Tag Archives: literature

Literature dispenser

Post Syndicated from Liz Upton original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/literature-dispenser/

There are many things I do not know about Argentina. Until today, one of them was this: if you’re in an Argentinian bank, you may not use electronic devices. That includes phones and e-readers like the Kindle (and I can’t be the only person here who is pretty much surgically attached to their Kindle).

Enter the literature dispenser.

Roni Bandini, an Argentinian author, found himself twiddling his thumbs in a Buenos Aires bank queue, and thought that perhaps the 50 other people he could see in the same situation might benefit from a little distraction. How about a machine, owned by the bank, that could furnish you with one of a curated selection of short stories at the touch of a button? The short stories bit was easy: he writes them for a living.

Expendedor de literatura en tickets (invento argentino)

Expendedor de literatura en tickets desarrollado por @ronibandini Versión 2 Elementos utilizados para su fabricación: Raspberry Pi Thermal Printer LCD Display 16×2 Custom 3d Printed Case Más información en https://medium.com/@Bandini

He chose a Raspberry Pi because there are so many libraries for thermal printers and LCD displays available (and because it’s tiny, and you can fit a heck of a lot of short stories on an SD card these days).

Roni says:

This project was “trial and error” in many aspects. I had troubles with power source amperage due to thermal printer requirements, conflicts with previous software running in the Raspberry – since the same one was used for other projects – and I had to write some routines to avoid words being split due to ticket width. Since the machine could be working for 12 hours in a row, I have added a small 5v cooling fan in the back.

He built a wooden prototype, and was helped out by Z-lab, a small, local 3d print design studio, with permanent casing (which is rather lovely).

literature dispenser

The UI’s very simple: press the green button, be rewarded with a short story, printed to order on a till strip. We’d love to see businesses use these in real life (and we’re thinking one of these would be a lovely addition to the Pi Towers lobby, to help soothe anxious interview candidates). Thanks Roni – I’m off to try to find some of your work in translation, and we’re all agreed that we’re very grateful for internet banking.

The post Literature dispenser appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Estimating the Cost of Internet Insecurity

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/estimating_the_.html

It’s really hard to estimate the cost of an insecure Internet. Studies are all over the map. A methodical study by RAND is the best work I’ve seen at trying to put a number on this. The results are, well, all over the map:

Estimating the Global Cost of Cyber Risk: Methodology and Examples“:

Abstract: There is marked variability from study to study in the estimated direct and systemic costs of cyber incidents, which is further complicated by the considerable variation in cyber risk in different countries and industry sectors. This report shares a transparent and adaptable methodology for estimating present and future global costs of cyber risk that acknowledges the considerable uncertainty in the frequencies and costs of cyber incidents. Specifically, this methodology (1) identifies the value at risk by country and industry sector; (2) computes direct costs by considering multiple financial exposures for each industry sector and the fraction of each exposure that is potentially at risk to cyber incidents; and (3) computes the systemic costs of cyber risk between industry sectors using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development input, output, and value-added data across sectors in more than 60 countries. The report has a companion Excel-based modeling and simulation platform that allows users to alter assumptions and investigate a wide variety of research questions. The authors used a literature review and data to create multiple sample sets of parameters. They then ran a set of case studies to show the model’s functionality and to compare the results against those in the existing literature. The resulting values are highly sensitive to input parameters; for instance, the global cost of cyber crime has direct gross domestic product (GDP) costs of $275 billion to $6.6 trillion and total GDP costs (direct plus systemic) of $799 billion to $22.5 trillion (1.1 to 32.4 percent of GDP).

Here’s Rand’s risk calculator, if you want to play with the parameters yourself.

Note: I was an advisor to the project.

Separately, Symantec has published a new cybercrime report with their own statistics.

Detecting Adblocker Blockers

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/detecting_adblo.html

Interesting research on the prevalence of adblock blockers: “Measuring and Disrupting Anti-Adblockers Using Differential Execution Analysis“:

Abstract: Millions of people use adblockers to remove intrusive and malicious ads as well as protect themselves against tracking and pervasive surveillance. Online publishers consider adblockers a major threat to the ad-powered “free” Web. They have started to retaliate against adblockers by employing anti-adblockers which can detect and stop adblock users. To counter this retaliation, adblockers in turn try to detect and filter anti-adblocking scripts. This back and forth has prompted an escalating arms race between adblockers and anti-adblockers.

We want to develop a comprehensive understanding of anti-adblockers, with the ultimate aim of enabling adblockers to bypass state-of-the-art anti-adblockers. In this paper, we present a differential execution analysis to automatically detect and analyze anti-adblockers. At a high level, we collect execution traces by visiting a website with and without adblockers. Through differential execution analysis, we are able to pinpoint the conditions that lead to the differences caused by anti-adblocking code. Using our system, we detect anti-adblockers on 30.5% of the Alexa top-10K websites which is 5-52 times more than reported in prior literature. Unlike prior work which is limited to detecting visible reactions (e.g., warning messages) by anti-adblockers, our system can discover attempts to detect adblockers even when there is no visible reaction. From manually checking one third of the detected websites, we find that the websites that have no visible reactions constitute over 90% of the cases, completely dominating the ones that have visible warning messages. Finally, based on our findings, we further develop JavaScript rewriting and API hooking based solutions (the latter implemented as a Chrome extension) to help adblockers bypass state-of-the-art anti-adblockers.

News article.

Introducing Our Content Director: Roderick

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/introducing-content-director-roderick/

As Backblaze continues to grow, and as we go down the path of sharing our stories, we found ourselves in need of someone that could wrangle our content calendar, write blog posts, and come up with interesting ideas that we could share with our readers and fans. We put out the call, and found Roderick! As you’ll read below he has an incredibly interesting history, and we’re thrilled to have his perspective join our marketing team! Lets learn a bit more about Roderick, shall we?

What is your Backblaze Title?
Content Director

Where are you originally from?
I was born in Southern California, but have lived a lot of different places, including Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Texas, New Mexico, Austria, and Italy.

What attracted you to Backblaze?
I met Gleb a number of years ago at the Failcon Conference in San Francisco. I spoke with him and was impressed with him and his description of the company. We connected on LinkedIn after the conference and I ultimately saw his post for this position about a month ago.

What do you expect to learn while being at Backblaze?
I hope to learn about Backblaze’s customers and dive deep into the latest in cloud storage and other technologies. I also hope to get to know my fellow employees.

Where else have you worked?
I’ve worked for Microsoft, Adobe, Autodesk, and a few startups. I’ve also consulted to Apple, HP, Stanford, the White House, and startups in the U.S. and abroad. I mentored at incubators in Silicon Valley, including IndieBio and Founders Space. I used to own vineyards and a food education and event center in the Napa Valley with my former wife, and worked in a number of restaurants, hotels, and wineries. Recently, I taught part-time at the Culinary Institute of America at Greystone in the Napa Valley. I’ve been a partner in a restaurant and currently am a partner in a mozzarella di bufala company in Marin county where we have about 50 water buffalo that are amazing animals. They are named after famous rock and roll vocalists. Our most active studs now are Sting and Van Morrison. I think singing “a fantabulous night to make romance ‘neath the cover of October skies” works for Van.

Where did you go to school?
I studied at Reed College, U.C. Berkeley, U.C. Davis, and the Università per Stranieri di Perugia in Italy. I put myself through college so was in and out of school a number of times to make money. Some of the jobs I held to earn money for college were cook, waiter, dishwasher, bartender, courier, teacher, bookstore clerk, head of hotel maintenance, bookkeeper, lifeguard, journalist, and commercial salmon fisherman in Alaska.

What’s your dream job?
I think my dream would be having a job that would continually allow me to learn new things and meet new challenges. I love to learn, travel, and be surprised by things I don’t know.

I love animals and sometimes think I should have become a veterinarian.

Favorite place you’ve traveled?
I lived and studied in Italy, and would have to say the Umbria region of Italy is perhaps my favorite place. I also worked in my father’s home country of Austria, which is incredibly beautiful.

Favorite hobby?
I love foreign languages, and have studied Italian, French, German, and a few others. I am a big fan of literature and theatre and read widely and have attended theatre productions all over the world. That was my motivation to learn other languages—so I could enjoy literature and theatre in the languages they were written in. I started scuba diving when I was very young because I wanted to be Jacques-Yves Cousteau and explore the oceans. I also sail, motorcycle, ski, bicycle, hike, play music, and hope to finish my pilot’s license someday.

Coke or Pepsi?
Red Burgundy

Favorite food?
Both my parents are chefs, so I was exposed to a lot of great food growing up. I would have to give more than one answer to that question: fresh baked bread and bouillabaisse. Oh, and white truffles.

Not sure we’ll be able to stock our cupboards with Red Burgundy, but we’ll see what our office admin can do! Welcome to the team!

The post Introducing Our Content Director: Roderick appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

GameTale

Post Syndicated from Григор original http://www.gatchev.info/blog/?p=2060

Are you a parent to a several years old?

Do you want to teach the little kid to like books, while all she or he wants is games?

There is now a way to have both!

Sure, there are a lot of gamebooks, but they are targeted to teenagers. I will tell now of one that was written for children between three and nine years.

It is the tale of Gremmy – the little gremlin who goes to a big adventure. Who will climb The Big Mountain, or maybe will travel down The Deep River. Will venture into The Enchanted Forest, unless you would go with it inside The Dark Cave. Who will meet magical creatures and will face ingenious choices…

It is a tale you can read to your kids. Lead them through a kingdom of magic and wonder, meet them with its inhabitants and have them make their choices and see their funny and witty results. Nurture their curiosity and imagination, while also teaching them wise and important things.

The author – Nikola Raykov – is the youngest writer ever to win the most prestigious award for children’s literature in Bulgaria. The number of copies in Bulgarian that have been sold is higher than the typical for a book by Stephen King or Paulo Coelho! Since some time, it has been published also in Russian, Italian and Latvian. And now you can have the English translation.

Most gamebooks will have few illustrations, typically black-and-white ones. GameTale is full of excellent true color ones, as a book for children must be. And it provides not only entertainment, but also value.

Don’t you believe it? Take a look yourself – the entire book is available freely on the author’s website, even before it is printed – to read and play it, to download and enjoy it. Like all of its translations and the Bulgarian original. Yes, all these sales were done while the book has been available to everybody. The ability of the readers to see what they are buying has been its best advertisement.

Here is what the writer says:

“I believe it would be cruel if children weren’t able to enjoy my books because their parents could not afford them, and children’s authors should not be cruel. They should be gentle, caring and loving. The values we write about should not be just words on paper. We should be the living and breathing examples of those values, because what we write HAS to be true. Every good author will tell you that you cannot lie to your readers (or little listeners). They will catch you in a second. When you read a book, you can actually feel if the author is being honest about his or her inner self.”

“I DO believe that people are inherently good. If you have poured your heart into something, if you have tried your best, people will feel that and give you their unconditional support. There is no need to hide your work: people are not thieves! If you share, they will care, they will follow you, they will nag you about when your next book comes out, and yes, they will gladly support you because they will know that their children’s favorite author actually believes in the values he’s writing about. The same things they believe in – friendship, love and freedom!”

Nikola started a campaign on Kickstarter. Its goal is to fund the printing of 1000 copies of the book in English. And you do get for your donations things your kid will love!

Years ago, when I read this book, I felt like a kid. And now envy you a little for the joy that you will get from it. 🙂 Do give it a try. There is nothing to lose, and a lot to win!

Surveillance Intermediaries

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/06/surveillance_in_2.html

Interesting law-journal article: “Surveillance Intermediaries,” by Alan Z. Rozenshtein.

Abstract:Apple’s 2016 fight against a court order commanding it to help the FBI unlock the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino terrorists exemplifies how central the question of regulating government surveillance has become in American politics and law. But scholarly attempts to answer this question have suffered from a serious omission: scholars have ignored how government surveillance is checked by “surveillance intermediaries,” the companies like Apple, Google, and Facebook that dominate digital communications and data storage, and on whose cooperation government surveillance relies. This Article fills this gap in the scholarly literature, providing the first comprehensive analysis of how surveillance intermediaries constrain the surveillance executive. In so doing, it enhances our conceptual understanding of, and thus our ability to improve, the institutional design of government surveillance.

Surveillance intermediaries have the financial and ideological incentives to resist government requests for user data. Their techniques of resistance are: proceduralism and litigiousness that reject voluntary cooperation in favor of minimal compliance and aggressive litigation; technological unilateralism that designs products and services to make surveillance harder; and policy mobilization that rallies legislative and public opinion to limit surveillance. Surveillance intermediaries also enhance the “surveillance separation of powers”; they make the surveillance executive more subject to inter-branch constraints from Congress and the courts, and to intra-branch constraints from foreign-relations and economics agencies as well as the surveillance executive’s own surveillance-limiting components.

The normative implications of this descriptive account are important and cross-cutting. Surveillance intermediaries can both improve and worsen the “surveillance frontier”: the set of tradeoffs ­ between public safety, privacy, and economic growth ­ from which we choose surveillance policy. And while intermediaries enhance surveillance self-government when they mobilize public opinion and strengthen the surveillance separation of powers, they undermine it when their unilateral technological changes prevent the government from exercising its lawful surveillance authorities.

Maximising site performance: 5 key considerations

Post Syndicated from Davy Jones original https://www.anchor.com.au/blog/2017/03/maximising-site-performance-key-considerations/

The ongoing performance of your website or application is an area where ‘not my problem’ can be a recurring sentiment from all stakeholders.  It’s not just a case of getting your shiny new website or application onto the biggest, spec-ed-up, dedicated server or cloud instance that money can buy because there are many factors that can influence the performance of your website that you, yes you, need to make friends with.

The relationship between site performance and business outcomes

Websites have evolved into web applications, starting out as simple text in html format to complex, ‘rich’ multimedia content requiring buckets of storage and computing power. Your server needs to run complex scripts and processes, and serve up content to global visitors because let’s face it, you probably have customers everywhere (or at least have plans to achieve a global customer base ). It is a truth universally acknowledged, that the performance of your website is directly related to customer experience, so underestimating the impact of having poor site performance will absolutely affect your brand reputation, sales revenue and business outcomes negatively, jeopardising your business’ success.

Site performance stakeholders

There is an increasing range of literature around the growing importance of optimising site performance for maximum customer experience but who is responsible for owning the customer site experience? Is it the marketing team, development team, digital agency or your hosting provider? The short answer is that all of the stakeholders can either directly or indirectly impact your site performance.

Let’s explore this shared responsibility in more detail, let’s break it down into five areas that affect a website’s performance.

5 key site performance considerations

In order to truly appreciate the performance of your website or application, you must take into consideration 5 key areas that affect your website’s ability to run at maximum performance:

  1. Site Speed
  2. Reliability and availability
  3. Code Efficiency
  4. Scalability
  5. Development Methodology
1. Site Speed

Site speed is the most critical metric. We all know and have experienced the frustration of “this site is slow, it takes too long to load!”. It’s the main (and sometimes, only) metric that most people would think about when it comes to the performance of a web application.

But what does it mean for a site to be slow? Well, it usually comes down to these factors:

a. The time it takes for the server to respond to a visitor requesting a page.
b. The time it takes to download all necessary content to display the website.
c.  The time it takes for your browser to load and display all the content.

Usually, the hosting provider will look over  (a), and the developers would look over (b) and (c), as those points are directly related to the web application.

2. Reliability and availability

Reliability and availability go hand-in-hand.

There’s no point in having a fast website if it’s not *reliably* fast. What do we mean by that?

Well, would you be happy if your website was only fast sometimes? If your Magento retail store is lightning fast when you are the only one using it, but becomes unresponsive during a sale, then the service isn’t performing up to scratch. The hosting provider has to provide you with a service that stays up, and can withstand the traffic going to it.

Outages are also inevitable, as 100% uptime is a myth. But with some clever infrastructure designs, we can minimise downtime as close to zero as we can get! Here at Anchor, our services are built with availability in mind. If your service is inaccessible, then it’s not reliable.

Our multitude of hosting options on offer such as VPS, dedicated and cloud are designed specifically for your needs. Proactive and reactive support, and hands-on management means your server stays reliable and available.

We know some businesses are concerned about the very public outage of AWS in the US recently, however AWS have taken action across all regions to prevent this from occurring again. AWS’s detailed response can be found at S3 Service Disruption in the Northern Virginia (US-EAST-1) Region.

As an advanced consulting partner with Amazon Web Services (AWS), we can guide customers through the many AWS configurations that will deliver the reliability required.  Considerations include utilising multiple availability zones, read-only replicas, automatic backups, and disaster recovery options such as warm standby.  

3. Code Efficiency

Let’s talk about efficiency of a codebase, that’s the innards of the application.

The code of an application determines how hard the CPU (the brain of your computer) has to work to process all the things the application wants to be able to do. The more work your application performs, the harder the CPU has to work to keep up.

In short, you want code to be efficient, and not have to do extra, unnecessary work. Here is a quick example:

# Example 1:    2 + 2 = 4

# Example 2:    ( ( 1 + 5) / 3 ) * 1 ) + 2 = 4

The end result is the same, but the first example gets straight to the point. It’s much easier to understand and faster to process. Efficient code means the server is able to do more with the same amount of resources, and most of the time it would also be faster!

We work with many code efficient partners who create awesome sites that drive conversions.  Get in touch if you’re looking for a code efficient developer, we’d be happy to suggest one of our tried and tested partners

4. Scalability

Accurately predicting the spikes in traffic to your website or application is tricky business.  Over or under-provisioning of infrastructure can be costly, so ensuring that your build has the potential to scale can help your website or application to optimally perform at all times.  Scaling up involves adding more resources to the current systems. Scaling out involves adding more nodes. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. If you want to know more, feel free to talk to any member of our sales team to get started.

If you are using a public cloud infrastructure like Amazon Web Services (AWS) there are several ways that scalability can be built into your infrastructure from the start.  Clusters are at the heart of scalability and there are a number of tools can optimise your cluster efficiency such as Amazon CloudWatch, that can trigger scaling activities, and Elastic Load Balancing to direct traffic to the various clusters within your auto scaling group.  For developers wanting complete control over AWS resources, Elastic Beanstalk may be more appropriate.

5. Development Methodology

Development methodologies describe the process of what needs to happen in order to introduce changes to software. A commonly used methodology nowadays is the ‘DevOps’ methodology.

What is DevOps?

It’s the union of Developers and IT Operations teams working together to achieve a common goal.

How can it improve your site’s performance?

Well, DevOps is a way of working, a culture that introduces close collaboration between the two teams of Developers and IT Operations in a single workflow.   By integrating these teams the process of creating, testing and deploying software applications can be streamlined. Instead of each team working in a silo, cross-functional teams work together to efficiently solve problems to get to a stable release faster. Faster releases mean that your website or application gets updates more frequently and updating your application more frequently means you are faster to fix bugs and introduce new features. Check out this article ‘5 steps to prevent your website getting hacked‘ for more details. 

The point is the faster you can update your applications the faster it is for you to respond to any changes in your situation.  So if DevOps has the potential to speed up delivery and improve your site or application performance, why isn’t everyone doing it?

Simply put, any change can be hard. And for a DevOps approach to be effective, each team involved needs to find new ways of working harmoniously with other teams toward a common goal. It’s not just a process change that is needed, toolsets, communication and company culture also need to be addressed.

The Anchor team love putting new tools through their paces.  We love to experiment and iterate on our processes in order to find one that works with our customers. We are experienced in working with a variety of teams, and love to challenge ourselves. If you are looking for an operations team to work with your development team, get in touch.

***
If your site is running slow or you are experiencing downtime, we can run a free hosting check up on your site and highlight the ‘quick wins’ on your site to boost performance.

The post Maximising site performance: 5 key considerations appeared first on AWS Managed Services by Anchor.

Internet Filtering in Authoritarian Regimes

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/01/internet_filter.html

Interesting research: Sebastian Hellmeier, “The Dictator’s Digital Toolkit: Explaining Variation in Internet Filtering in Authoritarian Regimes,” Politics & Policy, 2016 (full paper is behind a paywall):

Abstract: Following its global diffusion during the last decade, the Internet was expected to become a liberation technology and a threat for autocratic regimes by facilitating collective action. Recently, however, autocratic regimes took control of the Internet and filter online content. Building on the literature concerning the political economy of repression, this article argues that regime characteristics, economic conditions, and conflict in bordering states account for variation in Internet filtering levels among autocratic regimes. Using OLS-regression, the article analyzes the determinants of Internet filtering as measured by the Open Net Initiative in 34 autocratic regimes. The results show that monarchies, regimes with higher levels of social unrest, regime changes in neighboring countries, and less oppositional competition in the political arena are more likely to filter the Internet. The article calls for a systematic data collection to analyze the causal mechanisms and the temporal dynamics of Internet filtering.

Classifying Elections as "Critical Infrastructure"

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/01/should_election.html

I am co-author on a paper discussing whether elections be classified as “critical infrastructure” in the US, based on experiences in other countries:

Abstract: With the Russian government hack of the Democratic National Convention email servers, and further leaks expected over the coming months that could influence an election, the drama of the 2016 U.S. presidential race highlights an important point: Nefarious hackers do not just pose a risk to vulnerable companies, cyber attacks can potentially impact the trajectory of democracies. Yet, to date, a consensus has not been reached as to the desirability and feasibility of reclassifying elections, in particular voting machines, as critical infrastructure due in part to the long history of local and state control of voting procedures. This Article takes on the debate in the U.S. using the 2016 elections as a case study but puts the issue in a global context with in-depth case studies from South Africa, Estonia, Brazil, Germany, and India. Governance best practices are analyzed by reviewing these differing approaches to securing elections, including the extent to which trend lines are converging or diverging. This investigation will, in turn, help inform ongoing minilateral efforts at cybersecurity norm building in the critical infrastructure context, which are considered here for the first time in the literature through the lens of polycentric governance.

The paper was speculative, but now it’s official. The U.S. election has been classified as critical infrastructure. I am tentatively in favor of this, but what really matter is what happens now. What does this mean? What sorts of increased security will election systems get? Will we finally get rid of computerized touch-screen voting?

EDITED TO ADD (1/16): This is a good article.

Google Releases Crypto Test Suite

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2016/12/google_releases.html

Google has released Project Wycheproof a test suite designed to test cryptographic libraries against a series of known attacks. From a blog post:

In cryptography, subtle mistakes can have catastrophic consequences, and mistakes in open source cryptographic software libraries repeat too often and remain undiscovered for too long. Good implementation guidelines, however, are hard to come by: understanding how to implement cryptography securely requires digesting decades’ worth of academic literature. We recognize that software engineers fix and prevent bugs with unit testing, and we found that many cryptographic issues can be resolved by the same means

The tool has already found over 40 security bugs in cryptographic libraries, which are (all? mostly?) currently being fixed.

News article. Slashdot thread.

How Different Stakeholders Frame Security

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2016/10/how_different_s.html

Josephine Wolff examines different Internet governance stakeholders and how they frame security debates.

Her conclusion:

The tensions that arise around issues of security among different groups of internet governance stakeholders speak to the many tangled notions of what online security is and whom it is meant to protect that are espoused by the participants in multistakeholder governance forums. What makes these debates significant and unique in the context of internet governance is not that the different stakeholders often disagree (indeed, that is a common occurrence), but rather that they disagree while all using the same vocabulary of security to support their respective stances. Government stakeholders advocate for limitations on WHOIS privacy/proxy services in order to aid law enforcement and protect their citizens from crime and fraud. Civil society stakeholders advocate against those limitations in order to aid activists and minorities and protect those online users from harassment. Both sides would claim that their position promotes a more secure internet and a more secure society — ­and in a sense, both would be right, except that each promotes a differently secure internet and society, protecting different classes of people and behaviour from different threats.

While vague notions of security may be sufficiently universally accepted as to appear in official documents and treaties, the specific details of individual decisions­ — such as the implementation of dotless domains, changes to the WHOIS database privacy policy, and proposals to grant government greater authority over how their internet traffic is routed­ — require stakeholders to disentangle the many different ideas embedded in that language. For the idea of security to truly foster cooperation and collaboration as a boundary object in internet governance circles, the participating stakeholders will have to more concretely agree on what their vision of a secure internet is and how it will balance the different ideas of security espoused by different groups. Alternatively, internet governance stakeholders may find it more useful to limit their discussions on security, as a whole, and try to force their discussions to focus on more specific threats and issues within that space as a means of preventing themselves from succumbing to a façade of agreement without grappling with the sources of disagreement that linger just below the surface.

The intersection of multistakeholder internet governance and definitional issues of security is striking because of the way that the multistakeholder model both reinforces and takes advantage of the ambiguity surrounding the idea of security explored in the security studies literature. That ambiguity is a crucial component of maintaining a functional multistakeholder model of governance because it lends itself well to high-level agreements and discussions, contributing to the sense of consensus building across stakeholders. At the same time, gathering those different stakeholders together to decide specific issues related to the internet and its infrastructure brings to a fore the vast variety of definitions of security they employ and forces them to engage in security-versus-security fights, with each trying to promote their own particular notion of security. Security has long been a contested concept, but rarely do these contestations play out as directly and dramatically as in the multistakeholder arena of internet governance, where all parties are able to face off on what really constitutes security in a digital world.

We certainly saw this in the “going dark” debate: e.g. the FBI vs. Apple and their iPhone security.

Call me Ishmael

Post Syndicated from Lorna Lynch original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/call-me-ishmael/

“I write this sitting in the kitchen sink”. “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times”. “When Gregor Samsa woke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed right there in his bed into some sort of monstrous insect”. “It was the day my grandmother exploded”. The opening line of a novel can catch our attention powerfully, and can stay with us long after the book itself is finished. A memorable first line is endlessly quotable, and lends itself to parody (“It is a truth universally acknowledged that a zombie in possession of brains must be in want of more brains”). Sometimes, a really cracking first line can even inspire a group of talented people to create a unique and beautiful art object, with a certain tiny computer at its heart. 

IMG_5975

Stephanie Kent demonstrates the Call Me Ishmael Phone at ALA 2016

If you read the roundup of our trip to ALA 2016, you will already have caught a glimpse of this unusual Pi-powered project: the Call Me Ishmael Phone. The idea originated back in 2014 when founders Logan Smalley and Stephanie Kent were discussing their favourite opening lines of books: they were both struck by Herman Melville’s laconic phrase in Moby Dick, and began wondering, “What if Ishmael had a phone number? What if you actually could call him?” Their Call Me Ishmael project began with a phone number (people outside the US can Skype Ishmael instead), an answering machine, and an invitation to readers to tell Ishmael a story about a book they love, and how it has shaped their life. The most interesting, funny, and poignant stories are transcribed by Stephanie on a manual typewriter and shared on social media. Here’s a playlist of some of the team’s favourites: 

Having created Ishmael’s virtual world, Stephanie and Logan collaborated with artist and maker Ayodamola Okunseinde to build the physical Call Me Ishmael Phone. Ayo took a commercially available retro-style telephone and turned it into an interactive book-recommendation device. For the prototype, he used a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B, but the production model of the phone uses the latest Pi 3. He explains, “we have a USB stick drive connected to the Pi that holds audio files, configuration, and identification data for each unit. We also have a small USB-powered speaker that amplifies the audio output from the Pi”. The Pis are controlled by a Python script written by programmer Andy Cavatorta.

CMI-Phone-in-Shop_Steph_Andy_Ayo-min-min

Stephanie, Andy, and Ayo in the workshop. 

The phone can be installed in a library, bookshop, or another public space. The phone is loaded with a number of book reviews, some mapped to individual buttons on the phone, and some which can be selected at random. When a person presses the dial buttons on the phone, the GPIO pins detect the input. This subsequently triggers an audio file to play. If, during play, another button is pressed, the Pi switches audio output to the associated button. Hanging up the phone causes the termination of the playing audio file. The system consists of several units in different locations that have audio and data files pushed to them daily from a control server. The system also has an app that allows users to push and pull content from individual Pis as well as triggering a particular phone to ring.

CMI-Phone-Avid-center-floor-stand-flush-right-min-min

The finished unit installed in a bookshop.

The Call Me Ishmael Phone is a thoughtful project which uses the Raspberry Pi in a very unusual way: it’s not often that programming and literature intersect like this. We’re delighted to see it, and we can’t wait to see what ways the makers might come up with to use the Raspberry Pi in future. And if you have a book which has changed your life, why not call Ishmael and share your story?

The post Call me Ishmael appeared first on Raspberry Pi.