Всеки има нужда да бъде спасен от свинщината, наречена “реклама” във всичките и форми. За хората с компютър и бразуер, това отдавна е решен проблем благодарение на AdBlock и подобни плъгини (стига да не използвате браузер като Chrome, но в този случай си заслужавате всичко дето ви се случва).
По-принцип не оставям компютър без инсталиран AdBlock, това си е направо обществено полезна дейност. Кофтито е, че на мобилния телефон, дори и да използвате Firefox и да имате подходящите Addons, програмчетата пак се изхитряват и ви спамят.
Сега, ако сте root-нали телефона (което никой не прави), можете да направите нещо по въпроса, но си е разправия, а както всички знаем, удобството винаги печели пред сигурността.
За щастие има има много лесен начин, да се отървете от долните спамери в две прости стъпки:
The Mozilla blog has an article describing the addition of DNS over HTTPS (DoH) as an optional feature in the Firefox browser. “DoH support has been added to Firefox 62 to improve the way Firefox interacts with DNS. DoH uses encrypted networking to obtain DNS information from a server that is configured within Firefox. This means that DNS requests sent to the DoH cloud server are encrypted while old style DNS requests are not protected.” The configured server is hosted by Cloudflare, which has posted this privacy agreement about the service.
Security updates have been issued by CentOS (389-ds-base, corosync, firefox, java-1.7.0-openjdk, java-1.8.0-openjdk, kernel, librelp, libvirt, libvncserver, libvorbis, PackageKit, patch, pcs, and qemu-kvm), Fedora (asterisk, ca-certificates, gifsicle, ncurses, nodejs-base64-url, nodejs-mixin-deep, and wireshark), Mageia (thunderbird), Red Hat (procps), SUSE (curl, kvm, and libvirt), and Ubuntu (apport, haproxy, and tomcat7, tomcat8).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (lib32-curl, lib32-libcurl-compat, lib32-libcurl-gnutls, libcurl-compat, and libcurl-gnutls), CentOS (firefox), Debian (imagemagick), Fedora (exiv2, LibRaw, and love), Gentoo (chromium), Mageia (kernel, librelp, and miniupnpc), openSUSE (curl, enigmail, ghostscript, libvorbis, lilypond, and thunderbird), Red Hat (Red Hat OpenStack Platform director), and Ubuntu (firefox).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (curl and zathura-pdf-mupdf), Debian (libmad and vlc), openSUSE (enigmail), Red Hat (collectd, Red Hat OpenStack Platform director, and sensu), and SUSE (firefox, ghostscript, and mysql).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (runc), Debian (curl), Fedora (xdg-utils), Mageia (firefox), openSUSE (libreoffice, librsvg, and php5), Slackware (curl and php), SUSE (curl, firefox, kernel, kvm, libapr1, libvorbis, and memcached), and Ubuntu (curl, dpdk, php5, and qemu).
This post courtesy of Jeff Levine Solutions Architect for Amazon Web Services
Amazon Linux 2 is the next generation of Amazon Linux, a Linux server operating system from Amazon Web Services (AWS). Amazon Linux 2 offers a high-performance Linux environment suitable for organizations of all sizes. It supports applications ranging from small websites to enterprise-class, mission-critical platforms.
Amazon Linux 2 includes support for the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MariaDB/PHP) stack, one of the most popular platforms for deploying websites. To secure the transmission of data-in-transit to such websites and prevent eavesdropping, organizations commonly leverage Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) services which leverage certificates to provide encryption. The LAMP stack provided by Amazon Linux 2 includes a self-signed SSL/TLS certificate. Such certificates may be fine for internal usage but are not acceptable when attestation by a certificate authority is required.
In this post, I discuss how to extend the capabilities of Amazon Linux 2 by installing Let’s Encrypt, a certificate authority provided by the Internet Security Research Group. Let’s Encrypt offers basic SSL/TLS certificates for DNS hosts at no charge that you can use to add encryption-in-transit to a single web server. For commercial or multi-server configurations, you should consider AWS Certificate Manager and Elastic Load Balancing.
Let’s Encrypt also requires the certbot package, which you install from EPEL, the Extra Packaged for Enterprise Linux collection. Although EPEL is not included with Amazon Linux 2, I show how you can install it from the Fedora Project.
At a high level, you perform the following tasks for this walkthrough:
Provision a VPC, Amazon Linux 2 instance, and LAMP stack.
Install and enable the EPEL repository.
Install and configure Let’s Encrypt.
Validate the installation.
Prerequisites and costs
To follow along with this walkthrough, you need the following:
Accept all other default values including with regard to storage.
Create a new security group and accept the default rule that allows TCP port 22 (SSH) from everywhere (0.0.0.0/0 in IPv4). For the purposes of this walkthrough, permitting access from all IP addresses is reasonable. In a production environment, you may restrict access to different addresses.
Allocate and associate an Elastic IP address to the server when it enters the running state.
Respond “Y” to all requests for approval to install the software.
Step 3: Install and configure Let’s Encrypt
If you are no longer connected to the Amazon Linux 2 instance, connect to it at the Elastic IP address that you just created.
Install certbot, the Let’s Encrypt client to be used to obtain an SSL/TLS certificate and install it into Apache.
sudo yum install python2-certbot-apache.noarch
Respond “Y” to all requests for approval to install the software. If you see a message appear about SELinux, you can safely ignore it. This is a known issue with the latest version of certbot.
Create a DNS “A record” that maps a host name to the Elastic IP address. For this post, assume that the name of the host is lamp.example.com. If you are hosting your DNS in Amazon Route 53, do this by creating the appropriate record set.
After the “A record” has propagated, browse to lamp.example.com. The Apache test page should appear. If the page does not appear, use a tool such as nslookup on your workstation to confirm that the DNS record has been properly configured.
You are now ready to install Let’s Encrypt. Let’s Encrypt does the following:
Confirms that you have control over the DNS domain being used, by having you create a DNS TXT record using the value that it provides.
Obtains an SSL/TLS certificate.
Modifies the Apache-related scripts to use the SSL/TLS certificate and redirects users browsing the site in HTTP mode to HTTPS mode.
Use the following command to install certbot:
sudo certbot -i apache -a manual \
--preferred-challenges dns -d lamp.example.com
The options have the following meanings:
-i apache Use the Apache installer.
-a manual Authenticate domain ownership manually.
--preferred-challenges dns Use DNS TXT records for authentication challenge.
-d lamp.example.com Specify the domain for the SSL/TLS certificate.
You are prompted for the following information: E-mail address for renewals? Enter an email address for certificate renewals. Accept the terms of services? Respond as appropriate. Send your e-mail address to the EFF? Respond as appropriate. Log your current IP address? Respond as appropriate.
You are prompted to deploy a DNS TXT record with the name “_acme-challenge.lamp.example.com” with the supplied value, as shown below.
After you enter the record, wait until the TXT record propagates. To look up the TXT record to confirm the deployment, use the nslookup command in a separate command window, as shown below. Remember to use the set ty=txt command before entering the TXT record. You are prompted to select a virtual host. There is only one, so choose 1. The final prompt asks whether to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS. To perform the redirection, choose 2. That completes the configuration of Let’s Encrypt.
To look at the encryption information, use the appropriate actions within your browser. For example, in Firefox, you can open the padlock and traverse the menus. In the encryption technical details, you can see from the “Connection Encrypted” line that traffic to the website is now encrypted using TLS 1.2.
Security note: As of the time of publication, this website also supports TLS 1.0. I recommend that you disable this protocol because of some known vulnerabilities associated with it. To do this:
Edit the file /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf.
Look for the line beginning with SSLProtocol and change it to the following:
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1
Save the file. After you make changes to this file, Let’s Encrypt no longer automatically updates it. Periodically check your log files for recommended updates to this file.
Restart the httpd server with the following command:
sudo service httpd restart
Step 5: Cleanup
Use the following steps to avoid incurring any further costs.
Terminate the Amazon Linux 2 instance that you created.
Release the Elastic IP address that you allocated.
Revert any DNS changes that you made, including the A and TXT records.
Amazon Linux 2 is an excellent option for hosting websites through the LAMP stack provided by the Amazon-Linux-Extras feature. You can then enhance the security of the Apache web server by installing EPEL and Let’s Encrypt. Let’s Encrypt provisions an SSL/TLS certificate, optionally installs it for you on the Apache server, and enables data-in-transit encryption. You can get started with Amazon Linux 2 in just a few clicks.
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (firefox, llpp, and webkit2gtk), Debian (kwallet-pam), Fedora (kernel and pam-kwallet), Gentoo (mpv), Oracle (389-ds-base, firefox, libvirt, and qemu-kvm), and Ubuntu (php5 and php5, php7.0, php7.1, php7.2).
Security updates have been issued by Debian (tiff and tiff3), Fedora (glusterfs, kernel, libgxps, LibRaw, postgresql, seamonkey, webkit2gtk3, wget, and xen), Mageia (afflib, flash-player-plugin, imagemagick, qpdf, and transmission), openSUSE (Chromium, opencv, and xen), SUSE (kernel), and Ubuntu (firefox).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (libmupdf, mupdf, mupdf-gl, and mupdf-tools), Debian (firebird2.5, firefox-esr, and wget), Fedora (ckeditor, drupal7, firefox, kubernetes, papi, perl-Dancer2, and quassel), openSUSE (cairo, firefox, ImageMagick, libapr1, nodejs6, php7, and tiff), Red Hat (qemu-kvm-rhev), Slackware (mariadb), SUSE (xen), and Ubuntu (openjdk-8).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (freetype2, libraw, and powerdns), CentOS (389-ds-base and kernel), Debian (php5, prosody, and wavpack), Fedora (ckeditor, fftw, flac, knot-resolver, patch, perl, and perl-Dancer2), Mageia (cups, flac, graphicsmagick, libcdio, libid3tag, and nextcloud), openSUSE (apache2), Oracle (389-ds-base and kernel), Red Hat (389-ds-base and flash-plugin), Scientific Linux (389-ds-base), Slackware (firefox and wget), SUSE (xen), and Ubuntu (wget).
Mozilla has released Firefox 60. From the release notes: “Firefox 60 offers something for everyone and a little something extra for everyone who deploys Firefox in an enterprise environment. This release includes changes that give you more content and more ways to customize your New Tab/Firefox Home. It also introduces support for the Web Authentication API, which means you can log in to websites in Firefox with USB tokens like YubiKey. Firefox 60 also brings a new policy engine and Group Policy support for enterprise deployments. For more info about why and how to use Firefox in the enterprise, see this blog post.”
Security updates have been issued by CentOS (firefox, java-1.7.0-openjdk, java-1.8.0-openjdk, librelp, patch, and python-paramiko), Debian (kernel and quassel), Gentoo (chromium, hesiod, and python), openSUSE (corosync, dovecot22, libraw, patch, and squid), Oracle (java-1.7.0-openjdk), Red Hat (go-toolset-7 and go-toolset-7-golang, java-1.7.0-openjdk, and rh-php70-php), and SUSE (corosync and patch).
Martin Pitt describes his experience running a fully free-software Android phone. “I previously used Opera as a web browser, because it is relatively lightweight (important on my previous phone) and the really good builtin ad blocker. But these days Firefox is really fast and good enough, so I replaced it with Fennec, which is more or less Firefox with some non-free bits removed. After installing uBlock Origin I’ve never looked back.”
Security updates have been issued by Debian (opencv and wireshark), Fedora (corosync and pcs), Oracle (firefox, kernel, libvncserver, and libvorbis), Slackware (gd), SUSE (kernel), and Ubuntu (apache2).
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (lib32-openssl and zsh), Debian (patch, perl, ruby-loofah, squirrelmail, tiff, and tiff3), Fedora (gnupg2), Gentoo (go), Mageia (firefox, flash-player-plugin, nxagent, puppet, python-paramiko, samba, and thunderbird), Red Hat (flash-plugin), Scientific Linux (python-paramiko), and Ubuntu (patch, perl, and ruby).
The collective thoughts of the interwebz
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