Tag Archives: OctoPrint

OctoPrint: a baby monitor for your 3D printer

Post Syndicated from Andrew Gregory original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/octoprint-a-baby-monitor-for-your-3d-printer/

In issue 32 of HackSpace magazine, out now, we talk to Gina Häußge, creator of OctoPrint – it sits on a Raspberry pi and monitors your 3D printer.

Gina Häußge, creator and maintainer of OctoPrint

There’s something enchanting about watching a 3D printer lay down hot plastic. Seeing an object take shape before your eyes is utterly compelling, which is perhaps why we love watching 3D printing time-lapse videos so much.

Despite this, it would be impractical and inefficient to sit and watch every time you sent a print job through. That’s why we should all be grateful for OctoPrint. This free, open-source software monitors your 3D printer for you, keeping you from wasting plastic and ensuring that you can go about your business without fearing for your latest build.
OctoPrint is the creation of Gina Haüßge. We enjoyed a socially distant chat with her about the challenges of running an open-source project, making, and what it’s like to have a small project become huge.

HackSpace: Most people who have used a 3D printer will have heard of OctoPrint, but for the benefit of those who haven’t, what is it?

Gina Haüßge: Somebody once called it a baby monitor for your 3D printer. I really like this description. It’s pretty much a combination of a baby monitor and a remote control, because it allows you to go through any web browser on your network and monitor what your printer is currently up to, how much the current job has progressed. If you have a webcam set up, it can show you the print itself, so you can see that everything is working correctly, it’s still on the bed, and all that.

It also offers a plug-in interface so that it can be expanded with various features and functionality, and people have written a ton of integrations with notification systems. And all of this runs on pretty much any system that runs Python. I have to say Python, not MicroPython, the full version. Usually Linux, and the most common use case is to run it on a Raspberry Pi, and this is also how I originally set it out to work.

Most people think it only runs on a Raspberry Pi, but no. It will run on any old laptop that you still have lying around. It’s cross-platform, so you don’t need to buy a Raspberry Pi if you have another machine that will fit the bill.

OctoPrint is most commonly run on a Raspberry Pi

HS: How long have you been working on it?

GH: I originally sat down to write it over my Christmas break in 2012, because I had got my first 3D printer back then. It was sitting in my office producing fumes and noise for hours on end, which was annoying when trying to work, or game, or anything else.

I thought there must be a solution involving attaching one of these nifty new Raspberry Pis that had just come out. Someone must have written something, right? I browsed around the internet, realised that the closest thing to what I was looking for treated the printer as a black box – to fire job data at it and hope that it gets it right. That was not what I wanted; I wanted this feedback channel. I wanted to see what was happening; I wanted to monitor the temperatures; I wanted to monitor the job progress.

The very first version back then was a plug-in for Cura, before Cura even supported plug-ins. After my Christmas break, I went, OK, it’s doing everything I wanted it to do; back to work at my normal regular job. And then it exploded. I started getting emails, issue reports, and feature requests from all over the world. ‘Can you make it also do this?’ ‘Hey, I have this other printer with this slightly different firmware that behaves like this; can you adapt it so that it works with this?’. ‘Can you remove it from Cura, and have it so it works standalone?’ Suddenly I had this huge open-source project on my hands. I didn’t do any kind of promotion for it or anything like that. I just posted about it in a Google+ community, of all things, and from there it grew by word of mouth.

A year or so later, I reduced my regular job to 80%, to have one day a week for OctoPrint, but that didn’t suffice either with everything that was going on. Then I had the opportunity to go full-time, sponsored by a single company who also made 3D printers, and they ran out of money in 2016. That was when I turned to crowdfunding, which has been the mode of operation ever since. Around 95% of everything that is done on OctoPrint is run by me, and I work on it full-time now. Since 2014.

A lot of the stuff that I have been adding over the years, for instance, the plug-in system itself, would not have been possible as a pet side project, not with a day job.

HS: What are you working on at the moment?

GH: In March just gone, I released the next big version, to make OctoPrint Python 3-compatible, because at the start of the year Python was deemed end of life, so I had to do something. The problem is that there’s a flourishing plug-in ecosystem written in Python 2, so for now, I’m stuck with having to support both, and trying to motivate the plug-in maintainers to also migrate, which is a ton of fun actually. I wrote a migration guide, tracking in the plug-in repository how many plugs are compatible. Newly registered plug-ins have to be compatible too.

HS: Do you have any idea how many people use OctoPrint?

GH: Nine months, a year ago, I introduced usage tracking. It’s my own bundled plug-in that ships with OctoPrint that does anonymous user tracking through my own platform, so no GDPR issues should arise there. And what this shows me is that, over the course of the last seven days, I saw 66,000 instances, and the last 30 days, I saw 91,000 instances.

But that’s only those who have opted into the usage tracking, which obviously is only a fraction. I have no idea about the fraction – whether the real number is five times, ten times higher, I’ve no way of knowing.

When I did the most recent big update, I got some statistics back from piwheels [a Python package repository]. They saw a spike in repositories that were being pulled from their index, which corresponded to dependencies that the new version of OctoPrint depends on, and the spike that they saw corresponded with the day that I rolled out the new version. Based on that, it looks like there’s probably ten times as many instances out there. I didn’t expect that. So the total number of users could be 700,000, it could be over a million, I have no idea. But based on these piwheels stats, it’s in that ballpark.

HS: And are you seeing a growth in those figures?

GH: Yes. Especially now, with the pandemic going on. If you had asked me three or four months ago, just when the pandemic started, I would have told you more like 60,000 per 30 days. So I saw a significant increase. I also saw a significant usage increase in the last couple of weeks.

I also saw a significant increase in support overheads in the last couple of weeks, which was absolutely insane. It was like everyone and their mother wanted to know something from me, writing me emails, opening tickets and all that, and this influx of people has not stopped yet. At first I thought, well I’ll just go into crunch mode and weather this out, but that didn’t work out. I had to find new ways to cope in order to keep this sustainable.

HS: You can’t have crunch mode for three months!

GH: I mean it’s OK for four weeks or so, but then you start to notice side effects on your own well-being. It’s not a good idea. I’m in for the long haul.

HS: Wanting a feedback channel instead of just firing off commands that work silently makes a lot of sense.

GH: It’s not like a paper printer where you fire and forget, so treating it as a black box, where you don’t get anything back on status and all that, is bound to be trouble. This is a complicated machine where a lot of stuff can go wrong, so it makes sense to have a feedback channel — at least that was my intuition back then, and evidently, a lot of people thought the same.

HS: You must have saved people countless hours and hours of wasted time, filament, and energy.

GH: I’ve also heard that I’ve saved at least one marriage! Someone wrote me an email a couple of years ago thanking me because the person had a new printer in their garage and was constantly monitoring it, sitting in front of it. Apparently the wife and kids were not too thrilled by this. They installed OctoPrint, and since then they’ve been happy again.

Get HackSpace magazine issue 31 — out today

HackSpace magazine issue 32: on sale now!

You can read the rest of HackSpace magazine’s interview with Gina Häußge in issue 32, out today and available online from the Raspberry Pi Press online store. You can also download issue 32 for free.

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Raspberry Pi vs antibiotic resistance: microbiology imaging with open source hardware

Post Syndicated from Helen Lynn original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-vs-antibiotic-resistance-microbiology-imaging-with-open-source-hardware/

The Edwards Lab at the University of Reading has developed a flexible, low-cost, open source lab robot for capturing images of microbiology samples with a Raspberry Pi camera module. It’s called POLIR, for Raspberry Pi camera Open-source Laboratory Imaging Robot. Here’s a timelapse video of them assembling it.

Measuring antibiotic resistance with colour-changing dye

The robot is useful for all kinds of microbiology imaging, but at the moment the lab is using it to measure antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. They’re doing this by detecting the colour change in a dye called resazurin, which changes from blue to pink in the presence of metabolically active cells: if bacteria incubated with antibiotics grow, their metabolic activity causes the dye to turn pink. However, if the antibiotics stop or impede the growth of the bacteria, their lower levels of metabolic activity will cause less colour change, or none at all. In the photo below, the colourful microtitre plate holds bacterial samples with and without resistance to the antibiotics against which they’re being tested.

POLIR, an open source 3D printer-based Raspberry Pi lab imaging robot

An imaging system based on 3D-printer designs

The researchers adapted existing open source 3D printer designs and used v-slot aluminium extrusion (this stuff) with custom 3D-printed joints to make a frame. Instead of a printer extrusion head, a Raspberry Pi and camera module are mounted on the frame. An Arduino running open-source Repetier software controls x-y-z stepper motors to adjust the position of the computer and camera.

Front and top views of POLIR

Open-source OctoPrint software controls the camera position by supplying scripts from the Raspberry Pi to the Arduino. OctoPrint also allows remote access and control, which gives researchers flexibility in when they run experiments and check progress. Images are acquired using a Python script configured with the appropriate settings (eg image exposure), and are stored on the Raspberry Pi’s SD card. From there, they can be accessed via FTP.

More flexibility, lower cost

Off-the-shelf lab automation systems are extremely expensive and remain out of the reach of most research groups. POLIR cost just £600.

The system has a number of advantages over higher-cost off-the-shelf imaging systems. One is its flexibility: the robot can image a range of sample formats, including agar plates like those in the video above, microtitre plates like the one in the first photograph, and microfluidic “lab-on-a-comb” devices. A comb looks much like a small, narrow rectangle of clear plastic with striations running down its length; each striation is a microcapillary with capacity for a 1μl sample, and each comb has ten microcapillaries. These microfluidic devices let scientists run experiments on a large number of samples at once, while using a minimum of space on a lab bench, in an incubator, or in an imaging robot like POLIR.

POLIR accommodates 2160 individual capillaries and a 96 well plate, with room to spare

High spatial and temporal resolution

For lab-on-a-comb images, POLIR gives the Reading team four times the spatial resolution they get with a static camera. The moveable Raspberry Pi camera with a short focus yields images with 6 pixels per capillary, compared to 1.5 pixels per capillary using a $700 static Canon camera with a macro lens.

Because POLIR is automated, it brings higher temporal resolution within reach, too. A non-automated system, by contrast, can only be used for timelapse imaging if a researcher repeatedly intervenes at fixed time intervals. Capturing kinetic data with timelapse imaging is valuable because it can be significant if different samples reach the same endpoint but at different rates, and because some dyes can give a transient signal that would be missed by an endpoint measurement alone.

Dr Alexander Edwards of the University of Reading comments:

We built the robot with a simple purpose, to make antimicrobial resistance testing more robust without resorting to expensive and highly specialised lab equipment […] The beauty of the POLIR kit is that it’s based on open source designs and we have likewise published our own designs and modifications, allowing everyone and anyone to benefit from the original design and the modifications in other contexts. We believe that open source hardware is a game changer that will revolutionise microbiological and other life science lab work by increasing data production whilst reducing hands-on labour time in the lab.

You can find POLIR on GitLab here. You can also read more, and browse more figures, in the team’s open-access paper, Exploiting open source 3D printer architecture for laboratory robotics to automate high-throughput time-lapse imaging for analytical microbiology.

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How to set up OctoPrint on your Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/how-to-set-up-octoprint-on-your-raspberry-pi/

If you own a 3D printer, you’ll likely have at least heard of OctoPrint from the ever benevolent 3D printing online community. It has the potential to transform your 3D printing workflow for the better, and it’s very easy to set up. This guide will take you through the setup process step by step, and give you some handy tips along the way.

Octoprint

Before we start finding out how to install OctoPrint, let’s look at why you might want to. OctoPrint is a piece of open-source software that allows us to add WiFi functionality to any 3D printer with a USB port (which is pretty much all of them). More specifically, you’ll be able to drop files from your computer onto your printer, start/stop prints, monitor your printer via a live video feed, control the motors, control the temperature, and more, all from your web browser. Of course, with great power comes great responsibility — 3D printers have parts that are hot enough to cause fires, so make sure you have a safe setup, which may include not letting it run unsupervised.

OctoPrint ingredients

• Raspberry Pi 3 (or newer)
MicroSD card
• Raspberry Pi power adapter
• USB cable (the connector type will depend on your printer)
• Webcam/Raspberry Pi Camera Module (optional)
• 3D-printed camera mount (optional)

Before we get started, it is not recommended that anything less than a Raspberry Pi 3 is used for this project. There have been reports of limited success using OctoPrint on a Raspberry Pi Zero W, but only if you have no intention of using a camera to monitor your prints. If you want to try this with a Pi Zero or an older Raspberry Pi, you may experience unexpected print failures.

Download OctoPi

Firstly, you will need to download the latest version of OctoPi from the OctoPrint website. OctoPi is a Raspbian distribution that comes with OctoPrint, video streaming software, and CuraEngine for slicing models on your Raspberry Pi. When this has finished downloading, unzip the file and put the resulting IMG file somewhere handy.

Next, we need to flash this image onto our microSD card. We recommend using Etcher to do this, due to its minimal UI and ease of use; plus it’s also available to use on both Windows and Mac. Get it here: balena.io/etcher. When Etcher is installed and running, you’ll see the UI displayed. Simply click the Select Image button and find the IMG file you unzipped earlier. Next, put your microSD card into your computer and select it in the middle column of the Etcher interface.

Finally, click on Flash!, and while the image is being burned onto the card, get your WiFi router details, as you’ll need them for the next step.

Now that you have your operating system, you’ll want to add your WiFi details so that the Raspberry Pi can automatically connect to your network after it’s booted. To do this, remove the microSD card from your computer (Etcher will have ‘ejected’ the card after it has finished burning the image onto it) and then plug it back in again. Navigate to the microSD card on your computer — it should now be called boot — and open the file called octopi-wpa-supplicant.txt. Editing this file using WordPad or TextEdit can cause formatting issues; we recommend using Notepad++ to update this file, but there are instructions within the file itself to mitigate formatting issues if you do choose to use another text editor. Find the section that begins ## WPA/WPA2 secured and remove the hash signs from the four lines below this one to uncomment them. Finally, replace the SSID value and the PSK value with the name and password for your WiFi network, respectively (keeping the quotation marks). See the example below for how this should look.

Further down in the file, there is a section for what country you are in. If you are using OctoPrint in the UK, leave this as is (by default, the UK is selected). However, if you wish to change this, simply comment the UK line again by adding a # before it, and uncomment whichever country you are setting up OctoPrint in. The example below shows how the file will look if you are setting this up for use in the US:

# Uncomment the country your Pi is in to activate Wifi in RaspberryPi 3 B+ and above
# For full list see: https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ISO_3166-1_alpha-2
#country=GB # United Kingdom
#country=CA # Canada
#country=DE # Germany
#country=FR # France
country=US # United States

When the changes have been made, save the file and then eject/unmount and remove the microSD card from your computer and put it into your Raspberry Pi. Plug the power supply in, and go and make a cup of tea while it boots up for the first time (this may take around ten minutes). Make sure the Raspberry Pi is running as expected (i.e. check that the green status LED is flashing intermittently). If you’re using macOS, visit octopi.local in your browser of choice. If you’re using Windows, you can find OctoPrint by clicking on the Network tab in the sidebar. It should be called OctoPrint instance on octopi – double-clicking on this will open the OctoPrint dashboard in your browser.

If you see the screen shown above, then congratulations! You have set up OctoPrint.

Not seeing that OctoPrint splash screen? Fear not, you are not the first. While a full list of issues is beyond the scope of this article, common issues include: double-checking your WiFi details are entered correctly in the octopi-wpa-supplicant.txt file, ensuring your Raspberry Pi is working correctly (plug the Raspberry Pi into a monitor and watch what happens during boot), or your Raspberry Pi may be out of range of your WiFi router. There’s a detailed list of troubleshooting suggestions on the OctoPrint website.

Printing with OctoPrint

We now have the opportunity to set up OctoPrint for our printer using the handy wizard. Most of this is very straightforward — setting up a password, signing up to send anonymous usage stats, etc. — but there are a few sections which require a little more thought.

We recommend enabling the connectivity check and the plug-ins blacklist to help keep things nice and stable. If you plan on using OctoPrint as your slicer as well as a monitoring tool, then you can use this step to import a Cura profile. However, we recommend skipping this step as it’s much quicker (and you can use a slicer of your choice) to slice the model on your computer, and then send the finished G-code over.

Finally, we need to put in our printer details. Above, we’ve included some of the specs of the Creality Ender-3 as an example. If you can’t find the exact details of your printer, a quick web search should show what you need for this section.

The General tab can have anything in it, it’s just an identifier for your own use. Print bed & build volume should be easy to find out — if not, you can measure your print bed and find out the position of the origin by looking at your Cura printer profile. Leave Axes as default; for the Hotend and extruder section, defaults are almost certainly fine here (unless you’ve changed your nozzle; 0.4 is the default diameter for most consumer printers).

OctoPrint is better with a camera

Now that you’re set up with OctoPrint, you’re ready to start printing. Turn off your Raspberry Pi, then plug it into your 3D printer. After it has booted up, open OctoPrint again in your browser and take your newly WiFi-enabled printer for a spin by clicking the Connect button. After it has connected, you’ll be able to set the hot end and bed temperature, then watch as the real-time readings are updated.

In the Control tab, we can see the camera stream (if you’re using one) and the motor controls, as well as commands to home the axes. There’s a G-code file viewer to look through a cross-section of the currently loaded model, and a terminal to send custom G-code commands to your printer. The last tab is for making time-lapses; however, there is a plug-in available to help with this process.

Undoubtedly the easiest way to set up video monitoring of your prints is to use the official Raspberry Pi Camera Module. There are dozens of awesome mounts on Thingiverse for a Raspberry Pi Camera Module, to allow you to get the best angle of your models as they print. There are also some awesome OctoPrint-themed Raspberry Pi cases to house your new printer brains. While it isn’t officially supported by OctoPrint, you can use a USB webcam instead if you have one handy, or just want some very high-quality video streams. The OctoPrint wiki has a crowdsourced list of webcams known to work, as well as a link for the extra steps needed to get the webcam working correctly.

As mentioned earlier, our recommended way of printing a model using OctoPrint is to first use your slicer as you would if you were creating a file to save to a microSD card. Once you have the file, save it somewhere handy on your computer, and open the OctoPrint interface. In the bottom left of the screen, you will see the Upload File button — click this and upload the G-code you wish to print.

You’ll see the file/print details appear, including information on how long it’ll take for the object to print. Before you kick things off, check out the G-code Viewer tab on the right. You can not only scroll through the layers of the object, but, using the slider at the bottom, you can see the exact pattern the 3D printer will use to ‘draw’ each layer. Now click Print and watch your printer jump into action!

OctoPrint has scores of community-created plug-ins, but our favourite, Octolapse, makes beautiful hypnotic time-lapses. What makes them so special is that the plug-in alters the G-code of whatever object you are printing so that once each layer has finished, the extruder moves away from the print to let the camera take an unobstructed shot of the model. The result is an object that seems to grow out of the build plate as if by magic. You’ll not find a finer example of it than here.

Satisfying 3D Prints TimeLapse episode 7 (Prusa I3 Mk3 octopi)

3D Printing timelapses of models printed on the Prusa i3 MK3! Here’s another compilation of my recent timelapses. I got some shots that i think came out really great and i hope you enjoy them! as always if you want to see some of these timelapses before they come out or want to catch some behind the scenes action check out my instagram!

Thanks to Glenn and HackSpace magazine

This tutorial comes fresh from the pages of HackSpace magazine issue 26 and was written by Glenn Horan. Thanks, Glenn.

To get your copy of HackSpace magazine issue 26, visit your local newsagent, the Raspberry Pi Store, Cambridge, or the Raspberry Pi Press online store.

Fans of HackSpace magazine will also score themselves a rather delightful Adafruit Circuit Playground Express with a 12-month subscription. Sweet!

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