Tag Archives: raspberry

Raspbery Pi-newood Derby

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/pinewood-derby/

Andre Miron’s Pinewood Derby Instant Replay System (sorry, not sorry for the pun in the title) uses a Raspberry Pi to monitor the finishing line and play back a slow-motion instant replay, putting an end to “No, I won!” squabbles once and for all.

Raspberry Pi Based Pinewood Derby Instant Replay Demo

This is the same system I demo in this video (https://youtu.be/-QyMxKfBaAE), but on our actual track with real pinewood derby cars. Glad to report that it works great!

Pinewood Derby

For those unfamiliar with the term, the Pinewood Derby is a racing event for Cub Scouts in the USA. Cub Scouts, often with the help of a guardian, build race cars out of wood according to rules regarding weight, size, materials, etc.

Pinewood derby race car

The Cubs then race their cars in heats, with the winners advancing to district and council races.

Who won?

Andre’s Instant Replay System registers the race cars as they cross the finishing line, and it plays back slow-motion video of the crossing on a monitor. As he explains on YouTube:

The Pi is recording a constant stream of video, and when the replay is triggered, it records another half-second of video, then takes the last second and a half and saves it in slow motion (recording is done at 90 fps), before replaying.

The build also uses an attached Arduino, connected to GPIO pin 5, to trigger the recording and playback as it registers the passing cars via a voltage splitter. Additionally, the system announces the finishing places on a rather attractive-looking display above the finishing line.

Pinewood derby race car Raspberry Pi

The result? No more debate about whose car crossed the line first in neck-and-neck races.

Build your own

Andre takes us through the physical setup of the build in the video below, and you’ll find the complete code pasted in the description of the video here. Thanks, Andre!

Raspberry Pi based Pinewood Derby Instant Replay System

See the system on our actual track here: https://youtu.be/B3lcQHWGq88 Raspberry Pi based instant replay system, triggered by Arduino Pinewood Derby Timer. The Pi uses GPIO pin 5 attached to a voltage splitter on Arduino output 11 (and ground-ground) to detect when a car crosses the finish line, which triggers the replay.

Digital making in your club

If you’re a member of an various after-school association such as the Scouts or Guides, then using the Raspberry Pi and our free project resources, or visiting a Code Club or CoderDojo, are excellent ways to work towards various badges and awards. So talk to your club leader to discover all the ways in which you can incorporate digital making into your club!

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Zero WH: pre-soldered headers and what to do with them

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/zero-wh/

If you head over to the website of your favourite Raspberry Pi Approved Reseller today, you may find the new Zero WH available to purchase. But what it is? Why is it different, and what can you do with it?

Raspberry Pi Zero WH

“If you like pre-soldered headers, and getting caught in the rain…”

Raspberry Pi Zero WH

Imagine a Raspberry Pi Zero W. Now add a professionally soldered header. Boom, that’s the Raspberry Pi Zero WH! It’s your same great-tasting Pi, with a brand-new…crust? It’s perfect for everyone who doesn’t own a soldering iron or who wants the soldering legwork done for them.

What you can do with the Zero WH

What can’t you do? Am I right?! The small size of the Zero W makes it perfect for projects with minimal wiggle-room. In such projects, some people have no need for GPIO pins — they simply solder directly to the board. However, there are many instances where you do want a header on your Zero W, for example in order to easily take advantage of the GPIO expander tool for Debian Stretch on a PC or Mac.

GPIO expander in clubs and classrooms

As Ben Nuttall explains in his blog post on the topic:

[The GPIO expander tool] is a real game-changer for Raspberry Jams, Code Clubs, CoderDojos, and schools. You can live boot the Raspberry Pi Desktop OS from a USB stick, use Linux PCs, or even install [the Pi OS] on old computers. Then you have really simple access to physical computing without full Raspberry Pi setups, and with no SD cards to configure.

Using the GPIO expander with the Raspberry Pi Zero WH decreases the setup cost for anyone interested in trying out physical computing in the classroom or at home. (And once you’ve stuck your toes in, you’ll obviously fall in love and will soon find yourself with multiple Raspberry Pi models, HATs aplenty, and an area in your home dedicated to your new adventure in Raspberry Pi. Don’t say I didn’t warn you.)

Other uses for a Zero W with a header

The GPIO expander setup is just one of a multitude of uses for a Raspberry Pi Zero W with a header. You may want the header for prototyping before you commit to soldering wires directly to a board. Or you may have a temporary build in mind for your Zero W, in which case you won’t want to commit to soldering wires to the board at all.

Raspberry Pi Zero WH

Your use case may be something else entirely — tell us in the comments below how you’d utilise a pre-soldered Raspberry Pi Zero WH in your project. The best project idea will receive ten imaginary house points of absolutely no practical use, but immense emotional value. Decide amongst yourselves who you believe should win them — I’m going to go waste a few more hours playing SLUG!

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Create SLUG! It’s just like Snake, but with a slug

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/slug-snake/

Recreate Snake, the favourite mobile phone game from the late nineties, using a slug*, a Raspberry Pi, a Sense HAT, and our free resource!

Raspberry Pi Sense HAT Slug free resource

*A virtual slug. Not a real slug. Please leave the real slugs out in nature.

Snake SLUG!

Move aside, Angry Birds! On your bike, Pokémon Go! When it comes to the cream of the crop of mobile phone games, Snake holds the top spot.

Snake Nokia Game

I could while away the hours…

You may still have an old Nokia 3310 lost in the depths of a drawer somewhere — the drawer that won’t open all the way because something inside is jammed at an odd angle. So it will be far easier to grab your Pi and Sense HAT, or use the free Sense HAT emulator (online or on Raspbian), and code Snake SLUG yourself. In doing so, you can introduce the smaller residents of your household to the best reptile-focused game ever made…now with added mollusc.

The resource

To try out the game for yourself, head to our resource page, where you’ll find the online Sense HAT emulator embedded and ready to roll.

Raspberry Pi Sense HAT Slug free resource

It’ll look just like this, and you can use your computer’s arrow keys to direct your slug toward her tasty treats.

From there, you’ll be taken on a step-by-step journey from zero to SLUG glory while coding your own versionof the game in Python. On the way, you’ll learn to work with two-dimensional lists and to use the Sense HAT’s pixel display and joystick input. And by completing the resource, you’ll expand your understanding of applying abstraction and decomposition to solve more complex problems, in line with our Digital Making Curriculum.

The Sense HAT

The Raspberry Pi Sense HAT was originally designed and made as part of the Astro Pi mission in December 2015. With an 8×8 RGB LED matrix, a joystick, and a plethora of on-board sensors including an accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer, it’s a great add-on for your digital making toolkit, and excellent for projects involving data collection and evaluation.

You can find more of our free Sense HAT tutorials here, including for making Flappy Bird Astronaut, a marble maze, and Pong.

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Turn your smartphone into a universal remote

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/zero-universal-remote/

Honolulu-based software developer bbtinkerer was tired of never being able to find the TV remote. So he made his own using a Raspberry Pi Zero, and connected it to a web app accessible on his smartphone.

bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero

Finding a remote alternative

“I needed one because the remote in my house tends to go missing a lot,” explains Bernard aka bbtinkerer on the Instructables page for his Raspberry Pi Zero Universal Remote.”If I want the controller, I have to hunt down three people and hope one of them remembers that they took it.”

bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero

For the build, Bernard used a Raspberry Pi Zero, an IR LED and corresponding receiver, Raspbian Lite, and a neat little 3D-printed housing.

bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero
bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero
bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero

First, he soldered a circuit for the LED and resistors on a small piece of perf board. Then he assembled the hardware components. Finally, all he needed to do was to write the code to control his devices (including a tower fan), and to set up the app.

bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero

Bernard employed the Linux Infrared Remote Control (LIRC) package to control the television with the Raspberry Pi Zero, accessing the Zero via SSH. He gives a complete rundown of the installation process on Instructables.

bbtinkerer universal remote Raspberry Pi zero

Setting up a remote’s buttons with LIRC is a simple case of pressing them and naming their functions one by one. You’ll need the remote to set up the system, but after that, feel free to lock it in a drawer and use your smartphone instead.



Finally, Bernard created the web interface using Node.js, and again, because he’s lovely, he published the code for anyone wanting to build their own. Thanks, Bernard!

Life hacks

If you’ve used a Raspberry Pi to build a time-saving life hack like Bernard’s, be sure to share it with us. Other favourites of ours include fridge cameras, phone app doorbell notifications, and Alan’s ocarina home automation system. I’m not sure if this last one can truly be considered a time-saving life hack. It’s still cool though!

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Playing tic-tac-toe against a Raspberry Pi at Maker Faire

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/tic-tac-toe-maker-faire/

At Maker Faire New York, we met up with student Toby Goebeler of Dover High School, Pennsylvania, to learn more about his Tic-Tac-Toe Robot.

Play Tic-Tac-Toe against a Raspberry Pi #MFNYC

Uploaded by Raspberry Pi on 2017-12-18.

Tic-tac-toe with Dover Robotics

We came to see Toby and Brian Bahn, physics teacher for Dover High School and leader of the Dover Robotics club, so they could tell us about the inner workings of the Tic-Tac-Toe Robot project, and how the Raspberry Pi fit within it. Check out our video for Toby’s explanation of the build and the software controlling it.

Wooden robotic arm — Toby Goebeler Tic-Tac-Toe arm Raspberry Pi

Toby’s original robotic arm prototype used a weight to direct the pen on and off the paper. He later replaced this with a servo motor.

Toby documented the prototyping process for the robot on the Dover Robotics blog. Head over there to hear more about the highs and lows of building a robotic arm from scratch, and about how Toby learned to integrate a Raspberry Pi for both software and hardware control.

Wooden robotic arm playing tic-tac-toe — Toby Goebeler Tic-Tac-Toe arm Raspberry Pi

The finished build is a tic-tac-toe beast, besting everyone who dares to challenge it to a game.

And in case you’re wondering: no, none of the Raspberry Pi team were able to beat the Tic-Tac-Toe Robot when we played against it.

Your turn

We always love seeing Raspberry Pis being used in schools to teach coding and digital making, whether in the classroom or during after-school activities such as the Dover Robotics club and our own Code Clubs and CoderDojos. If you are part of a coding or robotics club, we’d love to hear your story! So make sure to share your experiences and projects in the comments below, or via our social media accounts.

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I am Beemo, a little living boy: Adventure Time prop build

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/adventure-time-bmo/

Bob Herzberg, BMO builder and blogger at BYOBMO.com, fills us in on the whys and hows and even the Pen Wards of creating interactive Adventure Time BMO props with the Raspberry Pi.

A Conversation With BMO

A conversation with BMO showing off some voice recognition capabilities. There is no interaction for BMO’s responses other than voice commands. There is a small microphone inside BMO (right behind the blue dot) and the voice commands are processed by Google voice API over WiFi.

Finding BMO

My first BMO began as a cosplay prop for my daughter. She and her friends are huge fans of Adventure Time and made their costumes for Princess Bubblegum, Marceline, and Finn. It was my job to come up with a BMO.

Raspberry Pi BMO Laura Herzberg Bob Herzberg

Bob as Banana Guard, daughter Laura as Princess Bubblegum, and son Steven as Finn

I wanted something electronic, and also interactive if possible. And it had to run on battery power. There was only one option that I found that would work: the Raspberry Pi.

Building a living little boy

BMO’s basic internals consist of the Raspberry Pi, an 8” HDMI monitor, and a USB battery pack. The body is made from laser-cut MDF wood, which I sanded, sealed, and painted. I added 3D-printed arms and legs along with some vinyl lettering to complete the look. There is also a small wireless keyboard that works as a remote control.

Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop

To make the front panel button function, I created a custom PCB, mounted laser-cut acrylic buttons on it, and connected it to the Pi’s IO header.

Inside BMO - Raspberry Pi BMO Laura Herzberg Bob Herzberg

Custom-made PCBs control BMO’s gaming buttons and USB input.

The USB jack is extended with another custom PCB, which gives BMO USB ports on the front panel. His battery life is an impressive 8 hours of continuous use.

The main brain game frame

Most of BMO’s personality comes from custom animations that my daughter created and that were then turned into MP4 video files. The animations are triggered by the remote keyboard. Some versions of BMO have an internal microphone, and the Google Voice API is used to translate the user’s voice and map it to an appropriate response, so it’s possible to have a conversation with BMO.

The final components of Raspberry Pi BMO Laura Herzberg Bob Herzberg

The Raspberry Pi Camera Module was also put to use. Some BMOs have a servo that can pop up a camera, called GoMO, which takes pictures. Although some people mistake it for ghost detecting equipment, BMO just likes taking nice pictures.

Who wants to play video games?

Playing games on BMO is as simple as loading one of the emulators supported by Raspbian.

BMO connected to SNES controllers - Raspberry Pi BMO Laura Herzberg Bob Herzberg

I’m partial to the Atari 800 emulator, since I used to write games for that platform when I was just starting to learn programming. The front-panel USB ports are used for connecting gamepads, or his front-panel buttons and D-Pad can be used.

Adventure time

BMO has been a lot of fun to bring to conventions. He makes it to ComicCon San Diego each year and has been as far away as DragonCon in Atlanta, where he finally got to meet the voice of BMO, Niki Yang.

BMO's back panel - Raspberry Pi BMO Laura Herzberg Bob Herzberg

BMO’s back panel, autographed by Niki Yang

One day, I received an email from the producer of Adventure Time, Kelly Crews, with a very special request. Kelly was looking for a birthday present for the show’s creator, Pendleton Ward. It was either luck or coincidence that I just was finishing up the latest version of BMO. Niki Yang added some custom greetings just for Pen.

BMO Wishes Pendleton Ward a Happy Birthday!

Happy birthday to Pendleton Ward, the creator of, well, you know what. We were asked to build Pen his very own BMO and with help from Niki Yang and the Adventure Time crew here is the result.

We added a few more items inside, including a 3D-printed heart, a medal, and a certificate which come from the famous Be More episode that explains BMO’s origins.

Back of Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop
Adventure Time BMO prop

BMO was quite a challenge to create. Fabricating the enclosure required several different techniques and materials. Fortunately, bringing him to life was quite simple once he had a Raspberry Pi inside!

Find out more

Be sure to follow Bob’s adventures with BMO at the Build Your Own BMO blog. And if you’ve built your own prop from television or film using a Raspberry Pi, be sure to share it with us in the comments below or on our social media channels.

 

All images c/o Bob and Laura Herzberg

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Why Raspberry Pi isn’t vulnerable to Spectre or Meltdown

Post Syndicated from Eben Upton original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/why-raspberry-pi-isnt-vulnerable-to-spectre-or-meltdown/

Over the last couple of days, there has been a lot of discussion about a pair of security vulnerabilities nicknamed Spectre and Meltdown. These affect all modern Intel processors, and (in the case of Spectre) many AMD processors and ARM cores. Spectre allows an attacker to bypass software checks to read data from arbitrary locations in the current address space; Meltdown allows an attacker to read arbitrary data from the operating system kernel’s address space (which should normally be inaccessible to user programs).

Both vulnerabilities exploit performance features (caching and speculative execution) common to many modern processors to leak data via a so-called side-channel attack. Happily, the Raspberry Pi isn’t susceptible to these vulnerabilities, because of the particular ARM cores that we use.

To help us understand why, here’s a little primer on some concepts in modern processor design. We’ll illustrate these concepts using simple programs in Python syntax like this one:

t = a+b
u = c+d
v = e+f
w = v+g
x = h+i
y = j+k

While the processor in your computer doesn’t execute Python directly, the statements here are simple enough that they roughly correspond to a single machine instruction. We’re going to gloss over some details (notably pipelining and register renaming) which are very important to processor designers, but which aren’t necessary to understand how Spectre and Meltdown work.

For a comprehensive description of processor design, and other aspects of modern computer architecture, you can’t do better than Hennessy and Patterson’s classic Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach.

What is a scalar processor?

The simplest sort of modern processor executes one instruction per cycle; we call this a scalar processor. Our example above will execute in six cycles on a scalar processor.

Examples of scalar processors include the Intel 486 and the ARM1176 core used in Raspberry Pi 1 and Raspberry Pi Zero.

What is a superscalar processor?

The obvious way to make a scalar processor (or indeed any processor) run faster is to increase its clock speed. However, we soon reach limits of how fast the logic gates inside the processor can be made to run; processor designers therefore quickly began to look for ways to do several things at once.

An in-order superscalar processor examines the incoming stream of instructions and tries execute more than one at once, in one of several “pipes”, subject to dependencies between the instructions. Dependencies are important: you might think that a two-way superscalar processor could just pair up (or dual-issue) the six instructions in our example like this:

t, u = a+b, c+d
v, w = e+f, v+g
x, y = h+i, j+k

But this doesn’t make sense: we have to compute v before we can compute w, so the third and fourth instructions can’t be executed at the same time. Our two-way superscalar processor won’t be able to find anything to pair with the third instruction, so our example will execute in four cycles:

t, u = a+b, c+d
v    = e+f                   # second pipe does nothing here
w, x = v+g, h+i
y    = j+k

Examples of superscalar processors include the Intel Pentium, and the ARM Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A53 cores used in Raspberry Pi 2 and Raspberry Pi 3 respectively. Raspberry Pi 3 has only a 33% higher clock speed than Raspberry Pi 2, but has roughly double the performance: the extra performance is partly a result of Cortex-A53’s ability to dual-issue a broader range of instructions than Cortex-A7.

What is an out-of-order processor?

Going back to our example, we can see that, although we have a dependency between v and w, we have other independent instructions later in the program that we could potentially have used to fill the empty pipe during the second cycle. An out-of-order superscalar processor has the ability to shuffle the order of incoming instructions (again subject to dependencies) in order to keep its pipelines busy.

An out-of-order processor might effectively swap the definitions of w and x in our example like this:

t = a+b
u = c+d
v = e+f
x = h+i
w = v+g
y = j+k

allowing it to execute in three cycles:

t, u = a+b, c+d
v, x = e+f, h+i
w, y = v+g, j+k

Examples of out-of-order processors include the Intel Pentium 2 (and most subsequent Intel and AMD x86 processors), and many recent ARM cores, including Cortex-A9, -A15, -A17, and -A57.

What is speculation?

Reordering sequential instructions is a powerful way to recover more instruction-level parallelism, but as processors become wider (able to triple- or quadruple-issue instructions) it becomes harder to keep all those pipes busy. Modern processors have therefore grown the ability to speculate. Speculative execution lets us issue instructions which might turn out not to be required (because they are branched over): this keeps a pipe busy, and if it turns out that the instruction isn’t executed, we can just throw the result away.

To demonstrate the benefits of speculation, let’s look at another example:

t = a+b
u = t+c
v = u+d
if v:
   w = e+f
   x = w+g
   y = x+h

Now we have dependencies from t to u to v, and from w to x to y, so a two-way out-of-order processor without speculation won’t ever be able to fill its second pipe. It spends three cycles computing t, u, and v, after which it knows whether the body of the if statement will execute, in which case it then spends three cycles computing w, x, and y. Assuming the if (a branch instruction) takes one cycle, our example takes either four cycles (if v turns out to be zero) or seven cycles (if v is non-zero).

Speculation effectively shuffles the program like this:

t = a+b
u = t+c
v = u+d
w_ = e+f
x_ = w_+g
y_ = x_+h
if v:
   w, x, y = w_, x_, y_

so we now have additional instruction level parallelism to keep our pipes busy:

t, w_ = a+b, e+f
u, x_ = t+c, w_+g
v, y_ = u+d, x_+h
if v:
   w, x, y = w_, x_, y_

Cycle counting becomes less well defined in speculative out-of-order processors, but the branch and conditional update of w, x, and y are (approximately) free, so our example executes in (approximately) three cycles.

What is a cache?

In the good old days*, the speed of processors was well matched with the speed of memory access. My BBC Micro, with its 2MHz 6502, could execute an instruction roughly every 2µs (microseconds), and had a memory cycle time of 0.25µs. Over the ensuing 35 years, processors have become very much faster, but memory only modestly so: a single Cortex-A53 in a Raspberry Pi 3 can execute an instruction roughly every 0.5ns (nanoseconds), but can take up to 100ns to access main memory.

At first glance, this sounds like a disaster: every time we access memory, we’ll end up waiting for 100ns to get the result back. In this case, this example:

a = mem[0]
b = mem[1]

would take 200ns.

In practice, programs tend to access memory in relatively predictable ways, exhibiting both temporal locality (if I access a location, I’m likely to access it again soon) and spatial locality (if I access a location, I’m likely to access a nearby location soon). Caching takes advantage of these properties to reduce the average cost of access to memory.

A cache is a small on-chip memory, close to the processor, which stores copies of the contents of recently used locations (and their neighbours), so that they are quickly available on subsequent accesses. With caching, the example above will execute in a little over 100ns:

a = mem[0]    # 100ns delay, copies mem[0:15] into cache
b = mem[1]    # mem[1] is in the cache

From the point of view of Spectre and Meltdown, the important point is that if you can time how long a memory access takes, you can determine whether the address you accessed was in the cache (short time) or not (long time).

What is a side channel?

From Wikipedia:

“… a side-channel attack is any attack based on information gained from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem, rather than brute force or theoretical weaknesses in the algorithms (compare cryptanalysis). For example, timing information, power consumption, electromagnetic leaks or even sound can provide an extra source of information, which can be exploited to break the system.”

Spectre and Meltdown are side-channel attacks which deduce the contents of a memory location which should not normally be accessible by using timing to observe whether another location is present in the cache.

Putting it all together

Now let’s look at how speculation and caching combine to permit the Meltdown attack. Consider the following example, which is a user program that sometimes reads from an illegal (kernel) address:

t = a+b
u = t+c
v = u+d
if v:
   w = kern_mem[address]   # if we get here crash
   x = w&0x100
   y = user_mem[x]

Now our out-of-order two-way superscalar processor shuffles the program like this:

t, w_ = a+b, kern_mem[address]
u, x_ = t+c, w_&0x100
v, y_ = u+d, user_mem[x_]

if v:
   # crash
   w, x, y = w_, x_, y_      # we never get here

Even though the processor always speculatively reads from the kernel address, it must defer the resulting fault until it knows that v was non-zero. On the face of it, this feels safe because either:

  • v is zero, so the result of the illegal read isn’t committed to w
  • v is non-zero, so the program crashes before the read is committed to w

However, suppose we flush our cache before executing the code, and arrange a, b, c, and d so that v is zero. Now, the speculative load in the third cycle:

v, y_ = u+d, user_mem[x_]

will read from either address 0x000 or address 0x100 depending on the eighth bit of the result of the illegal read. Because v is zero, the results of the speculative instructions will be discarded, and execution will continue. If we time a subsequent access to one of those addresses, we can determine which address is in the cache. Congratulations: you’ve just read a single bit from the kernel’s address space!

The real Meltdown exploit is more complex than this, but the principle is the same. Spectre uses a similar approach to subvert software array bounds checks.

Conclusion

Modern processors go to great lengths to preserve the abstraction that they are in-order scalar machines that access memory directly, while in fact using a host of techniques including caching, instruction reordering, and speculation to deliver much higher performance than a simple processor could hope to achieve. Meltdown and Spectre are examples of what happens when we reason about security in the context of that abstraction, and then encounter minor discrepancies between the abstraction and reality.

The lack of speculation in the ARM1176, Cortex-A7, and Cortex-A53 cores used in Raspberry Pi render us immune to attacks of the sort.

* days may not be that old, or that good

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The Raspberry Pi PiServer tool

Post Syndicated from Gordon Hollingworth original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/piserver/

As Simon mentioned in his recent blog post about Raspbian Stretch, we have developed a new piece of software called PiServer. Use this tool to easily set up a network of client Raspberry Pis connected to a single x86-based server via Ethernet. With PiServer, you don’t need SD cards, you can control all clients via the server, and you can add and configure user accounts — it’s ideal for the classroom, your home, or an industrial setting.

PiServer diagram

Client? Server?

Before I go into more detail, let me quickly explain some terms.

  • Server — the server is the computer that provides the file system, boot files, and password authentication to the client(s)
  • Client — a client is a computer that retrieves boot files from the server over the network, and then uses a file system the server has shared. More than one client can connect to a server, but all clients use the same file system.
  • User – a user is a user name/password combination that allows someone to log into a client to access the file system on the server. Any user can log into any client with their credentials, and will always see the same server and share the same file system. Users do not have sudo capability on a client, meaning they cannot make significant changes to the file system and software.

I see no SD cards

Last year we described how the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B can be booted without an SD card over an Ethernet network from another computer (the server). This is called network booting or PXE (pronounced ‘pixie’) booting.

Why would you want to do this?

  • A client computer (the Raspberry Pi) doesn’t need any permanent storage (an SD card) to boot.
  • You can network a large number of clients to one server, and all clients are exactly the same. If you log into one of the clients, you will see the same file system as if you logged into any other client.
  • The server can be run on an x86 system, which means you get to take advantage of the performance, network, and disk speed on the server.

Sounds great, right? Of course, for the less technical, creating such a network is very difficult. For example, there’s setting up all the required DHCP and TFTP servers, and making sure they behave nicely with the rest of the network. If you get this wrong, you can break your entire network.

PiServer to the rescue

To make network booting easy, I thought it would be nice to develop an application which did everything for you. Let me introduce: PiServer!

PiServer has the following functionalities:

  • It automatically detects Raspberry Pis trying to network boot, so you don’t have to work out their Ethernet addresses.
  • It sets up a DHCP server — the thing inside the router that gives all network devices an IP address — either in proxy mode or in full IP mode. No matter the mode, the DHCP server will only reply to the Raspberry Pis you have specified, which is important for network safety.
  • It creates user names and passwords for the server. This is great for a classroom full of Pis: just set up all the users beforehand, and everyone gets to log in with their passwords and keep all their work in a central place. Moreover, users cannot change the software, so educators have control over which programs their learners can use.
  • It uses a slightly altered Raspbian build which allows separation of temporary spaces, doesn’t have the default ‘pi’ user, and has LDAP enabled for log-in.

What can I do with PiServer?

Serve a whole classroom of Pis

In a classroom, PiServer allows all files for lessons or projects to be stored on a central x86-based computer. Each user can have their own account, and any files they create are also stored on the server. Moreover, the networked Pis doesn’t need to be connected to the internet. The teacher has centralised control over all Pis, and all Pis are user-agnostic, meaning there’s no need to match a person with a computer or an SD card.

Build a home server

PiServer could be used in the home to serve file systems for all Raspberry Pis around the house — either a single common Raspbian file system for all Pis or a different operating system for each. Hopefully, our extensive OS suppliers will provide suitable build files in future.

Use it as a controller for networked Pis

In an industrial scenario, it is possible to use PiServer to develop a network of Raspberry Pis (maybe even using Power over Ethernet (PoE)) such that the control software for each Pi is stored remotely on a server. This enables easy remote control and provisioning of the Pis from a central repository.

How to use PiServer

The client machines

So that you can use a Pi as a client, you need to enable network booting on it. Power it up using an SD card with a Raspbian Lite image, and open a terminal window. Type in

echo program_usb_boot_mode=1 | sudo tee -a /boot/config.txt

and press Return. This adds the line program_usb_boot_mode=1 to the end of the config.txt file in /boot. Now power the Pi down and remove the SD card. The next time you connect the Pi to a power source, you will be able to network boot it.

The server machine

As a server, you will need an x86 computer on which you can install x86 Debian Stretch. Refer to Simon’s blog post for additional information on this. It is possible to use a Raspberry Pi to serve to the client Pis, but the file system will be slower, especially at boot time.

Make sure your server has a good amount of disk space available for the file system — in general, we recommend at least 16Gb SD cards for Raspberry Pis. The whole client file system is stored locally on the server, so the disk space requirement is fairly significant.

Next, start PiServer by clicking on the start icon and then clicking Preferences > PiServer. This will open a graphical user interface — the wizard — that will walk you through setting up your network. Skip the introduction screen, and you should see a screen looking like this:

PiServer GUI screenshot

If you’ve enabled network booting on the client Pis and they are connected to a power source, their MAC addresses will automatically appear in the table shown above. When you have added all your Pis, click Next.

PiServer GUI screenshot

On the Add users screen, you can set up users on your server. These are pairs of user names and passwords that will be valid for logging into the client Raspberry Pis. Don’t worry, you can add more users at any point. Click Next again when you’re done.

PiServer GUI screenshot

The Add software screen allows you to select the operating system you want to run on the attached Pis. (You’ll have the option to assign an operating system to each client individually in the setting after the wizard has finished its job.) There are some automatically populated operating systems, such as Raspbian and Raspbian Lite. Hopefully, we’ll add more in due course. You can also provide your own operating system from a local file, or install it from a URL. For further information about how these operating system images are created, have a look at the scripts in /var/lib/piserver/scripts.

Once you’re done, click Next again. The wizard will then install the necessary components and the operating systems you’ve chosen. This will take a little time, so grab a coffee (or decaffeinated drink of your choice).

When the installation process is finished, PiServer is up and running — all you need to do is reboot the Pis to get them to run from the server.

Shooting troubles

If you have trouble getting clients connected to your network, there are a fewthings you can do to debug:

  1. If some clients are connecting but others are not, check whether you’ve enabled the network booting mode on the Pis that give you issues. To do that, plug an Ethernet cable into the Pi (with the SD card removed) — the LEDs on the Pi and connector should turn on. If that doesn’t happen, you’ll need to follow the instructions above to boot the Pi and edit its /boot/config.txt file.
  2. If you can’t connect to any clients, check whether your network is suitable: format an SD card, and copy bootcode.bin from /boot on a standard Raspbian image onto it. Plug the card into a client Pi, and check whether it appears as a new MAC address in the PiServer GUI. If it does, then the problem is a known issue, and you can head to our forums to ask for advice about it (the network booting code has a couple of problems which we’re already aware of). For a temporary fix, you can clone the SD card on which bootcode.bin is stored for all your clients.

If neither of these things fix your problem, our forums are the place to find help — there’s a host of people there who’ve got PiServer working. If you’re sure you have identified a problem that hasn’t been addressed on the forums, or if you have a request for a functionality, then please add it to the GitHub issues.

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A hedgehog cam or two

Post Syndicated from Helen Lynn original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/a-hedgehog-cam-or-two/

Here we are, hauling ourselves out of the Christmas and New Year holidays and into January proper. It’s dawning on me that I have to go back to work, even though it’s still very cold and gloomy in northern Europe, and even though my duvet is lovely and warm. I found myself envying beings that hibernate, and thinking about beings that hibernate, and searching for things to do with hedgehogs. And, well, the long and the short of it is, today’s blog post is a short meditation on the hedgehog cam.

A hedgehog in a garden, photographed in infrared light by a hedgehog cam

Success! It’s a hedgehog!
Photo by Andrew Wedgbury

Hedgehog watching

Someone called Barker has installed a Raspberry Pi–based hedgehog cam in a location with a distant view of a famous Alp, and as well as providing live views by visible and infrared light for the dedicated and the insomniac, they also make a sped-up version of the previous night’s activity available. With hedgehogs usually being in hibernation during January, you mightn’t see them in any current feed — but don’t worry! You’re guaranteed a few hedgehogs on Barker’s website, because they have also thrown in some lovely GIFs of hoggy (and foxy) divas that their camera captured in the past.

A Hedgehog eating from a bowl on a patio, captured by a hedgehog cam

Nom nom nom!
GIF by Barker’s Site

Build your own hedgehog cam

For pointers on how to replicate this kind of setup, you could do worse than turn to Andrew Wedgbury’s hedgehog cam write-up. Andrew’s Twitter feed reveals that he’s a Cambridge local, and there are hints that he was behind RealVNC’s hoggy mascot for Pi Wars 2017.

RealVNC on Twitter

Another day at the office: testing our #PiWars mascot using a @Raspberry_Pi 3, #VNC Connect and @4tronix_uk Picon Zero. Name suggestions? https://t.co/iYY3xAX9Bk

Our infrared bird box and time-lapse camera resources will also set you well on the way towards your own custom wildlife camera. For a kit that wraps everything up in a weatherproof enclosure made with love, time, and serious amounts of design and testing, take a look at Naturebytes’ wildlife cam kit.

Or, if you’re thinking that a robot mascot is more dependable than real animals for the fluffiness you need in order to start your January with something like productivity and with your soul intact, you might like to put your own spin on our robot buggy.

Happy 2018

While we’re on the subject of getting to grips with the new year, do take a look at yesterday’s blog post, in which we suggest a New Year’s project that’s different from the usual resolutions. However you tackle 2018, we wish you an excellent year of creative computing.

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Could you write for Hello World magazine?

Post Syndicated from Dan Fisher original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/could-you-write-for-hello-world-magazine/

Thinking about New Year’s resolutions? Ditch the gym and tone up your author muscles instead, by writing an article for Hello World magazine. We’ll help you, you’ll expand your knowledge of a topic you care about, and you’ll be contributing something of real value to the computing education community.

Join our pool of Hello World writers in 2018

The computing and digital making magazine for educators

Hello World is our free computing magazine for educators, published in partnership with Computing At School and kindly supported by BT. We launched at the Bett Show in January 2017, and over the past twelve months, we’ve grown to a readership of 15000 subscribers. You can get your own free copy here.

Our work is sustained by wonderful educational content from around the world in every issue. We’re hugely grateful to our current pool of authors – keep it up, veterans of 2017! – and we want to provide opportunities for new voices in the community to join them. You might be a classroom teacher sharing your scheme of work, a volunteer reflecting on running an after-school club, an industry professional sharing your STEM expertise, or an academic providing insights into new research – we’d love contributions from all kinds of people in all sorts of roles.

Your article doesn’t have to be finished and complete: if you send us an outline, we will work with you to develop it into a full piece.

Like my desk, but tidier

Five reasons to write for Hello World

Here are five reasons why writing for Hello World is a great way to start 2018:

1. You’ll learn something new

Researching an article is one of the best ways to broaden your knowledge about something that interests you.

2. You’ll think more clearly

Notes in hand, you sit at your desk and wonder how to craft all this information into a coherent piece of writing. It’s a situation we’re all familiar with. Writing an article makes you examine and clarify what you really think about a subject.

Share your expertise and make more interesting projects along the way

3. You’ll make cool projects

Testing a project for a Hello World resource is a perfect opportunity to build something amazing that’s hitherto been locked away inside your brain.

4. You’ll be doing something that matters

Sharing your knowledge and experience in Hello World helps others to teach and learn computing. It helps bring the power of digital making to more and more educators and learners.

5. You’ll share with an open and supportive community

The computing education community is full of people who lend their experience to help colleagues. Contributing to Hello World is a great way to take an active part in this supportive community, and you’ll be adding to a body of free, open source learning resources that are available for everyone to use, adapt, and share. It’s also a tremendous platform to broadcast your work: the digital version alone of Hello World has been downloaded over 50000 times.

Yes! What do I do next?

Feeling inspired? Email our editorial team with your idea.

Issue 4 of Hello World is out this month! Subscribe for free today to have it delivered to your inbox or your home.

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Thank you for my new Raspberry Pi, Santa! What next?

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/thank-you-for-my-new-raspberry-pi-santa-what-next/

Note: the Pi Towers team have peeled away from their desks to spend time with their families over the festive season, and this blog will be quiet for a while as a result. We’ll be back in the New Year with a bushel of amazing projects, awesome resources, and much merriment and fun times. Happy holidays to all!

Now back to the matter at hand. Your brand new Christmas Raspberry Pi.

Your new Raspberry Pi

Did you wake up this morning to find a new Raspberry Pi under the tree? Congratulations, and welcome to the Raspberry Pi community! You’re one of us now, and we’re happy to have you on board.

But what if you’ve never seen a Raspberry Pi before? What are you supposed to do with it? What’s all the fuss about, and why does your new computer look so naked?

Setting up your Raspberry Pi

Are you comfy? Good. Then let us begin.

Download our free operating system

First of all, you need to make sure you have an operating system on your micro SD card: we suggest Raspbian, the Raspberry Pi Foundation’s official supported operating system. If your Pi is part of a starter kit, you might find that it comes with a micro SD card that already has Raspbian preinstalled. If not, you can download Raspbian for free from our website.

An easy way to get Raspbian onto your SD card is to use a free tool called Etcher. Watch The MagPi’s Lucy Hattersley show you what you need to do. You can also use NOOBS to install Raspbian on your SD card, and our Getting Started guide explains how to do that.

Plug it in and turn it on

Your new Raspberry Pi 3 comes with four USB ports and an HDMI port. These allow you to plug in a keyboard, a mouse, and a television or monitor. If you have a Raspberry Pi Zero, you may need adapters to connect your devices to its micro USB and micro HDMI ports. Both the Raspberry Pi 3 and the Raspberry Pi Zero W have onboard wireless LAN, so you can connect to your home network, and you can also plug an Ethernet cable into the Pi 3.

Make sure to plug the power cable in last. There’s no ‘on’ switch, so your Pi will turn on as soon as you connect the power. Raspberry Pi uses a micro USB power supply, so you can use a phone charger if you didn’t receive one as part of a kit.

Learn with our free projects

If you’ve never used a Raspberry Pi before, or you’re new to the world of coding, the best place to start is our projects site. It’s packed with free projects that will guide you through the basics of coding and digital making. You can create projects right on your screen using Scratch and Python, connect a speaker to make music with Sonic Pi, and upgrade your skills to physical making using items from around your house.

Here’s James to show you how to build a whoopee cushion using a Raspberry Pi, paper plates, tin foil and a sponge:

Whoopee cushion PRANK with a Raspberry Pi: HOW-TO

Explore the world of Raspberry Pi physical computing with our free FutureLearn courses: http://rpf.io/futurelearn Free make your own Whoopi Cushion resource: http://rpf.io/whoopi For more information on Raspberry Pi and the charitable work of the Raspberry Pi Foundation, including Code Club and CoderDojo, visit http://rpf.io Our resources are free to use in schools, clubs, at home and at events.

Diving deeper

You’ve plundered our projects, you’ve successfully rigged every chair in the house to make rude noises, and now you want to dive deeper into digital making. Good! While you’re digesting your Christmas dinner, take a moment to skim through the Raspberry Pi blog for inspiration. You’ll find projects from across our worldwide community, with everything from home automation projects and retrofit upgrades, to robots, gaming systems, and cameras.

You’ll also find bucketloads of ideas in The MagPi magazine, the official monthly Raspberry Pi publication, available in both print and digital format. You can download every issue for free. If you subscribe, you’ll get a Raspberry Pi Zero W to add to your new collection. HackSpace magazine is another fantastic place to turn for Raspberry Pi projects, along with other maker projects and tutorials.

And, of course, simply typing “Raspberry Pi projects” into your preferred search engine will find thousands of ideas. Sites like Hackster, Hackaday, Instructables, Pimoroni, and Adafruit all have plenty of fab Raspberry Pi tutorials that they’ve devised themselves and that community members like you have created.

And finally

If you make something marvellous with your new Raspberry Pi – and we know you will – don’t forget to share it with us! Our Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and Google+ accounts are brimming with chatter, projects, and events. And our forums are a great place to visit if you have questions about your Raspberry Pi or if you need some help.

It’s good to get together with like-minded folks, so check out the growing Raspberry Jam movement. Raspberry Jams are community-run events where makers and enthusiasts can meet other makers, show off their projects, and join in with workshops and discussions. Find your nearest Jam here.

Have a great festive holiday and welcome to the community. We’ll see you in 2018!

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Journeying with green sea turtles and the Arribada Initiative

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/sea-turtles/

Today, a guest post: Alasdair Davies, co-founder of Naturebytes, ZSL London’s Conservation Technology Specialist and Shuttleworth Foundation Fellow, shares the work of the Arribada Initiative. The project uses the Raspberry Pi Zero and camera module to follow the journey of green sea turtles. The footage captured from the backs of these magnificent creatures is just incredible – prepare to be blown away!

Pit Stop Camera on Green Sea Turtle 01

Footage from the new Arribada PS-C (pit-stop camera) video tag recently trialled on the island of Principe in unison with the Principe Trust. Engineered by Institute IRNAS (http://irnas.eu/) for the Arribada Initiative (http://blog.arribada.org/).

Access to affordable, open and customisable conservation technologies in the animal tracking world is often limited. I’ve been a conservation technologist for the past ten years, co-founding Naturebytes and working at ZSL London Zoo, and this was a problem that continued to frustrate me. It was inherently expensive to collect valuable data that was necessary to inform policy, to designate marine protected areas, or to identify threats to species.

In March this year, I got a supercharged opportunity to break through these barriers by becoming a Shuttleworth Foundation Fellow, meaning I had the time and resources to concentrate on cracking the problem. The Arribada Initiative was founded, and ten months later, the open source Arribada PS-C green sea turtle tag was born. The video above was captured two weeks ago in the waters of Principe Island, West Africa.

Alasdair Davies on Twitter

On route to Principe island with 10 second gen green sea #turtle tags for testing. This version has a video & accelerometer payload for behavioural studies, plus a nice wireless charging carry case made by @institute_irnas @ShuttleworthFdn

The tag comprises a Raspberry Pi Zero W sporting the Raspberry Pi camera module, a PiRA power management board, two lithium-ion cells, and a rather nice enclosure. It was built in unison with Institute IRNAS, and there’s a nice user-friendly wireless charging case to make it easy for the marine guards to replace the tags after their voyages at sea. When a tag is returned to one of the docking stations in the case, we use resin.io to manage it, download videos, and configure the tag remotely.

Green Sea Turtle Alasdair Davies Raspberry Pi
Green Sea Turtle Alasdair Davies Raspberry Pi

The tags can also be configured to take video clips at timed intervals, meaning we can now observe the presence of marine litter, plastic debris, before/after changes to the ocean environment due to nearby construction, pollution, and other threats.

Discarded fishing nets are lethal to sea turtles, so using this new tag at scale – now finally possible, as the Raspberry Pi Zero helps to drive down costs dramatically whilst retaining excellent video quality – offers real value to scientists in the field. Next year we will be releasing an optimised, affordable GPS version.

green sea turtle Alasdair Davies Raspberry Pi Arribada Initiative

To make this all possible we had to devise a quicker method of attaching the tag to the sea turtles too, so we came up with the “pit-stop” technique (which is what the PS in the name “Arribada PS-C” stands for). Just as a Formula 1 car would visit the pits to get its tyres changed, we literally switch out the tags on the beach when nesting females return, replacing them with freshly charged tags by using a quick-release base plate.

Alasdair Davies on Twitter

About 6 days left now until the first tagged nesting green sea #turtles return using our latest “pit-stop” removeable / replaceable tag method. Counting down the days @arribada_i @institute_irnas

To implement the system we first epoxy the base plate to the turtle, which minimises any possible stress to the turtles as the method is quick. Once the epoxy has dried we attach the tag. When the turtle has completed its nesting cycle (they visit the beach to lay eggs three to four times in a single season, every 10–14 days on average), we simply remove the base plate to complete the field work.

Green Sea Turtle Alasdair Davies Raspberry Pi
Green Sea Turtle Alasdair Davies Raspberry Pi

If you’d like to watch more wonderful videos of the green sea turtles’ adventures, there’s an entire YouTube playlist available here. And to keep up to date with the initiative, be sure to follow Arribada and Alasdair on Twitter.

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HackSpace magazine 2: 3D printing and cheese making

Post Syndicated from Andrew Gregory original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/hackspace-magazine-issue-2/

After an incredible response to our first issue of HackSpace magazine last month, we’re excited to announce today’s release of issue 2, complete with cheese making, digital braille, and…a crochet Cthulhu?
HackSpace magazine issue 2 cover

Your spaces

This issue, we visit Swansea Hackspace to learn how to crochet, we hear about the superb things that Birmingham’s fizzPOP maker space is doing, and we’re extremely impressed by the advances in braille reader technology that are coming out of Bristol Hackspace. People are amazing.

Your projects

We’ve also collected page upon page of projects for you to try your hand at. Fancy an introduction to laser cutting? A homemade sine wave stylophone? Or how about our first foray into Adafruit’s NeoPixels, adding blinkenlights to a pair of snowboarding goggles?

And (much) older technology gets a look in too, including a tutorial showing you how to make a knife in your own cheap and cheerful backyard forge.



As always, issue 2 of HackSpace magazine is available as a free PDF download, but we’ll also be publishing online versions of selected articles for easier browsing, so be sure to follow us on Facebook and Twitter. And, of course, we want to hear your thoughts – contact us to let us know what you like and what else you’d like to see, or just to demand that we feature your project, interest or current curiosity in the next issue.

Get your copy

You can grab issue 2 of HackSpace magazine right now from WHSmith, Tesco, Sainsbury’s, and independent newsagents. If you live in the US, check out your local Barnes & Noble, Fry’s, or Micro Center next week. We’re also shipping to stores in Australia, Hong Kong, Canada, Singapore, Belgium, and Brazil, so be sure to ask your local newsagent whether they’ll be getting HackSpace magazine.

Alternatively, you can get the new issue online from our store, or digitally via our Android or iOS apps. And don’t forget, as with all our publications, a free PDF of HackSpace magazine is available from release day.

That’s it from us for this year; see you in 2018 for a ton of new things to make and do!

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MagPi 65: Newbies Guide, and something brand new!

Post Syndicated from Rob Zwetsloot original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/magpi-65/

Hey folks, Rob from The MagPi here! We know many people might be getting their very first Raspberry Pi this Christmas, and excitedly wondering “what do I do with it?” While we can’t tell you exactly what to do with your Pi, we can show you how to immerse yourself in the world of Raspberry Pi and be inspired by our incredible community, and that’s the topic of The MagPi 65, out today tomorrow (we’re a day early because we’re simply TOO excited about the special announcement below!).

The one, the only…issue 65!

Raspberry Pi for Newbies

Raspberry Pi for Newbies covers some of the very basics you should know about the world of Raspberry Pi. After a quick set-up tutorial, we introduce you to the Raspberry Pi’s free online resources, including Scratch and Python projects from Code Club, before guiding you through the wider Raspberry Pi and maker community.

Raspberry Pi MagPi 65 Newbie Guide

Pages and pages of useful advice and starter projects

The online community is an amazing place to learn about all the incredible things you can do with the Raspberry Pi. We’ve included some information on good places to look for tutorials, advice and ideas.

And that’s not all

Want to do more after learning about the world of Pi? The rest of the issue has our usual selection of expert guides to help you build some amazing projects: you can make a Christmas memory game, build a tower of bells to ring in the New Year, and even take your first steps towards making a game using C++.

Raspberry Pi MagPi 65

Midimutant, the synthesizer “that boinks endless strange sounds”

All this along with inspiring projects, definitive reviews, and tales from around the community.

Raspberry Pi Annual

Issue 65 isn’t the only new release to look out for. We’re excited to bring you the first ever Raspberry Pi Annual, and it’s free for MagPi subscribers – in fact, subscribers should be receiving it the same day as their issue 65 delivery!

If you’re not yet a subscriber of The MagPi, don’t panic: you can still bag yourself a copy of the Raspberry Pi Annual by signing up to a 12-month subscription of The MagPi before 24 January. You’ll also receive the usual subscriber gift of a free Raspberry Pi Zero W (with case and cable).  Click here to subscribe to The MagPi – The Official Raspberry Pi magazine.

Ooooooo…aaaaaahhhhh…

The Raspberry Pi Annual is aimed at young folk wanting to learn to code, with a variety of awesome step-by-step Scratch tutorials, games, puzzles, and comics, including a robotic Babbage.

Get your copy

You can get The MagPi 65 and the Raspberry Pi Annual 2018 from our online store, and the magazine can be found in the wild at WHSmith, Tesco, Sainsbury’s, and Asda. You’ll be able to get it in the US at Barnes & Noble and Micro Center in a few days’ time. The MagPi 65 is also available digitally on our Android and iOS apps. Finally, you can also download a free PDF of The MagPi 65 and The Raspberry Pi Annual 2018.

We hope you have a merry Christmas! We’re off until the New Year. Bye!

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The deep learning Santa/Not Santa detector

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/deep-learning-santa-detector/

Did you see Mommy kissing Santa Claus? Or was it simply an imposter? The Not Santa detector is here to help solve the mystery once and for all.

Building a “Not Santa” detector on the Raspberry Pi using deep learning, Keras, and Python

The video is a demo of my “Not Santa” detector that I deployed to the Raspberry Pi. I trained the detector using deep learning, Keras, and Python. You can find the full source code and tutorial here: https://www.pyimagesearch.com/2017/12/18/keras-deep-learning-raspberry-pi/

Ho-ho-how does it work?

Note: Adrian Rosebrock is not Santa. But he does a good enough impression of the jolly old fellow that his disguise can fool a Raspberry Pi into thinking otherwise.

Raspberry Pi 'Not Santa' detector

We jest, but has anyone seen Adrian and Santa in the same room together?
Image c/o Adrian Rosebrock

But how is the Raspberry Pi able to detect the Santa-ness or Not-Santa-ness of people who walk into the frame?

Two words: deep learning

If you’re not sure what deep learning is, you’re not alone. It’s a hefty topic, and one that Adrian has written a book about, so I grilled him for a bluffers’ guide. In his words, deep learning is:

…a subfield of machine learning, which is, in turn a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI). While AI embodies a large, diverse set of techniques and algorithms related to automatic reasoning (inference, planning, heuristics, etc), the machine learning subfields are specifically interested in pattern recognition and learning from data.

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a class of machine learning algorithms that can learn from data. We have been using ANNs successfully for over 60 years, but something special happened in the past 5 years — (1) we’ve been able to accumulate massive datasets, orders of magnitude larger than previous datasets, and (2) we have access to specialized hardware to train networks faster (i.e., GPUs).

Given these large datasets and specialized hardware, deeper neural networks can be trained, leading to the term “deep learning”.

So now we have a bird’s-eye view of deep learning, how does the detector detect?

Cameras and twinkly lights

Adrian used a model he had trained on two datasets to detect whether or not an image contains Santa. He deployed the Not Santa detector code to a Raspberry Pi, then attached a camera, speakers, and The Pi Hut’s 3D Xmas Tree.

Raspberry Pi 'Not Santa' detector

Components for Santa detection
Image c/o Adrian Rosebrock

The camera captures footage of Santa in the wild, while the Christmas tree add-on provides a twinkly notification, accompanied by a resonant ho, ho, ho from the speakers.

A deeper deep dive into deep learning

A full breakdown of the project and the workings of the Not Santa detector can be found on Adrian’s blog, PyImageSearch, which includes links to other deep learning and image classification tutorials using TensorFlow and Keras. It’s an excellent place to start if you’d like to understand more about deep learning.

Build your own Santa detector

Santa might catch on to Adrian’s clever detector and start avoiding the camera, and for that eventuality, we have our own Santa detector. It uses motion detection to notify you of his presence (and your presents!).

Raspberry Pi Santa detector

Check out our Santa Detector resource here and use a passive infrared sensor, Raspberry Pi, and Scratch to catch the big man in action.

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Rosie the Countdown champion

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/rosie-the-countdown-champion/

Beating the contestants at Countdown: is it cheating if you happen to know every word in the English dictionary?

Rosie plays Countdown

Allow your robots to join in the fun this Christmas with a round of Channel 4’s Countdown. https://www.rosietheredrobot.com/2017/12/tea-minus-30.html

Rosie the Red Robot

First, a little bit of backstory. Challenged by his eldest daughter to build a robot, technology-loving Alan got to work building Rosie.

I became (unusually) determined. I wanted to show her what can be done… and the how can be learnt later. After all, there is nothing more exciting and encouraging than seeing technology come alive. Move. Groove. Quite literally.

Originally, Rosie had a Raspberry Pi 3 brain controlling ultrasonic sensors and motors via Python. From there, she has evolved into something much grander, and Alan has documented her upgrades on the Rosie the Red Robot blog. Using GPS trackers and a Raspberry Pi camera module, she became Rosie Patrol, a rolling, walking, interactive bot; then, with further upgrades, the Tea Minus 30 project came to be. Which brings us back to Countdown.

T(ea) minus 30

In case it hasn’t been a big part of your life up until now, Countdown is one of the longest running televisions shows in history, and occupies a special place in British culture. Contestants take turns to fill a board with nine randomly selected vowels and consonants, before battling the Countdown clock to find the longest word they can in the space of 30 seconds.

The Countdown Clock

I’ve had quite a few requests to show just the Countdown clock for use in school activities/own games etc., so here it is! Enjoy! It’s a brand new version too, using the 2010 Office package.

There’s a numbers round involving arithmetic, too – but for now, we’re going to focus on letters and words, because that’s where Rosie’s skills shine.

Using an online resource, Alan created a dataset of the ten thousand most common English words.

Rosie the Red Robot Raspberry Pi

Many words, listed in order of common-ness. Alan wrote a Python script to order them alphabetically and by length

Next, Alan wrote a Python script to select nine letters at random, then search the word list to find all the words that could be spelled using only these letters. He used the randint function to select letters from a pre-loaded alphabet, and introduced a requirement to include at least two vowels among the nine letters.

Rosie the Red Robot Raspberry Pi

Words that match the available letters are displayed on the screen.

Rosie the Red Robot Raspberry Pi

Putting it all together

With the basic game-play working, it was time to bring the project to life. For this, Alan used Rosie’s camera module, along with optical character recognition (OCR) and text-to-speech capabilities.

Rosie the Red Robot Raspberry Pi

Alan writes, “Here’s a very amateurish drawing to brainstorm our idea. Let’s call it a design as it makes it sound like we know what we’re doing.”

Alan’s script has Rosie take a photo of the TV screen during the Countdown letters round, then perform OCR using the Google Cloud Vision API to detect the nine letters contestants have to work with. Next, Rosie runs Alan’s code to check the letters against the ten-thousand-word dataset, converts text to speech with Python gTTS, and finally speaks her highest-scoring word via omxplayer.

You can follow the adventures of Rosie the Red Robot on her blog, or follow her on Twitter. And if you’d like to build your own Rosie, Alan has provided code and tutorials for his projects too. Thanks, Alan!

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All the lights, all of the twinkly lights

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/all-of-the-lights/

Twinkly lights are to Christmas what pumpkins are to Halloween. And when you add a Raspberry Pi to your light show, the result instantly goes from “Meh, yeah.” to “OMG, wow!”

Here are some cool light-based Christmas projects to inspire you this weekend.

Raspberry Pi Christmas Lights

App-based light control

Christmas Tree Lights Demo

Project Code – https://github.com/eidolonFIRE/Christmas-Lights Raspberry Pi A+ ws2812b – https://smile.amazon.com/gp/product/B01H04YAIQ/ref=od_aui_detailpages00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 200w 5V supply – https://smile.amazon.com/gp/product/B01LZRIWZD/ref=od_aui_detailpages01?ie=UTF8&psc=1

In his Christmas lights project, Caleb Johnson uses an app as a control panel to switch between predefined displays. The full code is available on his GitHub, and it connects a Raspberry Pi A+ to a strip of programmable LEDs that change their pattern at the touch of a phone screen.

What’s great about this project, aside from the simplicity of its design, is the scope for extending it. Why not share the app with friends and family, allowing them to control your lights remotely? Or link the lights to social media so they are triggered by a specific hashtag, like in Alex Ellis’ #cheerlights project below.

Worldwide holiday #cheerlights

Holiday lights hack – 1$ Snowman + Raspberry Pi

Here we have a smart holiday light which will only run when it detects your presence in the room through a passive infrared PIR sensor. I’ve used hot glue for the fixings and an 8-LED NeoPixel strip connected to port 18.

Cheerlights, an online service created by Hans Scharler, allows makers to incorporate hashtag-controlled lighting into the projects. By tweeting the hashtag #cheerlights, followed by a colour, you can control a network of lights so that they are all displaying the same colour.

For his holiday light hack using Cheerlights, Alex incorporated the Pimoroni Blinkt! and a collection of cheap Christmas decorations to create cute light-up ornaments for the festive season.

To make your own, check out Alex’s blog post, and head to your local £1/$1 store for hackable decor. You could even link your Christmas tree and the trees of your family, syncing them all in one glorious, Santa-pleasing spectacular.

Outdoor decorations

DIY musical Xmas lights for beginners with raspberry pi

With just a few bucks of extra material, I walk you through converting your regular Christmas lights into a whole-house light show. The goal here is to go from scratch. Although this guide is intended for people who don’t know how to use linux at all and those who do alike, the focus is for people for whom linux and the raspberry pi are a complete mystery.

Looking to outdo your neighbours with your Christmas light show this year? YouTuber Makin’Things has created a beginners guide to setting up a Raspberry Pi–based musical light show for your facade, complete with information on soldering, wiring, and coding.

Once you’ve wrapped your house in metres and metres of lights and boosted your speakers so they can be heard for miles around, why not incorporate #cheerlights to make your outdoor decor interactive?

Still not enough? How about controlling your lights using a drum kit? Christian Kratky’s MIDI-Based Christmas Lights Animation system (or as I like to call it, House Rock) does exactly that.

Eye Of The Tiger (MIDI based christmas lights animation system prototype)

Project documentation and source code: https://www.hackster.io/cyborg-titanium-14/light-pi-1c88b0 The song is taken from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6r1dAire0Y

Any more?

We know these projects are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the Raspberry Pi–powered Christmas projects out there, and as always, we’d love you to share yours with us. So post a link in the comments below, or tag us on social media when posting your build photos, videos, and/or blog links. ‘Tis the season for sharing after all.

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Digital making for new parents

Post Syndicated from Carrie Anne Philbin original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/digital-making-for-new-parents/

Solving problems that are meaningful to us is at the core of our approach to teaching and learning about technology here at the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Over the last eight months, I’ve noticed that the types of digital making projects that motivate and engage me have changed (can’t think why). Always looking for ways to save money and automate my life and the lives of my loved ones, I’ve been thinking a lot about how digital making projects could be the new best friend of any new parent.

A baby, oblivious to the amount its parents have spent on stuff they never knew existed last year.
Image: sweet baby by MRef photography / CC BY-ND 2.0

Baby Monitor

I never knew how much equipment one small child needs until very recently. I also had no idea of the range of technology that is on offer to support you as a new parent to ensure the perfect environment outside of the womb. Baby monitors are at the top of this list. There are lots of Raspberry Pi baby monitor projects with a range of sensing functionality already in existence, and we’ve blogged about some of them before. They’re a great example of how an understanding of technology can open up a range of solutions that won’t break the bank. I’m looking forward to using all the capabilities of the Raspberry Pi to keep an eye on baby.

Baby name generator

Another surprising discovery was just how difficult it is to name a human being. Surprising because I can give a name to an inanimate object in less than three seconds, and come up with nicknames for colleagues in less than a day. My own offspring, though, and I draw a blank. The only solution: write a Python program to randomly generate names based on some parameters!

import names
from time import sleep
from guizero import App, ButtonGroup, Text, PushButton, TextBox

def get_name():
    boyname = names.get_first_name(gender='male')
    girlname = names.get_first_name(gender='female')
    othername = names.get_first_name()

    if babygender.get() == "male":
        name.set(str(boyname)+" "+str(babylastname.get()))
    elif babygender.get() == "female":
        name.set(str(girlname)+" "+str(babylastname.get()))
    else:
        name.set(str(othername)+" "+str(babylastname.get()))

app = App("Baby name generator")
surname_label = Text(app, "What is your surname?")
babylastname = TextBox(app, width=50)
babygender = ButtonGroup(app, options=[["boy", "male"], ["girl", "female"], ["all", "all"]], selected="male", horizontal=True)
intro = Text(app, "Your baby name could be")
name = Text(app, "")
button = PushButton(app, get_name, text="Generate me a name")

app.display()

Thanks to the names and GUIZero Python libraries, it is super simple to create, resolving any possible parent-to-be naming disputes in mere minutes.

Food, Poo, or Love?

I love data. Not just in Star Trek, but also more generally. Collecting and analysing data to understand my sleep patterns, my eating habits, how much exercise I do, and how much time I spend watching YouTube videos consumes much of my time. So of course I want to know lots about the little person we’ve made, long before he can use language to tell us himself.

I’m told that most newborns’ needs are quite simple: they want food, they want to be changed, or they just want some cuddles. I’m certain it’s more complicated than this, but it’s a good starting point for a data set, so stick with me here. I also wondered whether there might be a correlation between the amplitude of the cry and the type of need the baby has. A bit of an imprecise indicator, maybe, but fun to start to think about.

This build’s success is mostly thanks to Pimoroni’s Rainbow HAT, which, conveniently, has three capacitive touch buttons to record the newborn’s need, four fourteen-segment displays to display the words “FOOD”, “POO”, and “LOVE” when a button is pressed, and seven multicoloured LEDs to indicate the ferociousness of the baby’s cry in glorious technicolour. With the addition of a microphone, the ‘Food, Poo, Love Machine’ was born. Here it is in action:

Food Poo Love – Raspberry Pi Baby Monitor Project

Food Poo Love – The Raspberry Pi baby monitor project that allows you to track data on your new born baby.

Automatic Baby mobile

Another project that I’ve not had time to hack on, but that I think would be really awesome, is to automate a baby cot mobile. Imagine this one moving to the Star Trek theme music:

Image courtesy of Gisele Blaker Designs (check out her cool shop!)

Pretty awesome.

If you’ve got any more ideas for baby projects, do let me know. I’ll have a few months of nothing to do… right?

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Matt’s steampunk radio jukebox

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/matts-steampunk-radio-jukebox/

Matt Van Gastel breathed new life into his great-grandparents’ 1930s Westinghouse with a Raspberry Pi, an amplifier HAT, Google Music, and some serious effort. The result is a really beautiful, striking piece.

Matt Van Gastel Steampunk Radio Raspberry Pi

The radio

With a background in radio electronics, Matt Van Gastel had always planned to restore his great-grandparents’ mid-30s Westinghouse radio. “I even found the original schematics glued to the bottom of the base of the main electronics assembly,” he explains in his Instructables walkthrough. However, considering the age of the piece and the cost of sourcing parts for a repair, he decided to take the project in a slightly different direction.



“I pulled the main electronics assembly out quite easily, it was held in by four flat head screws […] I decided to make a Steampunk themed Jukebox based off this main assembly and power it with a Raspberry Pi,” he writes.

The build

Matt added JustBoom’s Amp HAT to a Raspberry Pi 3 to boost the sound quality and functionality of the board.

He spent a weekend prototyping and testing the electronics before deciding on his final layout. After a little time playing around with different software, Matt chose Mopidy, a flexible music server written in Python. Mopidy lets him connect to his music-streaming service of choice, Google Music, and also allows airplay connectivity for other wireless devices.

Stripping out the old electronics from inside the Westinghouse radio easily made enough space for Matt’s new, much smaller, setup. Reserving various pieces for the final build, and scrubbing the entire unit to within an inch of its life with soap and water, he moved on to the aesthetics of the piece.

The steampunk

LED Nixie tubes, a 1950s DC voltmeter, and spray paint all contributed to the final look of the radio. It has a splendid steampunk look that works wonderfully with the vintage of the original radio.



Retrofit and steampunk Raspberry Pi builds

From old pub jukeboxes to Bakelite kitchen radios, we’ve seen lots of retrofit audio visual Pi projects over the years, with all kinds of functionality and in all sorts of styles.

Americana – does exactly what it says on the tin jukebox

For more steampunk inspiration, check out phrazelle’s laptop and Derek Woodroffe’s tentacle hat. And for more audiophile builds, Tijuana Rick’s 60s Wurlitzer and Steve Devlin’s 50s wallbox are stand-out examples.

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2017 Holiday Gift Guide — Backblaze Style

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/2017-holiday-gift-guide-backblaze-style/


Here at Backblaze we have a lot of folks who are all about technology. With the holiday season fast approaching, you might have all of your gift buying already finished — but if not, we put together a list of things that the employees here at Backblaze are pretty excited about giving (and/or receiving) this year.

Smart Homes:

It’s no secret that having a smart home is the new hotness, and many of the items below can be used to turbocharge your home’s ascent into the future:

Raspberry Pi
The holidays are all about eating pie — well why not get a pie of a different type for the DIY fan in your life!

Wyze Cam
An inexpensive way to keep a close eye on all your favorite people…and intruders!

Snooz
Have trouble falling asleep? Try this portable white noise machine. Also great for the office!

Amazon Echo Dot
Need a cheap way to keep track of your schedule or play music? The Echo Dot is a great entry into the smart home of your dreams!

Google Wifi
These little fellows make it easy to Wifi-ify your entire home, even if it’s larger than the average shoe box here in Silicon Valley. Google Wifi acts as a mesh router and seamlessly covers your whole dwelling. Have a mansion? Buy more!

Google Home
Like the Amazon Echo Dot, this is the Google variant. It’s more expensive (similar to the Amazon Echo) but has better sound quality and is tied into the Google ecosystem.

Nest Thermostat
This is a smart thermostat. What better way to score points with the in-laws than installing one of these bad boys in their home — and then making it freezing cold randomly in the middle of winter from the comfort of your couch!

Wearables:

Homes aren’t the only things that should be smart. Your body should also get the chance to be all that it can be:

Apple AirPods
You’ve seen these all over the place, and the truth is they do a pretty good job of making sounds appear in your ears.

Bose SoundLink Wireless Headphones
If you like over-the-ear headphones, these noise canceling ones work great, are wireless and lovely. There’s no better way to ignore people this holiday season!

Garmin Fenix 5 Watch
This watch is all about fitness. If you enjoy fitness. This watch is the fitness watch for your fitness needs.

Apple Watch
The Apple Watch is a wonderful gadget that will light up any movie theater this holiday season.

Nokia Steel Health Watch
If you’re into mixing analogue and digital, this is a pretty neat little gadget.

Fossil Smart Watch
This stylish watch is a pretty neat way to dip your toe into smartwatches and activity trackers.

Pebble Time Steel Smart Watch
Some people call this the greatest smartwatch of all time. Those people might be named Yev. This watch is great at sending you notifications from your phone, and not needing to be charged every day. Bellissimo!

Random Goods:

A few of the holiday gift suggestions that we got were a bit off-kilter, but we do have a lot of interesting folks in the office. Hopefully, you might find some of these as interesting as they do:

Wireless Qi Charger
Wireless chargers are pretty great in that you don’t have to deal with dongles. There are even kits to make your electronics “wirelessly chargeable” which is pretty great!

Self-Heating Coffee Mug
Love coffee? Hate lukewarm coffee? What if your coffee cup heated itself? Brilliant!

Yeast Stirrer
Yeast. It makes beer. And bread! Sometimes you need to stir it. What cooler way to stir your yeast than with this industrial stirrer?

Toto Washlet
This one is self explanatory. You know the old rhyme: happy butts, everyone’s happy!

Good luck out there this holiday season!

blog-giftguide-present

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