Tag Archives: china

Can the Apple code be misused? (Partly Retracted)

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2016/03/can-apple-code-be-misused.html

Dan Guido (@DGuido), who knows more about iOS than I do, wants me to retract this post. I’m willing to retract it based solely on his word, but he won’t give me any details as to what specifically he objects to. I’m an expert in reverse-engineering and software development, but I admit there may be something to specific to iOS (such as how it encrypts firmware) that I may not know.This post will respond to the tweet by Orin Kerr:Tech help: What are the best responses to DOJ claims in new Apple/FBI brief re whether code could be misused? Thks. pic.twitter.com/V08EcV9Rev— Orin Kerr (@OrinKerr) March 11, 2016The government is right that the software must be signed by Apple and made to only work on Farook’s phone, but the situation is more complicated than that.The basic flaw in this picture is jailbreaks. This is a process of finding some hack that gets around Apple’s “signing” security layer. Jailbreaks are popular in the user community, especially China, when people want to run software not approved by Apple. When the government says “intact security”, it means “non-jailbroken”.Each new version of iOS requires the discovery of some new hack to enable jailbreaking. Hacking teams compete to see who can ship a new jailbreak to users, and other companies sell jailbreaks to intelligence agencies. Once jailbroken, the signing is bypassed, as is the second technique of locking the software specifically to Farook’s phone.Details are more complicated than this. The issue isn’t that jailbreaks will allow this software to run. Instead, the issue is that jailbreaks can reverse-engineer this software to grab its secrets, and then use those secrets on other phones.A more important flaw in this reasoning is the creation of the source code itself. This is the human readable form of the code written by the Apple engineers. This will later be compiled into “binary code” then signed. It’s at the source code stage that Apple is most in danger of losing secrets.Let’s assume that Apple is infiltrated by spies from the NSA and the Chinese. Some secrets can still be kept, such as the signing keys for the software. Other secrets cannot be kept, such as source code. It’s likely the NSA and/or Chinese have stolen Apple’s source code multiple times. Indeed, most of the source is public anyway (the Darwin operating system, Webkit, etc.). It’s not something Apple is too concerned about — as long as the source doesn’t get published.When Apple writes this specific tool for the FBI, it’ll be very hard to keep that source out of the hands of such spies. It’s possible to keep it secret, but only through burdonsome heroic efforts on Apple’s part that certainly weren’t part of its initial estimate.More important than the source code, though, are the ideas. Code is expressive speech that communicates ideas. Even when engineers forget the details of source code, they can still retain these ideas. Years later, they can recall those ideas and use them. I give a real example of this in my previous post on expressiveness of code. Apple cannot contain these ideas. The engineers in question, after building the code, can immediately quit Apple and got to to work for Chinese jailbreak companies or American defense contractors for twice the salary. And it’s completely legal.It’s like a Hollywood failed movie project. In the end, they decide not to move forward with the project, shutting it down. The employees then go off to different companies, taking those ideas with them, using them in unrelated movie projects. That’s the story told in the award-winning documentary Jodorowsky’s Dune, which ties that production to other unrelated movies, like Alien, Star Wars, and Terminator.Orin goes onto ask:@ErrataRob Given that it only takes a few days to write the source code, isn’t that pretty much true now?— Orin Kerr (@OrinKerr) March 11, 2016It will likely take more than a few days to write the code. The FBI misrepresents the task as consisting of only a few lines of code. But Apple estimates a much larger project. Though to be fair, some of that is testing, packaging, and documentation unrelated to the amount of code written.The task will likely require different skills from multiple engineers, rather than being the output of a single engineer. That’s because it’s possible no single engineer has all the necessary skills. However, all the engineers involved will still walk away with the entire picture, able to recreate the work on their own when working for the Chinese or Booz-Allen.In the end, it’s not a huge secret that Apple will be losing. For the most part, the “backdoor” already exists, the only question is how best to exploit it. It’s likely something the jailbreak community can figure out for themselves. But at the same time, Apple does have a point that there is the fundamental burden that producing this software will slightly (though not catastrophically) weaken the security of their existing phones.

Can the Apple code be misused? (Partly Retracted)

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2016/03/can-apple-code-be-misused.html

Dan Guido (@DGuido), who knows more about iOS than I do, wants me to retract this post. I’m willing to retract it based solely on his word, but he won’t give me any details as to what specifically he objects to. I’m an expert in reverse-engineering and software development, but I admit there may be something to specific to iOS (such as how it encrypts firmware) that I may not know.This post will respond to the tweet by Orin Kerr:Tech help: What are the best responses to DOJ claims in new Apple/FBI brief re whether code could be misused? Thks. pic.twitter.com/V08EcV9Rev— Orin Kerr (@OrinKerr) March 11, 2016The government is right that the software must be signed by Apple and made to only work on Farook’s phone, but the situation is more complicated than that.The basic flaw in this picture is jailbreaks. This is a process of finding some hack that gets around Apple’s “signing” security layer. Jailbreaks are popular in the user community, especially China, when people want to run software not approved by Apple. When the government says “intact security”, it means “non-jailbroken”.Each new version of iOS requires the discovery of some new hack to enable jailbreaking. Hacking teams compete to see who can ship a new jailbreak to users, and other companies sell jailbreaks to intelligence agencies. Once jailbroken, the signing is bypassed, as is the second technique of locking the software specifically to Farook’s phone.Details are more complicated than this. The issue isn’t that jailbreaks will allow this software to run. Instead, the issue is that jailbreaks can reverse-engineer this software to grab its secrets, and then use those secrets on other phones.A more important flaw in this reasoning is the creation of the source code itself. This is the human readable form of the code written by the Apple engineers. This will later be compiled into “binary code” then signed. It’s at the source code stage that Apple is most in danger of losing secrets.Let’s assume that Apple is infiltrated by spies from the NSA and the Chinese. Some secrets can still be kept, such as the signing keys for the software. Other secrets cannot be kept, such as source code. It’s likely the NSA and/or Chinese have stolen Apple’s source code multiple times. Indeed, most of the source is public anyway (the Darwin operating system, Webkit, etc.). It’s not something Apple is too concerned about — as long as the source doesn’t get published.When Apple writes this specific tool for the FBI, it’ll be very hard to keep that source out of the hands of such spies. It’s possible to keep it secret, but only through burdonsome heroic efforts on Apple’s part that certainly weren’t part of its initial estimate.More important than the source code, though, are the ideas. Code is expressive speech that communicates ideas. Even when engineers forget the details of source code, they can still retain these ideas. Years later, they can recall those ideas and use them. I give a real example of this in my previous post on expressiveness of code. Apple cannot contain these ideas. The engineers in question, after building the code, can immediately quit Apple and got to to work for Chinese jailbreak companies or American defense contractors for twice the salary. And it’s completely legal.It’s like a Hollywood failed movie project. In the end, they decide not to move forward with the project, shutting it down. The employees then go off to different companies, taking those ideas with them, using them in unrelated movie projects. That’s the story told in the award-winning documentary Jodorowsky’s Dune, which ties that production to other unrelated movies, like Alien, Star Wars, and Terminator.Orin goes onto ask:@ErrataRob Given that it only takes a few days to write the source code, isn’t that pretty much true now?— Orin Kerr (@OrinKerr) March 11, 2016It will likely take more than a few days to write the code. The FBI misrepresents the task as consisting of only a few lines of code. But Apple estimates a much larger project. Though to be fair, some of that is testing, packaging, and documentation unrelated to the amount of code written.The task will likely require different skills from multiple engineers, rather than being the output of a single engineer. That’s because it’s possible no single engineer has all the necessary skills. However, all the engineers involved will still walk away with the entire picture, able to recreate the work on their own when working for the Chinese or Booz-Allen.In the end, it’s not a huge secret that Apple will be losing. For the most part, the “backdoor” already exists, the only question is how best to exploit it. It’s likely something the jailbreak community can figure out for themselves. But at the same time, Apple does have a point that there is the fundamental burden that producing this software will slightly (though not catastrophically) weaken the security of their existing phones.

AWS Security Token Service (STS) Is Now Active by Default in All AWS Regions

Post Syndicated from Akshat Goel original https://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/Tx2EWCFK458L9A9/AWS-Security-Token-Service-STS-Is-Now-Active-by-Default-in-All-AWS-Regions

My previous blog post on November 11, 2015, reported that we were preparing to activate AWS Security Token Service (STS) by default in all AWS regions. As of today, AWS STS is active by default in all AWS regions, for all customers. This means that your applications and services can immediately take advantage of reduced latency and multiregional resiliency by using the STS endpoint geographically closest to you. You can see the complete list of STS endpoints for all regions on the Regions and Endpoints page. 

If you prefer to deactivate certain regional AWS STS endpoints in your account, you can visit the Account Settings page in the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) console. From the Account Settings page, you can see the regions in which AWS STS is currently active and deactivate AWS STS in specific regions. Only an account administrator (a user with at least iam:* permissions) can activate or deactivate AWS STS regions. Note that AWS STS endpoints in the US East (N. Virginia), AWS GovCloud (US), and China (Beijing) regions cannot be deactivated.

If you have any questions or suggestions, submit a comment below or on the IAM forum.

– Akshat

AWS Security Token Service Will Soon Be Active by Default in All AWS Regions

Post Syndicated from Akshat Goel original https://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/TxNREKZZB89U7N/AWS-Security-Token-Service-Will-Soon-Be-Active-by-Default-in-All-AWS-Regions

By the end of November 2015, AWS Security Token Service (STS) will be active by default in all AWS regions, which means that your applications and services can call AWS STS in a region geographically closer to you. This change will optimize latencies and improve application performance. Additionally, the multiregional resiliency provided by AWS STS regional endpoints will improve their availability. 

Currently, AWS STS is deactivated by default in all except the US East (N. Virginia), AWS GovCloud (US), and China (Beijing) regions. To use the AWS STS regional endpoints, you have to sign in as an account administrator and manually activate the regional endpoints using the Account Settings page in the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) console.

 

For any new AWS account created after the change, AWS STS will be active by default in all regions. For existing accounts, we will retain your preference if you explicitly took an action to activate or deactivate an endpoint. Any endpoints that you did not update will be active once we make this change. If you would prefer to deactivate certain regional endpoints in your account, after we make the change, you can still visit the Account Settings page in the AWS IAM console to do so.

Important note: AWS STS endpoints in the US East (N. Virginia), AWS GovCloud (US), and China (Beijing) regions cannot be deactivated.

If you have any questions or suggestions, submit a comment below or on the IAM forum.

– Akshat

Poland vs the United States: American exceptionalism

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-american.html

This is the fourteenth article talking about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire collection, start here.

This is destined to be the final entry in the series that opened with a chronicle of my journey from Poland to the United States, only to veer into some of the most interesting social differences between America and the old continent. There are many other topics I could still write about – anything from the school system, to religion, to the driving culture – but with my parental leave coming to an end, I decided to draw a line. I’m sure that this decision will come as a relief for those who read the blog for technical insights, rather than political commentary 🙂

The final topic I wanted to talk about is something that truly irks some of my European friends: the belief, held deeply by many Americans, that their country is the proverbial “city upon a hill” – a shining beacon of liberty and righteousness, blessed by the maker with the moral right to shape the world – be it by flexing its economic and diplomatic muscles, or with its sheer military might.

It is an interesting phenomenon, and one that certainly isn’t exclusive to the United States. In fact, expansive exceptionalism used to be a very strong theme in the European doctrine long before it emerged in other parts of the Western world. For one, it underpinned many of the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch colonial conquests over the past 500 years. The romanticized notion of Sonderweg played a menacing role in German political discourse, too – eventually culminating in the rise of the Nazi ideology and the onset of World War II. It wasn’t until the defeat of the Third Reich when Europe, faced with unspeakable destruction and unprecedented loss of life, made a concerted effort to root out many of its nationalist sentiments and embrace a more harmonious, collective path as a single European community.

America, in a way, experienced the opposite: although it has always celebrated its own rejection of feudalism and monarchism – and in that sense, it had a robust claim to being a pretty unique corner of the world – the country largely shied away from global politics, participating only very reluctantly in World War I, then hoping to wait out World War II up until being attacked by Japan. Its conviction about its special role on the world stage has solidified only after it paid a tremendous price to help defeat the Germans, to stop the march of the Red Army through the continent, and to build a prosperous and peaceful Europe; given the remarkable significance of this feat, the post-war sentiments in America may be not hard to understand. In that way, the roots of American exceptionalism differed from its European predecessors, being fueled by a fairly pure sense of righteousness – and not by anger, by a sense of injury, or by territorial demands.

Of course, the new superpower has also learned that its military might has its limits, facing humiliating defeats in some of the proxy wars with the Soviets and seeing an endless spiral of violence in the Middle East. The voices predicting its imminent demise, invariably present from the earliest days of the republic, have grown stronger and more confident over the past 50 years. But the country remains a military and economic powerhouse; and in some ways, its trigger-happy politicians provide a counterbalance to the other superpowers’ greater propensity to turn a blind eye to humanitarian crises and to genocide. It’s quite possible that without the United States arming its allies and tempering the appetites of Russia, North Korea, or China, the world would have been a less happy place. It’s just as likely that the Middle East would have been a happier one.

Some Europeans show indignation that Americans, with their seemingly know-it-all attitudes toward the rest of the world, still struggle to pinpoint Austria or Belgium on the map. It is certainly true that the media in the US pays little attention to the old continent. But deep down inside, European outlets don’t necessarily fare a lot better, often focusing its international coverage on the silly and the formulaic: when in Europe, you are far more likely to hear about a daring rescue of a cat stuck on a tree in Wyoming, or about the Creation Museum in Kentucky, than you are to learn anything substantive about Obamacare. (And speaking of Wyoming and Kentucky, pinpointing these places on the map probably wouldn’t be the European viewer’s strongest feat). In the end, Europeans who think they understand the intricacies of US politics are probably about as wrong as the average American making sweeping generalizations about Europe.

And on that intentionally self-deprecating note, it’s time to wrap the series up.

Poland vs the United States: American exceptionalism

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-american.html

This is the fourteenth article talking about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire collection, start here.

This is destined to be the final entry in the series that opened with a chronicle of my journey from Poland to the United States, only to veer into some of the most interesting social differences between America and the old continent. There are many other topics I could still write about – anything from the school system, to religion, to the driving culture – but with my parental leave coming to an end, I decided to draw a line. I’m sure that this decision will come as a relief for those who read the blog for technical insights, rather than political commentary 🙂

The final topic I wanted to talk about is something that truly irks some of my European friends: the belief, held deeply by many Americans, that their country is the proverbial “city upon a hill” – a shining beacon of liberty and righteousness, blessed by the maker with the moral right to shape the world – be it by flexing its economic and diplomatic muscles, or with its sheer military might.

It is an interesting phenomenon, and one that certainly isn’t exclusive to the United States. In fact, expansive exceptionalism used to be a very strong theme in the European doctrine long before it emerged in other parts of the Western world. For one, it underpinned many of the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch colonial conquests over the past 500 years. The romanticized notion of Sonderweg played a menacing role in German political discourse, too – eventually culminating in the rise of the Nazi ideology and the onset of World War II. It wasn’t until the defeat of the Third Reich when Europe, faced with unspeakable destruction and unprecedented loss of life, made a concerted effort to root out many of its nationalist sentiments and embrace a more harmonious, collective path as a single European community.

America, in a way, experienced the opposite: although it has always celebrated its own rejection of feudalism and monarchism – and in that sense, it had a robust claim to being a pretty unique corner of the world – the country largely shied away from global politics, participating only very reluctantly in World War I, then hoping to wait out World War II up until being attacked by Japan. Its conviction about its special role on the world stage has solidified only after it paid a tremendous price to help defeat the Germans, to stop the march of the Red Army through the continent, and to build a prosperous and peaceful Europe; given the remarkable significance of this feat, the post-war sentiments in America may be not hard to understand. In that way, the roots of American exceptionalism differed from its European predecessors, being fueled by a fairly pure sense of righteousness – and not by anger, by a sense of injury, or by territorial demands.

Of course, the new superpower has also learned that its military might has its limits, facing humiliating defeats in some of the proxy wars with the Soviets and seeing an endless spiral of violence in the Middle East. The voices predicting its imminent demise, invariably present from the earliest days of the republic, have grown stronger and more confident over the past 50 years. But the country remains a military and economic powerhouse; and in some ways, its trigger-happy politicians provide a counterbalance to the other superpowers’ greater propensity to turn a blind eye to humanitarian crises and to genocide. It’s quite possible that without the United States arming its allies and tempering the appetites of Russia, North Korea, or China, the world would have been a less happy place. It’s just as likely that the Middle East would have been a happier one.

Some Europeans show indignation that Americans, with their seemingly know-it-all attitudes toward the rest of the world, still struggle to pinpoint Austria or Belgium on the map. It is certainly true that the media in the US pays little attention to the old continent. But deep down inside, European outlets don’t necessarily fare a lot better, often focusing its international coverage on the silly and the formulaic: when in Europe, you are far more likely to hear about a daring rescue of a cat stuck on a tree in Wyoming, or about the Creation Museum in Kentucky, than you are to learn anything substantive about Obamacare. (And speaking of Wyoming and Kentucky, pinpointing these places on the map probably wouldn’t be the European viewer’s strongest feat). In the end, Europeans who think they understand the intricacies of US politics are probably about as wrong as the average American making sweeping generalizations about Europe.

And on that intentionally self-deprecating note, it’s time to wrap the series up.

Poland vs the United States: work and entitlements

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-work-and.html

This is the thirteenth article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

In one of my earlier posts, I alluded to the pervasive faith in the American Dream: the national ethos of opportunity, self-sufficiency, and free enterprise that influences the political discourse in the United States. The egalitarian promise of the American Dream is simple: no matter who you are, hard work and ingenuity will surely allow you to achieve your dreams. From that, it follows that on your journey, you are not entitled to much; the government will be there to protect your freedom, but it will not give you a head start.

Unlike many of my peers, I suspect that there is truth to the cliche; the United States is a remarkably industrious nation and the home to many of the world’s most innovative and fastest-growing businesses. It certainly treads ahead of European economies, still dominated by pre-war industrial conglomerates and former state monopolists, and weighed down by aging populations, highly regulated markets, and inflexible, out-of-control costs. America’s mostly-self-made magnates, the likes of Elon Musk, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett, are also far more likable and seemingly more human than Europe’s stereotypical caste of aristocratic families and shadowy oligarchs.

On the flip side, the striking upward mobility of rags-to-riches icons such as Steve Jobs or Oprah Winfrey tends to be an exception, not a rule. Many scholars point out that parents’ incomes are highly predictive of the incomes of their children – and that in the US, this effect is more pronounced than in some of the European states. Such studies can be misleading, because in less unequal EU societies, moving to a higher income quantile may confer no substantial change in the quality of life – but ultimately, there is no denying that people who are born into poor families will usually remain poor for the rest of their lives. And with the contemporary trends in outsourcing and industrial automation, the opportunities for unskilled blue collar labor – once a key stepping stone in the story of the American Dream – are shrinking fast.

In contrast with the United States, many in Europe reject Milton Friedman’s views on consensual capitalism and hold that it is a basic human right to be able to live a good life or to have an honest and respectable job. This starts with the labor law: in much of the United States, firing an employee can happen in the blink of an eye, for almost any reason – or without giving a reason at all. In Europe, the employer will need a just cause and will go through a lengthy severance period; depending on the circumstances, the company may be also barred from hiring another person to do the same job. Employment benefits follow the same pattern; in the US, paid leave is largely up to employers to decide, with skilled workers being lured with packages that would make Europeans jealous – but many unskilled laborers, especially in the retail and restaurant business, getting the short end of that stick.

In Europe, enabling the disadvantaged to contribute to the society and to live fulfilling lives is also a matter of government policy, often implemented through sweeping wealth redistribution – or through public-sector employment orchestrated at a scale that rivals that of quasi-communist China and other authoritarian countries (for example, in France and Greece, about one in three jobs is run by the state). Such efforts tend to be more successful in small and wealthy Scandinavian countries, where the society can be engineered with more finesse. In many other parts of the continent, systemic, long-term poverty is still rampant, with the government being able to do little more than providing people with a lifetime of subsidized basic sustenance and squalor living conditions. Ultimately, when it comes to combating multi-generational poverty, financial aid administered by sprawling national bureaucracies is not always a cure-all.

Perhaps interestingly, the benefits that are most frequently described as inadequate in the US are not as strikingly different from what one would be entitled to in the EU. For example, the minimal wage is quite comparable; it is around $2.60 per hour in Poland, about $3.70 in Greece, some $9.30 in Germany, and in the ballpark of $10.00 in the UK. In the US, the national average hovers somewhere around $8.00, with some of the states with higher costs of living on track to raise it to $10.00 within a year or two; in fact, some progressive municipalities are aiming for $15.

Unemployment and retirement benefits, although certainly not lavish, also follow the same pattern. When it comes to unemployment in particular, in the States, workers are entitled to about half of their previous salary for up to six months – although that period has been routinely extended in times of economic calamity. In Europe, the figures are roughly comparable, with payments in the ballpark of 50-70% of your previous salary, typically extending for somewhere between 6 and 12 months. The main difference is that the upper limit for monthly benefits tends to be significantly lower in the US than in Europe, often putting far greater strain on single-income families in places with high cost of living. In France, the ceiling seems to be around $8,000 a month; in the US, you will probably see no more than $2,000.

Another overlooked dimension of this debate is the unique tradition of charitable giving in the United States – a phenomenon that allows private charities to provide extensive assistance to people in need. Such giving happens on a staggering scale, with citizens donating more than $350 billion a year – more than twenty times the amount donated in the UK. The bulk of that money goes to organization that provide food, shelter, and counseling to the poor. It is an interesting model, with its own share of benefits and trade-offs: private charities operate on a more local scale and have a far stronger incentive to spend money wisely and provide meaningful aid. On the flip side, their reach is not as universal – and the benefits are not guaranteed.

Many of the conservatives who preach the virtues of the American Dream vastly underestimate the pervasive and lasting consequences of being born into poverty or falling onto hard times; they also underestimate the role that unearned privilege and luck played in their own lives. The progressives often do no better, seeing European social democracies as a flawless role model, even in the midst of the enduring sovereign debt crisis in the eurozone; breathlessly reciting knock-off Marxist slogans; and portraying the rich as Mr. Burns-esque villains of unfathomable wealth, motivated by just two goals: to exploit the working class and to avoid paying taxes at any cost. In the end, helping the disadvantaged is a moral imperative – but many ideas sound better on a banner than when implemented as a government policy.

For the next and final article in the series, click here.

Poland vs the United States: work and entitlements

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-work-and.html

This is the thirteenth article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

In one of my earlier posts, I alluded to the pervasive faith in the American Dream: the national ethos of opportunity, self-sufficiency, and free enterprise that influences the political discourse in the United States. The egalitarian promise of the American Dream is simple: no matter who you are, hard work and ingenuity will surely allow you to achieve your dreams. From that, it follows that on your journey, you are not entitled to much; the government will be there to protect your freedom, but it will not give you a head start.

Unlike many of my peers, I suspect that there is truth to the cliche; the United States is a remarkably industrious nation and the home to many of the world’s most innovative and fastest-growing businesses. It certainly treads ahead of European economies, still dominated by pre-war industrial conglomerates and former state monopolists, and weighed down by aging populations, highly regulated markets, and inflexible, out-of-control costs. America’s mostly-self-made magnates, the likes of Elon Musk, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett, are also far more likable and seemingly more human than Europe’s stereotypical caste of aristocratic families and shadowy oligarchs.

On the flip side, the striking upward mobility of rags-to-riches icons such as Steve Jobs or Oprah Winfrey tends to be an exception, not a rule. Many scholars point out that parents’ incomes are highly predictive of the incomes of their children – and that in the US, this effect is more pronounced than in some of the European states. Such studies can be misleading, because in less unequal EU societies, moving to a higher income quantile may confer no substantial change in the quality of life – but ultimately, there is no denying that people who are born into poor families will usually remain poor for the rest of their lives. And with the contemporary trends in outsourcing and industrial automation, the opportunities for unskilled blue collar labor – once a key stepping stone in the story of the American Dream – are shrinking fast.

In contrast with the United States, many in Europe reject Milton Friedman’s views on consensual capitalism and hold that it is a basic human right to be able to live a good life or to have an honest and respectable job. This starts with the labor law: in much of the United States, firing an employee can happen in the blink of an eye, for almost any reason – or without giving a reason at all. In Europe, the employer will need a just cause and will go through a lengthy severance period; depending on the circumstances, the company may be also barred from hiring another person to do the same job. Employment benefits follow the same pattern; in the US, paid leave is largely up to employers to decide, with skilled workers being lured with packages that would make Europeans jealous – but many unskilled laborers, especially in the retail and restaurant business, getting the short end of that stick.

In Europe, enabling the disadvantaged to contribute to the society and to live fulfilling lives is also a matter of government policy, often implemented through sweeping wealth redistribution – or through public-sector employment orchestrated at a scale that rivals that of quasi-communist China and other authoritarian countries (for example, in France and Greece, about one in three jobs is run by the state). Such efforts tend to be more successful in small and wealthy Scandinavian countries, where the society can be engineered with more finesse. In many other parts of the continent, systemic, long-term poverty is still rampant, with the government being able to do little more than providing people with a lifetime of subsidized basic sustenance and squalor living conditions. Ultimately, when it comes to combating multi-generational poverty, financial aid administered by sprawling national bureaucracies is not always a cure-all.

Perhaps interestingly, the benefits that are most frequently described as inadequate in the US are not as strikingly different from what one would be entitled to in the EU. For example, the minimal wage is quite comparable; it is around $2.60 per hour in Poland, about $3.70 in Greece, some $9.30 in Germany, and in the ballpark of $10.00 in the UK. In the US, the national average hovers somewhere around $8.00, with some of the states with higher costs of living on track to raise it to $10.00 within a year or two; in fact, some progressive municipalities are aiming for $15.

Unemployment and retirement benefits, although certainly not lavish, also follow the same pattern. When it comes to unemployment in particular, in the States, workers are entitled to about half of their previous salary for up to six months – although that period has been routinely extended in times of economic calamity. In Europe, the figures are roughly comparable, with payments in the ballpark of 50-70% of your previous salary, typically extending for somewhere between 6 and 12 months. The main difference is that the upper limit for monthly benefits tends to be significantly lower in the US than in Europe, often putting far greater strain on single-income families in places with high cost of living. In France, the ceiling seems to be around $8,000 a month; in the US, you will probably see no more than $2,000.

Another overlooked dimension of this debate is the unique tradition of charitable giving in the United States – a phenomenon that allows private charities to provide extensive assistance to people in need. Such giving happens on a staggering scale, with citizens donating more than $350 billion a year – more than twenty times the amount donated in the UK. The bulk of that money goes to organization that provide food, shelter, and counseling to the poor. It is an interesting model, with its own share of benefits and trade-offs: private charities operate on a more local scale and have a far stronger incentive to spend money wisely and provide meaningful aid. On the flip side, their reach is not as universal – and the benefits are not guaranteed.

Many of the conservatives who preach the virtues of the American Dream vastly underestimate the pervasive and lasting consequences of being born into poverty or falling onto hard times; they also underestimate the role that unearned privilege and luck played in their own lives. The progressives often do no better, seeing European social democracies as a flawless role model, even in the midst of the enduring sovereign debt crisis in the eurozone; breathlessly reciting knock-off Marxist slogans; and portraying the rich as Mr. Burns-esque villains of unfathomable wealth, motivated by just two goals: to exploit the working class and to avoid paying taxes at any cost. In the end, helping the disadvantaged is a moral imperative – but many ideas sound better on a banner than when implemented as a government policy.

For the next and final article in the series, click here.

Oh, the places you won’t go: Polonia in the United States

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/05/oh-places-you-wont-go-polonia-in-united.html

This is the third article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

Naming the largest diasporas in the United States may seem like an easy task. For one, we have the deeply-assimilated families of German, Irish, Italian, and British immigrants. There is also a large Mexican community, unique for having a much higher percentage of members who were foreign-born.

Most people would venture a guess that India or China should come next; some may also suggest France, Denmark, or the Netherlands. They would be all wrong: the next spot on the list belongs to the massive Polish diaspora, estimated to be almost ten million strong.

Given its sheer size, the cultural influences of the Polish-American community are uncharacteristically subdued. There are precious few Poland-originating holiday traditions or ethnic foods. Outside a couple rapidly shrinking enclaves such as Avondale in Chicago or Greenpoint in New York City, you are unlikely to bump into posh Polish diners, pricey grocery stores, or flamboyant street parades. Children born to Polish immigrants in the US are seldom taught to read or write in their parents’ language – and will probably know very little about their familial lineage or common ancestry.

Perhaps there just aren’t that many bits of Polish culture to build on against the backdrop of Germanic, British, Italian, and Dutch influences that shaped the American life. Much like its German counterpart, the traditional Polish cuisine is obsessed chiefly with potatoes and meat. Today, we take pride in our pączki, but when pressed, we will sooner or later confess that they are just doughnuts by some other name. We can offer you some pierogi, but they will truly impress you only if you never had any ravioli or tortellini. We can also hook you up with some sausage, sauerkraut, pickles, ribs, or beer. On your way out, take a bite of our cheesecake or apple pie.

The holiday traditions run into the same challenge, perhaps with the exception of the infamous but niche Dyngus Day. Other than that, the most commonly observed practice is that in line with much of Central Europe, Polish children may get their gifts in the evening on Christmas Eve, not in the morning on Christmas Day. Our traditional clothing looks distinctive – but it is ornate and archaic, making it compare unfavorably with the beautiful simplicity of wearing green on St. Patrick’s Day, or getting hammered in suspenders come Oktoberfest.

Humor aside, a more powerful clue to the invisibility of the Polish diaspora may lie in its very history. In the twentieth century, the immigrants from Poland ended up occupying three isolated social strata, with relatively few opportunities for working together and developing any form of a shared cultural identity.

The first and most populous stratum of contemporary immigration were the common folk, displaced by the horrors of the war and the crippling poverty that followed under communist rule. Many of them worked menial jobs, spoke little or no English, and clustered around many of the traditionally Polish enclaves that offered them a degree of familiarity and support. For many years, they and their children faced blatant discrimination, epitomized by the popular “Polish jokes” in the 1960s and 1970s. The demeaning stereotypes that followed them everywhere prompted many Poles to adopt Americanized names, intermarry, and keep their origins a private affair.

The second stratum were the dissidents and the disillusioned intellectuals leaving Poland to escape the dysfunctional regime. Usually better-educated and more confident, they helped build the first proper Polish-American institutions, including local newspapers, community organizations, churches, shipping and travel companies, or banks. The members of this group felt much stronger national identity and perceived themselves as the guarantors of Polish interests abroad. With the fall of communism in Europe, many of them were incredulous that the former dignitaries were allowed to walk free and play a role in business and politics – a sentiment that still shapes their political views.

The big change in immigration trends came with the accession of Poland to the European Union. The unhappy and the disenfranchised would now overwhelmingly favor moving to Germany or to the UK, where they could take up residence without having to deal with restrictive immigration laws. The remaining US-bound migration shifted toward skilled, university-trained engineers and IT workers, many of whom gravitated toward tech hubs such as SF Bay Area, Seattle, or NYC. Having been born in the 1970s and 1980s, most of them remembered Poland as a thriving capitalist democracy; they were driven not by despair, but by the prospects of better pay or more interesting work.

All this nuance is easily lost on the people back home. Many of the left-wing and centrist pundits in Poland demonize the expats in hopes of mobilizing the more moderate domestic electorate. They paint a picture of a frighteningly powerful voting block that will prop up any fringe, conservative candidate, as long as they promise to rid Polish politics of the Soviet sleeper agents and other increasingly fictitious communist legacy.

Of course, for most part, such reputation is bunk; although a good percentage of Polish-Americans are very distrustful of left-leaning politicians in their country of origin, only a tiny percentage of them ever turns up to actually cast a ballot, and their overall influence on the results of Polish elections is slim. Contrary to how they are perceived, they also do not blindly cling on to social conservatism; in American elections, they usually vote for Democrats.

That said, repeated over and over again, the catchy narrative about dimwitted compatriots can take a life of its own. Several weeks ago, Longin Pastusiak, an eminent Polish publicist and polician, penned a piece characterizing Polish-Americans as simpletons who only have a very shallow appreciation for the Polish heritage and who meekly submit to the supposedly powerful influences of the Roman Catholic church. He is not alone in his views; many go even further and call for the diaspora’s voting rights to be taken away.

Having overcome discrimination in the States only to face bureaucratic hurdles and prejudiced, vitriolic nonsense back home, it’s no wonder that most of the Polish immigrants just want to blend in and move on. In the long haul, it’s probably a big loss – not necessarily for them, but for their former home.


Crowds at Polish Days in San Francisco (2010)

For the next article in the series, click here.

Oh, the places you won’t go: Polonia in the United States

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/05/oh-places-you-wont-go-polonia-in-united.html

This is the third article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

Naming the largest diasporas in the United States may seem like an easy task. For one, we have the deeply-assimilated families of German, Irish, Italian, and British immigrants. There is also a large Mexican community, unique for having a much higher percentage of members who were foreign-born.

Most people would venture a guess that India or China should come next; some may also suggest France, Denmark, or the Netherlands. They would be all wrong: the next spot on the list belongs to the massive Polish diaspora, estimated to be almost ten million strong.

Given its sheer size, the cultural influences of the Polish-American community are uncharacteristically subdued. There are precious few Poland-originating holiday traditions or ethnic foods. Outside a couple rapidly shrinking enclaves such as Avondale in Chicago or Greenpoint in New York City, you are unlikely to bump into posh Polish diners, pricey grocery stores, or flamboyant street parades. Children born to Polish immigrants in the US are seldom taught to read or write in their parents’ language – and will probably know very little about their familial lineage or common ancestry.

Perhaps there just aren’t that many bits of Polish culture to build on against the backdrop of Germanic, British, Italian, and Dutch influences that shaped the American life. Much like its German counterpart, the traditional Polish cuisine is obsessed chiefly with potatoes and meat. Today, we take pride in our pączki, but when pressed, we will sooner or later confess that they are just doughnuts by some other name. We can offer you some pierogi, but they will truly impress you only if you never had any ravioli or tortellini. We can also hook you up with some sausage, sauerkraut, pickles, ribs, or beer. On your way out, take a bite of our cheesecake or apple pie.

The holiday traditions run into the same challenge, perhaps with the exception of the infamous but niche Dyngus Day. Other than that, the most commonly observed practice is that in line with much of Central Europe, Polish children may get their gifts in the evening on Christmas Eve, not in the morning on Christmas Day. Our traditional clothing looks distinctive – but it is ornate and archaic, making it compare unfavorably with the beautiful simplicity of wearing green on St. Patrick’s Day, or getting hammered in suspenders come Oktoberfest.

Humor aside, a more powerful clue to the invisibility of the Polish diaspora may lie in its very history. In the twentieth century, the immigrants from Poland ended up occupying three isolated social strata, with relatively few opportunities for working together and developing any form of a shared cultural identity.

The first and most populous stratum of contemporary immigration were the common folk, displaced by the horrors of the war and the crippling poverty that followed under communist rule. Many of them worked menial jobs, spoke little or no English, and clustered around many of the traditionally Polish enclaves that offered them a degree of familiarity and support. For many years, they and their children faced blatant discrimination, epitomized by the popular “Polish jokes” in the 1960s and 1970s. The demeaning stereotypes that followed them everywhere prompted many Poles to adopt Americanized names, intermarry, and keep their origins a private affair.

The second stratum were the dissidents and the disillusioned intellectuals leaving Poland to escape the dysfunctional regime. Usually better-educated and more confident, they helped build the first proper Polish-American institutions, including local newspapers, community organizations, churches, shipping and travel companies, or banks. The members of this group felt much stronger national identity and perceived themselves as the guarantors of Polish interests abroad. With the fall of communism in Europe, many of them were incredulous that the former dignitaries were allowed to walk free and play a role in business and politics – a sentiment that still shapes their political views.

The big change in immigration trends came with the accession of Poland to the European Union. The unhappy and the disenfranchised would now overwhelmingly favor moving to Germany or to the UK, where they could take up residence without having to deal with restrictive immigration laws. The remaining US-bound migration shifted toward skilled, university-trained engineers and IT workers, many of whom gravitated toward tech hubs such as SF Bay Area, Seattle, or NYC. Having been born in the 1970s and 1980s, most of them remembered Poland as a thriving capitalist democracy; they were driven not by despair, but by the prospects of better pay or more interesting work.

All this nuance is easily lost on the people back home. Many of the left-wing and centrist pundits in Poland demonize the expats in hopes of mobilizing the more moderate domestic electorate. They paint a picture of a frighteningly powerful voting block that will prop up any fringe, conservative candidate, as long as they promise to rid Polish politics of the Soviet sleeper agents and other increasingly fictitious communist legacy.

Of course, for most part, such reputation is bunk; although a good percentage of Polish-Americans are very distrustful of left-leaning politicians in their country of origin, only a tiny percentage of them ever turns up to actually cast a ballot, and their overall influence on the results of Polish elections is slim. Contrary to how they are perceived, they also do not blindly cling on to social conservatism; in American elections, they usually vote for Democrats.

That said, repeated over and over again, the catchy narrative about dimwitted compatriots can take a life of its own. Several weeks ago, Longin Pastusiak, an eminent Polish publicist and polician, penned a piece characterizing Polish-Americans as simpletons who only have a very shallow appreciation for the Polish heritage and who meekly submit to the supposedly powerful influences of the Roman Catholic church. He is not alone in his views; many go even further and call for the diaspora’s voting rights to be taken away.

Having overcome discrimination in the States only to face bureaucratic hurdles and prejudiced, vitriolic nonsense back home, it’s no wonder that most of the Polish immigrants just want to blend in and move on. In the long haul, it’s probably a big loss – not necessarily for them, but for their former home.


Crowds at Polish Days in San Francisco (2010)

For the next article in the series, click here.

Foundation report for 2014

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2015/01/foundation-report-for-2014.html

2014 was a productive year for the MariaDB Foundation.Here is a list of some of the things MariaDB Foundation employees haveaccomplished during 2014:The 3 full-time MariaDB Foundation developers have worked hard to make MariaDB better:Some 260 commitsSome 25 reviews of code from the MariaDB community.Fixed some 170 bugs and new features. For a full list, please check Jira.Reported some 160 bugs.Some of the main new features Foundation developers have worked on in 2014 are:Porting and improving MariaDB on IBM Power8.Porting Galera to MariaDB 10.1 as a standard feature.Query timeouts (MDEV-4427)Some coding and reviews of Parallel replication in MariaDB 10.1.Working with code from Google and Eperi to get table space and table level encryption for InnoDB and XtraDB.Allowing storage engines to shortcut group by queries (for ScaleDB) (MDEV-6080).Moronga storage engine (reviews and porting help)Connect storage engine (reviews and porting help)Spider storage engine (merging code with MariaDB)Query timeouts (MDEV-4427)Merge INET6_ATON() and INET6_NTOA() from MySQL-5.6 (MDEV-4051)Make “CAST(time_expr AS DATETIME)” compatible…SQL Standard) (MDEV-5372)Command line variable to choose MariaDB-5.3 vs MySQL-5.6 temporal data formats (MDEV-5528)Added syntax CREATE OR REPLACE to tables, databases, stored procedures, UDF:s and Views (MDEV-5491. The original TABLE code was done by Monty, other parts was done as a Google Summer Of Code project by Sriram Patil with Alexander Barkov as a mentor.Upgraded the bundled Perl Compatible Regular Expression library (PCRE) to 8.34 (MDEV-5304)Reduced usage of LOCK_open (MDEV-5403) (MDEV-5492) (MDEV-5587)Ported patches from WebScaleSQL to MariaDB (MDEV-6039)Better preallocation of memory (MDEV-7004)Lock-free hash for table definition cache (MDEV-7324)A lot of speed optimizations (changing mutex usage, better memory allocations, optimized bottlenecks, memory barriers etc).The MariaDB documentation/knowledgebase:has now 3685 articles about MariaDB and MySQL. Foundation employees added during 2014 223 new ones and did 6045 edits.Some of the main new articles from us are:All the system and status variables for all storage engines and plugins should be documented, including variable differences between MariaDB 5.5 versus MariaDB 10.0 and also MariaDB 10.0 versus MySQL 5.6.Updated documentation to changes related to MariaDB 10.1Upgrading from MariaDB 5.5 to MariaDB 10.0SpiderOQGRAPHGaleraSphinxMroongaInformation Schema TablesCommon MariaDB QueriesC APImysql database tablesOverview of MariaDB logsOLD_MODEEncryption of tables and table spaces in MariaDB 10.1Some 10 blog posts (This we need to do better..)We also have a lot of outside contributors and translators. Thanks a lot to all of you!We also visited and talked about MariaDB at a lot of conferences:February: Community events in Japan & Korea.April: The first MariaDB Foundation conference. This was a free for all event and we made videos of all presentations!April: Talk and booth at Percona live in Santa Clara.April: Talks at Linux Fest BellinghamJuly: Booth and BoF at Oscon PortlandOctober: Talk at All your Base at Oxford.October Talk about MySQL and MariaDB for China entrepreneurs in Beijing as part of China Finland Golden Bridge.November: Talk at Codemesh in London.November: Talks at PHP Buenos AiresNovember: Talk about open source business models at Build stuff” in Vilnius.November: Keynote and talk at CodeMotion Milan.In addition I had several talks at different companies who were moving big installations to MariaDB and needed advice.We where also able to finalize the MariaDB trademark agreement between the MariaDB corporation and the MariaDB Foundation. This ensures that that anyone can be part of MariaDB development on equal terms. The actual trademark agreement can be found here.On the personnel side, we were sad to see Simon Phipps leave the position as CEO of the Foundation.One the plus side, we just had 2 new persons join the MariaDB foundation this week:We are happy to have Otto Kekäläinen join us as the new CEO for the MariaDB foundation! Otto has in the past done a great work to get MariaDB into Debian and I am looking forward to his work on improving everything we do in the MariaDB foundation.Vicențiu Ciorbaru has joined the MariaDB foundation as a developer. In the past Vicențiu added ROLES to MariaDB, as part of a Google Summer of Code project and he is now interested to start working on the MariaDB optimizer. A special thanks to Jean-Paul Smets at Nexedi for sponsoring his work at the foundation!Last, I want to give my thanks to the MariaDB foundation members who made all the foundation work possible for 2014:AutomatticMariaDB corporation (former SkySQL Ab)ParallelsZeinmaxFor 2015 we welcome a new member, Visma. Visma will be part of the foundation board and will help push MariaDB development forwards.As the above shows, the MariaDB Foundation is not only a guarantee that MariaDB will always be an actively developed open source project, we also do a lot of development and practical work. This is however only possible if we have active members who sponsor our work!If you are interested in helping us, either as a member, sponsor, or by giving development resources to the MariaDB foundation, please email us at foundation at mariadb.org !

Foundation report for 2014

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2015/01/foundation-report-for-2014.html

2014 was a productive year for the MariaDB Foundation.Here is a list of some of the things MariaDB Foundation employees haveaccomplished during 2014:The 3 full-time MariaDB Foundation developers have worked hard to make MariaDB better:Some 260 commitsSome 25 reviews of code from the MariaDB community.Fixed some 170 bugs and new features. For a full list, please check Jira.Reported some 160 bugs.Some of the main new features Foundation developers have worked on in 2014 are:Porting and improving MariaDB on IBM Power8.Porting Galera to MariaDB 10.1 as a standard feature.Query timeouts (MDEV-4427)Some coding and reviews of Parallel replication in MariaDB 10.1.Working with code from Google and Eperi to get table space and table level encryption for InnoDB and XtraDB.Allowing storage engines to shortcut group by queries (for ScaleDB) (MDEV-6080).Moronga storage engine (reviews and porting help)Connect storage engine (reviews and porting help)Spider storage engine (merging code with MariaDB)Query timeouts (MDEV-4427)Merge INET6_ATON() and INET6_NTOA() from MySQL-5.6 (MDEV-4051)Make “CAST(time_expr AS DATETIME)” compatible…SQL Standard) (MDEV-5372)Command line variable to choose MariaDB-5.3 vs MySQL-5.6 temporal data formats (MDEV-5528)Added syntax CREATE OR REPLACE to tables, databases, stored procedures, UDF:s and Views (MDEV-5491. The original TABLE code was done by Monty, other parts was done as a Google Summer Of Code project by Sriram Patil with Alexander Barkov as a mentor.Upgraded the bundled Perl Compatible Regular Expression library (PCRE) to 8.34 (MDEV-5304)Reduced usage of LOCK_open (MDEV-5403) (MDEV-5492) (MDEV-5587)Ported patches from WebScaleSQL to MariaDB (MDEV-6039)Better preallocation of memory (MDEV-7004)Lock-free hash for table definition cache (MDEV-7324)A lot of speed optimizations (changing mutex usage, better memory allocations, optimized bottlenecks, memory barriers etc).The MariaDB documentation/knowledgebase:has now 3685 articles about MariaDB and MySQL. Foundation employees added during 2014 223 new ones and did 6045 edits.Some of the main new articles from us are:All the system and status variables for all storage engines and plugins should be documented, including variable differences between MariaDB 5.5 versus MariaDB 10.0 and also MariaDB 10.0 versus MySQL 5.6.Updated documentation to changes related to MariaDB 10.1Upgrading from MariaDB 5.5 to MariaDB 10.0SpiderOQGRAPHGaleraSphinxMroongaInformation Schema TablesCommon MariaDB QueriesC APImysql database tablesOverview of MariaDB logsOLD_MODEEncryption of tables and table spaces in MariaDB 10.1Some 10 blog posts (This we need to do better..)We also have a lot of outside contributors and translators. Thanks a lot to all of you!We also visited and talked about MariaDB at a lot of conferences:February: Community events in Japan & Korea.April: The first MariaDB Foundation conference. This was a free for all event and we made videos of all presentations!April: Talk and booth at Percona live in Santa Clara.April: Talks at Linux Fest BellinghamJuly: Booth and BoF at Oscon PortlandOctober: Talk at All your Base at Oxford.October Talk about MySQL and MariaDB for China entrepreneurs in Beijing as part of China Finland Golden Bridge.November: Talk at Codemesh in London.November: Talks at PHP Buenos AiresNovember: Talk about open source business models at Build stuff” in Vilnius.November: Keynote and talk at CodeMotion Milan.In addition I had several talks at different companies who were moving big installations to MariaDB and needed advice.We where also able to finalize the MariaDB trademark agreement between the MariaDB corporation and the MariaDB Foundation. This ensures that that anyone can be part of MariaDB development on equal terms. The actual trademark agreement can be found here.On the personnel side, we were sad to see Simon Phipps leave the position as CEO of the Foundation.One the plus side, we just had 2 new persons join the MariaDB foundation this week:We are happy to have Otto Kekäläinen join us as the new CEO for the MariaDB foundation! Otto has in the past done a great work to get MariaDB into Debian and I am looking forward to his work on improving everything we do in the MariaDB foundation.Vicențiu Ciorbaru has joined the MariaDB foundation as a developer. In the past Vicențiu added ROLES to MariaDB, as part of a Google Summer of Code project and he is now interested to start working on the MariaDB optimizer. A special thanks to Jean-Paul Smets at Nexedi for sponsoring his work at the foundation!Last, I want to give my thanks to the MariaDB foundation members who made all the foundation work possible for 2014:AutomatticMariaDB corporation (former SkySQL Ab)ParallelsZeinmaxFor 2015 we welcome a new member, Visma. Visma will be part of the foundation board and will help push MariaDB development forwards.As the above shows, the MariaDB Foundation is not only a guarantee that MariaDB will always be an actively developed open source project, we also do a lot of development and practical work. This is however only possible if we have active members who sponsor our work!If you are interested in helping us, either as a member, sponsor, or by giving development resources to the MariaDB foundation, please email us at foundation at mariadb.org !

FUDCON + GNOME.Asia Beijing 2014

Post Syndicated from Lennart Poettering original http://0pointer.net/blog/projects/fudcon-gnomeasia.html

Thanks to the funding from FUDCON I had the chance to attend and
keynote at the combined FUDCON Beijing 2014
and GNOME.Asia 2014 conference in
Beijing, China.

My talk was about systemd’s present and future, what we achieved
and where we are going. In my talk I tried to explain a bit where we
are coming from, and how we changed focus from being purely an init
system, to more being a set of basic building blocks to build an OS
from. Most of the talk I talked about where we still intend to take
systemd, which areas we believe should be covered by systemd, and of
course, also the always difficult question, on where to draw the line
and what clearly is outside of the focus of systemd. The slides of my
talk you find
online
. (No video recording I am aware of, sorry.)

The combined conferences were a lot of fun, and as usual, the best
discussions I had in the hallway track, discussing Linux and
systemd.

A number of pictures of the conference are now
online
. Enjoy!

After the conference I stayed for a few more days in Beijing, doing
a bit of sightseeing. What a fantastic city! The food was amazing, we
tried all kinds of fantastic stuff, from Peking duck, to Bullfrog
Sechuan style. Yummy. And one of those days I am sure I will find the
time to actually sort my photos and put them online, too.

I am really looking forward to the next FUDCON/GNOME.Asia!

FUDCON + GNOME.Asia Beijing 2014

Post Syndicated from Lennart Poettering original http://0pointer.net/blog/projects/fudcon-gnomeasia.html

Thanks to the funding from FUDCON I had the chance to attend and
keynote at the combined FUDCON Beijing 2014
and GNOME.Asia 2014 conference in
Beijing, China.

My talk was about systemd’s present and future, what we achieved
and where we are going. In my talk I tried to explain a bit where we
are coming from, and how we changed focus from being purely an init
system, to more being a set of basic building blocks to build an OS
from. Most of the talk I talked about where we still intend to take
systemd, which areas we believe should be covered by systemd, and of
course, also the always difficult question, on where to draw the line
and what clearly is outside of the focus of systemd. The slides of my
talk you find
online
. (No video recording I am aware of, sorry.)

The combined conferences were a lot of fun, and as usual, the best
discussions I had in the hallway track, discussing Linux and
systemd.

A number of pictures of the conference are now
online
. Enjoy!

After the conference I stayed for a few more days in Beijing, doing
a bit of sightseeing. What a fantastic city! The food was amazing, we
tried all kinds of fantastic stuff, from Peking duck, to Bullfrog
Sechuan style. Yummy. And one of those days I am sure I will find the
time to actually sort my photos and put them online, too.

I am really looking forward to the next FUDCON/GNOME.Asia!

FUDCON + GNOME.Asia Beijing 2014

Post Syndicated from Lennart Poettering original http://0pointer.net/blog/projects/fudcon-gnomeasia.html

Thanks to the funding from FUDCON I had the chance to attend and
keynote at the combined FUDCON Beijing 2014
and GNOME.Asia 2014 conference in
Beijing, China.

My talk was about systemd’s present and future, what we achieved
and where we are going. In my talk I tried to explain a bit where we
are coming from, and how we changed focus from being purely an init
system, to more being a set of basic building blocks to build an OS
from. Most of the talk I talked about where we still intend to take
systemd, which areas we believe should be covered by systemd, and of
course, also the always difficult question, on where to draw the line
and what clearly is outside of the focus of systemd. The slides of my
talk you find
online
. (No video recording I am aware of, sorry.)

The combined conferences were a lot of fun, and as usual, the best
discussions I had in the hallway track, discussing Linux and
systemd.

A number of pictures of the conference are now
online
. Enjoy!

After the conference I stayed for a few more days in Beijing, doing
a bit of sightseeing. What a fantastic city! The food was amazing, we
tried all kinds of fantastic stuff, from Peking duck, to Bullfrog
Sechuan style. Yummy. And one of those days I am sure I will find the
time to actually sort my photos and put them online, too.

I am really looking forward to the next FUDCON/GNOME.Asia!

MariaDB Foundation achivements 2012-12 – 2013-09

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/10/mariadb-foundation-achivements-2012-12.html

I recently read some comments that we at the MariaDB Foundation have not been very open about what we are doing.We are very sorry about this. The problem is not that we are secret about what we are doing, the problem is that not many of us working at the MariaDB Foundation are very active bloggers.I will try to address this concern by starting a monthly blog about the MariaDB development that MariaDB Foundation employees are doing. This together with Simon Phipps’ state of the sea lion blog, which is published on the MariaDB Foundation blog, should hopefully give everyone a better idea of what we are doing.At the MariaDB Foundation we are now 4 people working full time on code, documentation, and spreading MariaDB. Here are the things we have done since the Foundation was formed in December 2012:Major development efforts based on code from the community: MDEV-4568 Port Percona response time distribution as audit pluginMDEV-4911 Add KILL query id, and add query id information to process listMDEV-4684 Enhancement request: –init-command support for mysqlslapMajor new development efforts: MDEV-4702 Reduce usage of LOCK_openMDEV-4011 Per thread memory usageMDEV-4902 sql_yacc.yy incompatible with bison 3MDEV-4950 mysql_upgrade fails with disabled InnoDB (a bug that is not fixed in MySQL)MDEV-21 LGPL C client libraryLGPL Java client library.Some work on a new LGPL ODBC driver for MySQL and MariaDB.Better error messages (the error code in an error message now has descriptive text)Faster connect (lots of small fixes).MDEV-3941 CREATE TABLE xxx IF NOT EXISTS should not block if table exists.The MariaDB Foundation has also done a lot of work on the merge of MySQL 5.6 to MariaDB 10.0. The most notable features done by the Foundation are: All InnoDB changesAll performance schema changesCleaned up the HANDLER interfaces (to make life easier for storage engine writers).TRANSACTION READ ONLY | READ WRITEMySQL-5.6 TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME data types with fractional secondsMySQL-5.6 temporal literalsutf16le character setTO_BASE64 and FROM_BASE64 SQL functionsMySQL-5.6 collation customization improvements (in progress)Note that the above is not a complete list of what is in MariaDB 10.0!We are working with external entities and contributors to get features into MariaDB. Some of these have required a lot of work on the MariaDB Foundation side: CONNECT storage enginePorting to various operating systems (*BSD, Linux flavors, Solaris)Porting to unixODBCFixing compiler warningsTesting and writing mtr testsChecking, reporting and fixing valgrind warningsReviewing the author’s codeAdding MySQL/MariaDB security support (FILE privilege and secure_file_priv)Adding ConnectSE support in embedded serverGlobalization: making ConnectSE support multiple MariaDB character setsDiscussing many aspects of better integration of ConnectSE into MariaDB with the author.Packaging (RPMs, DEBs, MSI)TokuDB storage engineReview of codeSome small integration changes.Parallel slaveMulti source replication Worked closely with the original author to extend the code from a working proof of concept to production level code.MDEV-4438 Spider storage engine Continuously working with KentokuMDEV-4425 REGEXP enhancements (a Google Summer of Code project, in progress) Mentoring Sudheera Palihakkara (the student)Student’s code reviews (for RLIKE and RLIKE_REPLACE)Code enhancements proposalsCMake related enhancementsWrote RLIKE_SUBSTR and RLIKE_INSTR functionsAdded support for –crash-script in mysqld_safe.A lot of basic system maintenence: Reported a lot of bugs (this is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4654 Wrong warning for CAST(TIME(’10:20:30′) AS DATE) + INTERVAL 1 DAYMDEV-4655 Difference in how GREATEST and COALESCE process argumentsMDEV-4714 Wrong TIME value from a long stringMDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4838 Wrong metadata for DATE_ADD(‘string’, INVERVAL)MDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4842 STR_TO_DATE does not work with UCS2/UTF16/UTF32MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4844 Redundant warning in SELECT TIME(’00:00:00.’)MDEV-4848 Wrong metadata or column type for LEAST(1.0,’10’)MDEV-4850 MATCH uses a wrong fulltext index with mismatching collationMDEV-4857 Wrong result of HOUR(‘1 00:00:00’)MDEV-4858 Wrong error message for a huge unsigned value inserted into a TIME columnMDEV-4859 Wrong value and data type of “SELECT MAX(time_column) + 1 FROM t1”MDEV-4861 TIME/DATETIME arithmetics does not preserve INTERVAL precisionMDEV-4862 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, 59.9)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4868 Length of CURRENT_TIME is too longMDEV-4869 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, -0.1)MDEV-4870 Wrong values of CASE, COALESCE, IFNULL on a combination of different temporal typesMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsMDEV-4872 Inserting a huge number into a TIME column produces a wrong resultMDEV-4898 Too many warnings when inserting a bad value into a TIMESTAMP columnMDEV-4900 Bad value inserted into a TIME field on truncationFixed a LOT of bugs (the following is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4512 Valgrind warnings in my_long10_to_str_8bit on INTERVAL and DATE_ADD with incorrect typesMDEV-4518 Server crashes in is_white_space when it’s run with query cache…MDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4639 my_datetime_to_str: Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialized valueMDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4804 Date comparing false resultMDEV-4819 Upgrade from MySQL 5.6 does not workMDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsFixed MySQL bug #69861 LAST_INSERT_ID is replicated incorrectly if replication filters are used.Fixed issues with partitions and create temporary table SELECTIf one declared several continue handler for the same condition on different level of stored procedures, all of them where executed. Now we only execute the innermost of them (the most relevant).Don’t abort InnoDB if one can’t allocate resources for AIOAdded some fixes that should make MyISAM & Aria REPAIR work with more than 4G records.MDEV-4352 LOAD DATA was not multi-source safeMDEV-4394 Sporadic failures in multi_source testsMDEV-4033 Unable to use slave’s temporary directory /tmp – Can’t create/write to file ‘/tmp/SQL_LOAD-‘ (Errcode: 17 “File exists”)Increase default value of max_binlog_cache_size and max_binlog_stmt_cache_size to ulonglong_max.MDEV-4319 mysqlbinlog output ambiguous escaping (patch by Ian Good)OPTION is now a valid identifier (not a reserved word)Fixed issue with LOCK TABLE + ALTER TABLE ENABLE KEYS + SHOW commands.MDEV-628 Querying myisam table metadata may corrupt the table.Replace with an auto_increment primary key and another unique key didn’t replicate correctly with REPLACE.BUG#51763 Can’t delete rows from MEMORY table with HASH key.MDEV-389 Server crash inserting record on a temporary table after truncating it.Fixed crashing bug in GROUP_CONCAT with ROLLUPMDEV-4013 Password length in replication setupMDEV-4009 main.delayed sporadically fails with “query ‘REPLACE DELAYED t1 VALUES (5)’ failed: 1317: Query execution was interrupted”Fixed CREATE TABLE IF EXIST generates warnings instead of errorsRemoved lock wait timeout warning when using CREATE TABLE IF EXISTSCode cleanups and code rewrites.Continued work to ensure that MariaDB works on many operating systems.Did lots of small fixes for Solaris.Review of code from the community.Removed valgrind and compiler warnings.Added new test cases.QA & benchmarking.Talked about MariaDB and Open Source/Free Software at a lot of conferences: Percona Live London 2012SkySQL Roadshow, StuttgartVista developer Conference, RigaPHP Conference, Pasila, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, AmsterdamPercona Live, Santa ClaraSkySQL Roadshow, LondonMySQL Meetup, NYCSuomen Arkistointi Seminaari, Mikkeli, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, BerlinAli Baba Conference, Hangzhou, ChinaOSCON, PortlandDebconf, SwitzerlandFroscon, St Augustin, GermanyHaaga-Helia Talks, FinlandIDCEE Conference, UkrainaLatinux, Brazil & PeruHighload Conference, MoscowFoscon, Gotenburg, SwedenPercona Live 2013, LondonOther things people from the MariaDB foundation have done:Created +200 and updated +3000 articles in the MariaDB Knowledge Base. Some of the notable things are:Complete documentation of all system variablesComplete documentation of all status variablesClients and utilitiesGeographic functionsPerformance schemaLog filesInternationalization, character sets, collationXtraDB and InnoDB contentGlobal Transaction ID (from Kristian’s content)TriggersStored FunctionsStored ProceduresViewsDynamic ColumnsFulltext indexesReplicationDate and timeUpdating fill_help_tables.sql so that MariaDB HELP output will point the Knowledge BaseReformatted most articles for improved readabilityReplaced many of the external links with links to newly created internal articlesVisited a lot of companies to talk about the MariaDB Foundation.Worked closely with OS distributions to get MariaDB accepted as a standard part of their distributions. Partly thanks to the MariaDB Foundation, the following distributions now have MariaDB packages: GNU/Linux KDuMageiaGentooopenSUSESlackwareArch LinuxALTLinuxMariaDB Debian Live ImagesParabola GNU/LinuxTurboLinuxThe Chakra ProjectFedoraRed Hat Enterprise LinuxFreeBSDOpenBSDDebian now has MariaDB packages in ‘unstable’.For a full list and to see which distributions are replacing MySQL with MariaDB, see this page.Updated SHOW AUTHORS and SHOW CONTRIBUTORS to give more merit to active contributors and sponsors.We are very thankfull to the MariaDB Foundation members and supporters that have made this work possible!The current members are:Booking.comSkySQLParallelsIf you want the MariaDB foundation to do even more work like the above, you should ensure that your company becomes member in the MariaDB Foundation! You can also sponsor the foundation as a private person!

MariaDB Foundation achivements 2012-12 – 2013-09

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/10/mariadb-foundation-achivements-2012-12.html

I recently read some comments that we at the MariaDB Foundation have not been very open about what we are doing.We are very sorry about this. The problem is not that we are secret about what we are doing, the problem is that not many of us working at the MariaDB Foundation are very active bloggers.I will try to address this concern by starting a monthly blog about the MariaDB development that MariaDB Foundation employees are doing. This together with Simon Phipps’ state of the sea lion blog, which is published on the MariaDB Foundation blog, should hopefully give everyone a better idea of what we are doing.At the MariaDB Foundation we are now 4 people working full time on code, documentation, and spreading MariaDB. Here are the things we have done since the Foundation was formed in December 2012:Major development efforts based on code from the community: MDEV-4568 Port Percona response time distribution as audit pluginMDEV-4911 Add KILL query id, and add query id information to process listMDEV-4684 Enhancement request: –init-command support for mysqlslapMajor new development efforts: MDEV-4702 Reduce usage of LOCK_openMDEV-4011 Per thread memory usageMDEV-4902 sql_yacc.yy incompatible with bison 3MDEV-4950 mysql_upgrade fails with disabled InnoDB (a bug that is not fixed in MySQL)MDEV-21 LGPL C client libraryLGPL Java client library.Some work on a new LGPL ODBC driver for MySQL and MariaDB.Better error messages (the error code in an error message now has descriptive text)Faster connect (lots of small fixes).MDEV-3941 CREATE TABLE xxx IF NOT EXISTS should not block if table exists.The MariaDB Foundation has also done a lot of work on the merge of MySQL 5.6 to MariaDB 10.0. The most notable features done by the Foundation are: All InnoDB changesAll performance schema changesCleaned up the HANDLER interfaces (to make life easier for storage engine writers).TRANSACTION READ ONLY | READ WRITEMySQL-5.6 TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME data types with fractional secondsMySQL-5.6 temporal literalsutf16le character setTO_BASE64 and FROM_BASE64 SQL functionsMySQL-5.6 collation customization improvements (in progress)Note that the above is not a complete list of what is in MariaDB 10.0!We are working with external entities and contributors to get features into MariaDB. Some of these have required a lot of work on the MariaDB Foundation side: CONNECT storage enginePorting to various operating systems (*BSD, Linux flavors, Solaris)Porting to unixODBCFixing compiler warningsTesting and writing mtr testsChecking, reporting and fixing valgrind warningsReviewing the author’s codeAdding MySQL/MariaDB security support (FILE privilege and secure_file_priv)Adding ConnectSE support in embedded serverGlobalization: making ConnectSE support multiple MariaDB character setsDiscussing many aspects of better integration of ConnectSE into MariaDB with the author.Packaging (RPMs, DEBs, MSI)TokuDB storage engineReview of codeSome small integration changes.Parallel slaveMulti source replication Worked closely with the original author to extend the code from a working proof of concept to production level code.MDEV-4438 Spider storage engine Continuously working with KentokuMDEV-4425 REGEXP enhancements (a Google Summer of Code project, in progress) Mentoring Sudheera Palihakkara (the student)Student’s code reviews (for RLIKE and RLIKE_REPLACE)Code enhancements proposalsCMake related enhancementsWrote RLIKE_SUBSTR and RLIKE_INSTR functionsAdded support for –crash-script in mysqld_safe.A lot of basic system maintenence: Reported a lot of bugs (this is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4654 Wrong warning for CAST(TIME(’10:20:30′) AS DATE) + INTERVAL 1 DAYMDEV-4655 Difference in how GREATEST and COALESCE process argumentsMDEV-4714 Wrong TIME value from a long stringMDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4838 Wrong metadata for DATE_ADD(‘string’, INVERVAL)MDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4842 STR_TO_DATE does not work with UCS2/UTF16/UTF32MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4844 Redundant warning in SELECT TIME(’00:00:00.’)MDEV-4848 Wrong metadata or column type for LEAST(1.0,’10’)MDEV-4850 MATCH uses a wrong fulltext index with mismatching collationMDEV-4857 Wrong result of HOUR(‘1 00:00:00’)MDEV-4858 Wrong error message for a huge unsigned value inserted into a TIME columnMDEV-4859 Wrong value and data type of “SELECT MAX(time_column) + 1 FROM t1”MDEV-4861 TIME/DATETIME arithmetics does not preserve INTERVAL precisionMDEV-4862 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, 59.9)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4868 Length of CURRENT_TIME is too longMDEV-4869 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, -0.1)MDEV-4870 Wrong values of CASE, COALESCE, IFNULL on a combination of different temporal typesMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsMDEV-4872 Inserting a huge number into a TIME column produces a wrong resultMDEV-4898 Too many warnings when inserting a bad value into a TIMESTAMP columnMDEV-4900 Bad value inserted into a TIME field on truncationFixed a LOT of bugs (the following is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4512 Valgrind warnings in my_long10_to_str_8bit on INTERVAL and DATE_ADD with incorrect typesMDEV-4518 Server crashes in is_white_space when it’s run with query cache…MDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4639 my_datetime_to_str: Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialized valueMDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4804 Date comparing false resultMDEV-4819 Upgrade from MySQL 5.6 does not workMDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsFixed MySQL bug #69861 LAST_INSERT_ID is replicated incorrectly if replication filters are used.Fixed issues with partitions and create temporary table SELECTIf one declared several continue handler for the same condition on different level of stored procedures, all of them where executed. Now we only execute the innermost of them (the most relevant).Don’t abort InnoDB if one can’t allocate resources for AIOAdded some fixes that should make MyISAM & Aria REPAIR work with more than 4G records.MDEV-4352 LOAD DATA was not multi-source safeMDEV-4394 Sporadic failures in multi_source testsMDEV-4033 Unable to use slave’s temporary directory /tmp – Can’t create/write to file ‘/tmp/SQL_LOAD-‘ (Errcode: 17 “File exists”)Increase default value of max_binlog_cache_size and max_binlog_stmt_cache_size to ulonglong_max.MDEV-4319 mysqlbinlog output ambiguous escaping (patch by Ian Good)OPTION is now a valid identifier (not a reserved word)Fixed issue with LOCK TABLE + ALTER TABLE ENABLE KEYS + SHOW commands.MDEV-628 Querying myisam table metadata may corrupt the table.Replace with an auto_increment primary key and another unique key didn’t replicate correctly with REPLACE.BUG#51763 Can’t delete rows from MEMORY table with HASH key.MDEV-389 Server crash inserting record on a temporary table after truncating it.Fixed crashing bug in GROUP_CONCAT with ROLLUPMDEV-4013 Password length in replication setupMDEV-4009 main.delayed sporadically fails with “query ‘REPLACE DELAYED t1 VALUES (5)’ failed: 1317: Query execution was interrupted”Fixed CREATE TABLE IF EXIST generates warnings instead of errorsRemoved lock wait timeout warning when using CREATE TABLE IF EXISTSCode cleanups and code rewrites.Continued work to ensure that MariaDB works on many operating systems.Did lots of small fixes for Solaris.Review of code from the community.Removed valgrind and compiler warnings.Added new test cases.QA & benchmarking.Talked about MariaDB and Open Source/Free Software at a lot of conferences: Percona Live London 2012SkySQL Roadshow, StuttgartVista developer Conference, RigaPHP Conference, Pasila, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, AmsterdamPercona Live, Santa ClaraSkySQL Roadshow, LondonMySQL Meetup, NYCSuomen Arkistointi Seminaari, Mikkeli, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, BerlinAli Baba Conference, Hangzhou, ChinaOSCON, PortlandDebconf, SwitzerlandFroscon, St Augustin, GermanyHaaga-Helia Talks, FinlandIDCEE Conference, UkrainaLatinux, Brazil & PeruHighload Conference, MoscowFoscon, Gotenburg, SwedenPercona Live 2013, LondonOther things people from the MariaDB foundation have done:Created +200 and updated +3000 articles in the MariaDB Knowledge Base. Some of the notable things are:Complete documentation of all system variablesComplete documentation of all status variablesClients and utilitiesGeographic functionsPerformance schemaLog filesInternationalization, character sets, collationXtraDB and InnoDB contentGlobal Transaction ID (from Kristian’s content)TriggersStored FunctionsStored ProceduresViewsDynamic ColumnsFulltext indexesReplicationDate and timeUpdating fill_help_tables.sql so that MariaDB HELP output will point the Knowledge BaseReformatted most articles for improved readabilityReplaced many of the external links with links to newly created internal articlesVisited a lot of companies to talk about the MariaDB Foundation.Worked closely with OS distributions to get MariaDB accepted as a standard part of their distributions. Partly thanks to the MariaDB Foundation, the following distributions now have MariaDB packages: GNU/Linux KDuMageiaGentooopenSUSESlackwareArch LinuxALTLinuxMariaDB Debian Live ImagesParabola GNU/LinuxTurboLinuxThe Chakra ProjectFedoraRed Hat Enterprise LinuxFreeBSDOpenBSDDebian now has MariaDB packages in ‘unstable’.For a full list and to see which distributions are replacing MySQL with MariaDB, see this page.Updated SHOW AUTHORS and SHOW CONTRIBUTORS to give more merit to active contributors and sponsors.We are very thankfull to the MariaDB Foundation members and supporters that have made this work possible!The current members are:Booking.comSkySQLParallelsIf you want the MariaDB foundation to do even more work like the above, you should ensure that your company becomes member in the MariaDB Foundation! You can also sponsor the foundation as a private person!