the same and is available at the same
place on the host and from inside the service, but two important
changes have been made: the /var/lib/private boundary directory lost
its restrictive character inside the service, and has been emptied of
the state directories of any other service, thus making the protection
complete. Note that the symlink /var/lib/foobar hides the fact that
the boundary directory is used (making it little more than an
implementation detail), as the directory is available this way under
the same name as it would be if DynamicUser= was not used. Long
story short: for the daemon and from the view from the host the
indirection through /var/lib/private is mostly transparent.

This logic of course raises another question: what happens to the
state directory if a dynamic user service is started with a state
directory configured, gets UID X assigned on this first invocation,
then terminates and is restarted and now gets UID Y assigned on the
second invocation, with X ≠ Y? On the second invocation the directory
— and all the files and directories below it — will still be owned by
the original UID X so how could the second instance running as Y
access it? Our way out is simple: systemd will recursively change the
ownership of the directory and everything contained within it to UID Y
before invoking the service’s executable.

Of course, such recursive ownership changing (chown()ing) of whole
directory trees can become expensive (though according to my
experiences, IRL and for most services it’s much cheaper than you
might think), hence in order to optimize behavior in this regard, the
allocation of dynamic UIDs has been tweaked in two ways to avoid the
necessity to do this expensive operation in most cases: firstly, when
a dynamic UID is allocated for a service an allocation loop is
employed that starts out with a UID hashed from the service’s
name. This means a service by the same name is likely to always use
the same numeric UID. That means that a stable service name translates
into a stable dynamic UID, and that means recursive file ownership
adjustments can be skipped (of course, after validation). Secondly, if
the configured state directory already exists, and is owned by a
suitable currently unused dynamic UID, it’s preferably used above
everything else, thus maximizing the chance we can avoid the
chown()ing. (That all said, ultimately we have to face it, the
currently available UID space of 4K+ is very small still, and
conflicts are pretty likely sooner or later, thus a chown()ing has to
be expected every now and then when this feature is used extensively).

Note that CacheDirectory= and LogsDirectory= work very similar to
StateDirectory=. The only difference is that they manage directories
below the /var/cache and /var/logs directories, and their boundary
directory hence is /var/cache/private and /var/log/private,
respectively.

Examples

So, after all this introduction, let’s have a look how this all can be
put together. Here’s a trivial example:

# cat > /etc/systemd/system/dynamic-user-test.service <<EOF
[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/bin/sleep 4711
DynamicUser=yes
EOF
# systemctl daemon-reload
# systemctl start dynamic-user-test
# systemctl status dynamic-user-test
● dynamic-user-test.service
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/dynamic-user-test.service; static; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Fri 2017-10-06 13:12:25 CEST; 3s ago
 Main PID: 2967 (sleep)
    Tasks: 1 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/dynamic-user-test.service
           └─2967 /usr/bin/sleep 4711

Okt 06 13:12:25 sigma systemd[1]: Started dynamic-user-test.service.
# ps -e -o pid,comm,user | grep 2967
 2967 sleep           dynamic-user-test
# id dynamic-user-test
uid=64642(dynamic-user-test) gid=64642(dynamic-user-test) groups=64642(dynamic-user-test)
# systemctl stop dynamic-user-test
# id dynamic-user-test
id: ‘dynamic-user-test’: no such user

In this example, we create a unit file with DynamicUser= turned on,
start it, check if it’s running correctly, have a look at the service
process’ user (which is named like the service; systemd does this
automatically if the service name is suitable as user name, and you
didn’t configure any user name to use explicitly), stop the service
and verify that the user ceased to exist too.

That’s already pretty cool. Let’s step it up a notch, by doing the
same in an interactive transient service (for those who don’t know
systemd well: a transient service is a service that is defined and
started dynamically at run-time, for example via the systemd-run
command from the shell. Think: run a service without having to write a
unit file first):

# systemd-run --pty --property=DynamicUser=yes --property=StateDirectory=wuff /bin/sh
Running as unit: run-u15750.service
Press ^] three times within 1s to disconnect TTY.
sh-4.4$ id
uid=63122(run-u15750) gid=63122(run-u15750) groups=63122(run-u15750) context=system_u:system_r:initrc_t:s0
sh-4.4$ ls -al /var/lib/private/
total 0
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root       root        60  6. Okt 13:21 .
drwxr-xr-x. 1 root       root       852  6. Okt 13:21 ..
drwxr-xr-x. 1 run-u15750 run-u15750   8  6. Okt 13:22 wuff
sh-4.4$ ls -ld /var/lib/wuff
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 12  6. Okt 13:21 /var/lib/wuff -> private/wuff
sh-4.4$ ls -ld /var/lib/wuff/
drwxr-xr-x. 1 run-u15750 run-u15750 0  6. Okt 13:21 /var/lib/wuff/
sh-4.4$ echo hello > /var/lib/wuff/test
sh-4.4$ exit
exit
# id run-u15750
id: ‘run-u15750’: no such user
# ls -al /var/lib/private
total 0
drwx------. 1 root  root   66  6. Okt 13:21 .
drwxr-xr-x. 1 root  root  852  6. Okt 13:21 ..
drwxr-xr-x. 1 63122 63122   8  6. Okt 13:22 wuff
# ls -ld /var/lib/wuff
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 12  6. Okt 13:21 /var/lib/wuff -> private/wuff
# ls -ld /var/lib/wuff/
drwxr-xr-x. 1 63122 63122 8  6. Okt 13:22 /var/lib/wuff/
# cat /var/lib/wuff/test
hello

The above invokes an interactive shell as transient service
run-u15750.service (systemd-run picked that name automatically,
since we didn’t specify anything explicitly) with a dynamic user whose
name is derived automatically from the service name. Because
StateDirectory=wuff is used, a persistent state directory for the
service is made available as /var/lib/wuff. In the interactive shell
running inside the service, the ls commands show the
/var/lib/private boundary directory and its contents, as well as the
symlink that is placed for the service. Finally, before exiting the
shell, a file is created in the state directory. Back in the original
command shell we check if the user is still allocated: it is not, of
course, since the service ceased to exist when we exited the shell and
with it the dynamic user associated with it. From the host we check
the state directory of the service, with similar commands as we did
from inside of it. We see that things are set up pretty much the same
way in both cases, except for two things: first of all the user/group
of the files is now shown as raw numeric UIDs instead of the
user/group names derived from the unit name. That’s because the user
ceased to exist at this point, and “ls” shows the raw UID for files
owned by users that don’t exist. Secondly, the access mode of the
boundary directory is different: when we look at it from outside of
the service it is not readable by anyone but root, when we looked from
inside we saw it it being world readable.

Now, let’s see how things look if we start another transient service,
reusing the state directory from the first invocation:

# systemd-run --pty --property=DynamicUser=yes --property=StateDirectory=wuff /bin/sh
Running as unit: run-u16087.service
Press ^] three times within 1s to disconnect TTY.
sh-4.4$ cat /var/lib/wuff/test
hello
sh-4.4$ ls -al /var/lib/wuff/
total 4
drwxr-xr-x. 1 run-u16087 run-u16087  8  6. Okt 13:22 .
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root       root       60  6. Okt 15:42 ..
-rw-r--r--. 1 run-u16087 run-u16087  6  6. Okt 13:22 test
sh-4.4$ id
uid=63122(run-u16087) gid=63122(run-u16087) groups=63122(run-u16087) context=system_u:system_r:initrc_t:s0
sh-4.4$ exit
exit

Here, systemd-run picked a different auto-generated unit name, but
the used dynamic UID is still the same, as it was read from the
pre-existing state directory, and was otherwise unused. As we can see
the test file we generated earlier is accessible and still contains
the data we left in there. Do note that the user name is different
this time (as it is derived from the unit name, which is different),
but the UID it is assigned to is the same one as on the first
invocation. We can thus see that the mentioned optimization of the UID
allocation logic (i.e. that we start the allocation loop from the UID
owner of any existing state directory) took effect, so that no
recursive chown()ing was required.

And that’s the end of our example, which hopefully illustrated a bit
how this concept and implementation works.

Use-cases

Now that we had a look at how to enable this logic for a unit and how
it is implemented, let’s discuss where this actually could be useful
in real life.

  • One major benefit of dynamic user IDs is that running a
    privilege-separated service leaves no artifacts in the system. A
    system user is allocated and made use of, but it is discarded
    automatically in a safe and secure way after use, in a fashion that is
    safe for later recycling. Thus, quickly invoking a short-lived service
    for processing some job can be protected properly through a user ID
    without having to pre-allocate it and without this draining the
    available UID pool any longer than necessary.

  • In many cases, starting a service no longer requires
    package-specific preparation. Or in other words, quite often
    useradd/mkdir/chown/chmod invocations in “post-inst” package
    scripts, as well as
    sysusers.d
    and
    tmpfiles.d
    drop-ins become unnecessary, as the DynamicUser= and
    StateDirectory=/CacheDirectory=/LogsDirectory= logic can do the
    necessary work automatically, on-demand and with a well-defined
    life-cycle.

  • By combining dynamic user IDs with the transient unit concept, new
    creative ways of sand-boxing are made available. For example, let’s say
    you don’t trust the correct implementation of the sort command. You
    can now lock it into a simple, robust, dynamic UID sandbox with a
    simple systemd-run and still integrate it into a shell pipeline like
    any other command. Here’s an example, showcasing a shell pipeline
    whose middle element runs as a dynamically on-the-fly allocated UID,
    that is released when the pipelines ends.

    # cat some-file.txt | systemd-run ---pipe --property=DynamicUser=1 sort -u | grep -i foobar > some-other-file.txt
    
  • By combining dynamic user IDs with the systemd templating logic it
    is now possible to do much more fine-grained and fully automatic UID
    management. For example, let’s say you have a template unit file
    /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]:

    [Service]
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/myfoobarserviced
    DynamicUser=1
    StateDirectory=foobar/%i
    

    Now, let’s say you want to start one instance of this service for
    each of your customers. All you need to do now for that is:

    # systemctl enable [email protected] --now
    

    And you are done. (Invoke this as many times as you like, each time
    replacing customerxyz by some customer identifier, you get the
    idea.)

  • By combining dynamic user IDs with socket activation you may easily
    implement a system where each incoming connection is served by a
    process instance running as a different, fresh, newly allocated UID
    within its own sandbox. Here’s an example waldo.socket:

    [Socket]
    ListenStream=2048
    Accept=yes
    

    With a matching [email protected]:

    [Service]
    ExecStart=-/usr/bin/myservicebinary
    DynamicUser=yes
    

    With the two unit files above, systemd will listen on TCP/IP port
    2048, and for each incoming connection invoke a fresh instance of
    [email protected], each time utilizing a different, new,
    dynamically allocated UID, neatly isolated from any other
    instance.

  • Dynamic user IDs combine very well with state-less systems,
    i.e. systems that come up with an unpopulated /etc and /var. A
    service using dynamic user IDs and the StateDirectory=,
    CacheDirectory=, LogsDirectory= and RuntimeDirectory= concepts
    will implicitly allocate the users and directories it needs for
    running, right at the moment where it needs it.

Dynamic users are a very generic concept, hence a multitude of other
uses are thinkable; the list above is just supposed to trigger your
imagination.

What does this mean for you as a packager?

I am pretty sure that a large number of services shipped with today’s
distributions could benefit from using DynamicUser= and
StateDirectory= (and related settings). It often allows removal of
post-inst packaging scripts altogether, as well as any sysusers.d
and tmpfiles.d drop-ins by unifying the needed declarations in the
unit file itself. Hence, as a packager please consider switching your
unit files over. That said, there are a number of conditions where
DynamicUser= and StateDirectory= (and friends) cannot or should
not be used. To name a few:

  1. Service that need to write to files outside of /run/<package>,
    /var/lib/<package>, /var/cache/<package>, /var/log/<package>,
    /var/tmp, /tmp, /dev/shm are generally incompatible with this
    scheme. This rules out daemons that upgrade the system as one example,
    as that involves writing to /usr.

  2. Services that maintain a herd of processes with different user
    IDs. Some SMTP services are like this. If your service has such a
    super-server design, UID management needs to be done by the
    super-server itself, which rules out systemd doing its dynamic UID
    magic for it.

  3. Services which run as root (obviously…) or are otherwise
    privileged.

  4. Services that need to live in the same mount name-space as the host
    system (for example, because they want to establish mount points
    visible system-wide). As mentioned DynamicUser= implies
    ProtectSystem=, PrivateTmp= and related options, which all require
    the service to run in its own mount name-space.

  5. Your focus is older distributions, i.e. distributions that do not
    have systemd 232 (for DynamicUser=) or systemd 235 (for
    StateDirectory= and friends) yet.

  6. If your distribution’s packaging guides don’t allow it. Consult
    your packaging guides, and possibly start a discussion on your
    distribution’s mailing list about this.

Notes

A couple of additional, random notes about the implementation and use
of these features:

  1. Do note that allocating or deallocating a dynamic user leaves
    /etc/passwd untouched. A dynamic user is added into the user
    database through the glibc NSS module
    nss-systemd,
    and this information never hits the disk.

  2. On traditional UNIX systems it was the job of the daemon process
    itself to drop privileges, while the DynamicUser= concept is
    designed around the service manager (i.e. systemd) being responsible
    for that. That said, since v235 there’s a way to marry DynamicUser=
    and such services which want to drop privileges on their own. For
    that, turn on DynamicUser= and set
    User=
    to the user name the service wants to setuid() to. This has the
    effect that systemd will allocate the dynamic user under the specified
    name when the service is started. Then, prefix the command line you
    specify in
    ExecStart=
    with a single ! character. If you do, the user is allocated for the
    service, but the daemon binary is is invoked as root instead of the
    allocated user, under the assumption that the daemon changes its UID
    on its own the right way. Not that after registration the user will
    show up instantly in the user database, and is hence resolvable like
    any other by the daemon process. Example:
    ExecStart=!/usr/bin/mydaemond

  3. You may wonder why systemd uses the UID range 61184–65519 for its
    dynamic user allocations (side note: in hexadecimal this reads as
    0xEF00–0xFFEF). That’s because distributions (specifically Fedora)
    tend to allocate regular users from below the 60000 range, and we
    don’t want to step into that. We also want to stay away from 65535 and
    a bit around it, as some of these UIDs have special meanings (65535 is
    often used as special value for “invalid” or “no” UID, as it is
    identical to the 16bit value -1; 65534 is generally mapped to the
    “nobody” user, and is where some kernel subsystems map unmappable
    UIDs). Finally, we want to stay within the 16bit range. In a user
    name-spacing world each container tends to have much less than the full
    32bit UID range available that Linux kernels theoretically
    provide. Everybody apparently can agree that a container should at
    least cover the 16bit range though — already to include a nobody
    user. (And quite frankly, I am pretty sure assigning 64K UIDs per
    container is nicely systematic, as the the higher 16bit of the 32bit
    UID values this way become a container ID, while the lower 16bit
    become the logical UID within each container, if you still follow what
    I am babbling here…). And before you ask: no this range cannot be
    changed right now, it’s compiled in. We might change that eventually
    however.

  4. You might wonder what happens if you already used UIDs from the
    61184–65519 range on your system for other purposes. systemd should
    handle that mostly fine, as long as that usage is properly registered
    in the user database: when allocating a dynamic user we pick a UID,
    see if it is currently used somehow, and if yes pick a different one,
    until we find a free one. Whether a UID is used right now or not is
    checked through NSS calls. Moreover the IPC object lists are checked to
    see if there are any objects owned by the UID we are about to
    pick. This means systemd will avoid using UIDs you have assigned
    otherwise. Note however that this of course makes the pool of
    available UIDs smaller, and in the worst cases this means that
    allocating a dynamic user might fail because there simply are no
    unused UIDs in the range.

  5. If not specified otherwise the name for a dynamically allocated
    user is derived from the service name. Not everything that’s valid in
    a service name is valid in a user-name however, and in some cases a
    randomized name is used instead to deal with this. Often it makes
    sense to pick the user names to register explicitly. For that use
    User= and choose whatever you like.

  6. If you pick a user name with User= and combine it with
    DynamicUser= and the user already exists statically it will be used
    for the service and the dynamic user logic is automatically
    disabled. This permits automatic up- and downgrades between static and
    dynamic UIDs. For example, it provides a nice way to move a system
    from static to dynamic UIDs in a compatible way: as long as you select
    the same User= value before and after switching DynamicUser= on,
    the service will continue to use the statically allocated user if it
    exists, and only operates in the dynamic mode if it does not. This is
    useful for other cases as well, for example to adapt a service that
    normally would use a dynamic user to concepts that require statically
    assigned UIDs, for example to marry classic UID-based file system
    quota with such services.

  7. systemd always allocates a pair of dynamic UID and GID at the same
    time, with the same numeric ID.

  8. If the Linux kernel had a “shiftfs” or similar functionality,
    i.e. a way to mount an existing directory to a second place, but map
    the exposed UIDs/GIDs in some way configurable at mount time, this
    would be excellent for the implementation of StateDirectory= in
    conjunction with DynamicUser=. It would make the recursive
    chown()ing step unnecessary, as the host version of the state
    directory could simply be mounted into a the service’s mount
    name-space, with a shift applied that maps the directory’s owner to the
    services’ UID/GID. But I don’t have high hopes in this regard, as all
    work being done in this area appears to be bound to user name-spacing
    — which is a concept not used here (and I guess one could say user
    name-spacing is probably more a source of problems than a solution to
    one, but you are welcome to disagree on that).

And that’s all for now. Enjoy your dynamic users!

RaspiReader: build your own fingerprint reader

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspireader-fingerprint-scanner/

Three researchers from Michigan State University have developed a low-cost, open-source fingerprint reader which can detect fake prints. They call it RaspiReader, and they’ve built it using a Raspberry Pi 3 and two Camera Modules. Joshua and his colleagues have just uploaded all the info you need to build your own version — let’s go!

GIF of fingerprint match points being aligned on fingerprint, not real output of RaspiReader software

Sadly not the real output of the RaspiReader

Falsified fingerprints

We’ve probably all seen a movie in which a burglar crosses a room full of laser tripwires and then enters the safe full of loot by tricking the fingerprint-secured lock with a fake print. Turns out, the second part is not that unrealistic: you can fake fingerprints using a range of materials, such as glue or latex.

Examples of live and fake fingerprints collected by the RaspiReader team

The RaspiReader team collected live and fake fingerprints to test the device

If the spoof print layer capping the spoofer’s finger is thin enough, it can even fool readers that detect blood flow, pulse, or temperature. This is becoming a significant security risk, not least for anyone who unlocks their smartphone using a fingerprint.

The RaspiReader

This is where Anil K. Jain comes in: Professor Jain leads a biometrics research group. Under his guidance, Joshua J. Engelsma and Kai Cao set out to develop a fingerprint reader with improved spoof-print detection. Ultimately, they aim to help the development of more secure commercial technologies. With their project, the team has also created an amazing resource for anyone who wants to build their own fingerprint reader.

So that replicating their device would be easy, they wanted to make it using inexpensive, readily available components, which is why they turned to Raspberry Pi technology.

RaspiReader fingerprint scanner by PRIP lab

The Raspireader and its output

Inside the RaspiReader’s 3D-printed housing, LEDs shine light through an acrylic prism, on top of which the user rests their finger. The prism refracts the light so that the two Camera Modules can take images from different angles. The Pi receives these images via a Multi Camera Adapter Module feeding into the CSI port. Collecting two images means the researchers’ spoof detection algorithm has more information to work with.

Comparison of live and spoof fingerprints

Real on the left, fake on the right

RaspiReader software

The Camera Adaptor uses the RPi.GPIO Python package. The RaspiReader performs image processing, and its spoof detection takes image colour and 3D friction ridge patterns into account. The detection algorithm extracts colour local binary patterns … please don’t ask me to explain! You can have a look at the researchers’ manuscript if you want to get stuck into the fine details of their project.

Build your own fingerprint reader

I’ve had my eyes glued to my inbox waiting for Josh to send me links to instructions and files for this build, and here they are (thanks, Josh)! Check out the video tutorial, which walks you through how to assemble the RaspiReader:

RaspiReader: Cost-Effective Open-Source Fingerprint Reader

Building a cost-effective, open-source, and spoof-resilient fingerprint reader for $160* in under an hour. Code: https://github.com/engelsjo/RaspiReader Links to parts: 1. PRISM – https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00WL3OBK4/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o05_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 (Better fit) https://www.thorlabs.com/thorproduct.cfm?partnumber=PS611 2. RaspiCams – https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B012V1HEP4/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 3. Camera Multiplexer https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B012UQWOOQ/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o04_s01?ie=UTF8&psc=1 4. Raspberry Pi Kit: https://www.amazon.com/CanaKit-Raspberry-Clear-Power-Supply/dp/B01C6EQNNK/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&qid=1507058509&sr=8-6&keywords=raspberry+pi+3b Whitepaper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.07887 * Prices can vary based on Amazon’s pricing. P.s.

You can find a parts list with links to suppliers in the video description — the whole build costs around $160. All the STL files for the housing and the Python scripts you need to run on the Pi are available on Josh’s GitHub.

Enhance your home security

The RaspiReader is a great resource for researchers, and it would also be a terrific project to build at home! Is there a more impressive way to protect a treasured possession, or secure access to your computer, than with a DIY fingerprint scanner?

Check out this James-Bond-themed blog post for Raspberry Pi resources to help you build a high-security lair. If you want even more inspiration, watch this video about a laser-secured cookie jar which Estefannie made for us. And be sure to share your successful fingerprint scanner builds with us via social media!

The post RaspiReader: build your own fingerprint reader appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Now Available – Amazon Linux AMI 2017.09

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/now-available-amazon-linux-ami-2017-09/

I’m happy to announce that the latest version of the Amazon Linux AMI (2017.09) is now available in all AWS Regions for all current-generation EC2 instances. The AMI contains a supported and maintained Linux image that is designed to provide a stable, secure, high performance environment for applications running on EC2.

Easy Upgrade
You can upgrade your existing instances by running two commands and then rebooting:

$ sudo yum clean all
$ sudo yum update

Lots of Goodies
The AMI contains many new features, many of which were added in response to requests from our customers. Here’s a summary:

Kernel 4.9.51 – Based on the 4.9 stable kernel series, this kernel includes the ENA 1.3.0 driver along with support for TCP Bottleneck Bandwidth and RTT (BBR). Read my post, Elastic Network Adapter – High-Performance Network Interface for Amazon EC2 to learn more about ENA. Read the Release Notes to learn how to enable BBR.

Amazon SSM Agent – The Amazon SSM Agent is now installed by default. This means that you can now use EC2 Run Command to configure and run scripts on your instances with no further setup. To learn more, read Executing Commands Using Systems Manager Run Command or Manage Instances at Scale Without SSH Access Using EC2 Run Command.

Python 3.6 – The newest version of Python is now included and can be managed via virtualenv and alternatives. You can install Python 3.6 like this:

$ sudo yum install python36 python36-virtualenv python36-pip

Ruby 2.4 – The latest version of Ruby in the 2.4 series is now available. Install it like this:

$ sudo yum install ruby24

OpenSSL – The AMI now uses OpenSSL 1.0.2k.

HTTP/2 – The HTTP/2 protocol is now supported by the AMI’s httpd24, nginx, and curl packages.

Relational DatabasesPostgres 9.6 and MySQL 5.7 are now available, and can be installed like this:

$ sudo yum install postgresql96
$ sudo yum install mysql57

OpenMPI – The OpenMPI package has been upgraded from 1.6.4 to 2.1.1. OpenMPI compatibility packages are available and can be used to build and run older OpenMPI applications.

And More – Other updated packages include Squid 3.5, Nginx 1.12, Tomcat 8.5, and GCC 6.4.

Launch it Today
You can use this AMI to launch EC2 instances in all AWS Regions today. It is available for EBS-backed and Instance Store-backed instances and supports HVM and PV modes.

Jeff;

Improved Testing on the AWS Lambda Console

Post Syndicated from Orr Weinstein original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/improved-testing-on-the-aws-lambda-console/

(This post has been written by Chris Tate, SDE on the Lambda Console team)

Today, AWS Lambda released three console enhancements:

  • A quicker creation flow that lets you quickly create a function with the minimum working configuration, so that you can start iterating faster.
  • A streamlined configuration page with Lambda function settings logically grouped into cards, which makes locating and making changes much easier.
  • Persisting multiple events to help test your function.

This post focuses on persisting test events, and I discuss how I’ve been using this new feature. Now when you are testing on the Lambda console, you can save up to 10 test events per function, and each event can be up to 6 megabytes in size, the maximum payload size for synchronous invocations. The events are saved for the logged-in user, so that two different users in the same account have their own set of events.

Testing Lambda functions

As a Lambda console developer, when I work on side projects at home, I sometimes use our development server. I’ve been using this new feature to test a Lambda function in one of my projects. The function is probably more complicated than it should be, because it can be triggered by an Alexa skill, Amazon CloudWatch schedule, or an Amazon API Gateway API. If you have had a similarly complicated function, you may have run into the same problem I did:  How do you test?

For quick testing, I used the console but the console used to save only one test event at a time. To work around this, my solution was a text file with three different JSON events, one for each trigger. I would copy whatever event I needed into the Lambda console, tweak it, and choose Test. This would become particularly annoying when I wanted to quickly test all three.

I also switch between my laptop and desktop depending on my mood. For that reason, I needed to make sure this text file with the events were shared in some way, as the console only locally saved one test event to the current browser. But now you don’t have to worry about any of that.

Walkthrough

In the Lambda console, go to the detail page of any function, and select Configure test events from the test events dropdown (the dropdown beside the orange test button). In the dialog box, you can manage 10 test events for your function. First, paste your Alexa trigger event in the dialog box and type an event name, such as AlexaTrigger.

Choose Create. After it saves, you see AlexaTrigger in the Test list.

When you open the dialog box again by choosing Configure test events, you are in edit mode.

To add another event, choose Create new test event. Now you can choose from a list of templates or any of your previously saved test events. This is very useful for a couple of reasons:

  • First, when you want to slightly tweak one of your existing events and still keep the earlier version intact.
  • Second, when you are not sure how to structure a particular event from an event source. You can use one of the sample event templates and tweak them to your needs. Skip it when you know what your event should be.

Paste in your CloudWatch schedule event, give it a name, and choose Create. Repeat for API Gateway.

Now that you have three events saved, you can quickly switch between them and repeatedly test. Furthermore, if you’re on your desktop but you created the test events on your laptop, there’s no problem. You can still see all your events and you can switch back and forth seamlessly between different computers.

Conclusion

This feature should allow you to more easily test your Lambda functions through the console. If you have more suggestions, add a comment to this post or submit feedback through the console. We actually read the feedback, believe it!

‘New “DeUHD” Tool Can Rip UHD Blu-Ray Discs’

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/new-deuhd-tool-can-rip-uhd-blu-ray-discs-171002/

While there is no shortage of pirated films on the Internet, Ultra-high-definition content is often hard to find.

Not only are the file sizes enormous, but the protection is better than that deployed to regular content. Protected with strong AACS 2 encryption, it has long been one of the last bastions movie pirates had yet to breach.

This year there have been some major developments on this front, as full copies of UHD Blu-Ray Discs began to leak online. While it remained unclear how these were ripped, it was a definite milestone.

Now, there’s another breakthrough to report on. Russian company Arusoft has released a new commercially available tool called DeUHD which claims the ability to rip UHD Blu-ray discs.

“It is a tool to decrypt the UHD disc, like remove the AACS 2.0 protections,” the company states.

“DeUHD works in the background to automatically enable read access of the contents of a 4K UHD movie as soon as it’s inserted into the drive. It is also able to rip the disc to your hard disk as a folder or an ISO file, and then you can play them on your UHD player.”

The software works on recent Windows operating systems and is compatible with a limited number of UHD drives, including the LG WH16NS60 and Buffalo BRUHD-PU3.

The list of supported UHD Blu-rays is not exhaustive but includes a few dozen popular movies such as Arrival, John Wick: Chapter 2, Passengers, and Terminator Genisys. New titles are added on a regular basis, the developers promise.

DeUHD in action

TorrentFreak reached out to a source who tested the software with the supported LG BE16NU50 drive and three of the listed movies, but this didn’t work. This could mean that there are still some issues that need to be ironed out.

The developers are adamant that their software works as advertised, and have published a detailed guide on their website.

It’s not clear whether AACS 2.0 has indeed been cracked. The DeUHD team informed MyCE, who first reported on the tool, that they see it as such. In any case, the tool promises to successfully decrypt UHD Blu-ray discs, which is quite an achievement by itself.

That said, the DeUHD software doesn’t come cheap. A lifetime license is currently selling for $199. Those who want to try it first to see if it works for them can download a free trial. This trial is limited to decrypting roughly 10 minutes of a single disc.

Interestingly, a handful of new UHD releases were published by the group HDRINVASION in recent days, all titles that are also supported by DeUHD. Whether there’s a connection between the two is unknown at this point.

DeUHD website

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.