Tag Archives: blogging

Getting Ready for the AWS Quest Finale on Twitch

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/getting-ready-for-the-aws-quest-finale-on-twitch/

Whew! March has been one crazy month for me and it is only half over. After a week with my wife in the Caribbean, we hopped on a non-stop Seattle to Tokyo flight so that I could speak at JAWS Days, Startup Day, and some internal events. We arrived home last Wednesday and I am now sufficiently clear-headed and recovered from jet lag to do anything more intellectually demanding than respond to emails. The AWS Blogging Team and the great folks at Lone Shark Games have been working on AWS Quest for quite some time and it has been great to see all of the progress made toward solving the puzzles in order to find the orangeprints that I will use to rebuild Ozz.

The community effort has been impressive! There’s a shared spreadsheet with tabs for puzzles and clues, a busy Slack channel, and a leaderboard, all organized and built by a team that spans the globe.

I’ve been checking out the orangeprints as they are uncovered and have been doing a bit of planning and preparation to make sure that I am ready for the live-streamed rebuild on Twitch later this month. Yesterday I labeled a bunch of containers, one per puzzle, and stocked each one with the parts that I will use to rebuild the corresponding component of Ozz. Fortunately, I have at least (my last count may have skipped a few) 119,807 bricks and other parts at hand so this was easy. Here’s what I have set up so far:

The Twitch session will take place on Tuesday, March 27 at Noon PT. In the meantime, you should check out the #awsquest tweets and see what you can do to help me to rebuild Ozz.


Friday Squid Blogging: New Squid Species Discovered in Australia

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/03/friday_squid_bl_616.html

A new species of pygmy squid was discovered in Western Australia. It’s pretty cute.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Friday Squid Blogging: Interesting Interview

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/03/friday_squid_bl_615.html

Here’s an hour-long audio interview with squid scientist Sarah McAnulty.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Join the AWS Quest – Help me to Rebuild Ozz!

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/join-the-aws-quest-help-me-to-rebuild-ozz/

If you have been watching my weekly videos, you may have noticed an orange robot in the background from time to time. That’s Ozz, my robot friend and helper. Built from the ground up in my home laboratory, Ozz is an invaluable part of the AWS blogging process!

Sadly, when we announced we are adding the AWS Podcast to the blog, Ozz literally went to pieces and all I have left is a large pile of bricks and some great memories of our time together. From what I can tell, Ozz went haywire over this new development due to excessive enthusiasm!

Ozz, perhaps anticipating that this could happen at some point, buried a set of clues (each pointing to carefully protected plans) in this blog, in the AWS Podcast, and in other parts of the AWS site. If we can find and decode these plans, we can rebuild Ozz, better, stronger, and faster. Unfortunately, due to concerns about the ultra-competitive robot friend market, Ozz concealed each of the plans inside a set of devious, brain-twisting puzzles. You are going to need to look high, low, inside, outside, around, and through the clues in order to figure this one out. You may even need to phone a friend or two.

Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to find these clues, decode the plans, and help me to rebuild Ozz. The information that I have is a bit fuzzy, but I think there are 20 or so puzzles, each one describing one part of Ozz. If we can solve them all, we’ll get together on Twitch later this month and put Ozz back together.

Are you with me on this? Let’s do it!


Setting up bug bounties for success

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original https://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2018/03/setting-up-bug-bounties-for-success.html

Bug bounties end up in the news with some regularity, usually for the wrong reasons. I’ve been itching to write
about that for a while – but instead of dwelling on the mistakes of the bygone days, I figured it may be better to
talk about some of the ways to get vulnerability rewards right.

What do you get out of bug bounties?

There’s plenty of differing views, but I like to think of such programs
simply as a bid on researchers’ time. In the most basic sense, you get three benefits:

  • Improved ability to detect bugs in production before they become major incidents.
  • A comparatively unbiased feedback loop to help you prioritize and measure other security work.
  • A robust talent pipeline for when you need to hire.

What bug bounties don’t offer?

You don’t get anything resembling a comprehensive security program or a systematic assessment of your platforms.
Researchers end up looking for bugs that offer favorable effort-to-payoff ratios for their skills and given the
very imperfect information they have about your enterprise. In other words, you may end up with a hundred
people looking for XSS and just one person looking for RCE.

Your reward structure can steer them toward the targets and bugs you care about, but it’s difficult to fully
eliminate this inherent skew. There’s only so far you can jack up your top-tier rewards, and only so far you can
go lowering the bottom-tier ones.

Don’t you have to outcompete the black market to get all the “good” bugs?

There is a free market price discovery component to it all: if you’re not getting the engagement you
were hoping for, you should probably consider paying more.

That said, there are going to be researchers who’d rather hurt you than work for you, no matter how much you pay;
you don’t have to win them over, and you don’t have to outspend every authoritarian government or
every crime syndicate. A bug bounty is effective simply if it attracts enough eyeballs to make bugs statistically
harder to find, and reduces the useful lifespan of any zero-days in black market trade. Plus, most
researchers don’t want their work to be used to crack down on dissidents in Egypt or Vietnam.

Another factor is that you’re paying for different things: a black market buyer probably wants a reliable exploit
capable of delivering payloads, and then demands silence for months or years to come; a vendor-run
bug bounty program is usually perfectly happy with a reproducible crash and doesn’t mind a researcher blogging
about their work.

In fact, while money is important, you will probably find out that it’s not enough to retain your top talent;
many folks want bug bounties to be more than a business transaction, and find a lot of value in having a close
relationship with your security team, comparing notes, and growing together. Fostering that partnership can
be more important than adding another $10,000 to your top reward.

How do I prevent it all from going horribly wrong?

Bug bounties are an unfamiliar beast to most lawyers and PR folks, so it’s a natural to be wary and try to plan
for every eventuality with pages and pages of impenetrable rules and fine-print legalese.

This is generally unnecessary: there is a strong self-selection bias, and almost every participant in a
vulnerability reward program will be coming to you in good faith. The more friendly, forthcoming, and
approachable you seem, and the more you treat them like peers, the more likely it is for your relationship to stay
positive. On the flip side, there is no faster way to make enemies than to make a security researcher feel that they
are now talking to a lawyer or to the PR dept.

Most people have strong opinions on disclosure policies; instead of imposing your own views, strive to patch reported bugs
reasonably quickly, and almost every reporter will play along. Demand researchers to cancel conference appearances,
take down blog posts, or sign NDAs, and you will sooner or later end up in the news.

But what if that’s not enough?

As with any business endeavor, mistakes will happen; total risk avoidance is seldom the answer. Learn to sincerely
apologize for mishaps; it’s not a sign of weakness to say “sorry, we messed up”. And you will almost certainly not end
up in the courtroom for doing so.

It’s good to foster a healthy and productive relationship with the community, so that they come to your defense when
something goes wrong. Encouraging people to disclose bugs and talk about their experiences is one way of accomplishing that.

What about extortion?

You should structure your program to naturally discourage bad behavior and make it stand out like a sore thumb.
Require bona fide reports with complete technical details before any reward decision is made by a panel of named peers;
and make it clear that you never demand non-disclosure as a condition of getting a reward.

To avoid researchers accidentally putting themselves in awkward situations, have clear rules around data exfiltration
and lateral movement: assure them that you will always pay based on the worst-case impact of their findings; in exchange,
ask them to stop as soon as they get a shell and never access any data that isn’t their own.

So… are there any downsides?

Yep. Other than souring up your relationship with the community if you implement your program wrong, the other consideration
is that bug bounties tend to generate a lot of noise from well-meaning but less-skilled researchers.

When this happens, do not get frustrated and do not penalize such participants; instead, help them grow. Consider
publishing educational articles, giving advice on how to investigate and structure reports, or
offering free workshops every now and then.

The other downside is cost; although bug bounties tend to offer far more bang for your buck than your average penetration
test, they are more random. The annual expenses tend to be fairly predictable, but there is always
some possibility of having to pay multiple top-tier rewards in rapid succession. This is the kind of uncertainty that
many mid-level budget planners react badly to.

Finally, you need to be able to fix the bugs you receive. It would be nuts to prefer to not know about the
vulnerabilities in the first place – but once you invite the research, the clock starts ticking and you need to
ship fixes reasonably fast.

So… should I try it?

There are folks who enthusiastically advocate for bug bounties in every conceivable situation, and people who dislike them
with fierce passion; both sentiments are usually strongly correlated with the line of business they are in.

In reality, bug bounties are not a cure-all, and there are some ways to make them ineffectual or even dangerous.
But they are not as risky or expensive as most people suspect, and when done right, they can actually be fun for your
team, too. You won’t know for sure until you try.

Friday Squid Blogging: The Symbiotic Relationship Between the Bobtail Squid and a Particular Microbe

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/02/the_symbiotic_r.html

This is the story of the Hawaiian bobtail squid and Vibrio fischeri.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Give Your WordPress Blog a Voice With Our New Amazon Polly Plugin

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/give-your-wordpress-blog-a-voice-with-our-new-amazon-polly-plugin/

I first told you about Polly in late 2016 in my post Amazon Polly – Text to Speech in 47 Voices and 24 Languages. After that AWS re:Invent launch, we added support for Korean, five new voices, and made Polly available in all Regions in the aws partition. We also added whispering, speech marks, a timbre effect, and dynamic range compression.

New WordPress Plugin
Today we are launching a WordPress plugin that uses Polly to create high-quality audio versions of your blog posts. You can access the audio from within the post or in podcast form using a feature that we call Amazon Pollycast! Both options make your content more accessible and can help you to reach a wider audience. This plugin was a joint effort between the AWS team our friends at AWS Advanced Technology Partner WP Engine.

As you will see, the plugin is easy to install and configure. You can use it with installations of WordPress that you run on your own infrastructure or on AWS. Either way, you have access to all of Polly’s voices along with a wide variety of configuration options. The generated audio (an MP3 file for each post) can be stored alongside your WordPress content, or in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), with optional support for content distribution via Amazon CloudFront.

Installing the Plugin
I did not have an existing WordPress-powered blog, so I begin by launching a Lightsail instance using the WordPress 4.8.1 blueprint:

Then I follow these directions to access my login credentials:

Credentials in hand, I log in to the WordPress Dashboard:

The plugin makes calls to AWS, and needs to have credentials in order to do so. I hop over to the IAM Console and created a new policy. The policy allows the plugin to access a carefully selected set of S3 and Polly functions (find the full policy in the README):

Then I create an IAM user (wp-polly-user). I enter the name and indicate that it will be used for Programmatic Access:

Then I attach the policy that I just created, and click on Review:

I review my settings (not shown) and then click on Create User. Then I copy the two values (Access Key ID and Secret Access Key) into a secure location. Possession of these keys allows the bearer to make calls to AWS so I take care not to leave them lying around.

Now I am ready to install the plugin! I go back to the WordPress Dashboard and click on Add New in the Plugins menu:

Then I click on Upload Plugin and locate the ZIP file that I downloaded from the WordPress Plugins site. After I find it I click on Install Now to proceed:

WordPress uploads and installs the plugin. Now I click on Activate Plugin to move ahead:

With the plugin installed, I click on Settings to set it up:

I enter my keys and click on Save Changes:

The General settings let me control the sample rate, voice, player position, the default setting for new posts, and the autoplay option. I can leave all of the settings as-is to get started:

The Cloud Storage settings let me store audio in S3 and to use CloudFront to distribute the audio:

The Amazon Pollycast settings give me control over the iTunes parameters that are included in the generated RSS feed:

Finally, the Bulk Update button lets me regenerate all of the audio files after I change any of the other settings:

With the plugin installed and configured, I can create a new post. As you can see, the plugin can be enabled and customized for each post:

I can see how much it will cost to convert to audio with a click:

When I click on Publish, the plugin breaks the text into multiple blocks on sentence boundaries, calls the Polly SynthesizeSpeech API for each block, and accumulates the resulting audio in a single MP3 file. The published blog post references the file using the <audio> tag. Here’s the post:

I can’t seem to use an <audio> tag in this post, but you can download and play the MP3 file yourself if you’d like.

The Pollycast feature generates an RSS file with links to an MP3 file for each post:

The plugin will make calls to Amazon Polly each time the post is saved or updated. Pricing is based on the number of characters in the speech requests, as described on the Polly Pricing page. Also, the AWS Free Tier lets you process up to 5 million characters per month at no charge, for a period of one year that starts when you make your first call to Polly.

Going Further
The plugin is available on GitHub in source code form and we are looking forward to your pull requests! Here are a couple of ideas to get you started:

Voice Per Author – Allow selection of a distinct Polly voice for each author.

Quoted Text – For blogs that make frequent use of embedded quotes, use a distinct voice for the quotes.

Translation – Use Amazon Translate to translate the texts into another language, and then use Polly to generate audio in that language.

Other Blogging Engines – Build a similar plugin for your favorite blogging engine.

SSML Support – Figure out an interesting way to use Polly’s SSML tags to add additional character to the audio.

Let me know what you come up with!



Friday Squid Blogging: Squid that Mate, Die, and Then Sink

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/friday_squid_bl_611.html

The mating and death characteristics of some squid are fascinating.

Research paper.

EDITED TO ADD (2/5): Additional info and photos.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Friday Squid Blogging: Te Papa Colossal Squid Exhibition Is Being Renovated

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/friday_squid_bl_610.html

The New Zealand home of the colossal squid exhibit is behind renovated.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Friday Squid Blogging: How the Optic Lobe Controls Squid Camouflage

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/friday_squid_bl_608.html

Experiments on the oval squid.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Musician’s White Noise YouTube Video Hit With Copyright Complaints

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/musicians-white-noise-youtube-video-hit-with-copyright-complaints-180105/

When people upload original content to YouTube, there should be no problem with getting paid for that content, should it attract enough interest from the public.

Those who upload infringing content get a much less easy ride, with their uploads getting flagged for abuse, potentially putting their accounts at risk.

That’s what’s happened to Australia-based music technologist Sebastian Tomczak, who uploaded a completely non-infringing work to YouTube and now faces five separate copyright complaints.

“I teach and work in a music department at a University here in Australia. I’ve got a PhD in chiptune, and my main research interests are various intersections of music / sound / tech e.g. arduino programming and DIY stuff, modular synthesis, digital production, sound design for games, etc,” Tomczak informs TF.

“I started blogging about music around a decade ago or so, mainly to write about stuff I was interested in, researching or doing. At the time this would have been physical interaction, music controller design, sound design and composition involving computers.”

One of Tomczak videos was a masterpiece entitled “10 Hours of Low Level White Noise” which features – wait for it – ten hours of low-level white noise.

“The white noise video was part of a number of videos I put online at the time. I was interested in listening to continuous sounds of various types, and how our perception of these kinds of sounds and our attention changes over longer periods – e.g. distracted, focused, sleeping, waking, working etc,” Tomczak says.

White noise is the sound created when all different frequencies are combined together into a kind of audio mush that’s a little baffling and yet soothing in the right circumstances. Some people use it to fall asleep a little easier, others to distract their attention away from irritating sounds in the environment, like an aircon system or fan, for example.

The white noise made by Tomczak and presented in his video was all his own work.

“I ‘created’ and uploaded the video in question. The video was created by generating a noise waveform of 10 hours length using the freeware software Audacity and the built-in noise generator. The resulting 10-hour audio file was then imported into ScreenFlow, where the text was added and then rendered as one 10-hour video file,” he explains.

This morning, however, Tomczak received a complaint from YouTube after a copyright holder claimed that it had the rights to his composition. When he checked his YouTube account, yet more complaints greeted him. In fact, since July 2015, when the video was first uploaded, a total of five copyright complaints had been filed against Tomczak’s composition.

As seen from the image below, posted by Tomczak to his Twitter account, the five complaints came from four copyright holders, with one feeling the need to file two separate complaints while citing two different works.

The complaints against Tomczak’s white noise

One company involved – Catapult Distribution – say that Tomczak’s composition infringes on the copyrights of “White Noise Sleep Therapy”, a client selling the title “Majestic Ocean Waves”. It also manages to do the same for the company’s “Soothing Baby Sleep” title. The other complaints come from Merlin Symphonic Distribution and Dig Dis for similar works .

Under normal circumstances, Tomczak’s account could have been disabled by YouTube for so many infringements but in all cases the copyright holders chose to monetize the musician’s ‘infringement’ instead, via the site’s ContentID system. In other words, after creating the video himself with his own efforts, copyright holders are now taking all the revenue. It’s a situation that Tomczak will now dispute with YouTube.

“I’ve had quite a few copyright claims against me, usually based on cases where I’ve made long mixes of work, or longer pieces. Usually I don’t take them too seriously,” he explains.

“In any of the cases where I think a given claim would be an issue, I would dispute it by saying I could either prove that I have made the work, have the original materials that generated the work, or could show enough of the components included in the work to prove originality. This has always been successful for me and I hope it will be in this case as well.”

Sadly, this isn’t the only problem Tomczak’s had with YouTube’s copyright complaints system. A while back the musician was asked to take part in a video for his workplace but things didn’t go well.

“I was asked to participate in a video for my workplace and the production team asked if they could use my music and I said ‘no problem’. A month later, the video was uploaded to one of our work channels, and then YouTube generated a copyright claim against me for my own music from the work channel,” he reveals.

Tomczak says that to him, automated copyright claims are largely an annoyance and if he was making enough money from YouTube, the system would be detrimental in the long run. He feels it’s something that YouTube should adjust, to ensure that false claims aren’t filed against uploads like his.

While he tries to sort out this mess with YouTube, there is some good news. Other videos of his including “10 Hours of a Perfect Fifth“, “The First 106 Fifths Derived from a 3/2 Ratio” and “Hour-Long Octave Shift” all remain copyright-complaint free.

For now……

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

Friday Squid Blogging: Squid Populations Are Exploding

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/12/friday_squid_bl_607.html

New research:

“Global proliferation of cephalopods”

Summary: Human activities have substantially changed the world’s oceans in recent decades, altering marine food webs, habitats and biogeochemical processes. Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a unique set of biological traits, including rapid growth, short lifespans and strong life-history plasticity, allowing them to adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions. There has been growing speculation that cephalopod populations are proliferating in response to a changing environment, a perception fuelled by increasing trends in cephalopod fisheries catch. To investigate long-term trends in cephalopod abundance, we assembled global time-series of cephalopod catch rates (catch per unit of fishing or sampling effort). We show that cephalopod populations have increased over the last six decades, a result that was remarkably consistent across a highly diverse set of cephalopod taxa. Positive trends were also evident for both fisheries-dependent and fisheries-independent time-series, suggesting that trends are not solely due to factors associated with developing fisheries. Our results suggest that large-scale, directional processes, common to a range of coastal and oceanic environments, are responsible. This study presents the first evidence that cephalopod populations have increased globally, indicating that these ecologically and commercially important invertebrates may have benefited from a changing ocean environment.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Friday Squid Blogging: Gonatus Squid Eating a Dragonfish

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/12/friday_squid_bl_606.html

There’s a video:

Last July, Choy was on a ship off the shore of Monterey Bay, looking at the video footage transmitted by an ROV many feet below. A Gonatus squid was spotted sucking off the face of a “really huge dragonfish,” she says. “It took a little while to figure out what’s going on here, who’s eating whom, how is this going to end?” (The squid won.)

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Amazon EC2 Price Reduction in the Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-ec2-price-reduction-in-the-asia-pacific-mumbai-region/

Whew – I am just getting back in to blogging after a quick recovery from AWS re:Invent!

I’m happy to start things off with yet another AWS price reduction, this one for four instance families in the Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region. Effective December 1, 2017 we are reducing prices for On-Demand and Reserved Instances as follows:

  • M4 – Up to 15%.
  • T2 – Up to 15%.
  • R4 – Up to 15%.
  • C4 – Up to 10%.

The pricing pages have been updated. Enjoy!



[$] Federation in social networks

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/741218/rss

Social networking is often approached by the free-software community with a
certain amount of suspicion—rightly so, since commercial social networks
almost always generate revenue by exploiting user data in one way or
another. While
attempts at a free-software approach to social networking have so far not met
widespread success, the new ActivityPub federation protocol and its
implementation in the free-software microblogging system Mastodon are gaining
popularity and already show some of the advantages of a community-driven