Tag Archives: pem

Congratulations to Oracle on MySQL 8.0

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2018/04/congratulations-to-oracle-on-mysql-80.html

Last week, Oracle announced the general availability of MySQL 8.0. This is good news for database users, as it means Oracle is still developing MySQL.

I decide to celebrate the event by doing a quick test of MySQL 8.0. Here follows a step-by-step description of my first experience with MySQL 8.0.
Note that I did the following without reading the release notes, as is what I have done with every MySQL / MariaDB release up to date; In this case it was not the right thing to do.

I pulled MySQL 8.0 from [email protected]:mysql/mysql-server.git
I was pleasantly surprised that ‘cmake . ; make‘ worked without without any compiler warnings! I even checked the used compiler options and noticed that MySQL was compiled with -Wall + several other warning flags. Good job MySQL team!

I did have a little trouble finding the mysqld binary as Oracle had moved it to ‘runtime_output_directory’; Unexpected, but no big thing.

Now it’s was time to install MySQL 8.0.

I did know that MySQL 8.0 has removed mysql_install_db, so I had to use the mysqld binary directly to install the default databases:
(I have specified datadir=/my/data3 in the /tmp/my.cnf file)

> cd runtime_output_directory
> mkdir /my/data3
> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –install

2018-04-22T12:38:18.332967Z 1 [ERROR] [MY-011011] [Server] Failed to find valid data directory.
2018-04-22T12:38:18.333109Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010020] [Server] Data Dictionary initialization failed.
2018-04-22T12:38:18.333135Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010119] [Server] Aborting

A quick look in mysqld –help –verbose output showed that the right command option is –-initialize. My bad, lets try again,

> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –initialize

2018-04-22T12:39:31.910509Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010457] [Server] –initialize specified but the data directory has files in it. Aborting.
2018-04-22T12:39:31.910578Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010119] [Server] Aborting

Now I used the right options, but still didn’t work.
I took a quick look around:

> ls /my/data3/
binlog.index

So even if the mysqld noticed that the data3 directory was wrong, it still wrote things into it.  This even if I didn’t have –log-binlog enabled in the my.cnf file. Strange, but easy to fix:

> rm /my/data3/binlog.index
> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –initialize

2018-04-22T12:40:45.633637Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-011071] [Server] unknown variable ‘max-tmp-tables=100’
2018-04-22T12:40:45.633657Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010952] [Server] The privilege system failed to initialize correctly. If you have upgraded your server, make sure you’re executing mysql_upgrade to correct the issue.
2018-04-22T12:40:45.633663Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010119] [Server] Aborting

The warning about the privilege system confused me a bit, but I ignored it for the time being and removed from my configuration files the variables that MySQL 8.0 doesn’t support anymore. I couldn’t find a list of the removed variables anywhere so this was done with the trial and error method.

> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf

2018-04-22T12:42:56.626583Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010735] [Server] Can’t open the mysql.plugin table. Please run mysql_upgrade to create it.
2018-04-22T12:42:56.827685Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010015] [Repl] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table ‘mysql.gtid_executed’ cannot be opened.
2018-04-22T12:42:56.838501Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010068] [Server] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed.
2018-04-22T12:42:56.848375Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010441] [Server] Failed to open optimizer cost constant tables
2018-04-22T12:42:56.848863Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-013129] [Server] A message intended for a client cannot be sent there as no client-session is attached. Therefore, we’re sending the information to the error-log instead: MY-001146 – Table ‘mysql.component’ doesn’t exist
2018-04-22T12:42:56.848916Z 0 [Warning] [MY-013129] [Server] A message intended for a client cannot be sent there as no client-session is attached. Therefore, we’re sending the information to the error-log instead: MY-003543 – The mysql.component table is missing or has an incorrect definition.
….
2018-04-22T12:42:56.854141Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /home/my/mysql-8.0/runtime_output_directory/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: ‘8.0.11’ socket: ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ port: 3306 Source distribution.

I figured out that if there is a single wrong variable in the configuration file, running mysqld –initialize will leave the database in an inconsistent state. NOT GOOD! I am happy I didn’t try this in a production system!

Time to start over from the beginning:

> rm -r /my/data3/*
> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –initialize

2018-04-22T12:44:45.548960Z 5 [Note] [MY-010454] [Server] A temporary password is generated for [email protected]: px)NaaSp?6um
2018-04-22T12:44:51.221751Z 0 [System] [MY-013170] [Server] /home/my/mysql-8.0/runtime_output_directory/mysqld (mysqld 8.0.11) initializing of server has completed

Success!

I wonder why the temporary password is so complex; It could easily have been something that one could easily remember without decreasing security, it’s temporary after all. No big deal, one can always paste it from the logs. (Side note: MariaDB uses socket authentication on many system and thus doesn’t need temporary installation passwords).

Now lets start the MySQL server for real to do some testing:

> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf

2018-04-22T12:45:43.683484Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /home/my/mysql-8.0/runtime_output_directory/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: ‘8.0.11’ socket: ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ port: 3306 Source distribution.

And the lets start the client:

> ./client/mysql –socket=/tmp/mysql.sock –user=root –password=”px)NaaSp?6um”
ERROR 2059 (HY000): Plugin caching_sha2_password could not be loaded: /usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin/caching_sha2_password.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Apparently MySQL 8.0 doesn’t work with old MySQL / MariaDB clients by default 🙁

I was testing this in a system with MariaDB installed, like all modern Linux system today, and didn’t want to use the MySQL clients or libraries.

I decided to try to fix this by changing the authentication to the native (original) MySQL authentication method.

> mysqld –skip-grant-tables

> ./client/mysql –socket=/tmp/mysql.sock –user=root
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ (using password: NO)

Apparently –skip-grant-tables is not good enough anymore. Let’s try again with:

> mysqld –skip-grant-tables –default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

> ./client/mysql –socket=/tmp/mysql.sock –user=root mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 7
Server version: 8.0.11 Source distribution

Great, we are getting somewhere, now lets fix “root”  to work with the old authenticaion:

MySQL [mysql]> update mysql.user set plugin=”mysql_native_password”,authentication_string=password(“test”) where user=”root”;
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near ‘(“test”) where user=”root”‘ at line 1

A quick look in the MySQL 8.0 release notes told me that the PASSWORD() function is removed in 8.0. Why???? I don’t know how one in MySQL 8.0 is supposed to generate passwords compatible with old installations of MySQL. One could of course start an old MySQL or MariaDB version, execute the password() function and copy the result.

I decided to fix this the easy way and use an empty password:

(Update:: I later discovered that the right way would have been to use: FLUSH PRIVILEGES;  ALTER USER’ root’@’localhost’ identified by ‘test’  ; I however dislike this syntax as it has the password in clear text which is easy to grab and the command can’t be used to easily update the mysql.user table. One must also disable the –skip-grant mode to do use this)

MySQL [mysql]> update mysql.user set plugin=”mysql_native_password”,authentication_string=”” where user=”root”;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.077 sec)
Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0
 
I restarted mysqld:
> mysqld –default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

> ./client/mysql –user=root –password=”” mysql
ERROR 1862 (HY000): Your password has expired. To log in you must change it using a client that supports expired passwords.

Ouch, forgot that. Lets try again:

> mysqld –skip-grant-tables –default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

> ./client/mysql –user=root –password=”” mysql
MySQL [mysql]> update mysql.user set password_expired=”N” where user=”root”;

Now restart and test worked:

> ./mysqld –default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

>./client/mysql –user=root –password=”” mysql

Finally I had a working account that I can use to create other users!

When looking at mysqld –help –verbose again. I noticed the option:

–initialize-insecure
Create the default database and exit. Create a super user
with empty password.

I decided to check if this would have made things easier:

> rm -r /my/data3/*
> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –initialize-insecure

2018-04-22T13:18:06.629548Z 5 [Warning] [MY-010453] [Server] [email protected] is created with an empty password ! Please consider switching off the –initialize-insecure option.

Hm. Don’t understand the warning as–initialize-insecure is not an option that one would use more than one time and thus nothing one would ‘switch off’.

> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf

> ./client/mysql –user=root –password=”” mysql
ERROR 2059 (HY000): Plugin caching_sha2_password could not be loaded: /usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin/caching_sha2_password.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Back to the beginning 🙁

To get things to work with old clients, one has to initialize the database with:
> ./mysqld –defaults-file=/tmp/my.cnf –initialize-insecure –default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password

Now I finally had MySQL 8.0 up and running and thought I would take it up for a spin by running the “standard” MySQL/MariaDB sql-bench test suite. This was removed in MySQL 5.7, but as I happened to have MariaDB 10.3 installed, I decided to run it from there.

sql-bench is a single threaded benchmark that measures the “raw” speed for some common operations. It gives you the ‘maximum’ performance for a single query. Its different from other benchmarks that measures the maximum throughput when you have a lot of users, but sql-bench still tells you a lot about what kind of performance to expect from the database.

I tried first to be clever and create the “test” database, that I needed for sql-bench, with
> mkdir /my/data3/test

but when I tried to run the benchmark, MySQL 8.0 complained that the test database didn’t exist.

MySQL 8.0 has gone away from the original concept of MySQL where the user can easily
create directories and copy databases into the database directory. This may have serious
implication for anyone doing backup of databases and/or trying to restore a backup with normal OS commands.

I created the ‘test’ database with mysqladmin and then tried to run sql-bench:

> ./run-all-tests –user=root

The first run failed in test-ATIS:

Can’t execute command ‘create table class_of_service (class_code char(2) NOT NULL,rank tinyint(2) NOT NULL,class_description char(80) NOT NULL,PRIMARY KEY (class_code))’
Error: You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near ‘rank tinyint(2) NOT NULL,class_description char(80) NOT NULL,PRIMARY KEY (class_’ at line 1

This happened because ‘rank‘ is now a reserved word in MySQL 8.0. This is also reserved in ANSI SQL, but I don’t know of any other database that has failed to run test-ATIS before. I have in the past run it against Oracle, PostgreSQL, Mimer, MSSQL etc without any problems.

MariaDB also has ‘rank’ as a keyword in 10.2 and 10.3 but one can still use it as an identifier.

I fixed test-ATIS and then managed to run all tests on MySQL 8.0.

I did run the test both with MySQL 8.0 and MariaDB 10.3 with the InnoDB storage engine and by having identical values for all InnoDB variables, table-definition-cache and table-open-cache. I turned off performance schema for both databases. All test are run with a user with an empty password (to keep things comparable and because it’s was too complex to generate a password in MySQL 8.0)

The result are as follows
Results per test in seconds:

Operation         |MariaDB|MySQL-8|

———————————–
ATIS              | 153.00| 228.00|
alter-table       |  92.00| 792.00|
big-tables        | 990.00|2079.00|
connect           | 186.00| 227.00|
create            | 575.00|4465.00|
insert            |4552.00|8458.00|
select            | 333.00| 412.00|
table-elimination |1900.00|3916.00|
wisconsin         | 272.00| 590.00|
———————————–

This is of course just a first view of the performance of MySQL 8.0 in a single user environment. Some reflections about the results:

  • Alter-table test is slower (as expected) in 8.0 as some of the alter tests benefits of the instant add column in MariaDB 10.3.
  • connect test is also better for MariaDB as we put a lot of efforts to speed this up in MariaDB 10.2
  • table-elimination shows an optimization in MariaDB for the  Anchor table model, which MySQL doesn’t have.
  • CREATE and DROP TABLE is almost 8 times slower in MySQL 8.0 than in MariaDB 10.3. I assume this is the cost of ‘atomic DDL’. This may also cause performance problems for any thread using the data dictionary when another thread is creating/dropping tables.
  • When looking at the individual test results, MySQL 8.0 was slower in almost every test, in many significantly slower.
  • The only test where MySQL was faster was “update_with_key_prefix”. I checked this and noticed that there was a bug in the test and the columns was updated to it’s original value (which should be instant with any storage engine). This is an old bug that MySQL has found and fixed and that we have not been aware of in the test or in MariaDB.
  • While writing this, I noticed that MySQL 8.0 is now using utf8mb4 as the default character set instead of latin1. This may affect some of the benchmarks slightly (not much as most tests works with numbers and Oracle claims that utf8mb4 is only 20% slower than latin1), but needs to be verified.
  • Oracle claims that MySQL 8.0 is much faster on multi user benchmarks. The above test indicates that they may have done this by sacrificing single user performance.
  •  We need to do more and many different benchmarks to better understand exactly what is going on. Stay tuned!

Short summary of my first run with MySQL 8.0:

  • Using the new caching_sha2_password authentication as default for new installation is likely to cause a lot of problems for users. No old application will be able to use MySQL 8.0, installed with default options, without moving to MySQL’s client libraries. While working on this blog I saw MySQL users complain on IRC that not even MySQL Workbench can authenticate with MySQL 8.0. This is the first time in MySQL’s history where such an incompatible change has ever been done!
  • Atomic DDL is a good thing (We plan to have this in MariaDB 10.4), but it should not have such a drastic impact on performance. I am also a bit skeptical of MySQL 8.0 having just one copy of the data dictionary as if this gets corrupted you will lose all your data. (Single point of failure)
  • MySQL 8.0 has several new reserved words and has removed a lot of variables, which makes upgrades hard. Before upgrading to MySQL 8.0 one has to check all one’s databases and applications to ensure that there are no conflicts.
  • As my test above shows, if you have a single deprecated variable in your configuration files, the installation of MySQL will abort and can leave the database in inconsistent state. I did of course my tests by installing into an empty data dictionary, but one can assume that some of the problems may also happen when upgrading an old installation.

Conclusions:
In many ways, MySQL 8.0 has caught up with some earlier versions of MariaDB. For instance, in MariaDB 10.0, we introduced roles (four years ago). In MariaDB 10.1, we introduced encrypted redo/undo logs (three years ago). In MariaDB 10.2, we introduced window functions and CTEs (a year ago). However, some catch-up of MariaDB Server 10.2 features still remains for MySQL (such as check constraints, binlog compression, and log-based rollback).

MySQL 8.0 has a few new interesting features (mostly Atomic DDL and JSON TABLE functions), but at the same time MySQL has strayed away from some of the fundamental corner stone principles of MySQL:

From the start of the first version of MySQL in 1995, all development has been focused around 3 core principles:

  • Ease of use
  • Performance
  • Stability

With MySQL 8.0, Oracle has sacrifices 2 of 3 of these.

In addition (as part of ease of use), while I was working on MySQL, we did our best to ensure that the following should hold:

  • Upgrades should be trivial
  • Things should be kept compatible, if possible (don’t remove features/options/functions that are used)
  • Minimize reserved words, don’t remove server variables
  • One should be able to use normal OS commands to create and drop databases, copy and move tables around within the same system or between different systems. With 8.0 and data dictionary taking backups of specific tables will be hard, even if the server is not running.
  • mysqldump should always be usable backups and to move to new releases
  • Old clients and application should be able to use ‘any’ MySQL server version unchanged. (Some Oracle client libraries, like C++, by default only supports the new X protocol and can thus not be used with older MySQL or any MariaDB version)

We plan to add a data dictionary to MariaDB 10.4 or MariaDB 10.5, but in a way to not sacrifice any of the above principles!

The competition between MySQL and MariaDB is not just about a tactical arms race on features. It’s about design philosophy, or strategic vision, if you will.

This shows in two main ways: our respective view of the Storage Engine structure, and of the top-level direction of the roadmap.

On the Storage Engine side, MySQL is converging on InnoDB, even for clustering and partitioning. In doing so, they are abandoning the advantages of multiple ways of storing data. By contrast, MariaDB sees lots of value in the Storage Engine architecture: MariaDB Server 10.3 will see the general availability of MyRocks (for write-intensive workloads) and Spider (for scalable workloads). On top of that, we have ColumnStore for analytical workloads. One can use the CONNECT engine to join with other databases. The use of different storage engines for different workloads and different hardware is a competitive differentiator, now more than ever.

On the roadmap side, MySQL is carefully steering clear of features that close the gap between MySQL and Oracle. MariaDB has no such constraints. With MariaDB 10.3, we are introducing PL/SQL compatibility (Oracle’s stored procedures) and AS OF (built-in system versioned tables with point-in-time querying). For both of those features, MariaDB is the first Open Source database doing so. I don’t except Oracle to provide any of the above features in MySQL!

Also on the roadmap side, MySQL is not working with the ecosystem in extending the functionality. In 2017, MariaDB accepted more code contributions in one year, than MySQL has done during its entire lifetime, and the rate is increasing!

I am sure that the experience I had with testing MySQL 8.0 would have been significantly better if MySQL would have an open development model where the community could easily participate in developing and testing MySQL continuously. Most of the confusing error messages and strange behavior would have been found and fixed long before the GA release.

Before upgrading to MySQL 8.0 please read https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading-from-previous-series.html to see what problems you can run into! Don’t expect that old installations or applications will work out of the box without testing as a lot of features and options has been removed (query cache, partition of myisam tables etc)! You probably also have to revise your backup methods, especially if you want to ever restore just a few tables. (With 8.0, I don’t know how this can be easily done).

According to the MySQL 8.0 release notes, one can’t use mysqldump to copy a database to MySQL 8.0. One has to first to move to a MySQL 5.7 GA version (with mysqldump, as recommended by Oracle) and then to MySQL 8.0 with in-place update. I assume this means that all old mysqldump backups are useless for MySQL 8.0?

MySQL 8.0 seams to be a one way street to an unknown future. Up to MySQL 5.7 it has been trivial to move to MariaDB and one could always move back to MySQL with mysqldump. All MySQL client libraries has worked with MariaDB and all MariaDB client libraries has worked with MySQL. With MySQL 8.0 this has changed in the wrong direction.

As long as you are using MySQL 5.7 and below you have choices for your future, after MySQL 8.0 you have very little choice. But don’t despair, as MariaDB will always be able to load a mysqldump file and it’s very easy to upgrade your old MySQL installation to MariaDB 🙂

I wish you good luck to try MySQL 8.0 (and also the upcoming MariaDB 10.3)!

AWS Certificate Manager Launches Private Certificate Authority

Post Syndicated from Randall Hunt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-certificate-manager-launches-private-certificate-authority/

Today we’re launching a new feature for AWS Certificate Manager (ACM), Private Certificate Authority (CA). This new service allows ACM to act as a private subordinate CA. Previously, if a customer wanted to use private certificates, they needed specialized infrastructure and security expertise that could be expensive to maintain and operate. ACM Private CA builds on ACM’s existing certificate capabilities to help you easily and securely manage the lifecycle of your private certificates with pay as you go pricing. This enables developers to provision certificates in just a few simple API calls while administrators have a central CA management console and fine grained access control through granular IAM policies. ACM Private CA keys are stored securely in AWS managed hardware security modules (HSMs) that adhere to FIPS 140-2 Level 3 security standards. ACM Private CA automatically maintains certificate revocation lists (CRLs) in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and lets administrators generate audit reports of certificate creation with the API or console. This service is packed full of features so let’s jump in and provision a CA.

Provisioning a Private Certificate Authority (CA)

First, I’ll navigate to the ACM console in my region and select the new Private CAs section in the sidebar. From there I’ll click Get Started to start the CA wizard. For now, I only have the option to provision a subordinate CA so we’ll select that and use my super secure desktop as the root CA and click Next. This isn’t what I would do in a production setting but it will work for testing out our private CA.

Now, I’ll configure the CA with some common details. The most important thing here is the Common Name which I’ll set as secure.internal to represent my internal domain.

Now I need to choose my key algorithm. You should choose the best algorithm for your needs but know that ACM has a limitation today that it can only manage certificates that chain up to to RSA CAs. For now, I’ll go with RSA 2048 bit and click Next.

In this next screen, I’m able to configure my certificate revocation list (CRL). CRLs are essential for notifying clients in the case that a certificate has been compromised before certificate expiration. ACM will maintain the revocation list for me and I have the option of routing my S3 bucket to a custome domain. In this case I’ll create a new S3 bucket to store my CRL in and click Next.

Finally, I’ll review all the details to make sure I didn’t make any typos and click Confirm and create.

A few seconds later and I’m greeted with a fancy screen saying I successfully provisioned a certificate authority. Hooray! I’m not done yet though. I still need to activate my CA by creating a certificate signing request (CSR) and signing that with my root CA. I’ll click Get started to begin that process.

Now I’ll copy the CSR or download it to a server or desktop that has access to my root CA (or potentially another subordinate – so long as it chains to a trusted root for my clients).

Now I can use a tool like openssl to sign my cert and generate the certificate chain.


$openssl ca -config openssl_root.cnf -extensions v3_intermediate_ca -days 3650 -notext -md sha256 -in csr/CSR.pem -out certs/subordinate_cert.pem
Using configuration from openssl_root.cnf
Enter pass phrase for /Users/randhunt/dev/amzn/ca/private/root_private_key.pem:
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows
stateOrProvinceName   :ASN.1 12:'Washington'
localityName          :ASN.1 12:'Seattle'
organizationName      :ASN.1 12:'Amazon'
organizationalUnitName:ASN.1 12:'Engineering'
commonName            :ASN.1 12:'secure.internal'
Certificate is to be certified until Mar 31 06:05:30 2028 GMT (3650 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y


1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

After that I’ll copy my subordinate_cert.pem and certificate chain back into the console. and click Next.

Finally, I’ll review all the information and click Confirm and import. I should see a screen like the one below that shows my CA has been activated successfully.

Now that I have a private CA we can provision private certificates by hopping back to the ACM console and creating a new certificate. After clicking create a new certificate I’ll select the radio button Request a private certificate then I’ll click Request a certificate.

From there it’s just similar to provisioning a normal certificate in ACM.

Now I have a private certificate that I can bind to my ELBs, CloudFront Distributions, API Gateways, and more. I can also export the certificate for use on embedded devices or outside of ACM managed environments.

Available Now
ACM Private CA is a service in and of itself and it is packed full of features that won’t fit into a blog post. I strongly encourage the interested readers to go through the developer guide and familiarize themselves with certificate based security. ACM Private CA is available in in US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Canada (Central), EU (Frankfurt) and EU (Ireland). Private CAs cost $400 per month (prorated) for each private CA. You are not charged for certificates created and maintained in ACM but you are charged for certificates where you have access to the private key (exported or created outside of ACM). The pricing per certificate is tiered starting at $0.75 per certificate for the first 1000 certificates and going down to $0.001 per certificate after 10,000 certificates.

I’m excited to see administrators and developers take advantage of this new service. As always please let us know what you think of this service on Twitter or in the comments below.

Randall

How to migrate a Hue database from an existing Amazon EMR cluster

Post Syndicated from Anvesh Ragi original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/how-to-migrate-a-hue-database-from-an-existing-amazon-emr-cluster/

Hadoop User Experience (Hue) is an open-source, web-based, graphical user interface for use with Amazon EMR and Apache Hadoop. The Hue database stores things like users, groups, authorization permissions, Apache Hive queries, Apache Oozie workflows, and so on.

There might come a time when you want to migrate your Hue database to a new EMR cluster. For example, you might want to upgrade from an older version of the Amazon EMR AMI (Amazon Machine Image), but your Hue application and its database have had a lot of customization.You can avoid re-creating these user entities and retain query/workflow histories in Hue by migrating the existing Hue database, or remote database in Amazon RDS, to a new cluster.

By default, Hue user information and query histories are stored in a local MySQL database on the EMR cluster’s master node. However, you can create one or more Hue-enabled clusters using a configuration stored in Amazon S3 and a remote MySQL database in Amazon RDS. This allows you to preserve user information and query history that Hue creates without keeping your Amazon EMR cluster running.

This post describes the step-by-step process for migrating the Hue database from an existing EMR cluster.

Note: Amazon EMR supports different Hue versions across different AMI releases. Keep in mind the compatibility of Hue versions between the old and new clusters in this migration activity. Currently, Hue 3.x.x versions are not compatible with Hue 4.x.x versions, and therefore a migration between these two Hue versions might create issues. In addition, Hue 3.10.0 is not backward compatible with its previous 3.x.x versions.

Before you begin

First, let’s create a new testUser in Hue on an existing EMR cluster, as shown following:

You will use these credentials later to log in to Hue on the new EMR cluster and validate whether you have successfully migrated the Hue database.

Let’s get started!

Migration how-to

Follow these steps to migrate your database to a new EMR cluster and then validate the migration process.

1.) Make a backup of the existing Hue database.

Use SSH to connect to the master node of the old cluster, as shown following (if you are using Linux/Unix/macOS), and dump the Hue database to a JSON file.

$ ssh -i ~/key.pem [email protected]
$ /usr/lib/hue/build/env/bin/hue dumpdata > ./hue-mysql.json

Edit the hue-mysql.json output file by removing all JSON objects that have useradmin.userprofile in the model field, and save the file. For example, remove the objects as shown following:

{
  "pk": 1,
  "model": "useradmin.userprofile",
  "fields": {
    "last_activity": "2018-01-10T11:41:04",
    "creation_method": "HUE",
    "first_login": false,
    "user": 1,
    "home_directory": "/user/hue_admin"
  }
},

2.) Store the hue-mysql.json file on persistent storage like Amazon S3.

You can copy the file from the old EMR cluster to Amazon S3 using the AWS CLI or Secure Copy (SCP) client. For example, the following uses the AWS CLI:

$ aws s3 cp ./hue-mysql.json s3://YourBucketName/folder/

3.) Recover/reload the backed-up Hue database into the new EMR cluster.

a.) Use SSH to connect to the master node of the new EMR cluster, and stop the Hue service that is already running.

$ ssh -i ~/key.pem [email protected]
$ sudo stop hue
hue stop/waiting

b.) Connect to the Hue database—either the local MySQL database or the remote database in Amazon RDS for your cluster as shown following, using the mysql client.

$ mysql -h HOST –u USER –pPASSWORD

For a local MySQL database, you can find the hostname, user name, and password for connecting to the database in the /etc/hue/conf/hue.ini file on the master node.

[[database]]
    engine = mysql
    name = huedb
    case_insensitive_collation = utf8_unicode_ci
    test_charset = utf8
    test_collation = utf8_bin
    host = ip-172-31-37-133.us-west-2.compute.internal
    user = hue
    test_name = test_huedb
    password = QdWbL3Ai6GcBqk26
    port = 3306

Based on the preceding example configuration, the sample command is as follows. (Replace the host, user, and password details based on your EMR cluster settings.)

$ mysql -h ip-172-31-37-133.us-west-2.compute.internal -u hue -pQdWbL3Ai6GcBqk26

c.) Drop the existing Hue database with the name huedb from the MySQL server.

mysql> DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS huedb;

d.) Create a new empty database with the same name huedb.

mysql> CREATE DATABASE huedb DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 DEFAULT COLLATE=utf8_bin;

e.) Now, synchronize Hue with its database huedb.

$ sudo /usr/lib/hue/build/env/bin/hue syncdb --noinput
$ sudo /usr/lib/hue/build/env/bin/hue migrate

(This populates the new huedb with all Hue tables that are required.)

f.) Log in to MySQL again, and drop the foreign key to clean tables.

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE huedb.auth_permission;

In the following example, replace <id value> with the actual value from the preceding output.

mysql> ALTER TABLE huedb.auth_permission DROP FOREIGN KEY
content_type_id_refs_id_<id value>;

g.) Delete the contents of the django_content_type

mysql> DELETE FROM huedb.django_content_type;

h.) Download the backed-up Hue database dump from Amazon S3 to the new EMR cluster, and load it into Hue.

$ aws s3 cp s3://YourBucketName/folder/hue-mysql.json ./
$ sudo /usr/lib/hue/build/env/bin/hue loaddata ./hue-mysql.json

i.) In MySQL, add the foreign key content_type_id back to the auth_permission

mysql> use huedb;
mysql> ALTER TABLE huedb.auth_permission ADD FOREIGN KEY (`content_type_id`) REFERENCES `django_content_type` (`id`);

j.) Start the Hue service again.

$ sudo start hue
hue start/running, process XXXX

That’s it! Now, verify whether you can successfully access the Hue UI, and sign in using your existing testUser credentials.

After a successful sign in to Hue on the new EMR cluster, you should see a similar Hue homepage as shown following with testUser as the user signed in:

Conclusion

You have now learned how to migrate an existing Hue database to a new Amazon EMR cluster and validate the migration process. If you have any similar Amazon EMR administration topics that you want to see covered in a future post, please let us know in the comments below.


Additional Reading

If you found this post useful, be sure to check out Anomaly Detection Using PySpark, Hive, and Hue on Amazon EMR and Dynamically Create Friendly URLs for Your Amazon EMR Web Interfaces.


About the Author


Anvesh Ragi is a Big Data Support Engineer with Amazon Web Services. He works closely with AWS customers to provide them architectural and engineering assistance for their data processing workflows. In his free time, he enjoys traveling and going for hikes.

How to Enhance the Security of Sensitive Customer Data by Using Amazon CloudFront Field-Level Encryption

Post Syndicated from Alex Tomic original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-enhance-the-security-of-sensitive-customer-data-by-using-amazon-cloudfront-field-level-encryption/

Amazon CloudFront is a web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content to end users through a worldwide network of edge locations. CloudFront provides a number of benefits and capabilities that can help you secure your applications and content while meeting compliance requirements. For example, you can configure CloudFront to help enforce secure, end-to-end connections using HTTPS SSL/TLS encryption. You also can take advantage of CloudFront integration with AWS Shield for DDoS protection and with AWS WAF (a web application firewall) for protection against application-layer attacks, such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting.

Now, CloudFront field-level encryption helps secure sensitive data such as a customer phone numbers by adding another security layer to CloudFront HTTPS. Using this functionality, you can help ensure that sensitive information in a POST request is encrypted at CloudFront edge locations. This information remains encrypted as it flows to and beyond your origin servers that terminate HTTPS connections with CloudFront and throughout the application environment. In this blog post, we demonstrate how you can enhance the security of sensitive data by using CloudFront field-level encryption.

Note: This post assumes that you understand concepts and services such as content delivery networks, HTTP forms, public-key cryptography, CloudFrontAWS Lambda, and the AWS CLI. If necessary, you should familiarize yourself with these concepts and review the solution overview in the next section before proceeding with the deployment of this post’s solution.

How field-level encryption works

Many web applications collect and store data from users as those users interact with the applications. For example, a travel-booking website may ask for your passport number and less sensitive data such as your food preferences. This data is transmitted to web servers and also might travel among a number of services to perform tasks. However, this also means that your sensitive information may need to be accessed by only a small subset of these services (most other services do not need to access your data).

User data is often stored in a database for retrieval at a later time. One approach to protecting stored sensitive data is to configure and code each service to protect that sensitive data. For example, you can develop safeguards in logging functionality to ensure sensitive data is masked or removed. However, this can add complexity to your code base and limit performance.

Field-level encryption addresses this problem by ensuring sensitive data is encrypted at CloudFront edge locations. Sensitive data fields in HTTPS form POSTs are automatically encrypted with a user-provided public RSA key. After the data is encrypted, other systems in your architecture see only ciphertext. If this ciphertext unintentionally becomes externally available, the data is cryptographically protected and only designated systems with access to the private RSA key can decrypt the sensitive data.

It is critical to secure private RSA key material to prevent unauthorized access to the protected data. Management of cryptographic key material is a larger topic that is out of scope for this blog post, but should be carefully considered when implementing encryption in your applications. For example, in this blog post we store private key material as a secure string in the Amazon EC2 Systems Manager Parameter Store. The Parameter Store provides a centralized location for managing your configuration data such as plaintext data (such as database strings) or secrets (such as passwords) that are encrypted using AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). You may have an existing key management system in place that you can use, or you can use AWS CloudHSM. CloudHSM is a cloud-based hardware security module (HSM) that enables you to easily generate and use your own encryption keys in the AWS Cloud.

To illustrate field-level encryption, let’s look at a simple form submission where Name and Phone values are sent to a web server using an HTTP POST. A typical form POST would contain data such as the following.

POST / HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length:60

Name=Jane+Doe&Phone=404-555-0150

Instead of taking this typical approach, field-level encryption converts this data similar to the following.

POST / HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 1713

Name=Jane+Doe&Phone=AYABeHxZ0ZqWyysqxrB5pEBSYw4AAA...

To further demonstrate field-level encryption in action, this blog post includes a sample serverless application that you can deploy by using a CloudFormation template, which creates an application environment using CloudFront, Amazon API Gateway, and Lambda. The sample application is only intended to demonstrate field-level encryption functionality and is not intended for production use. The following diagram depicts the architecture and data flow of this sample application.

Sample application architecture and data flow

Diagram of the solution's architecture and data flow

Here is how the sample solution works:

  1. An application user submits an HTML form page with sensitive data, generating an HTTPS POST to CloudFront.
  2. Field-level encryption intercepts the form POST and encrypts sensitive data with the public RSA key and replaces fields in the form post with encrypted ciphertext. The form POST ciphertext is then sent to origin servers.
  3. The serverless application accepts the form post data containing ciphertext where sensitive data would normally be. If a malicious user were able to compromise your application and gain access to your data, such as the contents of a form, that user would see encrypted data.
  4. Lambda stores data in a DynamoDB table, leaving sensitive data to remain safely encrypted at rest.
  5. An administrator uses the AWS Management Console and a Lambda function to view the sensitive data.
  6. During the session, the administrator retrieves ciphertext from the DynamoDB table.
  7. The administrator decrypts sensitive data by using private key material stored in the EC2 Systems Manager Parameter Store.
  8. Decrypted sensitive data is transmitted over SSL/TLS via the AWS Management Console to the administrator for review.

Deployment walkthrough

The high-level steps to deploy this solution are as follows:

  1. Stage the required artifacts
    When deployment packages are used with Lambda, the zipped artifacts have to be placed in an S3 bucket in the target AWS Region for deployment. This step is not required if you are deploying in the US East (N. Virginia) Region because the package has already been staged there.
  2. Generate an RSA key pair
    Create a public/private key pair that will be used to perform the encrypt/decrypt functionality.
  3. Upload the public key to CloudFront and associate it with the field-level encryption configuration
    After you create the key pair, the public key is uploaded to CloudFront so that it can be used by field-level encryption.
  4. Launch the CloudFormation stack
    Deploy the sample application for demonstrating field-level encryption by using AWS CloudFormation.
  5. Add the field-level encryption configuration to the CloudFront distribution
    After you have provisioned the application, this step associates the field-level encryption configuration with the CloudFront distribution.
  6. Store the RSA private key in the Parameter Store
    Store the private key in the Parameter Store as a SecureString data type, which uses AWS KMS to encrypt the parameter value.

Deploy the solution

1. Stage the required artifacts

(If you are deploying in the US East [N. Virginia] Region, skip to Step 2, “Generate an RSA key pair.”)

Stage the Lambda function deployment package in an Amazon S3 bucket located in the AWS Region you are using for this solution. To do this, download the zipped deployment package and upload it to your in-region bucket. For additional information about uploading objects to S3, see Uploading Object into Amazon S3.

2. Generate an RSA key pair

In this section, you will generate an RSA key pair by using OpenSSL:

  1. Confirm access to OpenSSL.
    $ openssl version

    You should see version information similar to the following.

    OpenSSL <version> <date>

  1. Create a private key using the following command.
    $ openssl genrsa -out private_key.pem 2048

    The command results should look similar to the following.

    Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
    ................................................................................+++
    ..........................+++
    e is 65537 (0x10001)
  1. Extract the public key from the private key by running the following command.
    $ openssl rsa -pubout -in private_key.pem -out public_key.pem

    You should see output similar to the following.

    writing RSA key
  1. Restrict access to the private key.$ chmod 600 private_key.pem Note: You will use the public and private key material in Steps 3 and 6 to configure the sample application.

3. Upload the public key to CloudFront and associate it with the field-level encryption configuration

Now that you have created the RSA key pair, you will use the AWS Management Console to upload the public key to CloudFront for use by field-level encryption. Complete the following steps to upload and configure the public key.

Note: Do not include spaces or special characters when providing the configuration values in this section.

  1. From the AWS Management Console, choose Services > CloudFront.
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Public Key and choose Add Public Key.
    Screenshot of adding a public key

Complete the Add Public Key configuration boxes:

  • Key Name: Type a name such as DemoPublicKey.
  • Encoded Key: Paste the contents of the public_key.pem file you created in Step 2c. Copy and paste the encoded key value for your public key, including the -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY----- and -----END PUBLIC KEY----- lines.
  • Comment: Optionally add a comment.
  1. Choose Create.
  2. After adding at least one public key to CloudFront, the next step is to create a profile to tell CloudFront which fields of input you want to be encrypted. While still on the CloudFront console, choose Field-level encryption in the navigation pane.
  3. Under Profiles, choose Create profile.
    Screenshot of creating a profile

Complete the Create profile configuration boxes:

  • Name: Type a name such as FLEDemo.
  • Comment: Optionally add a comment.
  • Public key: Select the public key you configured in Step 4.b.
  • Provider name: Type a provider name such as FLEDemo.
    This information will be used when the form data is encrypted, and must be provided to applications that need to decrypt the data, along with the appropriate private key.
  • Pattern to match: Type phone. This configures field-level encryption to match based on the phone.
  1. Choose Save profile.
  2. Configurations include options for whether to block or forward a query to your origin in scenarios where CloudFront can’t encrypt the data. Under Encryption Configurations, choose Create configuration.
    Screenshot of creating a configuration

Complete the Create configuration boxes:

  • Comment: Optionally add a comment.
  • Content type: Enter application/x-www-form-urlencoded. This is a common media type for encoding form data.
  • Default profile ID: Select the profile you added in Step 3e.
  1. Choose Save configuration

4. Launch the CloudFormation stack

Launch the sample application by using a CloudFormation template that automates the provisioning process.

Input parameter Input parameter description
ProviderID Enter the Provider name you assigned in Step 3e. The ProviderID is used in field-level encryption configuration in CloudFront (letters and numbers only, no special characters)
PublicKeyName Enter the Key Name you assigned in Step 3b. This name is assigned to the public key in field-level encryption configuration in CloudFront (letters and numbers only, no special characters).
PrivateKeySSMPath Leave as the default: /cloudfront/field-encryption-sample/private-key
ArtifactsBucket The S3 bucket with artifact files (staged zip file with app code). Leave as default if deploying in us-east-1.
ArtifactsPrefix The path in the S3 bucket containing artifact files. Leave as default if deploying in us-east-1.

To finish creating the CloudFormation stack:

  1. Choose Next on the Select Template page, enter the input parameters and choose Next.
    Note: The Artifacts configuration needs to be updated only if you are deploying outside of us-east-1 (US East [N. Virginia]). See Step 1 for artifact staging instructions.
  2. On the Options page, accept the defaults and choose Next.
  3. On the Review page, confirm the details, choose the I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources check box, and then choose Create. (The stack will be created in approximately 15 minutes.)

5. Add the field-level encryption configuration to the CloudFront distribution

While still on the CloudFront console, choose Distributions in the navigation pane, and then:

    1. In the Outputs section of the FLE-Sample-App stack, look for CloudFrontDistribution and click the URL to open the CloudFront console.
    2. Choose Behaviors, choose the Default (*) behavior, and then choose Edit.
    3. For Field-level Encryption Config, choose the configuration you created in Step 3g.
      Screenshot of editing the default cache behavior
    4. Choose Yes, Edit.
    5. While still in the CloudFront distribution configuration, choose the General Choose Edit, scroll down to Distribution State, and change it to Enabled.
    6. Choose Yes, Edit.

6. Store the RSA private key in the Parameter Store

In this step, you store the private key in the EC2 Systems Manager Parameter Store as a SecureString data type, which uses AWS KMS to encrypt the parameter value. For more information about AWS KMS, see the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide. You will need a working installation of the AWS CLI to complete this step.

  1. Store the private key in the Parameter Store with the AWS CLI by running the following command. You will find the <KMSKeyID> in the KMSKeyID in the CloudFormation stack Outputs. Substitute it for the placeholder in the following command.
    $ aws ssm put-parameter --type "SecureString" --name /cloudfront/field-encryption-sample/private-key --value file://private_key.pem --key-id "<KMSKeyID>"
    
    ------------------
    |  PutParameter  |
    +----------+-----+
    |  Version |  1  |
    +----------+-----+

  1. Verify the parameter. Your private key material should be accessible through the ssm get-parameter in the following command in the Value The key material has been truncated in the following output.
    $ aws ssm get-parameter --name /cloudfront/field-encryption-sample/private-key --with-decryption
    
    -----…
    
    ||  Value  |  -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
    MIIEowIBAAKCAQEAwGRBGuhacmw+C73kM6Z…….

    Notice we use the —with decryption argument in this command. This returns the private key as cleartext.

    This completes the sample application deployment. Next, we show you how to see field-level encryption in action.

  1. Delete the private key from local storage. On Linux for example, using the shred command, securely delete the private key material from your workstation as shown below. You may also wish to store the private key material within an AWS CloudHSM or other protected location suitable for your security requirements. For production implementations, you also should implement key rotation policies.
    $ shred -zvu -n  100 private*.pem
    
    shred: private_encrypted_key.pem: pass 1/101 (random)...
    shred: private_encrypted_key.pem: pass 2/101 (dddddd)...
    shred: private_encrypted_key.pem: pass 3/101 (555555)...
    ….

Test the sample application

Use the following steps to test the sample application with field-level encryption:

  1. Open sample application in your web browser by clicking the ApplicationURL link in the CloudFormation stack Outputs. (for example, https:d199xe5izz82ea.cloudfront.net/prod/). Note that it may take several minutes for the CloudFront distribution to reach the Deployed Status from the previous step, during which time you may not be able to access the sample application.
  2. Fill out and submit the HTML form on the page:
    1. Complete the three form fields: Full Name, Email Address, and Phone Number.
    2. Choose Submit.
      Screenshot of completing the sample application form
      Notice that the application response includes the form values. The phone number returns the following ciphertext encryption using your public key. This ciphertext has been stored in DynamoDB.
      Screenshot of the phone number as ciphertext
  3. Execute the Lambda decryption function to download ciphertext from DynamoDB and decrypt the phone number using the private key:
    1. In the CloudFormation stack Outputs, locate DecryptFunction and click the URL to open the Lambda console.
    2. Configure a test event using the “Hello World” template.
    3. Choose the Test button.
  4. View the encrypted and decrypted phone number data.
    Screenshot of the encrypted and decrypted phone number data

Summary

In this blog post, we showed you how to use CloudFront field-level encryption to encrypt sensitive data at edge locations and help prevent access from unauthorized systems. The source code for this solution is available on GitHub. For additional information about field-level encryption, see the documentation.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or issues implementing this solution, please start a new thread on the CloudFront forum.

– Alex and Cameron

About the Amazon Trust Services Migration

Post Syndicated from Brent Meyer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/ses/669-2/

Amazon Web Services is moving the certificates for our services—including Amazon SES—to use our own certificate authority, Amazon Trust Services. We have carefully planned this change to minimize the impact it will have on your workflow. Most customers will not have to take any action during this migration.

About the Certificates

The Amazon Trust Services Certificate Authority (CA) uses the Starfield Services CA, which has been valid since 2005. The Amazon Trust Services certificates are available in most major operating systems released in the past 10 years, and are also trusted by all modern web browsers.

If you send email through the Amazon SES SMTP interface using a mail server that you operate, we recommend that you confirm that the appropriate certificates are installed. You can test whether your server trusts the Amazon Trust Services CAs by visiting the following URLs (for example, by using cURL):

If you see a message stating that the certificate issuer is not recognized, then you should install the appropriate root certificate. You can download individual certificates from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository. The process of adding a trusted certificate to your server varies depending on the operating system you use. For more information, see “Adding New Certificates,” below.

AWS SDKs and CLI

Recent versions of the AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI are not impacted by this change. If you use an AWS SDK or a version of the AWS CLI released prior to February 5, 2015, you should upgrade to the latest version.

Potential Issues

If your system is configured to use a very restricted list of root CAs (for example, if you use certificate pinning), you may be impacted by this migration. In this situation, you must update your pinned certificates to include the Amazon Trust Services CAs.

Adding New Root Certificates

The following sections list the steps you can take to install the Amazon Root CA certificates on your systems if they are not already present.

macOS

To install a new certificate on a macOS server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. At the command prompt, type the following command to install the certificate: sudo security add-trusted-cert -d -r trustRoot -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain /path/to/certificatename.crt, replacing /path/to/certificatename.crt with the full path to the certificate file.

Windows Server

To install a new certificate on a Windows server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. At the command prompt, type the following command to install the certificate: certutil -addstore -f "ROOT" c:\path\to\certificatename.crt, replacing c:\path\to\certificatename.crt with the full path to the certificate file.

Ubuntu

To install a new certificate on an Ubuntu (or similar) server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. Copy the certificate file to the directory /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/
  4. At the command prompt, type the following command to update the certificate authority store: sudo update-ca-certificates

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Fedora/CentOS

To install a new certificate on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (or similar) server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. Copy the certificate file to the directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
  4. At the command line, type the following command to enable dynamic certificate authority configuration: sudo update-ca-trust force-enable
  5. At the command line, type the following command to update the certificate authority store: sudo update-ca-trust extract

To learn more about this migration, see How to Prepare for AWS’s Move to Its Own Certificate Authority on the AWS Security Blog.

How to Prepare for AWS’s Move to Its Own Certificate Authority

Post Syndicated from Jonathan Kozolchyk original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-prepare-for-aws-move-to-its-own-certificate-authority/

AWS Certificate Manager image

 

Update from March 28, 2018: We updated the Amazon Trust Services table by replacing an out-of-date value with a new value.


Transport Layer Security (TLS, formerly called Secure Sockets Layer [SSL]) is essential for encrypting information that is exchanged on the internet. For example, Amazon.com uses TLS for all traffic on its website, and AWS uses it to secure calls to AWS services.

An electronic document called a certificate verifies the identity of the server when creating such an encrypted connection. The certificate helps establish proof that your web browser is communicating securely with the website that you typed in your browser’s address field. Certificate Authorities, also known as CAs, issue certificates to specific domains. When a domain presents a certificate that is issued by a trusted CA, your browser or application knows it’s safe to make the connection.

In January 2016, AWS launched AWS Certificate Manager (ACM), a service that lets you easily provision, manage, and deploy SSL/TLS certificates for use with AWS services. These certificates are available for no additional charge through Amazon’s own CA: Amazon Trust Services. For browsers and other applications to trust a certificate, the certificate’s issuer must be included in the browser’s trust store, which is a list of trusted CAs. If the issuing CA is not in the trust store, the browser will display an error message (see an example) and applications will show an application-specific error. To ensure the ubiquity of the Amazon Trust Services CA, AWS purchased the Starfield Services CA, a root found in most browsers and which has been valid since 2005. This means you shouldn’t have to take any action to use the certificates issued by Amazon Trust Services.

AWS has been offering free certificates to AWS customers from the Amazon Trust Services CA. Now, AWS is in the process of moving certificates for services such as Amazon EC2 and Amazon DynamoDB to use certificates from Amazon Trust Services as well. Most software doesn’t need to be changed to handle this transition, but there are exceptions. In this blog post, I show you how to verify that you are prepared to use the Amazon Trust Services CA.

How to tell if the Amazon Trust Services CAs are in your trust store

The following table lists the Amazon Trust Services certificates. To verify that these certificates are in your browser’s trust store, click each Test URL in the following table to verify that it works for you. When a Test URL does not work, it displays an error similar to this example.

Distinguished name SHA-256 hash of subject public key information Test URL
CN=Amazon Root CA 1,O=Amazon,C=US fbe3018031f9586bcbf41727e417b7d1c45c2f47f93be372a17b96b50757d5a2 Test URL
CN=Amazon Root CA 2,O=Amazon,C=US 7f4296fc5b6a4e3b35d3c369623e364ab1af381d8fa7121533c9d6c633ea2461 Test URL
CN=Amazon Root CA 3,O=Amazon,C=US 36abc32656acfc645c61b71613c4bf21c787f5cabbee48348d58597803d7abc9 Test URL
CN=Amazon Root CA 4,O=Amazon,C=US f7ecded5c66047d28ed6466b543c40e0743abe81d109254dcf845d4c2c7853c5 Test URL
CN=Starfield Services Root Certificate Authority – G2,O=Starfield Technologies\, Inc.,L=Scottsdale,ST=Arizona,C=US 2b071c59a0a0ae76b0eadb2bad23bad4580b69c3601b630c2eaf0613afa83f92 Test URL
Starfield Class 2 Certification Authority 15f14ac45c9c7da233d3479164e8137fe35ee0f38ae858183f08410ea82ac4b4 Not available*

* Note: Amazon doesn’t own this root and doesn’t have a test URL for it. The certificate can be downloaded from here.

You can calculate the SHA-256 hash of Subject Public Key Information as follows. With the PEM-encoded certificate stored in certificate.pem, run the following openssl commands:

openssl x509 -in certificate.pem -noout -pubkey | openssl asn1parse -noout -inform pem -out certificate.key
openssl dgst -sha256 certificate.key

As an example, with the Starfield Class 2 Certification Authority self-signed cert in a PEM encoded file sf-class2-root.crt, you can use the following openssl commands:

openssl x509 -in sf-class2-root.crt -noout -pubkey | openssl asn1parse -noout -inform pem -out sf-class2-root.key
openssl dgst -sha256 sf-class2-root.key ~
SHA256(sf-class2-root.key)= 15f14ac45c9c7da233d3479164e8137fe35ee0f38ae858183f08410ea82ac4b4

What to do if the Amazon Trust Services CAs are not in your trust store

If your tests of any of the Test URLs failed, you must update your trust store. The easiest way to update your trust store is to upgrade the operating system or browser that you are using.

You will find the Amazon Trust Services CAs in the following operating systems (release dates are in parentheses):

  • Microsoft Windows versions that have January 2005 or later updates installed, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and newer versions
  • Mac OS X 10.4 with Java for Mac OS X 10.4 Release 5, Mac OS X 10.5 and newer versions
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (March 2007), Linux 6, and Linux 7 and CentOS 5, CentOS 6, and CentOS 7
  • Ubuntu 8.10
  • Debian 5.0
  • Amazon Linux (all versions)
  • Java 1.4.2_12, Java 5 update 2, and all newer versions, including Java 6, Java 7, and Java 8

All modern browsers trust Amazon’s CAs. You can update the certificate bundle in your browser simply by updating your browser. You can find instructions for updating the following browsers on their respective websites:

If your application is using a custom trust store, you must add the Amazon root CAs to your application’s trust store. The instructions for doing this vary based on the application or platform. Please refer to the documentation for the application or platform you are using.

AWS SDKs and CLIs

Most AWS SDKs and CLIs are not impacted by the transition to the Amazon Trust Services CA. If you are using a version of the Python AWS SDK or CLI released before October 29, 2013, you must upgrade. The .NET, Java, PHP, Go, JavaScript, and C++ SDKs and CLIs do not bundle any certificates, so their certificates come from the underlying operating system. The Ruby SDK has included at least one of the required CAs since June 10, 2015. Before that date, the Ruby V2 SDK did not bundle certificates.

Certificate pinning

If you are using a technique called certificate pinning to lock down the CAs you trust on a domain-by-domain basis, you must adjust your pinning to include the Amazon Trust Services CAs. Certificate pinning helps defend you from an attacker using misissued certificates to fool an application into creating a connection to a spoofed host (an illegitimate host masquerading as a legitimate host). The restriction to a specific, pinned certificate is made by checking that the certificate issued is the expected certificate. This is done by checking that the hash of the certificate public key received from the server matches the expected hash stored in the application. If the hashes do not match, the code stops the connection.

AWS recommends against using certificate pinning because it introduces a potential availability risk. If the certificate to which you pin is replaced, your application will fail to connect. If your use case requires pinning, we recommend that you pin to a CA rather than to an individual certificate. If you are pinning to an Amazon Trust Services CA, you should pin to all CAs shown in the table earlier in this post.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about this post, start a new thread on the ACM forum.

– Jonathan

Introducing AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Standard Edition)

Post Syndicated from Peter Pereira original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/introducing-aws-directory-service-for-microsoft-active-directory-standard-edition/

Today, AWS introduced AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Standard Edition), also known as AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition), which is managed Microsoft Active Directory (AD) that is performance optimized for small and midsize businesses. AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) offers you a highly available and cost-effective primary directory in the AWS Cloud that you can use to manage users, groups, and computers. It enables you to join Amazon EC2 instances to your domain easily and supports many AWS and third-party applications and services. It also can support most of the common use cases of small and midsize businesses. When you use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) as your primary directory, you can manage access and provide single sign-on (SSO) to cloud applications such as Microsoft Office 365. If you have an existing Microsoft AD directory, you can also use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) as a resource forest that contains primarily computers and groups, allowing you to migrate your AD-aware applications to the AWS Cloud while using existing on-premises AD credentials.

In this blog post, I help you get started by answering three main questions about AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition):

  1. What do I get?
  2. How can I use it?
  3. What are the key features?

After answering these questions, I show how you can get started with creating and using your own AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) directory.

1. What do I get?

When you create an AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) directory, AWS deploys two Microsoft AD domain controllers powered by Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). To help deliver high availability, the domain controllers run in different Availability Zones in the AWS Region of your choice.

As a managed service, AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) configures directory replication, automates daily snapshots, and handles all patching and software updates. In addition, AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) monitors and automatically recovers domain controllers in the event of a failure.

AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) has been optimized as a primary directory for small and midsize businesses with the capacity to support approximately 5,000 employees. With 1 GB of directory object storage, AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) has the capacity to store 30,000 or more total directory objects (users, groups, and computers). AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) also gives you the option to add domain controllers to meet the specific performance demands of your applications. You also can use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) as a resource forest with a trust relationship to your on-premises directory.

2. How can I use it?

With AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition), you can share a single directory for multiple use cases. For example, you can share a directory to authenticate and authorize access for .NET applications, Amazon RDS for SQL Server with Windows Authentication enabled, and Amazon Chime for messaging and video conferencing.

The following diagram shows some of the use cases for your AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) directory, including the ability to grant your users access to external cloud applications and allow your on-premises AD users to manage and have access to resources in the AWS Cloud. Click the diagram to see a larger version.

Diagram showing some ways you can use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition)--click the diagram to see a larger version

Use case 1: Sign in to AWS applications and services with AD credentials

You can enable multiple AWS applications and services such as the AWS Management Console, Amazon WorkSpaces, and Amazon RDS for SQL Server to use your AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) directory. When you enable an AWS application or service in your directory, your users can access the application or service with their AD credentials.

For example, you can enable your users to sign in to the AWS Management Console with their AD credentials. To do this, you enable the AWS Management Console as an application in your directory, and then assign your AD users and groups to IAM roles. When your users sign in to the AWS Management Console, they assume an IAM role to manage AWS resources. This makes it easy for you to grant your users access to the AWS Management Console without needing to configure and manage a separate SAML infrastructure.

Use case 2: Manage Amazon EC2 instances

Using familiar AD administration tools, you can apply AD Group Policy objects (GPOs) to centrally manage your Amazon EC2 for Windows or Linux instances by joining your instances to your AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) domain.

In addition, your users can sign in to your instances with their AD credentials. This eliminates the need to use individual instance credentials or distribute private key (PEM) files. This makes it easier for you to instantly grant or revoke access to users by using AD user administration tools you already use.

Use case 3: Provide directory services to your AD-aware workloads

AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) is an actual Microsoft AD that enables you to run traditional AD-aware workloads such as Remote Desktop Licensing Manager, Microsoft SharePoint, and Microsoft SQL Server Always On in the AWS Cloud. AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) also helps you to simplify and improve the security of AD-integrated .NET applications by using group Managed Service Accounts (gMSAs) and Kerberos constrained delegation (KCD).

Use case 4: SSO to Office 365 and other cloud applications

You can use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) to provide SSO for cloud applications. You can use Azure AD Connect to synchronize your users into Azure AD, and then use Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) so that your users can access Microsoft Office 365 and other SAML 2.0 cloud applications by using their AD credentials.

Use case 5: Extend your on-premises AD to the AWS Cloud

If you already have an AD infrastructure and want to use it when migrating AD-aware workloads to the AWS Cloud, AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) can help. You can use AD trusts to connect AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) to your existing AD. This means your users can access AD-aware and AWS applications with their on-premises AD credentials, without needing you to synchronize users, groups, or passwords.

For example, your users can sign in to the AWS Management Console and Amazon WorkSpaces by using their existing AD user names and passwords. Also, when you use AD-aware applications such as SharePoint with AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition), your logged-in Windows users can access these applications without needing to enter credentials again.

3. What are the key features?

AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) includes the features detailed in this section.

Extend your AD schema

With AWS Microsoft AD, you can run customized AD-integrated applications that require changes to your directory schema, which defines the structures of your directory. The schema is composed of object classes such as user objects, which contain attributes such as user names. AWS Microsoft AD lets you extend the schema by adding new AD attributes or object classes that are not present in the core AD attributes and classes.

For example, if you have a human resources application that uses employee badge color to assign specific benefits, you can extend the schema to include a badge color attribute in the user object class of your directory. To learn more, see How to Move More Custom Applications to the AWS Cloud with AWS Directory Service.

Create user-specific password policies

With user-specific password policies, you can apply specific restrictions and account lockout policies to different types of users in your AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) domain. For example, you can enforce strong passwords and frequent password change policies for administrators, and use less-restrictive policies with moderate account lockout policies for general users.

Add domain controllers

You can increase the performance and redundancy of your directory by adding domain controllers. This can help improve application performance by enabling directory clients to load-balance their requests across a larger number of domain controllers.

Encrypt directory traffic

You can use AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) to encrypt Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) communication between your applications and your directory. By enabling LDAP over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS), also called LDAPS, you encrypt your LDAP communications end to end. This helps you to protect sensitive information you keep in your directory when it is accessed over untrusted networks.

Improve the security of signing in to AWS services by using multi-factor authentication (MFA)

You can improve the security of signing in to AWS services, such as Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight, by enabling MFA in your AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) directory. With MFA, your users must enter a one-time passcode (OTP) in addition to their AD user names and passwords to access AWS applications and services you enable in AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition).

Get started

To get started, use the Directory Service console to create your first directory with just a few clicks. If you have not used Directory Service before, you may be eligible for a 30-day limited free trial.

Summary

In this blog post, I explained what AWS Microsoft AD (Standard Edition) is and how you can use it. With a single directory, you can address many use cases for your business, making it easier to migrate and run your AD-aware workloads in the AWS Cloud, provide access to AWS applications and services, and connect to other cloud applications. To learn more about AWS Microsoft AD, see the Directory Service home page.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about this blog post, start a new thread on the Directory Service forum.

– Peter

Manufacturing Astro Pi case replicas

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/astro-pi-case-guest-post/

Tim Rowledge produces and sells wonderful replicas of the cases which our Astro Pis live in aboard the International Space Station. Here is the story of how he came to do this. Over to you, Tim!

When the Astro Pi case was first revealed a couple of years ago, the collective outpouring of ‘Squee!’ it elicited may have been heard on board the ISS itself. People wanted to buy it or build it at home, and someone wanted to know whether it would blend. (There’s always one.)

The complete Astro Pi

The Sense HAT and its Pi tucked snugly in the original Astro Pi flight case — gorgeous, isn’t it?

Replicating the Astro Pi case

Some months later the STL files for printing your own Astro Pi case were released, and people jumped at the chance to use them. Soon reports appeared saying you had to make quite a few attempts before getting a good print — normal for any complex 3D-printing project. A fellow member of my local makerspace successfully made a couple of cases, but it took a lot of time, filament, and post-print finishing work. And of course, a plastic Astro Pi case simply doesn’t look or feel like the original made of machined aluminium — or ‘aluminum’, as they tend to say over here in North America.

Batch of tops of Astro Pi case replicas by Tim Rowledge

A batch of tops designed by Tim

I wanted to build an Astro Pi case which would more closely match the original. Fortunately, someone else at my makerspace happens to have some serious CNC machining equipment at his small manufacturing company. Therefore, I focused on creating a case design that could be produced with his three-axis device. This meant simplifying some parts to avoid expensive, slow, complex multi-fixture work. It took us a while, but we ended up with a design we can efficiently make using his machine.

Lasered Astro Pi case replica by Tim Rowledge

Tim’s first lasered case

And the resulting case looks really, really like the original — in fact, upon receiving one of the final prototypes, Eben commented:

“I have to say, at first glance they look spectacular: unless you hold them side by side with the originals, it’s hard to pinpoint what’s changed. I’m looking forward to seeing one built up and then seeing them in the wild.”

Inside the Astro Pi case

Making just the bare case is nice, but there are other parts required to recreate a complete Astro Pi unit. Thus I got my local electronics company to design a small HAT to provide much the same support the mezzanine board offers: an RTC and nice, clean connections to the six buttons. We also added well-labelled, grouped pads for all the other GPIO lines, along with space for an ADC. If you’re making your own Astro Pi replica, you might like the Switchboard.

The electronics supply industry just loves to offer *some* of what you need, so that one supplier never has everything: we had to obtain the required stand-offs, screws, spacers, and JST wires from assorted other sources. Jeff at my nearby Industrial Paint & Plastics took on the laser engraving of our cases, leaving out copyrighted logos etcetera.

Lasering the top of an Astro Pi case replica by Tim Rowledge

Lasering the top of a case

Get your own Astro Pi case

Should you like to buy one of our Astro Pi case kits, pop over to www.astropicase.com, and we’ll get it on its way to you pronto. If you’re an institutional or corporate customer, the fully built option might make more sense for you — ordering the Pi and other components, and having a staff member assemble it all, may well be more work than is sensible.

Astro Pi case replica Tim Rowledge

Tim’s first full Astro Pi case replica, complete with shiny APEM buttons

To put the kit together yourself, all you need to do is add a Pi, Sense HAT, Camera Module, and RTC battery, and choose your buttons. An illustrated manual explains the process step by step. Our version of the Astro Pi case uses the same APEM buttons as the units in orbit, and whilst they are expensive, just clicking them is a source of great joy. It comes in a nice travel case too.

Tim Rowledge holding up a PCB

This is Tim. Thanks, Tim!

Take part in Astro Pi

If having an Astro Pi replica is not enough for you, this is your chance: the 2017-18 Astro Pi challenge is open! Do you know a teenager who might be keen to design a experiment to run on the Astro Pis in space? Are you one yourself? You have until 29 October to send us your Mission Space Lab entry and become part of the next generation of space scientists? Head over to the Astro Pi website to find out more.

The post Manufacturing Astro Pi case replicas appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Manage Kubernetes Clusters on AWS Using CoreOS Tectonic

Post Syndicated from Arun Gupta original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/kubernetes-clusters-aws-coreos-tectonic/

There are multiple ways to run a Kubernetes cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The first post in this series explained how to manage a Kubernetes cluster on AWS using kops. This second post explains how to manage a Kubernetes cluster on AWS using CoreOS Tectonic.

Tectonic overview

Tectonic delivers the most current upstream version of Kubernetes with additional features. It is a commercial offering from CoreOS and adds the following features over the upstream:

  • Installer
    Comes with a graphical installer that installs a highly available Kubernetes cluster. Alternatively, the cluster can be installed using AWS CloudFormation templates or Terraform scripts.
  • Operators
    An operator is an application-specific controller that extends the Kubernetes API to create, configure, and manage instances of complex stateful applications on behalf of a Kubernetes user. This release includes an etcd operator for rolling upgrades and a Prometheus operator for monitoring capabilities.
  • Console
    A web console provides a full view of applications running in the cluster. It also allows you to deploy applications to the cluster and start the rolling upgrade of the cluster.
  • Monitoring
    Node CPU and memory metrics are powered by the Prometheus operator. The graphs are available in the console. A large set of preconfigured Prometheus alerts are also available.
  • Security
    Tectonic ensures that cluster is always up to date with the most recent patches/fixes. Tectonic clusters also enable role-based access control (RBAC). Different roles can be mapped to an LDAP service.
  • Support
    CoreOS provides commercial support for clusters created using Tectonic.

Tectonic can be installed on AWS using a GUI installer or Terraform scripts. The installer prompts you for the information needed to boot the Kubernetes cluster, such as AWS access and secret key, number of master and worker nodes, and instance size for the master and worker nodes. The cluster can be created after all the options are specified. Alternatively, Terraform assets can be downloaded and the cluster can be created later. This post shows using the installer.

CoreOS License and Pull Secret

Even though Tectonic is a commercial offering, a cluster for up to 10 nodes can be created by creating a free account at Get Tectonic for Kubernetes. After signup, a CoreOS License and Pull Secret files are provided on your CoreOS account page. Download these files as they are needed by the installer to boot the cluster.

IAM user permission

The IAM user to create the Kubernetes cluster must have access to the following services and features:

  • Amazon Route 53
  • Amazon EC2
  • Elastic Load Balancing
  • Amazon S3
  • Amazon VPC
  • Security groups

Use the aws-policy policy to grant the required permissions for the IAM user.

DNS configuration

A subdomain is required to create the cluster, and it must be registered as a public Route 53 hosted zone. The zone is used to host and expose the console web application. It is also used as the static namespace for the Kubernetes API server. This allows kubectl to be able to talk directly with the master.

The domain may be registered using Route 53. Alternatively, a domain may be registered at a third-party registrar. This post uses a kubernetes-aws.io domain registered at a third-party registrar and a tectonic subdomain within it.

Generate a Route 53 hosted zone using the AWS CLI. Download jq to run this command:

ID=$(uuidgen) && \
aws route53 create-hosted-zone \
--name tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io \
--caller-reference $ID \
| jq .DelegationSet.NameServers

The command shows an output such as the following:

[
  "ns-1924.awsdns-48.co.uk",
  "ns-501.awsdns-62.com",
  "ns-1259.awsdns-29.org",
  "ns-749.awsdns-29.net"
]

Create NS records for the domain with your registrar. Make sure that the NS records can be resolved using a utility like dig web interface. A sample output would look like the following:

The bottom of the screenshot shows NS records configured for the subdomain.

Download and run the Tectonic installer

Download the Tectonic installer (version 1.7.1) and extract it. The latest installer can always be found at coreos.com/tectonic. Start the installer:

./tectonic/tectonic-installer/$PLATFORM/installer

Replace $PLATFORM with either darwin or linux. The installer opens your default browser and prompts you to select the cloud provider. Choose Amazon Web Services as the platform. Choose Next Step.

Specify the Access Key ID and Secret Access Key for the IAM role that you created earlier. This allows the installer to create resources required for the Kubernetes cluster. This also gives the installer full access to your AWS account. Alternatively, to protect the integrity of your main AWS credentials, use a temporary session token to generate temporary credentials.

You also need to choose a region in which to install the cluster. For the purpose of this post, I chose a region close to where I live, Northern California. Choose Next Step.

Give your cluster a name. This name is part of the static namespace for the master and the address of the console.

To enable in-place update to the Kubernetes cluster, select the checkbox next to Automated Updates. It also enables update to the etcd and Prometheus operators. This feature may become a default in future releases.

Choose Upload “tectonic-license.txt” and upload the previously downloaded license file.

Choose Upload “config.json” and upload the previously downloaded pull secret file. Choose Next Step.

Let the installer generate a CA certificate and key. In this case, the browser may not recognize this certificate, which I discuss later in the post. Alternatively, you can provide a CA certificate and a key in PEM format issued by an authorized certificate authority. Choose Next Step.

Use the SSH key for the region specified earlier. You also have an option to generate a new key. This allows you to later connect using SSH into the Amazon EC2 instances provisioned by the cluster. Here is the command that can be used to log in:

ssh –i <key> [email protected]<ec2-instance-ip>

Choose Next Step.

Define the number and instance type of master and worker nodes. In this case, create a 6 nodes cluster. Make sure that the worker nodes have enough processing power and memory to run the containers.

An etcd cluster is used as persistent storage for all of Kubernetes API objects. This cluster is required for the Kubernetes cluster to operate. There are three ways to use the etcd cluster as part of the Tectonic installer:

  • (Default) Provision the cluster using EC2 instances. Additional EC2 instances are used in this case.
  • Use an alpha support for cluster provisioning using the etcd operator. The etcd operator is used for automated operations of the etcd master nodes for the cluster itself, in addition to for etcd instances that are created for application usage. The etcd cluster is provisioned within the Tectonic installer.
  • Bring your own pre-provisioned etcd cluster.

Use the first option in this case.

For more information about choosing the appropriate instance type, see the etcd hardware recommendation. Choose Next Step.

Specify the networking options. The installer can create a new public VPC or use a pre-existing public or private VPC. Make sure that the VPC requirements are met for an existing VPC.

Give a DNS name for the cluster. Choose the domain for which the Route 53 hosted zone was configured earlier, such as tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io. Multiple clusters may be created under a single domain. The cluster name and the DNS name would typically match each other.

To select the CIDR range, choose Show Advanced Settings. You can also choose the Availability Zones for the master and worker nodes. By default, the master and worker nodes are spread across multiple Availability Zones in the chosen region. This makes the cluster highly available.

Leave the other values as default. Choose Next Step.

Specify an email address and password to be used as credentials to log in to the console. Choose Next Step.

At any point during the installation, you can choose Save progress. This allows you to save configurations specified in the installer. This configuration file can then be used to restore progress in the installer at a later point.

To start the cluster installation, choose Submit. At another time, you can download the Terraform assets by choosing Manually boot. This allows you to boot the cluster later.

The logs from the Terraform scripts are shown in the installer. When the installation is complete, the console shows that the Terraform scripts were successfully applied, the domain name was resolved successfully, and that the console has started. The domain works successfully if the DNS resolution worked earlier, and it’s the address where the console is accessible.

Choose Download assets to download assets related to your cluster. It contains your generated CA, kubectl configuration file, and the Terraform state. This download is an important step as it allows you to delete the cluster later.

Choose Next Step for the final installation screen. It allows you to access the Tectonic console, gives you instructions about how to configure kubectl to manage this cluster, and finally deploys an application using kubectl.

Choose Go to my Tectonic Console. In our case, it is also accessible at http://cluster.tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io/.

As I mentioned earlier, the browser does not recognize the self-generated CA certificate. Choose Advanced and connect to the console. Enter the login credentials specified earlier in the installer and choose Login.

The Kubernetes upstream and console version are shown under Software Details. Cluster health shows All systems go and it means that the API server and the backend API can be reached.

To view different Kubernetes resources in the cluster choose, the resource in the left navigation bar. For example, all deployments can be seen by choosing Deployments.

By default, resources in the all namespace are shown. Other namespaces may be chosen by clicking on a menu item on the top of the screen. Different administration tasks such as managing the namespaces, getting list of the nodes and RBAC can be configured as well.

Download and run Kubectl

Kubectl is required to manage the Kubernetes cluster. The latest version of kubectl can be downloaded using the following command:

curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$(curl -s https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt)/bin/darwin/amd64/kubectl

It can also be conveniently installed using the Homebrew package manager. To find and access a cluster, Kubectl needs a kubeconfig file. By default, this configuration file is at ~/.kube/config. This file is created when a Kubernetes cluster is created from your machine. However, in this case, download this file from the console.

In the console, choose admin, My Account, Download Configuration and follow the steps to download the kubectl configuration file. Move this file to ~/.kube/config. If kubectl has already been used on your machine before, then this file already exists. Make sure to take a backup of that file first.

Now you can run the commands to view the list of deployments:

~ $ kubectl get deployments --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE         NAME                                    DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kube-system       etcd-operator                           1         1         1            1           43m
kube-system       heapster                                1         1         1            1           40m
kube-system       kube-controller-manager                 3         3         3            3           43m
kube-system       kube-dns                                1         1         1            1           43m
kube-system       kube-scheduler                          3         3         3            3           43m
tectonic-system   container-linux-update-operator         1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   default-http-backend                    1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   kube-state-metrics                      1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   kube-version-operator                   1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   prometheus-operator                     1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-channel-operator               1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-console                        2         2         2            2           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-identity                       2         2         2            2           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-ingress-controller             1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-monitoring-auth-alertmanager   1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-monitoring-auth-prometheus     1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-prometheus-operator            1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-stats-emitter                  1         1         1            1           40m

This output is similar to the one shown in the console earlier. Now, this kubectl can be used to manage your resources.

Upgrade the Kubernetes cluster

Tectonic allows the in-place upgrade of the cluster. This is an experimental feature as of this release. The clusters can be updated either automatically, or with manual approval.

To perform the update, choose Administration, Cluster Settings. If an earlier Tectonic installer, version 1.6.2 in this case, is used to install the cluster, then this screen would look like the following:

Choose Check for Updates. If any updates are available, choose Start Upgrade. After the upgrade is completed, the screen is refreshed.

This is an experimental feature in this release and so should only be used on clusters that can be easily replaced. This feature may become a fully supported in a future release. For more information about the upgrade process, see Upgrading Tectonic & Kubernetes.

Delete the Kubernetes cluster

Typically, the Kubernetes cluster is a long-running cluster to serve your applications. After its purpose is served, you may delete it. It is important to delete the cluster as this ensures that all resources created by the cluster are appropriately cleaned up.

The easiest way to delete the cluster is using the assets downloaded in the last step of the installer. Extract the downloaded zip file. This creates a directory like <cluster-name>_TIMESTAMP. In that directory, give the following command to delete the cluster:

TERRAFORM_CONFIG=$(pwd)/.terraformrc terraform destroy --force

This destroys the cluster and all associated resources.

You may have forgotten to download the assets. There is a copy of the assets in the directory tectonic/tectonic-installer/darwin/clusters. In this directory, another directory with the name <cluster-name>_TIMESTAMP contains your assets.

Conclusion

This post explained how to manage Kubernetes clusters using the CoreOS Tectonic graphical installer.  For more details, see Graphical Installer with AWS. If the installation does not succeed, see the helpful Troubleshooting tips. After the cluster is created, see the Tectonic tutorials to learn how to deploy, scale, version, and delete an application.

Future posts in this series will explain other ways of creating and running a Kubernetes cluster on AWS.

Arun

How to Configure an LDAPS Endpoint for Simple AD

Post Syndicated from Cameron Worrell original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-configure-an-ldaps-endpoint-for-simple-ad/

Simple AD, which is powered by Samba  4, supports basic Active Directory (AD) authentication features such as users, groups, and the ability to join domains. Simple AD also includes an integrated Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. LDAP is a standard application protocol for the access and management of directory information. You can use the BIND operation from Simple AD to authenticate LDAP client sessions. This makes LDAP a common choice for centralized authentication and authorization for services such as Secure Shell (SSH), client-based virtual private networks (VPNs), and many other applications. Authentication, the process of confirming the identity of a principal, typically involves the transmission of highly sensitive information such as user names and passwords. To protect this information in transit over untrusted networks, companies often require encryption as part of their information security strategy.

In this blog post, we show you how to configure an LDAPS (LDAP over SSL/TLS) encrypted endpoint for Simple AD so that you can extend Simple AD over untrusted networks. Our solution uses Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) to send decrypted LDAP traffic to HAProxy running on Amazon EC2, which then sends the traffic to Simple AD. ELB offers integrated certificate management, SSL/TLS termination, and the ability to use a scalable EC2 backend to process decrypted traffic. ELB also tightly integrates with Amazon Route 53, enabling you to use a custom domain for the LDAPS endpoint. The solution needs the intermediate HAProxy layer because ELB can direct traffic only to EC2 instances. To simplify testing and deployment, we have provided an AWS CloudFormation template to provision the ELB and HAProxy layers.

This post assumes that you have an understanding of concepts such as Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and its components, including subnets, routing, Internet and network address translation (NAT) gateways, DNS, and security groups. You should also be familiar with launching EC2 instances and logging in to them with SSH. If needed, you should familiarize yourself with these concepts and review the solution overview and prerequisites in the next section before proceeding with the deployment.

Note: This solution is intended for use by clients requiring an LDAPS endpoint only. If your requirements extend beyond this, you should consider accessing the Simple AD servers directly or by using AWS Directory Service for Microsoft AD.

Solution overview

The following diagram and description illustrates and explains the Simple AD LDAPS environment. The CloudFormation template creates the items designated by the bracket (internal ELB load balancer and two HAProxy nodes configured in an Auto Scaling group).

Diagram of the the Simple AD LDAPS environment

Here is how the solution works, as shown in the preceding numbered diagram:

  1. The LDAP client sends an LDAPS request to ELB on TCP port 636.
  2. ELB terminates the SSL/TLS session and decrypts the traffic using a certificate. ELB sends the decrypted LDAP traffic to the EC2 instances running HAProxy on TCP port 389.
  3. The HAProxy servers forward the LDAP request to the Simple AD servers listening on TCP port 389 in a fixed Auto Scaling group configuration.
  4. The Simple AD servers send an LDAP response through the HAProxy layer to ELB. ELB encrypts the response and sends it to the client.

Note: Amazon VPC prevents a third party from intercepting traffic within the VPC. Because of this, the VPC protects the decrypted traffic between ELB and HAProxy and between HAProxy and Simple AD. The ELB encryption provides an additional layer of security for client connections and protects traffic coming from hosts outside the VPC.

Prerequisites

  1. Our approach requires an Amazon VPC with two public and two private subnets. The previous diagram illustrates the environment’s VPC requirements. If you do not yet have these components in place, follow these guidelines for setting up a sample environment:
    1. Identify a region that supports Simple AD, ELB, and NAT gateways. The NAT gateways are used with an Internet gateway to allow the HAProxy instances to access the internet to perform their required configuration. You also need to identify the two Availability Zones in that region for use by Simple AD. You will supply these Availability Zones as parameters to the CloudFormation template later in this process.
    2. Create or choose an Amazon VPC in the region you chose. In order to use Route 53 to resolve the LDAPS endpoint, make sure you enable DNS support within your VPC. Create an Internet gateway and attach it to the VPC, which will be used by the NAT gateways to access the internet.
    3. Create a route table with a default route to the Internet gateway. Create two NAT gateways, one per Availability Zone in your public subnets to provide additional resiliency across the Availability Zones. Together, the routing table, the NAT gateways, and the Internet gateway enable the HAProxy instances to access the internet.
    4. Create two private routing tables, one per Availability Zone. Create two private subnets, one per Availability Zone. The dual routing tables and subnets allow for a higher level of redundancy. Add each subnet to the routing table in the same Availability Zone. Add a default route in each routing table to the NAT gateway in the same Availability Zone. The Simple AD servers use subnets that you create.
    5. The LDAP service requires a DNS domain that resolves within your VPC and from your LDAP clients. If you do not have an existing DNS domain, follow the steps to create a private hosted zone and associate it with your VPC. To avoid encryption protocol errors, you must ensure that the DNS domain name is consistent across your Route 53 zone and in the SSL/TLS certificate (see Step 2 in the “Solution deployment” section).
  2. Make sure you have completed the Simple AD Prerequisites.
  3. We will use a self-signed certificate for ELB to perform SSL/TLS decryption. You can use a certificate issued by your preferred certificate authority or a certificate issued by AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).
    Note: To prevent unauthorized connections directly to your Simple AD servers, you can modify the Simple AD security group on port 389 to block traffic from locations outside of the Simple AD VPC. You can find the security group in the EC2 console by creating a search filter for your Simple AD directory ID. It is also important to allow the Simple AD servers to communicate with each other as shown on Simple AD Prerequisites.

Solution deployment

This solution includes five main parts:

  1. Create a Simple AD directory.
  2. Create a certificate.
  3. Create the ELB and HAProxy layers by using the supplied CloudFormation template.
  4. Create a Route 53 record.
  5. Test LDAPS access using an Amazon Linux client.

1. Create a Simple AD directory

With the prerequisites completed, you will create a Simple AD directory in your private VPC subnets:

  1. In the Directory Service console navigation pane, choose Directories and then choose Set up directory.
  2. Choose Simple AD.
    Screenshot of choosing "Simple AD"
  3. Provide the following information:
    • Directory DNS – The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the directory, such as corp.example.com. You will use the FQDN as part of the testing procedure.
    • NetBIOS name – The short name for the directory, such as CORP.
    • Administrator password – The password for the directory administrator. The directory creation process creates an administrator account with the user name Administrator and this password. Do not lose this password because it is nonrecoverable. You also need this password for testing LDAPS access in a later step.
    • Description – An optional description for the directory.
    • Directory Size – The size of the directory.
      Screenshot of the directory details to provide
  4. Provide the following information in the VPC Details section, and then choose Next Step:
    • VPC – Specify the VPC in which to install the directory.
    • Subnets – Choose two private subnets for the directory servers. The two subnets must be in different Availability Zones. Make a note of the VPC and subnet IDs for use as CloudFormation input parameters. In the following example, the Availability Zones are us-east-1a and us-east-1c.
      Screenshot of the VPC details to provide
  5. Review the directory information and make any necessary changes. When the information is correct, choose Create Simple AD.

It takes several minutes to create the directory. From the AWS Directory Service console , refresh the screen periodically and wait until the directory Status value changes to Active before continuing. Choose your Simple AD directory and note the two IP addresses in the DNS address section. You will enter them when you run the CloudFormation template later.

Note: Full administration of your Simple AD implementation is out of scope for this blog post. See the documentation to add users, groups, or instances to your directory. Also see the previous blog post, How to Manage Identities in Simple AD Directories.

2. Create a certificate

In the previous step, you created the Simple AD directory. Next, you will generate a self-signed SSL/TLS certificate using OpenSSL. You will use the certificate with ELB to secure the LDAPS endpoint. OpenSSL is a standard, open source library that supports a wide range of cryptographic functions, including the creation and signing of x509 certificates. You then import the certificate into ACM that is integrated with ELB.

  1. You must have a system with OpenSSL installed to complete this step. If you do not have OpenSSL, you can install it on Amazon Linux by running the command, sudo yum install openssl. If you do not have access to an Amazon Linux instance you can create one with SSH access enabled to proceed with this step. Run the command, openssl version, at the command line to see if you already have OpenSSL installed.
    [[email protected] ~]$ openssl version
    OpenSSL 1.0.1k-fips 8 Jan 2015

  2. Create a private key using the command, openssl genrsa command.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl genrsa 2048 > privatekey.pem
    Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
    ......................................................................................................................................................................+++
    ..........................+++
    e is 65537 (0x10001)

  3. Generate a certificate signing request (CSR) using the openssl req command. Provide the requested information for each field. The Common Name is the FQDN for your LDAPS endpoint (for example, ldap.corp.example.com). The Common Name must use the domain name you will later register in Route 53. You will encounter certificate errors if the names do not match.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl req -new -key privatekey.pem -out server.csr
    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request.

  4. Use the openssl x509 command to sign the certificate. The following example uses the private key from the previous step (privatekey.pem) and the signing request (server.csr) to create a public certificate named server.crt that is valid for 365 days. This certificate must be updated within 365 days to avoid disruption of LDAPS functionality.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey privatekey.pem -out server.crt
    Signature ok
    subject=/C=XX/L=Default City/O=Default Company Ltd/CN=ldap.corp.example.com
    Getting Private key

  5. You should see three files: privatekey.pem, server.crt, and server.csr.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ ls
    privatekey.pem server.crt server.csr

    Restrict access to the private key.

    [[email protected] tmp]$ chmod 600 privatekey.pem

    Keep the private key and public certificate for later use. You can discard the signing request because you are using a self-signed certificate and not using a Certificate Authority. Always store the private key in a secure location and avoid adding it to your source code.

  6. In the ACM console, choose Import a certificate.
  7. Using your favorite Linux text editor, paste the contents of your server.crt file in the Certificate body box.
  8. Using your favorite Linux text editor, paste the contents of your privatekey.pem file in the Certificate private key box. For a self-signed certificate, you can leave the Certificate chain box blank.
  9. Choose Review and import. Confirm the information and choose Import.

3. Create the ELB and HAProxy layers by using the supplied CloudFormation template

Now that you have created your Simple AD directory and SSL/TLS certificate, you are ready to use the CloudFormation template to create the ELB and HAProxy layers.

  1. Load the supplied CloudFormation template to deploy an internal ELB and two HAProxy EC2 instances into a fixed Auto Scaling group. After you load the template, provide the following input parameters. Note: You can find the parameters relating to your Simple AD from the directory details page by choosing your Simple AD in the Directory Service console.
Input parameter Input parameter description
HAProxyInstanceSize The EC2 instance size for HAProxy servers. The default size is t2.micro and can scale up for large Simple AD environments.
MyKeyPair The SSH key pair for EC2 instances. If you do not have an existing key pair, you must create one.
VPCId The target VPC for this solution. Must be in the VPC where you deployed Simple AD and is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SubnetId1 The Simple AD primary subnet. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SubnetId2 The Simple AD secondary subnet. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
MyTrustedNetwork Trusted network Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) to allow connections to the LDAPS endpoint. For example, use the VPC CIDR to allow clients in the VPC to connect.
SimpleADPriIP The primary Simple AD Server IP. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SimpleADSecIP The secondary Simple AD Server IP. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
LDAPSCertificateARN The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) for the SSL certificate. This information is available in the ACM console.
  1. Enter the input parameters and choose Next.
  2. On the Options page, accept the defaults and choose Next.
  3. On the Review page, confirm the details and choose Create. The stack will be created in approximately 5 minutes.

4. Create a Route 53 record

The next step is to create a Route 53 record in your private hosted zone so that clients can resolve your LDAPS endpoint.

  1. If you do not have an existing DNS domain for use with LDAP, create a private hosted zone and associate it with your VPC. The hosted zone name should be consistent with your Simple AD (for example, corp.example.com).
  2. When the CloudFormation stack is in CREATE_COMPLETE status, locate the value of the LDAPSURL on the Outputs tab of the stack. Copy this value for use in the next step.
  3. On the Route 53 console, choose Hosted Zones and then choose the zone you used for the Common Name box for your self-signed certificate. Choose Create Record Set and enter the following information:
    1. Name – The label of the record (such as ldap).
    2. Type – Leave as A – IPv4 address.
    3. Alias – Choose Yes.
    4. Alias Target – Paste the value of the LDAPSURL on the Outputs tab of the stack.
  4. Leave the defaults for Routing Policy and Evaluate Target Health, and choose Create.
    Screenshot of finishing the creation of the Route 53 record

5. Test LDAPS access using an Amazon Linux client

At this point, you have configured your LDAPS endpoint and now you can test it from an Amazon Linux client.

  1. Create an Amazon Linux instance with SSH access enabled to test the solution. Launch the instance into one of the public subnets in your VPC. Make sure the IP assigned to the instance is in the trusted IP range you specified in the CloudFormation parameter MyTrustedNetwork in Step 3.b.
  2. SSH into the instance and complete the following steps to verify access.
    1. Install the openldap-clients package and any required dependencies:
      sudo yum install -y openldap-clients.
    2. Add the server.crt file to the /etc/openldap/certs/ directory so that the LDAPS client will trust your SSL/TLS certificate. You can copy the file using Secure Copy (SCP) or create it using a text editor.
    3. Edit the /etc/openldap/ldap.conf file and define the environment variables BASE, URI, and TLS_CACERT.
      • The value for BASE should match the configuration of the Simple AD directory name.
      • The value for URI should match your DNS alias.
      • The value for TLS_CACERT is the path to your public certificate.

Here is an example of the contents of the file.

BASE dc=corp,dc=example,dc=com
URI ldaps://ldap.corp.example.com
TLS_CACERT /etc/openldap/certs/server.crt

To test the solution, query the directory through the LDAPS endpoint, as shown in the following command. Replace corp.example.com with your domain name and use the Administrator password that you configured with the Simple AD directory

$ ldapsearch -D "[email protected]corp.example.com" -W sAMAccountName=Administrator

You should see a response similar to the following response, which provides the directory information in LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) for the administrator distinguished name (DN) from your Simple AD LDAP server.

# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <dc=corp,dc=example,dc=com> (default) with scope subtree
# filter: sAMAccountName=Administrator
# requesting: ALL
#

# Administrator, Users, corp.example.com
dn: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=corp,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
description: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20170721123204.0Z
uSNCreated: 3223
name: Administrator
objectGUID:: l3h0HIiKO0a/ShL4yVK/vw==
userAccountControl: 512
…

You can now use the LDAPS endpoint for directory operations and authentication within your environment. If you would like to learn more about how to interact with your LDAPS endpoint within a Linux environment, here are a few resources to get started:

Troubleshooting

If you receive an error such as the following error when issuing the ldapsearch command, there are a few things you can do to help identify issues.

ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can't contact LDAP server (-1)
  • You might be able to obtain additional error details by adding the -d1 debug flag to the ldapsearch command in the previous section.
    $ ldapsearch -D "[email protected]" -W sAMAccountName=Administrator –d1

  • Verify that the parameters in ldap.conf match your configured LDAPS URI endpoint and that all parameters can be resolved by DNS. You can use the following dig command, substituting your configured endpoint DNS name.
    $ dig ldap.corp.example.com

  • Confirm that the client instance from which you are connecting is in the CIDR range of the CloudFormation parameter, MyTrustedNetwork.
  • Confirm that the path to your public SSL/TLS certificate configured in ldap.conf as TLS_CAERT is correct. You configured this in Step 5.b.3. You can check your SSL/TLS connection with the command, substituting your configured endpoint DNS name for the string after –connect.
    $ echo -n | openssl s_client -connect ldap.corp.example.com:636

  • Verify that your HAProxy instances have the status InService in the EC2 console: Choose Load Balancers under Load Balancing in the navigation pane, highlight your LDAPS load balancer, and then choose the Instances

Conclusion

You can use ELB and HAProxy to provide an LDAPS endpoint for Simple AD and transport sensitive authentication information over untrusted networks. You can explore using LDAPS to authenticate SSH users or integrate with other software solutions that support LDAP authentication. This solution’s CloudFormation template is available on GitHub.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or issues implementing this solution, start a new thread on the Directory Service forum.

– Cameron and Jeff

Launch – .NET Core Support In AWS CodeStar and AWS Codebuild

Post Syndicated from Tara Walker original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/launch-net-core-support-in-aws-codestar-and-aws-codebuild/

A few months ago, I introduced the AWS CodeStar service, which allows you to quickly develop, build, and deploy applications on AWS. AWS CodeStar helps development teams to increase the pace of releasing applications and solutions while reducing some of the challenges of building great software.

When the CodeStar service launched in April, it was released with several project templates for Amazon EC2, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and AWS Lambda using five different programming languages; JavaScript, Java, Python, Ruby, and PHP. Each template provisions the underlying AWS Code Services and configures an end-end continuous delivery pipeline for the targeted application using AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodePipeline, and AWS CodeDeploy.

As I have participated in some of the AWS Summits around the world discussing AWS CodeStar, many of you have shown curiosity in learning about the availability of .NET templates in CodeStar and utilizing CodeStar to deploy .NET applications. Therefore, it is with great pleasure and excitement that I announce that you can now develop, build, and deploy cross-platform .NET Core applications with the AWS CodeStar and AWS CodeBuild services.

AWS CodeBuild has added the ability to build and deploy .NET Core application code to both Amazon EC2 and AWS Lambda. This new CodeBuild capability has enabled the addition of two new project templates in AWS CodeStar for .NET Core applications.  These new project templates enable you to deploy .NET Code applications to Amazon EC2 Linux Instances, and provides everything you need to get started quickly, including .NET Core sample code and a full software development toolchain.

Of course, I can’t wait to try out the new addition to the project templates within CodeStar and the update .NET application build options with CodeBuild. For my test scenario, I will use CodeStar to create, build, and deploy my .NET Code ASP.Net web application on EC2. Then, I will extend my ASP.Net application by creating a .NET Lambda function to be compiled and deployed with CodeBuild as a part of my application’s pipeline. This Lambda function can then be called and used within my ASP.Net application to extend the functionality of my web application.

So, let’s get started!

First, I’ll log into the CodeStar console and start a new CodeStar project. I am presented with the option to select a project template.


Right now, I would like to focus on building .NET Core projects, therefore, I’ll filter the project templates by selecting the C# in the Programming Languages section. Now, CodeStar only shows me the new .NET Core project templates that I can use to build web applications and services with ASP.NET Core.

I think I’ll use the ASP.NET Core web application project template for my first CodeStar .NET Core application. As you can see by the project template information display, my web application will be deployed on Amazon EC2, which signifies to me that my .NET Core code will be compiled and packaged using AWS CodeBuild and deployed to EC2 using the AWS CodeDeploy service.


My hunch about the services is confirmed on the next screen when CodeStar shows the AWS CodePipeline and the AWS services that will be configured for my new project. I’ll name this web application project, ASPNetCore4Tara, and leave the default Project ID that CodeStar generates from the project name. Yes, I know that this is one of the goofiest names I could ever come up with, but, hey, it will do for this test project so I’ll go ahead and click the Next button. I should mention that you have the option to edit your Amazon EC2 configuration for your project on this screen before CodeStar starts configuring and provisioning the services needed to run your application.

Since my ASP.Net Core web application will be deployed to an Amazon EC2 instance, I will need to choose an Amazon EC2 Key Pair for encryption of the login used to allow me to SSH into this instance. For my ASPNetCore4Tara project, I will use an existing Amazon EC2 key pair I have previously used for launching my other EC2 instances. However, if I was creating this project and I did not have an EC2 key pair or if I didn’t have access to the .pem file (private key file) for an existing EC2 key pair, I would have to first visit the EC2 console and create a new EC2 key pair to use for my project. This is important because if you remember, without having the EC2 key pair with the associated .pem file, I would not be able to log into my EC2 instance.

With my EC2 key pair selected and confirmation that I have the related private file checked, I am ready to click the Create Project button.


After CodeStar completes the creation of the project and the provisioning of the project related AWS services, I am ready to view the CodeStar sample application from the application endpoint displayed in the CodeStar dashboard. This sample application should be familiar to you if have been working with the CodeStar service or if you had an opportunity to read the blog post about the AWS CodeStar service launch. I’ll click the link underneath Application Endpoints to view the sample ASP.NET Core web application.

Now I’ll go ahead and clone the generated project and connect my Visual Studio IDE to the project repository. I am going to make some changes to the application and since AWS CodeBuild now supports .NET Core builds and deployments to both Amazon EC2 and AWS Lambda, I will alter my build specification file appropriately for the changes to my web application that will include the use of the Lambda function.  Don’t worry if you are not familiar with how to clone the project and connect it to the Visual Studio IDE, CodeStar provides in-console step-by-step instructions to assist you.

First things first, I will open up the Visual Studio IDE and connect to AWS CodeCommit repository provisioned for my ASPNetCore4Tara project. It is important to note that the Visual Studio 2017 IDE is required for .NET Core projects in AWS CodeStar and the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio 2017 will need to be installed prior to connecting your project repository to the IDE.

In order to connect to my repo within Visual Studio, I will open up Team Explorer and select the Connect link under the AWS CodeCommit option under Hosted Service Providers. I will click Ok to keep my default AWS profile toolkit credentials.

I’ll then click Clone under the Manage Connections and AWS CodeCommit hosted provider section.

Once I select my aspnetcore4tara repository in the Clone AWS CodeCommit Repository dialog, I only have to enter my IAM role’s HTTPS Git credentials in the Git Credentials for AWS CodeCommit dialog and my process is complete. If you’re following along and receive a dialog for Git Credential Manager login, don’t worry just your enter the same IAM role’s Git credentials.


My project is now connected to the aspnetcore4tara CodeCommit repository and my web application is loaded to editing. As you will notice in the screenshot below, the sample project is structured as a standard ASP.NET Core MVC web application.

With the project created, I can make changes and updates. Since I want to update this project with a .NET Lambda function, I’ll quickly start a new project in Visual Studio to author a very simple C# Lambda function to be compiled with the CodeStar project. This AWS Lambda function will be included in the CodeStar ASP.NET Core web application project.

The Lambda function I’ve created makes a call to the REST API of NASA’s popular Astronomy Picture of the Day website. The API sends back the latest planetary image and related information in JSON format. You can see the Lambda function code below.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

using System.Net.Http;
using Amazon.Lambda.Core;

// Assembly attribute to enable the Lambda function's JSON input to be converted into a .NET class.
[assembly: LambdaSerializer(typeof(Amazon.Lambda.Serialization.Json.JsonSerializer))]

namespace NASAPicOfTheDay
{
    public class SpacePic
    {
        HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
        string nasaRestApi = "https://api.nasa.gov/planetary/apod?api_key=DEMO_KEY";

        /// <summary>
        /// A simple function that retreives NASA Planetary Info and 
        /// Picture of the Day
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="context"></param>
        /// <returns>nasaResponse-JSON String</returns>
        public async Task<string> GetNASAPicInfo(ILambdaContext context)
        {
            string nasaResponse;
            
            //Call NASA Picture of the Day API
            nasaResponse = await httpClient.GetStringAsync(nasaRestApi);
            Console.WriteLine("NASA API Response");
            Console.WriteLine(nasaResponse);
            
            //Return NASA response - JSON format
            return nasaResponse; 
        }
    }
}

I’ll now publish this C# Lambda function and test by using the Publish to AWS Lambda option provided by the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio with NASAPicOfTheDay project. After publishing the function, I can test it and verify that it is working correctly within Visual Studio and/or the AWS Lambda console. You can learn more about building AWS Lambda functions with C# and .NET at: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/dotnet-programming-model.html

 

Now that I have my Lambda function completed and tested, all that is left is to update the CodeBuild buildspec.yml file within my aspnetcore4tara CodeStar project to include publishing and deploying of the Lambda function.

To accomplish this, I will create a new folder named functions and copy the folder that contains my Lambda function .NET project to my aspnetcore4tara web application project directory.

 

 

To build and publish my AWS Lambda function, I will use commands in the buildspec.yml file from the aws-lambda-dotnet tools library, which helps .NET Core developers develop AWS Lambda functions. I add a file, funcprof, to the NASAPicOfTheDay folder which contains customized profile information for use with aws-lambda-dotnet tools. All that is left is to update the buildspec.yml file used by CodeBuild for the ASPNetCore4Tara project build to include the packaging and the deployment of the NASAPictureOfDay AWS Lambda function. The updated buildspec.yml is as follows:

version: 0.2
phases:
  env:
  variables:
    basePath: 'hold'
  install:
    commands:
      - echo set basePath for project
      - basePath=$(pwd)
      - echo $basePath
      - echo Build restore and package Lambda function using AWS .NET Tools...
      - dotnet restore functions/*/NASAPicOfTheDay.csproj
      - cd functions/NASAPicOfTheDay
      - dotnet lambda package -c Release -f netcoreapp1.0 -o ../lambda_build/nasa-lambda-function.zip
  pre_build:
    commands:
      - echo Deploy Lambda function used in ASPNET application using AWS .NET Tools. Must be in path of Lambda function build 
      - cd $basePath
      - cd functions/NASAPicOfTheDay
      - dotnet lambda deploy-function NASAPicAPI -c Release -pac ../lambda_build/nasa-lambda-function.zip --profile-location funcprof -fd 'NASA API for Picture of the Day' -fn NASAPicAPI -fh NASAPicOfTheDay::NASAPicOfTheDay.SpacePic::GetNASAPicInfo -frun dotnetcore1.0 -frole arn:aws:iam::xxxxxxxxxxxx:role/lambda_exec_role -framework netcoreapp1.0 -fms 256 -ft 30  
      - echo Lambda function is now deployed - Now change directory back to Base path
      - cd $basePath
      - echo Restore started on `date`
      - dotnet restore AspNetCoreWebApplication/AspNetCoreWebApplication.csproj
  build:
    commands:
      - echo Build started on `date`
      - dotnet publish -c release -o ./build_output AspNetCoreWebApplication/AspNetCoreWebApplication.csproj
artifacts:
  files:
    - AspNetCoreWebApplication/build_output/**/*
    - scripts/**/*
    - appspec.yml
    

That’s it! All that is left is for me to add and commit all my file additions and updates to the AWS CodeCommit git repository provisioned for my ASPNetCore4Tara project. This kicks off the AWS CodePipeline for the project which will now use AWS CodeBuild new support for .NET Core to build and deploy both the ASP.NET Core web application and the .NET AWS Lambda function.

 

Summary

The support for .NET Core in AWS CodeStar and AWS CodeBuild opens the door for .NET developers to take advantage of the benefits of Continuous Integration and Delivery when building .NET based solutions on AWS.  Read more about .NET Core support in AWS CodeStar and AWS CodeBuild here or review product pages for AWS CodeStar and/or AWS CodeBuild for more information on using the services.

Enjoy building .NET projects more efficiently with Amazon Web Services using .NET Core with AWS CodeStar and AWS CodeBuild.

Tara

 

How to Update AWS CloudHSM Devices and Client Instances to the Software and Firmware Versions Supported by AWS

Post Syndicated from Tracy Pierce original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-update-aws-cloudhsm-devices-and-client-instances-to-the-software-and-firmware-versions-supported-by-aws/

As I explained in my previous Security Blog post, a hardware security module (HSM) is a hardware device designed with the security of your data and cryptographic key material in mind. It is tamper-resistant hardware that prevents unauthorized users from attempting to pry open the device, plug in any extra devices to access data or keys such as subtokens, or damage the outside housing. The HSM device AWS CloudHSM offers is the Luna SA 7000 (also called Safenet Network HSM 7000), which is created by Gemalto. Depending on the firmware version you install, many of the security properties of these HSMs will have been validated under Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2, a standard issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for cryptography modules. These standards are in place to protect the integrity and confidentiality of the data stored on cryptographic modules.

To help ensure its continued use, functionality, and support from AWS, we suggest that you update your AWS CloudHSM device software and firmware as well as the client instance software to current versions offered by AWS. As of the publication of this blog post, the current non-FIPS-validated versions are 5.4.9/client, 5.3.13/software, and 6.20.2/firmware, and the current FIPS-validated versions are 5.4.9/client, 5.3.13/software, and 6.10.9/firmware. (The firmware version determines FIPS validation.) It is important to know your current versions before updating so that you can follow the correct update path.

In this post, I demonstrate how to update your current CloudHSM devices and client instances so that you are using the most current versions of software and firmware. If you contact AWS Support for CloudHSM hardware and application issues, you will be required to update to these supported versions before proceeding. Also, any newly provisioned CloudHSM devices will use these supported software and firmware versions only, and AWS does not offer “downgrade options.

Note: Before you perform any updates, check with your local CloudHSM administrator and application developer to verify that these updates will not conflict with your current applications or architecture.

Overview of the update process

To update your client and CloudHSM devices, you must use both update paths offered by AWS. The first path involves updating the software on your client instance, also known as a control instance. Following the second path updates the software first and then the firmware on your CloudHSM devices. The CloudHSM software must be updated before the firmware because of the firmware’s dependencies on the software in order to work appropriately.

As I demonstrate in this post, the correct update order is:

  1. Updating your client instance
  2. Updating your CloudHSM software
  3. Updating your CloudHSM firmware

To update your client instance, you must have the private SSH key you created when you first set up your client environment. This key is used to connect via SSH protocol on port 22 of your client instance. If you have more than one client instance, you must repeat this connection and update process on each of them. The following diagram shows the flow of an SSH connection from your local network to your client instances in the AWS Cloud.

Diagram that shows the flow of an SSH connection from your local network to your client instances in the AWS Cloud

After you update your client instance to the most recent software (5.3.13), you then must update the CloudHSM device software and firmware. First, you must initiate an SSH connection from any one client instance to each CloudHSM device, as illustrated in the following diagram. A successful SSH connection will have you land at the Luna shell, denoted by lunash:>. Second, you must be able to initiate a Secure Copy (SCP) of files to each device from the client instance. Because the software and firmware updates require an elevated level of privilege, you must have the Security Officer (SO) password that you created when you initialized your CloudHSM devices.

Diagram illustrating the initiation of an SSH connection from any one client instance to each CloudHSM device

After you have completed all updates, you can receive enhanced troubleshooting assistance from AWS, if you need it. When new versions of software and firmware are released, AWS performs extensive testing to ensure your smooth transition from version to version.

Detailed guidance for updating your client instance, CloudHSM software, and CloudHSM firmware

1.  Updating your client instance

Let’s start by updating your client instances. My client instance and CloudHSM devices are in the eu-west-1 region, but these steps work the same in any AWS region. Because Gemalto offers client instances in both Linux and Windows, I will cover steps to update both. I will start with Linux. Please note that all commands should be run as the “root” user.

Updating the Linux client

  1. SSH from your local network into the client instance. You can do this from Linux or Windows. Typically, you would do this from the directory where you have stored your private SSH key by using a command like the following command in a terminal or PuTTY This initiates the SSH connection by pointing to the path of your SSH key and denoting the user name and IP address of your client instance.
    ssh –i /Users/Bob/Keys/CloudHSM_SSH_Key.pem [email protected]

  1. After the SSH connection is established, you must stop all applications and services on the instance that are using the CloudHSM device. This is required because you are removing old software and installing new software in its place. After you have stopped all applications and services, you can move on to remove the existing version of the client software.
    /usr/safenet/lunaclient/bin/uninstall.sh

This command will remove the old client software, but will not remove your configuration file or certificates. These will be saved in the Chrystoki.conf file of your /etc directory and your usr/safenet/lunaclient/cert directory. Do not delete these files because you will lose the configuration of your CloudHSM devices and client connections.

  1. Download the new client software package: cloudhsm-safenet-client. Double-click it to extract the archive.
    SafeNet-Luna-client-5-4-9/linux/64/install.sh

    Make sure you choose the Luna SA option when presented with it. Because the directory where your certificates are installed is the same, you do not need to copy these certificates to another directory. You do, however, need to ensure that the Chrystoki.conf file, located at /etc/Chrystoki.conf, has the same path and name for the certificates as when you created them. (The path or names should not have changed, but you should still verify they are same as before the update.)

  1. Check to ensure that the PATH environment variable points to the directory, /usr/safenet/lunaclient/bin, to ensure no issues when you restart applications and services. The update process for your Linux client Instance is now complete.

Updating the Windows client

Use the following steps to update your Windows client instances:

  1. Use Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) from your local network into the client instance. You can accomplish this with the RDP application of your choice.
  2. After you establish the RDP connection, stop all applications and services on the instance that are using the CloudHSM device. This is required because you will remove old software and install new software in its place or overwrite If your client software version is older than 5.4.1, you need to completely remove it and all patches by using Programs and Features in the Windows Control Panel. If your client software version is 5.4.1 or newer, proceed without removing the software. Your configuration file will remain intact in the crystoki.ini file of your C:\Program Files\SafeNet\Lunaclient\ directory. All certificates are preserved in the C:\Program Files\SafeNet\Lunaclient\cert\ directory. Again, do not delete these files, or you will lose all configuration and client connection data.
  3. After you have completed these steps, download the new client software: cloudhsm-safenet-client. Extract the archive from the downloaded file, and launch the SafeNet-Luna-client-5-4-9\win\64\Lunaclient.msi Choose the Luna SA option when it is presented to you. Because the directory where your certificates are installed is the same, you do not need to copy these certificates to another directory. You do, however, need to ensure that the crystoki.ini file, which is located at C:\Program Files\SafeNet\Lunaclient\crystoki.ini, has the same path and name for the certificates as when you created them. (The path and names should not have changed, but you should still verify they are same as before the update.)
  4. Make one last check to ensure the PATH environment variable points to the directory C:\Program Files\SafeNet\Lunaclient\ to help ensure no issues when you restart applications and services. The update process for your Windows client instance is now complete.

2.  Updating your CloudHSM software

Now that your clients are up to date with the most current software version, it’s time to move on to your CloudHSM devices. A few important notes:

  • Back up your data to a Luna SA Backup device. AWS does not sell or support the Luna SA Backup devices, but you can purchase them from Gemalto. We do, however, offer the steps to back up your data to a Luna SA Backup device. Do not update your CloudHSM devices without backing up your data first.
  • If the names of your clients used for Network Trust Link Service (NTLS) connections has a capital “T” as the eighth character, the client will not work after this update. This is because of a Gemalto naming convention. Before upgrading, ensure you modify your client names accordingly. The NTLS connection uses a two-way digital certificate authentication and SSL data encryption to protect sensitive data transmitted between your CloudHSM device and the client Instances.
  • The syslog configuration for the CloudHSM devices will be lost. After the update is complete, notify AWS Support and we will update the configuration for you.

Now on to updating the software versions. There are actually three different update paths to follow, and I will cover each. Depending on the current software versions on your CloudHSM devices, you might need to follow all three or just one.

Updating the software from version 5.1.x to 5.1.5

If you are running any version of the software older than 5.1.5, you must first update to version 5.1.5 before proceeding. To update to version 5.1.5:

  1. Stop all applications and services that access the CloudHSM device.
  2. Download the Luna SA software update package.
  3. Extract all files from the archive.
  4. Run the following command from your client instance to copy the lunasa_update-5.1.5-2.spkg file to the CloudHSM device.
    $ scp –I <private_key_file> lunasa_update-5.1.5-2.spkg [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>:

    <private_key_file> is the private portion of your SSH key pair and <hsm_ip_address> is the IP address of your CloudHSM elastic network interface (ENI). The ENI is the network endpoint that permits access to your CloudHSM device. The IP address was supplied to you when the CloudHSM device was provisioned.

  1. Use the following command to connect to your CloudHSM device and log in with your Security Officer (SO) password.
    $ ssh –I <private_key_file> [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>
    
    lunash:> hsm login

  1. Run the following commands to verify and then install the updated Luna SA software package.
    lunash:> package verify lunasa_update-5.1.5-2.spkg –authcode <auth_code>
    
    lunash:> package update lunasa_update-5.1.5-2.spkg –authcode <auth_code>

    The value you will use for <auth_code> is contained in the lunasa_update-5.1.5-2.auth file found in the 630-010165-018_reva.tar archive you downloaded in Step 2.

  1. Reboot the CloudHSM device by running the following command.
    lunash:> sysconf appliance reboot

When all the steps in this section are completed, you will have updated your CloudHSM software to version 5.1.5. You can now move on to update to version 5.3.10.

Updating the software to version 5.3.10

You can update to version 5.3.10 only if you are currently running version 5.1.5. To update to version 5.3.10:

  1. Stop all applications and services that access the CloudHSM device.
  2. Download the v 5.3.10 Luna SA software update package.
  3. Extract all files from the archive.
  4. Run the following command to copy the lunasa_update-5.3.10-7.spkg file to the CloudHSM device.
    $ scp –i <private_key_file> lunasa_update-5.3.10-7.spkg [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>:

    <private_key_file> is the private portion of your SSH key pair and <hsm_ip_address> is the IP address of your CloudHSM ENI.

  1. Run the following command to connect to your CloudHSM device and log in with your SO password.
    $ ssh –i <private_key_file> [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>
    
    lunash:> hsm login

  1. Run the following commands to verify and then install the updated Luna SA software package.
    lunash:> package verify lunasa_update-5.3.10-7.spkg –authcode <auth_code>
    
    lunash:> package update lunasa_update-5.3.10-7.spkg –authcode <auth_code>

The value you will use for <auth_code> is contained in the lunasa_update-5.3.10-7.auth file found in the SafeNet-Luna-SA-5-3-10.zip archive you downloaded in Step 2.

  1. Reboot the CloudHSM device by running the following command.
    lunash:> sysconf appliance reboot

When all the steps in this section are completed, you will have updated your CloudHSM software to version 5.3.10. You can now move on to update to version 5.3.13.

Note: Do not configure your applog settings at this point; you must first update the software to version 5.3.13 in the following step.

Updating the software to version 5.3.13

You can update to version 5.3.13 only if you are currently running version 5.3.10. If you are not already running version 5.3.10, follow the two update paths mentioned previously in this section.

To update to version 5.3.13:

  1. Stop all applications and services that access the CloudHSM device.
  2. Download the Luna SA software update package.
  3. Extract all files from the archive.
  4. Run the following command to copy the lunasa_update-5.3.13-1.spkg file to the CloudHSM device.
    $ scp –i <private_key_file> lunasa_update-5.3.13-1.spkg [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>

<private_key_file> is the private portion of your SSH key pair and <hsm_ip_address> is the IP address of your CloudHSM ENI.

  1. Run the following command to connect to your CloudHSM device and log in with your SO password.
    $ ssh –i <private_key_file> [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>
    
    lunash:> hsm login

  1. Run the following commands to verify and then install the updated Luna SA software package.
    lunash:> package verify lunasa_update-5.3.13-1.spkg –authcode <auth_code>
    
    lunash:> package update lunasa_update-5.3.13-1.spkg –authcode <auth_code>

The value you will use for <auth_code> is contained in the lunasa_update-5.3.13-1.auth file found in the SafeNet-Luna-SA-5-3-13.zip archive that you downloaded in Step 2.

  1. When updating to this software version, the option to update the firmware also is offered. If you do not require a version of the firmware validated under FIPS 140-2, accept the firmware update to version 6.20.2. If you do require a version of the firmware validated under FIPS 140-2, do not accept the firmware update and instead update by using the steps in the next section, “Updating your CloudHSM FIPS 140-2 validated firmware.”
  2. After updating the CloudHSM device, reboot it by running the following command.
    lunash:> sysconf appliance reboot

  1. Disable NTLS IP checking on the CloudHSM device so that it can operate within its VPC. To do this, run the following command.
    lunash:> ntls ipcheck disable

When all the steps in this section are completed, you will have updated your CloudHSM software to version 5.3.13. If you don’t need the FIPS 140-2 validated firmware, you will have also updated the firmware to version 6.20.2. If you do need the FIPS 140-2 validated firmware, proceed to the next section.

3.  Updating your CloudHSM FIPS 140-2 validated firmware

To update the FIPS 140-2 validated version of the firmware to 6.10.9, use the following steps:

  1. Download version 6.10.9 of the firmware package.
  2. Extract all files from the archive.
  3. Run the following command to copy the 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.spkg file to the CloudHSM device.
    $ scp –i <private_key_file> 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.spkg [email protected]<hsm_ip_address>:

<private_key_file> is the private portion of your SSH key pair, and <hsm_ip_address> is the IP address of your CloudHSM ENI.

  1. Run the following command to connect to your CloudHSM device and log in with your SO password.
    $ ssh –i <private_key_file> manager#<hsm_ip_address>
    
    lunash:> hsm login

  1. Run the following commands to verify and then install the updated Luna SA firmware package.
    lunash:> package verify 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.spkg –authcode <auth_code>
    
    lunash:> package update 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.spkg –authcode <auth_code>

The value you will use for <auth_code> is contained in the 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.auth file found in the 630-010430-010_SPKG_LunaFW_6.10.9.zip archive that you downloaded in Step 1.

  1. Run the following command to update the firmware of the CloudHSM devices.
    lunash:> hsm update firmware

  1. After you have updated the firmware, reboot the CloudHSM devices to complete the installation.
    lunash:> sysconf appliance reboot

Summary

In this blog post, I walked you through how to update your existing CloudHSM devices and clients so that they are using supported client, software, and firmware versions. Per AWS Support and CloudHSM Terms and Conditions, your devices and clients must use the most current supported software and firmware for continued troubleshooting assistance. Software and firmware versions regularly change based on customer use cases and requirements. Because AWS tests and validates all updates from Gemalto, you must install all updates for firmware and software by using our package links described in this post and elsewhere in our documentation.

If you have comments about this blog post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about implementing this solution, please start a new thread on the CloudHSM forum.

– Tracy

Visualize Big Data with Amazon QuickSight, Presto, and Apache Spark on Amazon EMR

Post Syndicated from Luis Wang original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/visualize-big-data-with-amazon-quicksight-presto-and-apache-spark-on-amazon-emr/

Last December, we introduced the Amazon Athena connector in Amazon QuickSight, in the Derive Insights from IoT in Minutes using AWS IoT, Amazon Kinesis Firehose, Amazon Athena, and Amazon QuickSight post.

The connector allows you to visualize your big data easily in Amazon S3 using Athena’s interactive query engine in a serverless fashion. This turned out to be a very popular combination, as customers benefit from the speed, agility, and cost benefit that serverless business intelligence (BI) and analytics architecture brings.

Today, we’re excited to announce two new native connectors in QuickSight for big data analytics: Presto and Spark. With the Presto and SparkSQL connector in QuickSight, you can easily create interactive visualizations over large datasets using Amazon EMR.

EMR provides a simple and cost effective way to run highly distributed processing frameworks such as Presto and Spark when compared to on-premises deployments. EMR provides you with the flexibility to define specific compute, memory, storage, and application parameters and optimize your analytic requirements.

In this post, I walk you through connecting QuickSight to an EMR cluster running Presto. If you’d like a walkthrough with Spark, let us know in the comments section!

Presto overview

Presto is an open source, distributed SQL query engine for running interactive analytic queries against data sources ranging from gigabytes to petabytes. It supports the ANSI SQL standard, including complex queries, aggregations, joins, and window functions. Presto can run on multiple data sources, including Amazon S3.

Presto’s execution framework is fundamentally different from that of Hive/MapReduce. Presto has a custom query and execution engine where the stages of execution are pipelined, similar to a directed acyclic graph (DAG), and all processing occurs in memory to reduce disk I/O. This pipelined execution model can run multiple stages in parallel and streams data from one stage to another as the data becomes available. This reduces end-to-end latency and makes Presto a great tool for ad hoc data exploration over large data sets.

Walkthrough

Use the following steps to connect QuickSight to an EMR cluster running Presto:

  1. Create an EMR cluster with the latest 5.5.0 release.
  2. Configure LDAP for user authentication in QuickSight.
  3. Configure SSL using a QuickSight supported certificate authority (CA).
  4. Create tables for Presto in the Hive metastore.
  5. Whitelist the QuickSight IP address range in your EMR master security group rules.
  6. Connect QuickSight to Presto and create some visualizations.

Prerequisites

You need run Presto version 0.167, at a minimum, which is the first release that supports LDAP authentication. LDAP authentication is a requirement for the Presto and Spark connectors and QuickSight refuses to connect if LDAP is not configured on your cluster.

Create an EMR cluster with release version 5.5.0

In the EMR console, use the Quick Create option to create a cluster.  For this post, use most of the default settings with a few exceptions. To install both Presto and Spark on your cluster (and customize other settings), create your cluster from the Advanced Options wizard instead.

Make sure that EMR release 5.5.0 is selected and under Applications, choose Presto. If you have an EC2 key pair, you can use it. Otherwise, create a key pair (.PEM file) and then return to this page to create the cluster. 

Make sure that you configure your cluster’s security group inbound rules to allow SSH from your machine’s IP address range. 

Configure LDAP for user authentication in QuickSight

After your cluster is in a running state, connect using SSH to your cluster to configure LDAP authentication.

To SSH into your EMR cluster, use the following commands in the terminal:

chmod 600 ~/YOUR_PEM_FILE.pem
ssh -i ~/YOUR_PEM_FILE.pem [email protected]_MASTER_PUBLIC_DNS_FROM_EMR_CLUSTER

After you log in, install OpenLDAP, configure it, and create users in the directory. For more about configuring LDAP, see Editing /etc/openldap/slapd.conf in the OpenLDAP documentation.

# Install LDAP Server
 sudo yum install openldap openldap-servers openldap-clients
# Create the config files
sudo cp /usr/share/openldap-servers/DB_CONFIG.example /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG
sudo cp /usr/share/openldap-servers/slapd.conf.obsolete /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
# Bounce LDAP
sudo service slapd restart

After LDAP is installed and restarted, you issue a couple of commands to change the LDAP password. First, generate a hash for the LDAP root password and save the output hash that looks like this:

{SSHA}DmD616c3yZyKndsccebZK/vmWiaQde83

Issue the following command and set a root password for LDAP when prompted:

slappasswd

Now, prepare the commands to set the password for the LDAP root. Make sure to replace the hash below with the one that you generated in the previous step:

cat > /tmp/config.ldif <<EOF
dn: olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: {SSHA}DmD616c3yZyKndsccebZK/vmWiaQde83

dn: olcDatabase={2}bdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: {SSHA}DmD616c3yZyKndsccebZK/vmWiaQde83
-
replace: olcRootDN
olcRootDN: cn=dev,dc=example,dc=com
-
replace: olcSuffix
olcSuffix: dc=example,dc=com
EOF

Run the following command to execute the above commands against LDAP:

sudo ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /tmp/ config.ldif

Next, create a user account with password in the LDAP directory with the following commands. When prompted for a password, use the LDAP root password that you created in the previous step.

cat > /tmp/accounts.ldif <<EOF
dn: dc=example,dc=com
objectclass: domain
objectclass: top
dc: example

dn: ou= dev,dc=example,dc=com
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: dev
description: Container for developer entries

dn: uid=<REPLACE_WITH_YOUR_USER_NAME>,ou=dev,dc=example,dc=com
uid: <REPLACE_WITH_YOUR_USER_NAME>
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
userPassword: <REPLACE_WITH_STRONG_PASSWORD>
sn: <REPLACE_WITH_SURNAME>
cn: dev
EOF

ldapadd -D "cn=dev,dc=example,dc=com" -W -f /tmp/accounts.ldif

You now have OpenLDAP configured on your EMR cluster running Presto and a user that you later use to authenticate against when connecting to Presto.

Configure SSL using a QuickSight supported certificate authority

To ensure that any communication between QuickSight and Presto is secured, QuickSight requires that the connection to be established with SSL enabled. You need to obtain a certificate from a certificate authority (CA) that QuickSight trusts. You can find the full list of public CAs accepted by QuickSight in the Network and Database Configuration Requirements topic.

To set up SSL on LDAP and Presto, obtain the following three SSL certificate files from your CA and store them in the /home/hadoop/ directory.

  • Certificate key file
  • Certificate file
  • CA certificate

Configure the keys in LDAP with the following commands:

cat > /tmp/ca.ldif <<EOF
dn: cn=config
replace: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile
olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /home/hadoop/certificateKey.pem

replace: olcTLSCertificateFile
olcTLSCertificateFile: /home/hadoop/certificate.pem

replace: olcTLSCACertificateFile
olcTLSCACertificateFile: /home/hadoop/cacertificate.pem
EOF

sudo ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /tmp/ca.ldif

Now, enable SSL in LDAP by editing the /etc/sysconfi/ldap file and set SLAPD_LDAPS=yes:

sudo vi /etc/sysconfig/ldap

SLAPD_LDAPS=yes

sudo service slapd restart

Use the following commands to generate keystore. You will be prompted to provide a password for the keystore.

openssl pkcs12 -inkey certificatekey.pem -in certificate.pem -export -out server-key.p12

keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore server-key.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore server.keystore

Edit the configuration files for Presto in EMR.

SERVERNAME=<PUBLIC_DNS_NAME_OF_EMR_CLUSTER>
cd /etc/presto/conf

# Enable LDAPS auth for Presto
echo http-server.authentication.type=LDAP | sudo tee -a config.properties
echo authentication.ldap.url=ldaps://${SERVERNAME}:636 | sudo tee -a config.properties
echo authentication.ldap.user-bind-pattern=uid=\${USER},OU=dev,DC=example,DC=com | sudo tee -a config.properties

# Enable SSL for the Presto server
echo http-server.https.enabled=true | sudo tee -a config.properties
echo http-server.https.port=<PORT_NUMBER> | sudo tee -a config.properties
echo http-server.https.keystore.path=/home/hadoop/server.keystore | sudo tee -a config.properties
echo http-server.https.keystore.key=<KEYSTORE_PASSWORD> | sudo tee -a config.properties

# Bounce Presto to pick up the new config
sudo pkill presto
# wait until presto is up
while [[ 1 ]]; do pgrep presto; if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then break; else echo -n .; sleep 1; fi; done

Create tables for Presto in the Hive metastore

Now that you have a running EMR cluster with Presto and LDAP set up, you can load some sample data into the cluster for analysis. Use the same CloudFront log sample data set that is available for Athena. The following SQL query creates a table in EMR and loads the sample data set into it:

# Run hive
$hive

#Create table and load data
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS cloudfront_logs (
  Date Date,
  Time STRING,
  Location STRING,
  Bytes INT,
  RequestIP STRING,
  Method STRING,
  Host STRING,
  Uri STRING,
  Status INT,
  Referrer STRING,
  OS String,
  Browser String,
  BrowserVersion String
)
ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe'
WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (
  "input.regex" = "^(?!#)([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+([^ ]+)\\s+[^\()+[\()([^\;]+).*\%20([^\/]+)[\/](.*)$"
) LOCATION 's3://athena-examples/cloudfront/plaintext/'; 

# quit hive
quit

Try to query the data using the Presto CLI with the following commands:

#Run the Presto CLI
presto-cli --server https://<PUBLIC_DNS_NAME_OF_EMR_CLUSTER>:<PORT_NUMER>     --user <USERNAME> --password --catalog hive

#Issue query to Presto
SELECT * FROM cloudfront_logs limit 10;

You should see an output from Presto like the following:

Whitelist the QuickSight IP address range in your EMR master security group rules

Now you’re ready to connect QuickSight to Presto. For QuickSight to connect to Presto, you need to make sure that Presto is reachable by QuickSight’s public endpoints by adding QuickSight’s IP address ranges to your EMR master node security group.

Connect QuickSight to Presto and create some visualizations

If you have not already signed up for QuickSight, you can do so at https://quicksight.aws. QuickSight offers a 1 user and 1 GB perpetual free tier.

After you’re signed up for QuickSight, navigate to the New Analysis page and the New Data Set page. You see the new Presto and Spark connector as in the following screenshot.

Open the Presto connector, provide the connection details in the modal window, and choose Create data source.

Select the default schema and choose the cloudfront_logs table that you just created.

In QuickSight, you can choose between importing the data in SPICE for analysis or directly querying your data in Presto. SPICE is an in-memory optimized columnar engine in QuickSight that enable fast, interactive visualization as you explore your data. For this post, choose to import the data into SPICE and choose Visualize.

In the analysis view, you can see the notification that shows import is complete with 4996 rows imported. On the left, you see the list of fields available in the data set and below, the various types of visualizations from which you can choose.

QuickSight makes it easy for you to create visualizations and analyze data with AutoGraph, a feature that automatically selects the best visualization for you based on selected fields.

To create a visualization, select the fields on the left panel. In this case, look at the number of connections to CloudFront ordered by the various OS types, by selecting the OS field. Additionally, you can select the bytes fields to look at total bytes transferred by OS instead of count.

Summary

You just finished creating an EMR cluster, setting up Presto and LDAP with SSL, and using QuickSight to visualize your data. I hope this post was helpful. Feel free to reach out if you have any questions or suggestions.

Learn more

To learn more about these capabilities and start using them in your dashboards, check out the QuickSight User Guide.

Stay engaged

If you have questions and suggestions, you can post them on the QuickSight forum. 

Not a QuickSight user

Go to the QuickSight website to get started for FREE.

 

pemcracker – Tool For Cracking PEM Files

Post Syndicated from Darknet original http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/darknethackers/~3/T6F6aGZqDOk/

pemcracker is a tool for cracking PEM files that are encrypted and have a password. The purpose is to attempt to recover the password for encrypted PEM files while utilising all the CPU cores. Inspired by Robert Graham’s pemcrack, it still uses high-level OpenSSL calls in order to guess the password. As an optimisation, instead […]

The post…

Read the full post at darknet.org.uk