Tag Archives: Sponsored

Poster: Automotive Radio Frequencies

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/poster-automotive-radio-frequencies

automotive radio frequencies

Sign up and get a concise overview of the radio frequency bands and regulations in today’s and tomorrow’s cars for free Being able to manage the coexistence and interference of the various radio frequencies in an (electric) car is a major challenge for research, development and testing of in-car.

A 150kph Boat Powered by Wind Only

Post Syndicated from LEMO original https://spectrum.ieee.org/transportation/marine/a-150kph-boat-powered-by-wind-only

The sailing speed record has been held for 8 years. A team of students and young engineers is in the process of developing a kiteboat to smash this record in 2022. Projected speed: 80 knots. The story of an audacious project told by two of its co-founders.

At 3:30 a.m. on Lake Geneva last July, under clear skies the air is fairly warm. Along the shoreline, you can see the lights of the town of Morges.

On board small boats, protected from indiscreet eyes in the half-light of dawn, a dozen young people are intently watching the behaviour of a 4-m long shape, pulled by a zodiac inflatable boat, cutting smoothly through the dark water. The technical problems revealed during the first test, five nights earlier, have been corrected. This time, the zodiac can accelerate, the shape follows it obediently. Data collected by the sensors confirm the impressions: everything goes according to the simulations. 

This is excellent news for the three initiators of these night tests, Mayeul van den Broek, Xavier Lepercq and Benoît Gaudiot. Yet another step towards realizing their crazy dream – to beat the world sailing speed record. However, this will have to wait another two years if it all goes as planned. The sun is rising over the Mont-Blanc, unveiling its outline over the south shore of the lake: it is time to return the prototype discreetly into its shed.

Lepercq, van den Broek and Gaudiot were made to meet.

All three are French, sailing lovers and have decided to study engineering. Each of them has chosen the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), convinced by its naval competence.  The prestigious institute had been a partner to the Swiss syndicate Alinghi (winners of the Americas Cup in 2003 and 2007) and of the “Hydroptère” the first large “flying boat” (sailing speed record in 2009).

Lepercq was already working and van den Broek finishing his Master’s degree in 2017, when they met Gaudiot, a first-year student. Their complicity was immediate. In the newcomer’s notebook, there were even sketches of kiteboats quite similar to theirs. Moreover, their interests were complimentary: engineering, materials, mechanical design, fluid dynamics … and Gaudiot, as an ex-member of the French national kitesurf team and Under-18 sailing speed record man, could be the ideal test pilot. When chances are all on your side to form a “dream team”, you must seize the opportunity. The three men thus decided to work together on a kiteboat project to make their speed world record dream come true. Their eyes riveted on the current record, set in November 2012 on Namibian waters by Paul Larsen. The Australian, at the helm of Vestas Sailrocket 2, beat two confirmed world records: on 500m at the speed of 65.45 knots (121.06kmph) and on the nautical mile (1852m) with 59.37 knots (109.94kmph). A real sporting feat, given that until then the 50-knot barrier seemed impassable for a vessel without an engine.

Just like the sound barrier, this limit is also dictated by the laws of physics. “At such speed, water pressure on the keel or the fin drops so rapidly that water starts boiling at ambient temperature.” explains Mayeul van den Broek. “This change increases drag and makes navigation very unstable – further acceleration becomes impossible.”

This phenomenon is called cavitation. Its powerful effects can blow into pieces the steel blades of a hydroelectric turbine. Their “scorch marks” can also be seen on the fins of tuna fish or dolphins, having paid painfully for their bold desire for speed. 

“Paul Larsen used an innovative super-ventilating fin. This profile is used by hydroplanes, these engine-propelled boats flying at 350kmph, but was unprecedented in the world of sailing.” With its triangular shape and straight edges, this fin does not avoid cavitation, but manages to control the disturbing effect. “At high speed, the air bubbles remain stable”, explains Benoit Gaudiot, “there’s no more drag and so it is possible to continue accelerating.”

For the three friends, this is the key to Larsen’s record, rather than the asymmetrical design of Sailrocket 2 which had attracted full attention so far. They wanted to know for certain, so, in early 2018, they produce super-ventilating fins, in order to become familiar with the technology. They fitted them on a readily available support vessel that they knew well, a kitesurf. After three test runs on the Mediterranean, Gaudiot reached 41 knots (almost 80kmph). It is a proof of concept: combining a kitesurfing sail and a super-ventilating fin is the winning formula indeed.

However, 41 knots are not fast enough to benefit from the real potential of the super-ventilating fins: 50 knots should be the target speed. “We needed more power, so a larger kite” explains van den Broek. A kite that Gaudiot would not be able to hold with his arms. “This is when we came back to our idea of a boat.”

Between September 2018 and early 2019 the first concepts were drafted. Their sailing behaviour had to be simulated. As Velocity Prediction Programs (VPP) used by naval architects are too costly, LepercQ spent several months programming their own. As for van den Broek, with his Master’s degree in hand, he spends his time looking for sponsors and developing cooperation with the EPFL.

The VPP confirmed the design’s stability and the project’s feasibility. During the following months, the dream started taking shape. The EPFL recognized the project, gave access to its infrastructures and authorized students to participate in the project as part of their studies. In October, a student association was created, along with the SP80 company, the project owner. The project was officially launched and presented to the public. It was a success: the technical challenge was met, the exciting record-setting race and the spectacular kiteboat could be launched.

With its streamlined 7m hull, its closed cabin, its “wings” fitted with floats and a rear tailplane, the SP80 looks more like a jet than a boat.

Using composite materials, it weighs only 150kg when empty. At the end of a several-dozen-meter cable, a huge kite – sized between 20 to 50m2, depending on the needs. The power-to-weight ratio is absolutely amazing, “never reached before in the world of sailing!” highlights van den Broek.

It is so powerful, that the weight of the cabin does not even count in the equation. It doesn’t join the kite in the skies simply because its main hydrofoil is curved and “anchors” it into the water. These two opposing forces have also been used by Sailrocket 2. “This avoids capsizing: the stronger the kite pulls, the more the hydrofoil pulls to the opposite side.”  

This permanent balance, created passively, is ensured by what SP80 calls the propulsion module. “It is the heart of the boat’s power, the place where all the forces are centred. The main idea of our design is to separate the rear module pushing the boat, from the cockpit that ensures the pilot’s stability and security.”

The design of the propulsion module, both mobile and robust, has taken up most part of the design phase. “We found solutions that were stable at certain speeds, but not at others. We had to find the best compromise.” The module being the key element of the boat, SP80 keeps these details confidential.

The design of the kiteboat completed, now it had to be tested in real conditions to prove the VPP simulations. A 1:2-scale prototype was designed and assembled by the students. It was this prototype that the SP80 team took for night testing in early July on Lake Geneva. About ten similar sessions have taken place until October.

Every night, several series of tests are run, returned on land in between, for adjustment and modification. The Zodiac pulls the prototype with a mast, simulating the kite and its cable. On the prototype, an inertial system records speed and acceleration and sensors follow the rotation speed, which is all you need to be able to verify the boat’s behaviour. The sensors are connected by robust IP68 LEMO connectors (K and E series) to the navigation system, collecting the data. 

Early morning, the boat’s taken out of the water, dismounted and returned to the SP80 shed, the team analyses the videos and measurements. The aim is to make sure that no element of the boat is overcharged and no unnecessary force is generated. “For instance, that the immersed part of the rudder is not overloaded” explains Gaudiot, “since it is for the pilot to compensate, to be able to steer the boat.”

Lake Geneva does not offer optimal conditions (still waters, regular strong winds would be necessary to beat the record), but the tests are working out very well. As the design of the kiteboat is finally stabilised, SP80 has now started developing the ultimate boat. 

The construction of the boat is scheduled to start early 2021, to be launched at the end of 2021. The world record attempt is planned for 2022.

By a strange coincidence, this agenda corresponds exactly to the plans of Syroco. Co-founded by French kitesurf star Alex Caizergues (the first to exceed 100kmph in sailing), this startup is also working on a kiteboat designed for beating the record and exceeding the 80 knots. However, competition does not intimidate SP80. “ On the contrary”, say Gaudiot and van den Broek. “Why not organise a shared event? It would be a spectacular “first!”


The SP80 Kiteboat

In view of the target speed, the boat’s design is inspired more by motor-boats than by sailing boats. It weighs more, using materials and structures to withstand higher loads. Sailing speed record regulations (drafted when the record stood at only 26 knots!) require human presence, but do not specify anything with regard to the pilot’s security. The SP80 pilot will be protected like off-shore pilots: closed cabin, six-point harness seat belt, oxygen mask in case of capsizing.

  1. Cockpit

This is where the pilot is steering the boat and controls the kite. Since regulations forbid assisted steering, sensors and instruments only provide information to the pilot. They inform him for example if he must immediately drop the kite. 

  1. Hulls

Always on the water, they ensure lateral stability and buffer the impact of waves. They slow down the boat a little bit, but are necessary for the pilot’s comfort.

  1. Main hydrofoil

Strongly curved, it “anchors” the boat into the water by opposing its force to the force of the kite, preventing the boat from lateral drag. Its profile is super-ventilated, limiting disturbance from cavitation and enabling the boat to exceed 50 knots.

  1. Rudder

The boat’s rudder is in an unusually forward position. It also has a super-ventilated profile to control the effects of cavitation.

  1. Power management module

This is where the flying kite’s cables are attached and that all forces are concentrated. The articulated system ensures passively the balance of forces between kite and fins, conferring power and preventing capsizing.

  1. Kitesail

The prototypes are in the design process. As for kitesurf and paragliding, they should be made of fabric, possibly nylon. Among the available kites (between 20 and 50m2) the best adapted to wind conditions will be selected. This will also define the cable length (between 40 and 90m).

LENGTH :

7M

WEIGHT WHEN EMPTY :

150KG

MATERIAL :        

CARBON/EPOXY

TARGET SPEED :               

>80 KNOTS (APPROX. 150 KM/H)

KITE SURFACE:         

FROM 20 TO 50M2

CABLE LENGTH :              

FROM 40 TO 90M

Multiphysics Modeling of MEMS

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/multiphysics-modeling-of-mems

Veryst

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are fundamentally driven by multiphysics phenomena, and as such, they require a modeling approach where the relevant physical phenomena are included and coupled. Join James Ransley from Veryst Engineering for a demonstration of how to use multiphysics modeling for MEMS systems.

In the presentation, Ransley will discuss the tools required to model a wide range of sensors and transducers. Effects covered include electromechanical couplings, thin-film damping, thermoelastic damping, and anchor losses.

A live demo in the COMSOL Multiphysics® software will illustrate equation-based approaches to modeling a MEMS gyroscope. A Q&A session will conclude the webinar.


Presenters:

James Ransley

James Ransley, Veryst Engineering

Dr. Ransley began working on piezoelectric devices in 2008, when he joined the development team at Xaar, which was responsible for the pioneering Xaar 1001 commercial inkjet printhead. In 2010, he left Xaar to work for COMSOL, expanding his knowledge of modeling piezoelectrics as the technical product manager of the MEMS Module. Now, he shares that experience with a range of clients across multiple industries as a consultant with Veryst Engineering.

Yeswanth Rao

Yeswanth Rao, COMSOL

Yeswanth Rao is a senior applications engineer and has been with COMSOL since early 2008. He holds a PhD in biological engineering and a master’s degree in electrical engineering. His finite element background is in MEMS, particularly piezoelectric modeling.

Earn PDHs after completing the Webinar and an Evaluation Form! 

The IEEE Educational Activities department is now offering participants who have attended an IEEE Spectrum webinar the opportunity to earn PDH’s. To obtain a PDH certificate, please send an e-mail to [email protected] providing:

  1. Your full name
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Please Note: An evaluation form will be sent via e-mail to the provided e-mail address. Your certificate request will be completed within 5 business days.

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Get started with our IoTConnect® Platform today

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/get-started-with-our-iotconnect-platform-today

ON Semiconductor

Bringing an IoT-enabled product to market is no easy task. Fortunately, the balance of Avnet’s IoTConnect® Platform and ON Semiconductor’s RSL10 SiP serves as a bridge between your hardware and software IoT needs. Simplify the complexity of IoT and jump-start your development with Avnet’s IoTConnect® Platform.

Application Note – Advanced Time-Domain Measurements

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/application-note-advanced-timedomain-measurements

Advanced time-domain measurements

Detection of weak signals in the presence of strong disturbers is challenging and requires a high dynamic range. In this application note, we show how high-performance digitizers with built-in FPGA help overcome these challenges using real-time noise suppression techniques such as baseline stabilization, linear filtering, non-linear threshold, and waveform averaging.

Application Note – The Art of Pulse Detection

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/application-note-the-art-of-pulse-detection

Pulse detection

Accurate detection of time-domain pulses is a challenging task. There are many hurdles to overcome such as distorted pulse shapes, drifting baseline, and limited data transfer rate. High-performance digitizers with on-board digital signal processing help overcome these challenges. In this application note we explain how to effectively capture and analyze pulses.

Introduction to Novel R&S Approach for Jitter Decomposition

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/introduction-to-novel-rs-approach-for-jitter-decomposition

Jitter decomposition

In this webinar, we introduce a new approach for achieving consistent results with jitter decomposition and bit error rate (BER) estimation. With a reference to a detailed breakdown into components, you will learn a new signal model-based method that takes into an account all signal information etc.


Presenters:

Guido Schulze

GUIDO SCHULZE, Product Manager Oscilloscopes, Rohde & Schwarz

Guido Schulze has more than 20 years of experience in high-speed digital testing. For the last ten years, he has worked as a product manager for the oscilloscope product division at Rohde & Schwarz. He specializes in high-end models and their respective applications.

Jithu Abraham

JITHU ABRAHAM, Product Manager Oscilloscopes, Rohde & Schwarz

Jithu Abraham works for Rohde & Schwarz as a product manager for the UK, Ireland and the Benelux region, specializing in oscilloscopes. He enjoys all aspects of high-speed digital, wireless communication, efficient power conversion and all the challenges they bring. Jithu holds an engineering degree in electronics and communication from the Anna University in India and a master’s degree in RF systems from the University of Southampton. He has been working for Rohde & Schwarz for over 12 years


The content of this webcast is provided by the sponsor and may contain a commercial message

Test and measurement solutions & how to control test equipment remotely, while respecting social-distancing.

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/test-and-measurement-solutions-how-to-control-test-equipment-remotely-while-respecting-socialdistancing

Introducing social distancing

The impact of COVID-19 has disrupted the global satellite production in an unprecedented way.

Many of the satellite industry manufacturing processes came to a halt, when staff lockdowns and social distancing measures had to be employed. Recovery is slowly underway but the effect of the impact is far from over.

The industry is now looking for new ways of making their satellite production more resilient towards the effects of the pandemic. Especially in the test and measurement domain, new technologies and solutions offer manufacturers the opportunity to remain productive and operational, while respecting social-distancing measures.

Much of the equipment used to test satellite electronics can be operated remotely and test procedures can be created, automated and controlled by the same engineers from their homes.

This webinar provides an overview on related test and measurement solutions from Rohde & Schwarz and explains how engineers can control test equipment remotely to continue producing, while respecting social-distancing.

In this webinar you will learn:

The interfaces/standards used to command test equipment remotely
How to maintain production while using social-distanced testing
Solutions from Rohde & Schwarz for cloud-based testing and cybersecurity

Presenters:

Sascha Laumann

Sascha Laumann, Product Manager, Rohde & Schwarz

Sascha Laumann is a product owner for digital products at Rohde & Schwarz. His main activities are definition, development and marketing of test and measurement products that address future challenges of the ever-changing market. Sascha is an alumni of the Technical University of Munich, having majored in EE with a special focus on efficient data acquisition, transfer and processing. His previous professional background comprises of developing solutions for aerospace testing applications.

Rajan Bedi

Dr. Rajan Bedi, CEO & Founder, Spacechips

Dr. Rajan Bedi is the CEO and founder of Spacechips, a UK SME disrupting the global space industry with its award-winning on-board processing and transponder products, space-electronics design-consultancy, technical-marketing and training and business-intelligence services. Spacechips won Start- Dr. Rajan Bedi has previously taught at Oxford University, was featured in Who’s Who in the World and is a winner of a Royal Society fellowship and a highly sought keynote speaker.


The content of this webcast is provided by the sponsor and may contain a commercial message

High Strength, NASA Low Outgassing Approved Epoxy

Post Syndicated from MasterBond original https://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/materials/high-strength-nasa-low-outgassing-approved-epoxy

High Strength, Toughened Epoxy System Tested in Case Studies

Master Bond Supreme 10HT has demonstrated superior strength when used to bond surfaces under challenging conditions. It is a toughened system that is cryogenically serviceable from 4K to 400°F. It withstands mechanical and thermal shocks, meets NASA low outgassing specifications, and withstands 1,000 hours at 85°C/85% RH, with a Shore D hardness of 80. It has outstanding physical strength properties with tensile shear strengths exceeding 3,600 psi and T-peel strengths up to 30 pli. Because of its outstanding strength and other physical properties, Master Bond Supreme 10HT has been selected for use in several published research studies. Following are summaries of how Supreme 10HT performed in demanding applications outlined in these studies.

Adhesive for Electronic Control Components

The first case study involves an application for electronic control components, which perform logical and signal conditioning functions. A study conducted at L’École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, investigated alternative materials for use in high temperature control electronics packaging. Among the materials tested, were adhesives used for die-to-substrate assembly. Supreme 10HT was tested in this regard. Requirements for the die-to-substrate bond included reasonable bond strength and a suitable path for thermal dissipation. High temperature, and temperature cycling tests were conducted.

Adhesive for Capacitor Tank

The second case study involved an application for capacitor tanks. Capacitor tanks are commonly used in electrical power distribution systems to help maintain consistent line voltage levels. Because capacitor tanks– and in turn, the sealed joints between the capacitor bushings and metallic components– are commonly found at the top of utility poles and in electrical substations throughout the world, they are exposed to a myriad of environmental conditions Furthermore, these joints must be capable of maintaining such high performance over a period of approximately 30 years. Researchers at Cooper Technologies Company in Houston, Texas, ran performance tests on over a dozen commercially available epoxy resin products in an effort to identify compositions that may be used to seal capacitor tanks. Sup 10HT was one of over a dozen epoxies tested, and was one of four that exhibited sufficient strength for the application.

Aircraft Adhesive

Yet another application involved an adhesive joint for a supersonic aircraft. Supersonic aircrafts are subjected to temperatures as low as -55°C when traveling at subsonic speeds at high altitudes and temperatures of approximately 200°C when traveling at or above Mach 2. A research team from the University of Porto (Portugal) and the University of Bristol (UK) set out to investigate the possibility of designing a mixed-adhesive joint consisting of both a low-temperature adhesive and a high-temperature adhesive that would support the required load across the entire temperature range. Master Bond Supreme 10HT was one of two low-temperature adhesives selected for the study. The researchers stipulated that the low-temperature adhesive should be ductile, stiff, and strong from -55°C to 100°C or higher in order to support the load throughout this temperature range. Additionally, the low-temperature adhesive should not degrade at temperatures above 100°C, where the high-temperature adhesive carries the load.

Download the complete case studies and learn how this epoxy might benefit your application.

The latest and best engineering books for 2021 are here

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/the-latest-and-best-engineering-books-for-2021-are-here

Artech House

A leading technical book publisher, Artech House provides engineers, researchers, and students with resources to advance knowledge, grow careers, and develop companies. From antennas, RF/microwave design, communications, and radar, to GPS/GNSS, power engineering, information warfare, computer security, IoT and more, Artech House publishes forward-looking titles engineers need to excel.

Coming in 2021!

  • EW 105: Space Electronic Warfare by David L. Adamy
  • Bogatin’s Practical Guide to PCB Design for New Product Development by Eric Bogatin
  • Electrical Compliance and Safety Engineering – Volume 2 by Steli Loznen and Constantin Bolintineanu

Find the book you need to solve the toughest engineering problems:

U.S., Canada, South America and Australia Customers
U.K., Europe, Asia, Africa and Middle East Customers

Our entire eBook collection is also available on IEEE Xplore.

White paper on flame retardant epoxies and silicones

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/white-paper-on-flame-retardant-epoxies-and-silicones

Flame retardant epoxies

Epoxies and silicones used in aircraft applications must maintain their primary role as adhesives or coatings while exhibiting resistance to heat and flame in accordance with government and industry specifications. Master Bond’s flame-retardant systems comply with specifications for flame resistance and reduction of smoke density and toxic emissions.

Shining a HOT light on optomechanics

Post Syndicated from Paul Seidler original https://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/optoelectronics/shining-a-hot-light-on-optomechanics

We all use micromechanical devices in our daily lives, although we may be less aware of them than electronic and optical technologies. Micromechanical sensors, for example, detect the motion of our smartphones and cars, allowing us to play the latest games and drive safely, and mechanical resonators serve as filters to extract the relevant cellular network signal from the broadband radio waves caught by a mobile phone’s antenna. For applications such as these, micromechanical devices are integrated with their control and readout electronics in what are known as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Decades of research and development have turned MEMS into a mature technology, with a global market approaching one hundred billion US dollars.

In recent years, a community of researchers from various universities and institutes across Europe and the United States set out to explore the physics of micro- and nano-mechanical devices coupled to light. The initial focus of these investigations was on demonstrating and exploiting uniquely quantum effects in the interaction of light and mechanical motion, such as quantum superposition, where a mechanical oscillator occupies two places simultaneously. The scope of this work quickly broadened as it became clear that these so-called optomechanical devices would open the door to a broad range of new applications.

Hybrid Optomechanical Technologies (HOT) is a research and innovation action funded by the European Commission’s FET Proactive program that supports future and emerging technologies at an early stage. HOT is laying the foundation for a new generation of devices that bring together several nanoscale platforms in a single hybrid system. It unites researchers from thirteen leading academic groups and four major industrial companies across Europe working to bring technologies to market that exploit the combination of light and motion.

One key set of advances made in the HOT consortium involves a family of non-reciprocal optomechanical devices , including optomechanical circulators. Imagine a device that acts like a roundabout for light or microwaves , where a signal input from one port emerges from a second port, and a signal input from that second port emerges from a third one, and so on. Such a device is critical to signal processing chains in radiofrequency or optical systems, as it allows efficient distribution of information among sources and receivers and protection of fragile light sources from unwanted back-reflections. It has however proven very tricky to implement a circulator at small scales without involving strong magnetic fields to facilitate the required unidirectional flow of signals.

Introducing a mechanical component makes it possible to overcome this limitation. Motion induced by optical forces causes light to flow in one direction through the roundabout. The resulting devices are more compact, do not require strong permanent magnets, and are therefore more amenable to large-scale device integration.

HOT researchers have also created mechanical systems that are simultaneously coupled to an electric and an optical resonator. These quintessentially hybrid devices interconvert electronic and optical signals via a mechanical intermediary, and they do so with very low added noise, high quantum efficiency, and a compact footprint. This makes them interesting for applications that benefit from the advantages of analog signal transmission over optical fibers instead of copper cables, such as those requiring high bandwidth, low loss, low crosstalk, and immunity to harsh environmental conditions.

An example of such a device is a receiver for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, as used in hospitals for three-dimensional imaging inside the human body. In MRI, tiny electronic signals are collected from several sensors on a patient inside the scanner. The signals need to be extracted from the scanner in the presence of large magnetic fields of several tesla, with the lowest possible distortion, to form high-resolution images. Conversion to the optical domain provides a means of protecting the signal. A prototype of a MRI sensor that uses optical readout has been developed by HOT researchers.

Another application of simultaneous optical and electronic control over mechanical resonators is the realization of very stable oscillators. These can function as on-chip clocks and microwave sources with ultrahigh purity. HOT researchers filed a patent application that shows how to stabilize nanoscale mechanical resonators that naturally oscillate at gigahertz frequencies driven by optical and electric fields. Combining all components on a single chip makes such devices extremely compact.

A somewhat more exotic application of hybrid transducers, but one with potentially far-reaching implications, is the interconnection of quantum computers. Quantum computers hold the promise of tackling computational problems that our current classical computers will never be able to solve. The leading contender as the platform for future quantum computers encodes information in microwave photons confined in superconducting circuits to form qubits. Unlike the bits used in conventional computers that take on values of either 0 or 1, qubits can exist in states representing both 0 and 1 simultaneously. The qubits however are bound to the ultracold environment of a dilution refrigerator to prevent thermal noise from destroying their fragile quantum states. Transferring quantum information to and from computing nodes, even within a quantum data center, will require conversion of the stationary superconducting qubits to so-called flying qubits that can be transmitted between separate locations. Optical photons represent a particularly attractive option for flying qubits, as they are robust at room temperature and thus provide one of the few practical means of transmitting quantum states over distances greater than a few meters. In fact, the transfer of quantum information encoded in optical photons is now routinely achieved over distances of hundreds of kilometers.

A key prerequisite for quantum networking is therefore quantum-coherent bidirectional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies. To date, no experimental demonstration exists of efficient transduction at the level of individual quantum states. However, many research groups around the world are diligently pursuing various possible solutions. The approaches that have come the closest so far utilize a mechanical system as an intermediary, and this is where the technologies pursued by the HOT consortium come into play.

HOT researchers have created compact chip-scale devices on commercially available silicon wafers that are fully compatible with both silicon photonics and superconducting qubit technology. The unique optomechanical designs developed by the HOT consortium exploit strong optical field confinement, producing large optomechanical coupling. As a  result, electrical signals at the gigahertz frequencies typical of superconducting qubits can be coherently converted to optical frequencies commonly used for telecommunication. Such integrated photonic devices employing optomechanical coupling are often plagued by the deleterious effects of heating due to absorption of high-intensity light. The thermal problems can be circumvented by optimizing the device design and using alternative dielectric materials, and internal efficiencies exceeding unity have been achieved for ultra-low optical pump powers.

With the capabilities provided by such transducers, the power of quantum information processing could be brought to a whole new class of tasks, such as secure data sharing, in addition to creating networks of quantum devices.

As hybrid optomechanical systems enter the quantum regime , new challenges emerge. One particularly important consideration is that the very act of measuring the state of a system must be rethought. Contrary to our everyday experience, quantum mechanics requires that any measurement exerts some inevitable backaction onto the system being measured. This often has adverse effects; the response of an optomechanical sensor to a signal of interest, for example, can be washed out by the backaction caused by reading out the sensor. Luckily, these effects are well understood today, and can be corrected for using advanced quantum measurement and control techniques.

HOT researchers have pioneered the application of such techniques to mechanical sensors. They have shown how quantum state estimation and feedback can help overcome the measurement challenges. The classical counterparts of these approaches are widely used in many areas of engineering and are familiar to consumers in such products as noise-cancelling headphones. 

In the setting of optomechanics, they have been used to measure and control the quantum state of motion of a mechanical sensor. For example, HOT researchers have managed to limit the random thermal fluctuations of a vibrating drum to the minimal level allowed by quantum mechanics. This provides an excellent starting point to detect even the smallest forces exerte by other quantum systems like a single electron or photon.

With its focus on real-world technologies, the HOT consortium also considers such practical matters as device packaging and large-scale fabrication. Optomechanical devices require electronic and optical connectivity in a package that also keeps the mechanical element under vacuum. Whereas such demands have been met separately before, consortium member and industry giant STMicroelectronics is addressing their combination in a single device package as well as the potential for mass production.
 

This project is financed by the European Commission through its Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 732894 (FET-Proactive HOT).

For more information about Hybrid Optomechanical Technologies, visit our website , like our Facebook page , and follow our Twitter stream. You can watch our videos on YouTube , including an explanation of the optical circulator built by the network and how to silence a quantum drum.

Get a method to separate common-mode and differential-mode separation using two oscilloscope channels.

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/get-a-method-to-separate-commonmode-and-differentialmode-separation-using-two-oscilloscope-channels

oscilloscope channels


Learn how to distinguish between common-mode (CM) and differential-mode (DM) noise. This additional information about the dominant mode provides the capability to optimize input filters very efficiently.

Designing PCBs 5x Faster Despite the Pandemic

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/designing-pcbs-5x-faster-despite-the-pandemic

Designing PCBs faster

Join our webinar on January 20th, to learn how Kinetic Vision uses Altium’s platform to enable a connected and frictionless PCB design experience, increasing their productivity x5 even in the midst of Covid.

For over 30 years, Kinetic Vision has provided technology solutions to over 50 of the top Fortune 500 companies in the world. Hear about how their embedded development team needed a better design and collaboration solution to satisfy the increasing needs of their demanding clients and how Altium helped solve their toughest issues.

Altium Designer is their tool of choice when it comes to designing PCBs, as it provides the most connected PCB design experience – removing the common points of friction that occur throughout a typical design flow. With the Covid situation, using Altium’s platform became even more essential as it enabled seamless remote working and has actually increased their levels of productivity to 5 times their pre-Covid rate.

Join Jeremy Jarrett, Executive Vice President at Kinetic Vision and Michael Weston, Team Lead Engineer at Kinetic Vision as we discuss what exactly sets Altium apart from the rest of the PCB design solutions out there today – and why it is an essential tool in order to stay ahead of the game.

Register today!
January 20th | 10:00 AM PST | 1:00 PM EST

Virtual event: How AWS Marketplace innovators enhance security for a remote workforce

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/virtual-event-how-aws-marketplace-innovators-enhance-security-for-a-remote-workforce

Enhance security

Dispersed workforces require changes in security parameters and requirements for connecting business-critical resources. In this virtual event, remote workforce security thought leaders, strategists, and technologists will discuss key innovations enabling AWS customers to transform their security for a remote and hybrid workforce.

Over-the-Air (OTA) Testing – important antenna parameters, test system setup and calibration

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/overtheair-ota-testing-important-antenna-parameters-test-system-setup-and-calibration

OTA testing

Future technologies and standards will make over-the-air (OTA) testing mandatory. At the same time, integrated antennas are becoming more common with each development cycle such as for low-cost IoT devices and 5G mmWave devices.

Since measurement requirements will change with OTA testing, engineers need a basic understanding of antennas and antenna measurements.

This paper provides you with extensive knowledge on the following:

  • Antennas in general, their parameters and different types, as well as antenna characterization and testing
  • The importance and execution of OTA test setup calibration
  • General concepts that are valid for any OTA test setup, e.g. in-chamber or lab-bench setups
  • Calibration verification
  • Array antenna calibration methodologies

Full-Wave EM Simulations: Electrically Large Antenna Placement and RCS Scenarios

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/fullwave-em-simulations-electrically-large-antenna-placement-and-rcs-scenarios

Handling various complex simulation scenarios with a single simulation method is a rather challenging task for any software suite.

We will show you how our software, based on Method-of-Moments, can analyze several scenarios including complicated and electrically large models (for instance, antenna placement and RCS) using desktop workstations. 

Systematic Cybersecurity Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/webinar/systematic-cybersecurity-threat-analysis-and-risk-assessment

Cybersecurity

The digital revolution has given transportation companies and consumers a host of new features and benefits, introducing significant complexities in concert with unprecedented connectivity that leaves vehicles vulnerable to cyberattack. To safeguard these systems, engineers must consider a dizzying array of components and interconnected systems to identify any vulnerabilities. Traditional workflows and outdated tools will not be enough to ensure products meet the upcoming ISO 21434 and other applicable cybersecurity standards. Achieving a high level of cybersecurity to protect supply chains and personal vehicles requires high-quality threat analysis.

Ansys medini for Cybersecurity helps secure in-vehicle systems and substantially improves time to market for critical security-related functions. Addressing the increasing market needs for systematic analysis and assessment of security threats to cyber-physical systems, medini for Cybersecurity starts early in the system design. Armed with this proven tool, engineers will replace outdated processes reliant on error-prone human analysis.

In this webinar, we dynamically demonstrate how systematic cybersecurity analysis enables engineers to mitigate vulnerabilities to hacking and cyberattacks.

  • Learn how to identify assets in the system and their important security attributes.
  • Discover new methods for systematically identifying system vulnerabilities that can be exploited to execute attacks.
  • Understand the consequences of a potentially successful attack.
  • Receive expert tips on how to estimate the potential of an attack.
  • Learn how to associate a risk with each threat.
  • Leverage new tools for avoiding overengineering and underestimation.

Presenter

Mario Winkler

Mario Winkler, Lead Product Manager

After finishing his studies in Computer Science at the Humboldt University Berlin and after working for the Fraunhofer Research Institute Mario joined the medini team in 2001. During the past 15 years he gained expertise in functional safety expecially in the automotive domain by helping various customers, OEMs and suppliers, to apply medini analyze to their functional safety process according to ISO26262. With the extended focus of medini to Cybersecurity Mario took on the role of a Product Manager to drive the development of medini analyze in this direction.

Adhesives can be effective to handle variations in thermal expansion

Post Syndicated from IEEE Spectrum Recent Content full text original https://spectrum.ieee.org/whitepaper/adhesives-can-be-effective-to-handle-variations-in-thermal-expansion

Forming reliable bonds between different materials can be challenging because there can be large variations in CTE’s (coefficients of thermal expansion). Adhesive compounds play a critical role in the fabrication of assemblies for electronic, optical and mechanical systems. Learn more about CTE’s in this paper.

Download now to learn more.