AWS has achieved Spain’s Esquema Nacional de Seguridad (ENS) High certification across 29 services. To successfully achieve the ENS High Standard, BDO España conducted an independent audit and attested that AWS meets confidentiality, integrity, and availability standards. This provides the assurance needed by Spanish Public Sector organizations wanting to build secure applications and services on AWS.
The National Security Framework, regulated under Royal Decree 3/2010, was developed through close collaboration between ENAC (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación), the Ministry of Finance and Public Administration and the CCN (National Cryptologic Centre), and other administrative bodies.
The following AWS Services are ENS High accredited across our Dublin and Frankfurt Regions:
If you’re an educator from the UK, chances are you’ve heard of Bett. For everyone else: Bett stands for British Education Technology Tradeshow. It’s the El Dorado of edtech, where every street is adorned with interactive whiteboards, VR headsets, and new technologies for the classroom. Every year since 2014, the Raspberry Pi Foundation has been going to the event hosted in the ExCeL London to chat to thousands of lovely educators about our free programmes and resources.
On a mission
Our setup this year consisted of four pods (imagine tables on steroids) in the STEAM village, and the mission of our highly trained team of education agents was to establish a new world record for Highest number of teachers talked to in a four-day period. I’m only half-joking.
Educators with a mission
The best thing about being at Bett is meeting the educators who use our free content and training materials. It’s easy to get wrapped up in the everyday tasks of the office without stopping to ask: “Hey, have we asked our users what they want recently?” Events like Bett help us to connect with our audience, creating some lovely moments for both sides. We had plenty of Hello World authors visit us, including Gary Stager, co-author of Invent to Learn, a must-read for any computing educator. More than 700 people signed up for a digital subscription, we had numerous lovely conversations about our content and about ideas for new articles, and we met many new authors expressing an interest in writing for us in the future.
We also talked to lots of Raspberry Pi Certified Educators who we’d trained in our free Picademy programme — new dates in Belfast and Dublin now! — and who are now doing exciting and innovative things in their local areas. For example, Chris Snowden came to tell us about the great digital making outreach work he has been doing with the Eureka! museum in Yorkshire.
Raspberry Pi Certified Educator Chris Snowden
Digital making for kids
The other best thing about being at Bett is running workshops for young learners and seeing the delight on their faces when they accomplish something they believed to be impossible only five minutes ago. On the Saturday, we ran a massive Raspberry Jam/Code Club where over 250 children, parents, and curious onlookers got stuck into some of our computing activities. We were super happy to find out that we’d won the Bett Kids’ Choice Award for Best Hands-on Experience — a fantastic end to a busy four days. With Bett over for another year, our tired and happy ‘rebel alliance’ from across the Foundation still had the energy to pose for a group photo.
Coolest Projects is a world-leading annual showcase that empowers and inspires the next generation of digital creators, innovators, changemakers, and entrepreneurs. Young people come to the event to exhibit the cool ideas they have been working on throughout the year. And from 2018, Coolest Projects is open to young people across the Raspberry Pi community.
Coolest Projects is a world leading showcase that empowers and inspires the next generation of digital creators, innovators, changemakers and entrepreneurs! Find out more at: http://coolestprojects.org/
A huge fair for digital making
When Raspberry Pi’s Philip and Ben first visited Coolest Projects, they were blown away by the scope of the event, the number of children and young people who had travelled to Dublin to share their work, and the commitment they demonstrated to work ranging from Scratch projects to home-made hovercraft.
Coolest Projects International 2018 will be held in Dublin, Ireland, on Saturday 26 May. Participants will travel from all over the world to take part in a festival of creativity and tech. We hope you’ll be among them!
“It’s a huge fair especially for coding and digital tech – it’s massive and it’s amazing!“
Coolest Projects International and Coolest Projects UK
As well as the flagship international event in Dublin, Ireland, there are regional events in other countries. All these events are now open to makers and creators across the Raspberry Pi community, from Dojos, Code Clubs, and Raspberry Jams.
This year, for the first time, we are bringing Coolest Projects to the UK for a spectacular regional event! Coolest Projects UK will be held at Here East in London on Saturday 28 April. We’re looking forward to discovering over 100 projects that young people have designed and built, and seeing them share their ideas and their passion for technology, make new friends, and learn from one another.
Fierce focus at Coolest Projects
Who can take part?
If you’re up to 18 years of age and you’re in primary, secondary, or further education, you can join in. You can work as an individual or as part of a team of up to five. All projects are welcome, whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned expert.
You must be able to attend the event that you’re entering, whether Coolest Projects International or a regional event. Getting together with other makers and their fantastic projects is a really important and exciting part of the event, so you can’t take part with an online-only or video-only entry. There are a few rules to make sure everything runs smoothly and fairly, and you can read them here.
Wiktoria Jarymowicz from Poland presents the rocket she built at Coolest Projects
How do I join in?
Your project should fit into one of six broad categories, covering everything from Scratch to hardware projects. If you’ve made something with tech, or you’ve got a project idea, it will probably fit into one of them! Once you’ve picked your project, you need to register it and apply for your space at the event. You can register for Coolest Projects International 2018 right now, and registration for Coolest Projects UK 2018 will open on Wednesday: join our email list to get an update when it does.
How will you choose who gets a place?
There are places available for 750 projects, and our goal is to have enough room for everyone who wants to come. If more makers want to bring their projects than there are places available, we’ll select entries to show a balance of projects from different regions and different parts of our communities, from groups and individuals, and from girls and boys, as well as a good mixture of projects across different categories.
I need help to get started, or help to get there
To help get your ideas flowing and guide you through your project, we’ve prepared a set of How to build a project worksheets. And if you’d like to attend Coolest Projects International, but the cost of travel is a problem, you can apply for a travel bursary by 31 January.
Coolest Projects is about rewarding creativity, and we know the Raspberry Pi community has that in spades. It’s about having an idea and making it a reality using the skills you have, whether this is your first project or your fifteenth. We can’t wait to see you at Coolest Projects UK or Coolest Projects International this year!
I need your help. This is a call out for those between 11- and 16-years-old in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Something has gone very, very wrong and only you can save us. I’ve collected together as much information for you as I can. You’ll find it at http://www.raspberrypi.org/pioneers.
In August we intercepted an emergency communication from a lonesome survivor. She seemed to be in quite a bit of trouble, and asked all you young people aged 11 to 16 to come up with something to help tackle the oncoming crisis, using whatever technology you had to hand. You had ten weeks to work in teams of two to five with an adult mentor to fulfil your mission.
We received your world-saving ideas, and our savvy survivor pulled together a ragtag bunch of apocalyptic experts to help us judge which ones would be the winning entries.
Dr Shini Somara is an advocate for STEM education and a mechanical engineer. She was host of The Health Show and has appeared in documentaries for the BBC, PBS Digital, and Sky. You can check out her work hosting Crash Course Physics on YouTube.
Prof Lewis Dartnell is an astrobiologist and author of the book The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Our World From Scratch.
Emma Stephenson has a background in aeronautical engineering and currently works in the Shell Foundation’s Access to Energy and Sustainable Mobility portfolio.
151 Likes, 3 Comments – Shini Somara (@drshinisomara) on Instagram: “Currently sifting through the entries with the other judges of #makeyourideas with…”
Our survivor is currently putting your entries to good use repairing, rebuilding, and defending her base. Our judges chose the following projects as outstanding examples of world-saving digital making.
This is our entry to the pioneers ‘Only you can save us’ competition. Our team name is Computatrum. Hope you enjoy!
Are you facing an unknown enemy whose only weakness is Nerf bullets? Then this is the robot for you! We loved the especially apocalyptic feel of the Computatron’s cleverly hacked and repurposed elements. The team even used an old floppy disc mechanism to help fire their bullets!
Thousands of lines of code… Many sheets of acrylic… A camera, touchscreen and fingerprint scanner… This is our entry into the Raspberry Pi Pioneers2017 ‘Only YOU can Save Us’ theme. When zombies or other survivors break into your base, you want a secure way of storing your crackers.
The Robot Apocalypse Committee is back, and this time they’ve brought cheese! The crew designed a cheese- and cracker-dispensing machine complete with face and fingerprint recognition to ensure those rations last until the next supply drop.
Hi! We are PiChasers and we entered the Raspberry Pi Pionners challenge last time when the theme was “Make it Outdoors!” but now we’ve been faced with another theme “Apocolypse”. We spent a while thinking of an original thing that would help in an apocolypse and decided upon a ‘text-only phone’ which uses local radio communication rather than cellular.
This text-based communication device encased in a tupperware container could be a lifesaver in a crisis! And luckily, the Pi Chasers produced an excellent video and amazing GitHub repo, ensuring that any and all survivors will be able to build their own in the safety of their base.
Pioneers Entry Team Name: The Three Musketeers Team Participants: James, Zach and Tom
We all know that zombies are terrible at geometry, and the Three Musketeers used this fact to their advantage when building their zombie security system. We were impressed to see the team working together to overcome the roadblocks they faced along the way.
We appreciate what you’re trying to do: Zombie Trolls
Playing piggy in the middle with zombies sure is a unique way of saving humankind from total extinction! We loved this project idea, and although the Zombie Trolls had a little trouble with their motors, we’re sure with a little more tinkering this zombie-fooling contraption could save us all.
Our judges also wanted to give a special commendation to the following teams for their equally awesome apocalypse-averting ideas:
PiRates, for their multifaceted zombie-proofing defence system and the high production value of their video
Byte them Pis, for their beautiful zombie-detecting doormat
Unatecxon, for their impressive bunker security system
Team Crompton, for their pressure-activated door system
We’re growing at a pretty rapid clip, and as we add more customers, we need people to help keep all of our hard drive spinning. Along with support, the other department that grows linearly with the number of customers that join us is the operations team, and they’ve just added a new member to their team, Rich! He joins us as a Network Systems Administrator! Lets take a moment to learn more about Rich, shall we?
What is your Backblaze Title? Network Systems Administrator
Where are you originally from? The Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Da UP, eh!
What attracted you to Backblaze? The fact that it is a small tech company packed with highly intelligent people and a place where I can also be friends with my peers. I am also huge on cloud storage and backing up your past!
What do you expect to learn while being at Backblaze? I look forward to expanding my Networking skills and System Administration skills while helping build the best Cloud Storage and Backup Company there is!
Where else have you worked? I first started working in Data Centers at Viawest. I was previously an Infrastructure Engineer at Twitter and a Production Engineer at Groupon.
Where did you go to school? I started at Finlandia University in Norther Michigan, carried onto Northwest Florida State and graduated with my A.S. from North Lake College in Dallas, TX. I then completed my B.S. Degree online at WGU.
What’s your dream job? Sr. Network Engineer
Favorite place you’ve traveled? I have traveled around a bit in my life. I really liked Dublin, Ireland but I have to say favorite has to be Puerto Vallarta, Mexico! Which is actually where I am getting married in 2019!
Favorite hobby? Water is my life. I like to wakeboard and wakesurf. I also enjoy biking, hunting, fishing, camping, and anything that has to do with the great outdoors!
Of what achievement are you most proud? I’m proud of moving up in my career as quickly as I have been. I am also very proud of being able to wakesurf behind a boat without a rope! Lol!
Star Trek or Star Wars? Star Trek! I grew up on it!
Coke or Pepsi? H2O 😀
Favorite food? Mexican Food and Pizza!
Why do you like certain things? Hmm…. because certain things make other certain things particularly certain!
Anything else you’d like you’d like to tell us? Nope 😀
Who can say no to high quality H2O? Welcome to the team Rich!
Business continuity is important for building mission-critical workloads on AWS. As an AWS customer, you might define recovery point objectives (RPO) and recovery time objectives (RTO) for different tier applications in your business. After the RPO and RTO requirements are defined, it is up to your architects to determine how to meet those requirements.
You probably store persistent data in Amazon EBS volumes, which live within a single Availability Zone. And, following best practices, you take snapshots of your EBS volumes to back up the data on Amazon S3, which provides 11 9’s of durability. If you are following these best practices, then you’ve probably recognized the need to manage the number of snapshots you keep for a particular EBS volume and delete older, unneeded snapshots. Doing this cleanup helps save on storage costs.
Some customers also have policies stating that backups need to be stored a certain number of miles away as part of a disaster recovery (DR) plan. To meet these requirements, customers copy their EBS snapshots to the DR region. Then, the same snapshot management and cleanup has to also be done in the DR region.
All of this snapshot management logic consists of different components. You would first tag your snapshots so you could manage them. Then, determine how many snapshots you currently have for a particular EBS volume and assess that value against a retention rule. If the number of snapshots was greater than your retention value, then you would clean up old snapshots. And finally, you might copy the latest snapshot to your DR region. All these steps are just an example of a simple snapshot management workflow. But how do you automate something like this in AWS? How do you do it without servers?
One of the most powerful AWS services released in 2016 was Amazon CloudWatch Events. It enables you to build event-driven IT automation, based on events happening within your AWS infrastructure. CloudWatch Events integrates with AWS Lambda to let you execute your custom code when one of those events occurs. However, the actions to take based on those events aren’t always composed of a single Lambda function. Instead, your business logic may consist of multiple steps (like in the case of the example snapshot management flow described earlier). And you may want to run those steps in sequence or in parallel. You may also want to have retry logic or exception handling for each step.
AWS Step Functions serves just this purpose―to help you coordinate your functions and microservices. Step Functions enables you to simplify your effort and pull the error handling, retry logic, and workflow logic out of your Lambda code. Step Functions integrates with Lambda to provide a mechanism for building complex serverless applications. Now, you can kick off a Step Functions state machine based on a CloudWatch event.
In this post, I discuss how you can target Step Functions in a CloudWatch Events rule. This allows you to have event-driven snapshot management based on snapshot completion events firing in CloudWatch Event rules.
As an example of what you could do with Step Functions and CloudWatch Events, we’ve developed a reference architecture that performs management of your EBS snapshots.
Automating EBS Snapshot Management with Step Functions
The state machine then tags the snapshot, cleans up the oldest snapshots if the number of snapshots is greater than the defined number to retain, and copies the snapshot to a DR region.
When the DR region snapshot copy is completed, another state machine kicks off in the DR region. The new state machine has a similar flow and uses some of the same Lambda code to clean up the oldest snapshots that are greater than the defined number to retain.
Also, both state machines demonstrate how you can use Step Functions to handle errors within your workflow. Any errors that are caught during execution result in the execution of a Lambda function that writes a message to an SNS topic. Therefore, if any errors occur, you can subscribe to the SNS topic and get notified.
The following is an architecture diagram of the reference architecture:
Creating the Lambda functions and Step Functions state machines
First, pull the code from GitHub and use the AWS CLI to create S3 buckets for the Lambda code in the primary and DR regions. For this example, assume that the primary region is us-west-2 and the DR region is us-east-2. Run the following commands, replacing the italicized text in <> with your own unique bucket names.
git clone https://github.com/awslabs/aws-step-functions-ebs-snapshot-mgmt.git
aws s3 mb s3://<primary region bucket name> --region us-west-2
aws s3 mb s3://<DR region bucket name> --region us-east-2
Next, use the Serverless Application Model (SAM), which uses AWS CloudFormation to deploy the Lambda functions and Step Functions state machines in the primary and DR regions. Replace the italicized text in <> with the S3 bucket names that you created earlier.
The CloudFormation templates deploy the following resources:
The Lambda functions that are coordinated by Step Functions
The Step Functions state machine
The SNS topic
The CloudWatch Events rules that trigger the state machine execution
So, all of the CloudWatch event rules have been created for you by performing the preceding commands. The next section demonstrates how you could create the CloudWatch event rule manually. To jump straight to testing the workflow, see the “Testing in your Account” section. Otherwise, you begin by setting up the CloudWatch event rule in the primary region for the createSnapshot event and also the CloudWatch event rule in the DR region for the copySnapshot command.
First, open the CloudWatch console in the primary region.
Choose Create Rule and create a rule for the createSnapshot command, with your newly created Step Function state machine as the target.
For Event Source, choose Event Pattern and specify the following values:
Service Name: EC2
Event Type: EBS Snapshot Notification
Specific Event: createSnapshot
For Target, choose Step Functions state machine, then choose the state machine created by the CloudFormation commands. Choose Create a new role for this specific resource. Your completed rule should look like the following:
Choose Configure Details and give the rule a name and description.
Choose Create Rule. You now have a CloudWatch Events rule that triggers a Step Functions state machine execution when the EBS snapshot creation is complete.
Now, set up the CloudWatch Events rule in the DR region as well. This looks almost same, but is based off the copySnapshot event instead of createSnapshot.
In the upper right corner in the console, switch to your DR region. Choose CloudWatch, Create Rule.
For Event Source, choose Event Pattern and specify the following values:
Service Name: EC2
Event Type: EBS Snapshot Notification
Specific Event: copySnapshot
For Target, choose Step Functions state machine, then select the state machine created by the CloudFormation commands. Choose Create a new role for this specific resource. Your completed rule should look like in the following:
As in the primary region, choose Configure Details and then give this rule a name and description. Complete the creation of the rule.
Testing in your account
To test this setup, open the EC2 console and choose Volumes. Select a volume to snapshot. Choose Actions, Create Snapshot, and then create a snapshot.
This results in a new execution of your state machine in the primary and DR regions. You can view these executions by going to the Step Functions console and selecting your state machine.
From there, you can see the execution of the state machine.
Primary region state machine:
DR region state machine:
I’ve also provided CloudFormation templates that perform all the earlier setup without using git clone and running the CloudFormation commands. Choose the Launch Stack buttons below to launch the primary and DR region stacks in Dublin and Ohio, respectively. From there, you can pick up at the Testing in Your Account section above to finish the example. All of the code for this example architecture is located in the aws-step-functions-ebs-snapshot-mgmt AWSLabs repo.
Primary Region eu-west-1 (Ireland)
DR Region us-east-2 (Ohio)
This reference architecture is just an example of how you can use Step Functions and CloudWatch Events to build event-driven IT automation. The possibilities are endless:
Use this pattern to perform other common cleanup type jobs such as managing Amazon RDS snapshots, old versions of Lambda functions, or old Amazon ECR images—all triggered by scheduled events.
Use Trusted Advisor events to identify unused EC2 instances or EBS volumes, then coordinate actions on them, such as alerting owners, stopping, or snapshotting.
Happy coding and please let me know what useful state machines you build!
In the world of data science, users must often sacrifice cluster set-up time to allow for complex usability scenarios. Amazon EMR allows data scientists to spin up complex cluster configurations easily, and to be up and running with complex queries in a matter of minutes.
Data scientists often use scheduling applications such as Oozie to run jobs overnight. However, Oozie can be difficult to configure when you are trying to use popular Python packages (such as “pandas,” “numpy,” and “statsmodels”), which are not included by default.
One such popular platform that contains these types of packages (and more) is Anaconda. This post focuses on setting up an Anaconda platform on EMR, with an intent to use its packages with Oozie. I describe how to run jobs using a popular open source scheduler like Oozie.
For this post, you walk through the following tasks:
Create an EMR cluster.
Download Anaconda on your master node.
Test the steps.
Create an EMR cluster
Spin up an Amazon EMR cluster using the console or the AWS CLI. Use the latest release, and include Apache Hadoop, Apache Spark, Apache Hive, and Oozie.
To create a three-node cluster in the us-east-1 region, issue an AWS CLI command such as the following. This command must be typed as one line, as shown below. It is shown here separated for readability purposes only.
At the time of publication, Anaconda 4.4 is the most current version available. For the download link location for the latest Python 2.7 version (Python 3.6 may encounter issues), see https://www.continuum.io/downloads. Open the context (right-click) menu for the Python 2.7 download link, choose Copy Link Location, and use this value in the previous wget command.
This post used the Anaconda 4.4 installation. If you have a later version, it is shown in the downloaded filename: “anaconda2-<version number>-Linux-x86_64.sh”.
Run this downloaded script and follow the on-screen installer prompts.
For an installation directory, select somewhere with enough space on your cluster, such as “/mnt/anaconda/”.
The process should take approximately 1–2 minutes to install. When prompted if you “wish the installer to prepend the Anaconda2 install location”, select the default option of [no].
After you are done, export the PATH to include this new Anaconda installation:
Zip up the Anaconda installation:
zip -r anaconda.zip .
The zip process may take 4–5 minutes to complete.
(Optional) Upload this anaconda.zip file to your S3 bucket for easier inclusion into future EMR clusters. This removes the need to repeat the previous steps for future EMR clusters.
Next, you configure Oozie to use Pyspark and the Anaconda platform.
Get the location of your Oozie sharelibupdate folder. Issue the following command and take note of the “sharelibDirNew” value:
oozie admin -sharelibupdate
For this post, this value is “hdfs://ip-192-168-4-200.us-east-1.compute.internal:8020/user/oozie/share/lib/lib_20170616133136”.
Pass in the required Pyspark files into Oozies sharelibupdate location. The following files are required for Oozie to be able to run Pyspark commands:
These are located on the EMR master instance in the location “/usr/lib/spark/python/lib/”, and must be put into the Oozie sharelib spark directory. This location is the value of the sharelibDirNew parameter value (shown above) with “/spark/” appended, that is, “hdfs://ip-192-168-4-200.us-east-1.compute.internal:8020/user/oozie/share/lib/lib_20170616133136/spark/”.
Put the “myPysparkProgram.py” into the location mentioned between the “<jar>xxxxx</jar>” tags in your workflow.xml. In this example, the location is “hdfs:///user/oozie/apps/”. Use the following command to move the “myPysparkProgram.py” file to the correct location:
This is a sentence. 12
So is this 12
This is also a sentence 12
The myPysparkProgram.py has successfully imported the numpy library from the Anaconda platform and has produced some output with it. If you tried to run this using standard Python, you’d encounter the following error:
Now when your Python job runs in Oozie, any imported packages that are implicitly imported by your Pyspark script are imported into your job within Oozie directly from the Anaconda platform. Simple!
If you have questions or suggestions, please leave a comment below.
John Ohle is an AWS BigData Cloud Support Engineer II for the BigData team in Dublin. He works to provide advice and solutions to our customers on their Big Data projects and workflows on AWS. In his spare time, he likes to play music, learn, develop tools and write documentation to further help others – both colleagues and customers alike.
We’ve got some great news to share today: the Raspberry Pi Foundation is joining forces with the CoderDojo Foundation, in a merger that will give many more young people all over the world new opportunities to learn how to be creative with technology.
CoderDojo is a global network of coding clubs for kids from seven to 17. The first CoderDojo took place in July 2011 when James Whelton and Bill Liao decided to share their passion for computing by setting up a club at the National Software Centre in Cork. The idea was simple: provide a safe and social place for young people to acquire programming skills, learning from each other and supported by mentors.
Since then, James and Bill have helped turn that idea into a movement that reaches across the whole world, with over 1,250 CoderDojos in 69 countries, regularly attended by over 35,000 young Ninjas.
Raspberry Pi and CoderDojo have each accomplished amazing things over the last six years. Now, we see an opportunity to do even more by joining forces. Bringing together Raspberry Pi, Code Club, and CoderDojo will create the largest global effort to get young people involved in computing and digital making. We have set ourselves an ambitious goal: to quadruple the number of CoderDojos worldwide, to 5,000, by the end of 2020.
The enormous impact that CoderDojo has had so far is down to the CoderDojo Foundation team, and to the community of volunteers, businesses, and foundations who have contributed expertise, time, venues, and financial resources. We want to deepen those relationships and grow that community as we bring CoderDojo to more young people in future.
The CoderDojo Foundation will continue as an independent charity, based in Ireland. Nothing about CoderDojo’s brand or ethos is changing as a result of this merger. CoderDojos will continue to be platform-neutral, using whatever kit they need to help young people learn.
In technical terms, the Raspberry Pi Foundation is becoming a corporate member of the CoderDojo Foundation (which is a bit like being a shareholder, but without any financial interest). I will also join the board of the CoderDojo Foundation as a director. The merger is subject to approval by Irish regulators.
How will this work in practice? The two organisations will work together to advance our shared goals, using our respective assets and capabilities to get many more adults and young people involved in the CoderDojo movement. The Raspberry Pi Foundation will also provide practical, financial, and back-office support to the CoderDojo Foundation.
Last June, I attended the CoderDojo Coolest Projects event in Dublin, and was blown away by the amazing projects made by CoderDojo Ninjas from all over the world. From eight-year-olds who had written their first programs in Scratch to the teenagers who built a Raspberry Pi-powered hovercraft, it was clear that CoderDojo is already making a huge difference.
I am thrilled that we’re going to be working closely with the brilliant CoderDojo team, and I can’t wait to visit Coolest Projects again next month to meet all of the Ninjas and mentors who make CoderDojo possible.
If you want to find out more about CoderDojo and how you can get involved in helping the movement grow, go here.
Wow, a lot is happening in AWS-land these days! Today’s post included submissions from several dozen internal and external contributors, along with material from my RSS feeds, my inbox, and other things that come my way. To join in the fun, create (or find) some awesome AWS-related content and submit a pull request!
Twenty four (24) external and internal contributors worked together to create this edition of the AWS Week in Review. If you would like to join the party please visit the AWS Week in Review on GitHub. I am also about to open up some discussion on a simplified and streamlined submission process.
This is the second community-driven edition of the AWS Week in Review. Special thanks are due to the 13 external contributors who helped to make this happen. If you would like to contribute, please take a look at the AWS Week in Review on GitHub. Adding relevant content is fast and easy and can be done from the comfort of your web browser! Just to be clear, it is perfectly fine for you to add content written by someone else. The goal is to catch it all, as they say!
Bustle uses AWS Lambda to process high volumes of data generated by the website in real-time, allowing the team to make faster, data-driven decisions. Bustle.com is a news, entertainment, lifestyle, and fashion website catering to women.
Graze continually improves its customers’ experience by staying agile—including in its infrastructure. The company sells healthy snacks through its website and via U.K. retailers. It runs all its infrastructure on AWS, including its customer-facing websites and all its internal systems from the factory floor to business intelligence.
Made.com migrated to AWS to support a record-breaking sales period with no downtime. The company provides a website that links home-furnishings designers directly to consumers. It now runs its e-commerce platform, website, and customer-facing applications on AWS, using services such as Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, and Auto Scaling groups.
Sony DADC New Media Solutions (NMS) distributes hundreds of thousands of hours of video content monthly, spins up data analytics, renders solutions in days instead of months, and saves millions of dollars in hardware refresh costs by going all in on AWS. The organization distributes and delivers content to film studios, television broadcasters, and other providers across the globe. NMS runs its content distribution platform, broadcast playout services, and video archive on the AWS Cloud.
Upserve quickly develops and trains more than 100 learning models, streams restaurant sales and menu item data in real time, and gives restaurateurs the ability to predict their nightly business using Amazon Machine Learning. The company provides online payment and analytical software to thousands of restaurant owners throughout the U.S. Upserve uses Amazon Machine Learning to provide predictive analysis through its Shift Prep application.
Here’s the first community-driven edition of the AWS Week in Review. In response to last week’s blog post (AWS Week in Review – Coming Back With Your Help!), 9 other contributors helped to make this post a reality. That’s a great start; let’s see if we can go for 20 this week.
Recently, the European Commission and the US Government agreed on a new framework called the EU-US Privacy Shield, and on July 12, the European Commission formally adopted it. Amazon Web Services (AWS) welcomes this new framework for transatlantic data flow.
As the EU-US Privacy Shield replaces Safe Harbor, we understand many of our customers have questions about what this means for them. The security of our customers’ data is our number one priority, so I wanted to take a few moments to explain what this all means.
The new EU-US Privacy Shield does not impact AWS customers for two reasons. First, customers using AWS have full control of the movement of their data and have always had the choice of the region in which their data is kept. AWS customers choose the AWS region where their data will be stored and can be assured that their data will remain there unless moved by them. Second, for customers who wish to transfer personal data from an AWS region in the European Economic Area (EEA) to one in another part of the world, including the US. AWS customers can do this in compliance with EU data protection law under the terms of the AWS Data Processing Addendum with Model Clauses, which was approved in 2015 by the EU data protection authorities (called the Article 29 Working Party). These options are available to all AWS customers who are processing personal data, whether they are established in, or a global company operating in, the EEA.
Additionally, Amazon.com, Inc. is taking the necessary steps to certify under the EU-US Privacy Shield (as of August 1, companies can begin the process of certifying themselves against it). Upon completion of this process, AWS will be covered under this certification.
For customers not looking to transfer data out of the EEA, we continue to give them all of the security, privacy, and control they have always had with AWS:
Customers maintain ownership of their content and select which AWS services process, store, and host their data.
Customers concerned about security can encrypt their content in transit or at rest, and we also provide customers with the option to manage their own encryption keys—or we can do this for them.
Customers determine the location in which their data is stored and completely control any movement of that data. This allows customers to deploy AWS services in the locations of their choice, in accordance with their specific geographic requirements, including in established AWS regions in Dublin and Frankfurt—meaning customers can keep their content in the EU.
Customers will soon have the option to store their content in the UK when the AWS UK Region becomes available by the beginning of next year. This region will provide the same high levels of control, security, and data privacy customers receive in AWS’s other global regions.
European customers were among the first to adopt AWS services when we launched in 2006 and they have continued to move their mission-critical workloads to AWS at a rapid pace. Customers of every size, from every European country, and every industry, running all imaginable workloads, have been moving to AWS. We will continue to work closely with our customers across the EEA to help them move to the AWS Cloud, and we look forward to seeing the continued innovation and growth of all European businesses.
At AWS, security is our top priority, and we will continue to work vigilantly to ensure that our customers are able to continue to enjoy the benefits of AWS securely, compliantly, and without disruption in Europe and around the world.
Reading Peter’s post on getting your data ready for vacation travels, reminded me of a story we recently received from a Backblaze customer. Una’s laptop was stolen and then traveled the over multiple continents over the next year. Here’s Una’s story, in her own words, on how she got her laptop back. Enjoy.
Pulse Incident Number 10028192 (or: How Playing Computer Games Can Help You In Adulthood)
One day when I was eleven, my father arrived home with an object that looked like a briefcase made out of beige plastic. Upon lifting it, one realized it had the weight of, oh, around two elephants. It was an Ericsson ‘portable’ computer, one of the earliest prototypes of laptop. All my classmates had really cool and fashionable computer game consoles with amazing names like “Atari” and “Commodore”, beautifully vibrant colour displays, and joysticks. Our Ericsson had a display with two colours (orange and … dark orange), it used floppy discs that were actually floppy (remember those?), ran on DOS and had no hard drive (you had to load the operating system every single time you turned on the computer. Took around 10 minutes). I dearly loved this machine, however, and played each of the 6 games on it incessantly. One of these was “Where In The World Is Carmen Sandiego?” an educational game where a detective has to chase an archvillain around the world, using geographical and cultural references as clues to get to the next destination. Fast forward twenty years and…
It’s June 2013, I’m thirty years old, and I still love laptops. I live in Galway, Ireland; I’m a self-employed musician who works in a non-profit music school so the cash is tight, but I’ve splashed out on a Macbook Pro and I LOVE IT. I’m on a flight from Dublin to Dubai with a transfer in Turkey. I talk to the guy next to me, who has an Australian accent and mentions he’s going to Asia to research natural energy. A total hippy, I’m interested; we chat until the convo dwindles, I do some work on my laptop, and then I fall asleep.
At 11pm the plane lands in Turkey and we’re called off to transfer to a different flight. Groggy, I pick up my stuff and stumble down the stairs onto the tarmac. In the half-light beside the plane, in the queue for the bus to the terminal, I suddenly realize that I don’t have my laptop in my bag. Panicking, I immediately seek out the nearest staff member. “Please! I’ve left my laptop on the plane – I have to go back and get it!”
The guy says: “No. It’s not allowed. You must get on the bus, madam. The cabin crew will find it and put it in “Lost and Found” and send it to you.” I protest but I can tell he’s immovable. So I get on the bus, go into the terminal, get on another plane and fly to Dubai. The second I land I ring Turkish Air to confirm they’ve found my laptop. They haven’t. I pretty much stalk Turkish Air for the next two weeks to see if the laptop turns up, but to no avail. I travel back via the same airport (Ataturk International), and go around all three Lost and Found offices in the airport, but my laptop isn’t there amongst the hundreds of Kindles and iPads. I don’t understand.
As time drags on, the laptop doesn’t turn up. I report the theft in my local Garda station. The young Garda on duty is really lovely to me and gives me lots of empathy, but the fact that the laptop was stolen in airspace, in a foreign, non-EU country, does not bode well. I continue to stalk Turkish Airlines; they continue to stonewall me, so I get in touch with the Turkish Department for Consumer Affairs. I find a champion amongst them called Ece, who contacts Turkish Airlines and pleads on my behalf. Unfortunately they seem to have more stone walls in Turkey than there are in the entire of Co. Galway, and his pleas fall on deaf ears. Ece advises me I’ll have to bring Turkish Airlines to court to get any compensation, which I suspect will cost more time and money than the laptop is realistically worth. In a firstworld way, I’m devastated – this object was a massive financial outlay for me, a really valuable tool for my work. I try to appreciate the good things – Ece and the Garda Sharon have done their absolute best to help me, my pal Jerry has loaned me a laptop to tide me over the interim – and then I suck it up, say goodbye to the last of my savings, and buy a new computer.
I start installing the applications and files I need for my business. I subscribe to an online backup service, Backblaze, whereby every time I’m online my files are uploaded to the cloud. I’m logging in to Backblaze to recover all my files when I see a button I’ve never noticed before labelled “Locate My Computer”. I catch a breath. Not even daring to hope, I click on it… and it tells me that Backblaze keeps a record of my computer’s location every time it’s online, and can give me the IP address my laptop has been using to get online. The records show my laptop has been online since the theft!! Not only that, but Backblaze has continued to back up files, so I can see all files the thief has created on my computer. My laptop has last been online in, of all the places, Thailand. And when I look at the new files saved on my computer, I find Word documents about solar power. It all clicks. It was the plane passenger beside me who had stolen my laptop, and he is so clueless he’s continued to use it under my login, not realizing this makes him trackable every time he connects to the internet.
I keep the ‘Locate My Computer” function turned on, so I’m consistently monitoring the thief’s whereabouts, and start the chapter of my life titled “The Sleep Deprivation and The Phonebill”. I try ringing the police service in Thailand (GMT +7 hours) multiple times. To say this is ineffective is an understatement; the language barrier is insurmountable. I contact the Irish embassy in Bangkok – oh, wait, that doesn’t exist. I try a consulate, who is lovely but has very limited powers, and while waiting for them to get back to me I email two Malaysian buddies asking them if they know anyone who can help me navigate the language barrier. I’m just put in touch with this lovely pal-of-a-pal called Tupps who’s going to help me when… I check Backblaze and find out that my laptop had started going online in East Timor. Bye bye, Thailand.
I’m so wrecked trying to communicate with the Thai bureaucracy I decide to play the waiting game for a while. I suspect East Timor will be even more of an international diplomacy challenge, so let’s see if the thief is going to stay there for a while before I attempt a move, right? I check Backblaze around once a week for a month, but then the thief stops all activity – I’m worried. I think he’s realized I can track him and has stopped using my login, or has just thrown the laptop away. Reason kicks in, and I begin to talk myself into stopping my crazy international stalking project. But then, when I least expect it, I strike informational GOLD. In December, the thief checks in for a flight from Bali to Perth and saves his online check-in to the computer desktop. I get his name, address, phone number, and email address, plus flight number and flight time and date.
I have numerous fantasies about my next move. How about I ring up the police in Australia, they immediately believe my story and do my every bidding, and then the thief is met at Arrivals by the police, put into handcuffs and marched immediately to jail? Or maybe I should somehow use the media to tell the truth about this guy’s behaviour and give him a good dose of public humiliation? Should I try my own version of restorative justice, contact the thief directly and appeal to his better nature? Or, the most tempting of all, should I get my Australian-dwelling cousin to call on him and bash his face in? … This last option, to be honest, is the outcome I want the most, but Emmett’s actually on the other side of the Australian continent, so it’s a big ask, not to mention the ever-so-slightly scary consequences for both Emmett and myself if we’re convicted… ! (And, my conscience cries weakly from the depths, it’s just the teensiest bit immoral.) Christmas is nuts, and I’m just so torn and ignorant about course of action to take I … do nothing.
One morning in the grey light of early February I finally decide what to do. Although it’s the longest shot in the history of long shots, I will ring the Australian police force about a laptop belonging to a girl from the other side of the world, which was stolen in airspace, in yet another country in the world. I use Google to figure out the nearest Australian police station to the thief’s address. I set my alarm for 4am Irish time, I ring Rockhampton Station, Queensland, and explain the situation to a lovely lady called Danielle. Danielle is very kind and understanding but, unsurprisingly, doesn’t hold out much hope that they can do anything. I’m not Australian, the crime didn’t happen in Australia, there’s questions of jurisdiction, etc. etc. I follow up, out of sheer irrational compulsion rather than with the real hope of an answer, with an email 6 weeks later. There’s no response. I finally admit to myself the laptop is gone. Ever since he’s gone to Australia the thief has copped on and stopped using my login, anyway. I unsubscribe my stolen laptop from Backblaze and try to console myself with the thought that at least I did my best.
And then, completely out of the blue, on May 28th 2014, I get an email from a Senior Constable called Kain Brown. Kain tells me that he has executed a search warrant at a residence in Rockhampton and has my laptop!! He has found it!!! I am stunned. He quickly gets to brass tacks and explains my two options: I can press charges, but it’s extremely unlikely to result in a conviction, and even if it did, the thief would probably only be charged with a $200 fine – and in this situation, it could take years to get my laptop back. If I don’t press charges, the laptop will be kept for 3 months as unclaimed property, and then returned to me. It’s a no-brainer; I decide not to press charges. I wait, and wait, and three months later, on the 22nd September 2014, I get an email from Kain telling me that he can finally release the laptop to me.
Naively, I think my tale is at the “Happy Ever After” stage. I dance a jig around the kitchen table, and read my subsequent email from a “Property Officer” of Rockhampton Station, John Broszat. He has researched how to send the laptop back to me … and my jig is suddenly halted. My particular model of laptop has a lithium battery built into the casing which can only be removed by an expert, and it’s illegal to transport a lithium battery by air freight. So the only option for getting the laptop back, whole and functioning, is via “Sea Mail” – which takes three to four months to get to Ireland. This blows my mind. I can’t quite believe that in this day and age, we can send people to space, a media file across the world in an instant, but that transporting a physical object from one side of the globe to another still takes … a third of a year! It’s been almost a year and a half since my laptop was stolen. I shudder to think of what will happen on its final journey via Sea Mail – knowing my luck, the ship will probably be blown off course and it’ll arrive in the Bahamas.
Fortunately, John is empathetic, and willing to think outside the box. Do I know anyone who will be travelling from Australia to Ireland via plane who would take my laptop in their hand luggage? Well, there’s one tiny silver lining to the recession: half of Craughwell village has a child living in Australia. I ask around on Facebook and find out that my neighbour’s daughter is living in Australia and coming home for Christmas. John Broszat is wonderfully cooperative and mails my laptop to Maroubra Police Station for collection by the gorgeous Laura Gibbons. Laura collects it and brings it home in her flight hand luggage, and finally, FINALLY, on the 23rd of December 2014, 19 months after it’s been stolen, I get my hands on my precious laptop again.
I gingerly take the laptop out of the fashionable paper carrier bag in which Laura has transported it. I set the laptop on the table, and examine it. The casing is slightly more dented than it was, but except for that it’s in one piece. Hoping against hope, I open up the screen, press the ‘on’ button and… the lights flash and the computer turns on!!! The casing is dented, there’s a couple of insalubrious pictures on the hard drive I won’t mention, but it has been dragged from Turkey to Thailand to East Timor to Indonesia to Australia, and IT STILL WORKS. It even still has the original charger accompanying it. Still in shock that this machine is on, I begin to go through the hard drive. Of course, it’s radically different – the thief has deleted all my files, changed the display picture, downloaded his own files and applications. I’m curious: What sort of person steals other people’s laptops? How do they think, organize their lives, what’s going through their minds? I’ve seen most of the thief’s files before from stalking him via the Backblaze back-up service, and they’re not particularly interesting or informative about the guy on a personal level. But then I see a file I haven’t seen before, “ free ebook.pdf ”. I click on it, and it opens. I shake my head in disbelief. The one new file that the thief has downloaded onto my computer is the book “How To Win Friends And Influence People”.
A few weeks later, a new friend and I kiss for the first time. He’s a graphic designer from London. Five months later, he moves over to Ireland to be with me. We’re talking about what stuff he needs to bring when he’s moving and he says “I’m really worried; my desktop computer is huge. I mean, I have no idea how I’m going to bring it over.” Smiling, I say “I have a spare laptop that might suit you…”
[Editor: The moral of the story is make sure your data is backed up before you go on vacation.]
“Who knows who this is?” “It’s Tim Peake” “Where is he?” “In space” “No – he’s back on Earth!”pic.twitter.com/elfNXcAwsX
As we walked around the venue we grew more and more impressed by the projects on show. We asked each exhibiting group to talk us through their project, and were genuinely impressed by both the projects and their presentation. The first area we perused was the Scratch projects – games, animations, quizzes and more. I’m not the most accomplished Scratch programmer so I was very impressed with what we were shown.
When we moved on to a room of physical computing projects, we met Iseult Mangan, Ireland’s first Raspberry Pi Certified Educator:
First up, a home-made 3D holographic display. The picture does it no justice, but look close (or click to embiggen) and you’ll see the Scratch cat, which was spinning around as part of a longer animation. The girl who made it said she put it together out of an old CD case. Very cool indeed!
Scratch cat hologram
Plenty of great robots…
We arrived at a beautiful Pi-powered retro gaming console, and spoke to the maker’s Dad. He was excited for his son to be able to show his project to people from the Raspberry Pi Foundation and asked if we could stick around to wait for him to return. Here he is:
When I mentioned one of my favourite Mega Drive games, he loaded it up for me to play:
It took me about 15 years to complete this game – I was playing it before he was born!
This was really impressive: these two girls had made a Wii remote-pcontrolled hovercraft with a Raspberry Pi:
Watch Ben Nuttall’s Vine taken on 18 June 2016. It has 0 likes. The entertainment network where videos and personalities get really big, really fast. Download Vine to watch videos, remixes and trends before they blow up.
I met DJ Dhruv, who demonstrated his livecoding skills in Sonic Pi, and gave a very professional presentation involving a number of handshakes:
DJ Dhruv is livecoding in @sonic_pi and teaching us about the history of the amen break. @samaaron you’d love thispic.twitter.com/tSrn0CTQzP
Pi-vision: a way to help blind people find their way around…
Probably my favourite of all, this group created a 3D Minecraft Pi booth using mirrors. They showed me their Python code which ran simultaneously on two Pis, while one played music in Sonic Pi, with cross-application communication between Python and Sonic Pi to coordinate timings. A Herculean effort achieving a wonderful effect.
How can you get involved?
If you want to join us in giving more young people the opportunity to learn programming skills, learn to make things with computers, and generally hack things that didn’t need hacking, there are plenty of ways you can get involved. You can:
Set up a Raspberry Jam in your area, or volunteer to help out at one near you
Start a Code Club at a local primary school, or another venue like a library or community centre
Set up a CoderDojo, or offer to help at one near you
Also, I should point out we have an job opening for a senior programme manager. We’re looking for someone with experience running large programmes for young people. If that’s you, be sure to check it out!
As part of the Raspberry Pi Foundation’s mission to put the power of computing and digital making into the hands of people all over the world, we want to make these skills more relevant and accessible.
It’s kind of a thing to end blog posts with a GIF, so here’s mine:
Much like a roadway, the Internet is subject to congestion and blockage that cause slowdowns and at worst prevent packets from arriving at their destination. Like too many cars jamming themselves onto a highway, too much data over a route on the Internet results in slowdowns. Transatlantic cable breaks have much the same effect as road construction, resulting in detours and further congestion and may prevent access to certain sites altogether. Services with multiple points of presence paired with either smart clients or service-side routing logic improve performance and reliability by ensuring your viewers have access to alternative routes when roadways are blocked. This blog post provides you with an overview of service side and client side designs that can improve the reliability and performance of your Internet-facing services.
In order to understand how smart routing can increase performance, we must first understand why Internet downloads take time. To extend our roadway analogy, imagine we need to drive to the hardware to obtain supplies. If we can get our supplies in one trip and it takes 10 minutes to drive one way, it takes 20 minutes to get the supplies and return to the house project. (For sake of simplicity we’ll exclude the time involved with finding a parking spot, wandering aimlessly around the store in search of the right parts, and loading up materials.) Much of the time is taken up by driving the 5 km across multiples types of roadways to the hardware store.
Packets on the Internet must also transit physical distance and many links to reach their destination. A traceroute from my home network to my website hosted in eu-west-1 traverse 20 different links. It takes time for a packet to traverse the physical distance between each of these nodes. Traveling at a speed of 200,000 km/sec my packets travel from Seattle to Dublin and back in 170 ms.
Unlike roadways, when congestion occurs on Internet paths routers discard packets. Discarded packets result in retransmits by the sender adding additional round trips to the overall download. The additional round trips result in a slower download. Just as multiple trips to the hardware store results in more time spent driving and less time building.
To reduce the time of a round trip, a packet needs to travel a shorter physical distance. To avoid packet loss and additional round trips, a packet needs to avoid broken or congested routes. Performance and reliability of an Internet-facing service are improved by using the shortest physical path between the service and the client and by minimizing the number of round trips for data transfer.
Adding multiple points of presence to your architecture is like opening up a chain of hardware stores around the city. With multiple points of presence, drivers can choose a destination hardware store that allows them to drive the shortest physical distant. If the route to any one hardware store is congested or blocked entirely, driver can instead drive to the next nearest store.
Measuring the Internet
Finding the fastest and most reliable paths on across the Internet requires real world measurement. The closest endpoint as the crow flies often isn’t the same as fastest via Internet paths. The diagrams below depict an all too common example when driving in the real world. Given the starting point (the white dot), hardware store B (the red marker in the second diagram) is actually closer as the crow flies, but requires a lot more driving distance. A driver that knows the roadways will know that it will take less overall time to drive to store A.
Hardware store A is 10 minutes away by car
Hardware store B would be much closer by way of the water, but is 16 minutes by car
The same is true on the Internet, here’s a real-world example from CloudFront just after it launched in 2008. Below is a traceroute from an ISP network in Singapore to the SIN2 edge location in Singapore (internally AWS uses airport codes to identify edge locations). The trace route below shows that a packet sourced from a Singapore ISP to the SIN2 edge location was routed by way of Hong Kong! Based on the connectivity of this viewer network, Singapore customers are better served from the HKG1 edge location rather than SIN2. If routing logic assumed that geographically closer edge locations resulted in lower latency, the router engine would choose SIN2. By measuring latency the system we see that the system should select HKG50 as the preferred edge location, but going doing the routing system can provide the viewer with 32 ms round trip times versus 39 ms round trip times.
The topology of the Internet is always changing. The SIN to HKG example is old, now SIN2 is directly peered with the network above. Continuous or just in time measurements allow a system to adapt when Internet topology changes. Once the AWS networking team built a direct connection between our SIN edge location and the Singapore ISP, the CloudFront measurement system automatically observed lower latencies. SIN2 became preferred lowest latency pop. The direct path results in 2.2 ms round trip times versus 39 ms round trip times.
Leveraging Real World Measurements for Routing Decisions
CloudFront and Route 53 both leverage similar mechanisms to route clients to the closest available end points. CloudFront uses routing logic in its DNS layer. When clients resolve DNS for a CloudFront distribution they receive a set of IPs that map to the closest available edge location. Route 53’s Latency-Based Routing combined with DNS Failover and health checks allows customers to build the same routing logic into any service hosted across multiple AWS regions.
Availability failures are detected via continuous health checks. Each CloudFront edge location checks the availability of every other edge location and reports the health-state to CloudFront DNS servers (which also happen to be Route 53 DNS servers). If an edge location starts failing health checks, CloudFront DNS servers respond to client queries with IPs that map to the client’s the next-closest healthy edge location. AWS customers can implement similar health check fail over capabilities within their services by use the Route 53 DNS failover and health checks feature.
Lowest-latency routing is achieved by continuously sampling latency measurements from viewer networks across the Internet to each AWS region and edge location. Latency measurement data is compiled into a list of AWS sites for each viewer network, sorted by latency. CloudFront and Route 53 DNS servers use this data to direct traffic. When network topology shifts occur, the latency measurement system picks up the changes and reorders the list of least-latent AWS endpoints for that given network.
But service-side technology isn’t the only way to perform latency-based routing. Client software also has access to all of the data it needs to select the best endpoint. A smart client can intelligently rotate through a list of endpoints whenever a connection failure occurs. Smart clients perform their own latency measurements and choose the lowest latency endpoint as its connection destination. Most DNS resolvers do exactly that. Lee’s prior blog post made mention of DNS resolvers and provided a reference to this presentation.
The DNS protocol is well suited to smart-client endpoint selection. When a DNS server resolves a DNS name, say www.internetkitties.com, the server must first determine which DNS servers are authoritative to answer queries for the domain. In my case, my domain is hosted by Route 53, which provides me with 4 assigned name servers. Smart DNS resolvers track the query response times to each name server and preferentially query the fastest name server. If the name server fails to respond, the DNS resolver falls back to other name servers on the list.
There are examples in HTTP as well. The Kindle Fire web browser, Amazon Silk, makes use of a backend-resources hosted in multiple AWS regions to speed up the web browsing experience for its customers. The Amazon Silk client knows about and collects latency measurements against each endpoint of the Amazon Silk backend service. The client connects to the lowest-latency end point. As the device moves around from one network to another, the lowest-latency end point might change.
Service architecture with multiple points of presence on the Internet combined with latency-based service-side or client-side endpoint selection can improve the performance and reliability of your service. Let us know if you’d like to a follow blog on best practices for measuring Internet latencies or lessons learned from the Amazon Silk client-side endpoint selector.
– Nate Dye
The collective thoughts of the interwebz
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