Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/06/damaging_hard_d.html
Playing a sound over the speakers can cause computers to crash and possibly even physically damage the hard drive.
Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/06/damaging_hard_d.html
Playing a sound over the speakers can cause computers to crash and possibly even physically damage the hard drive.
Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/welcome-jack-data-center-tech/
As we shoot way past 500 petabytes of data stored, we need a lot of helping hands in the data center to keep those hard drives spinning! We’ve been hiring quite a lot, and our latest addition is Jack. Lets learn a bit more about him, shall we?
What is your Backblaze Title?
Data Center Tech
Where are you originally from?
Walnut Creek, CA until 7th grade when the family moved to Durango, Colorado.
What attracted you to Backblaze?
I had heard about how cool the Backblaze community is and have always been fascinated by technology.
What do you expect to learn while being at Backblaze?
I expect to learn a lot about how our data centers run and all of the hardware behind it.
Where else have you worked?
Garrhs HVAC as an HVAC Installer and then Durango Electrical as a Low Volt Technician.
Where did you go to school?
Durango High School and then Montana State University.
What’s your dream job?
I would love to be a driver for the Audi Sport. Race cars are so much fun!
Favorite place you’ve traveled?
Iceland has definitely been my favorite so far.
Of what achievement are you most proud?
Getting my Eagle Scout badge was a tough, but rewarding experience that I will always cherish.
Star Trek or Star Wars?
Coke or Pepsi?
Coke…I know, it’s bad.
Why do you like certain things?
I tend to warm up to things the more time I spend around them, although I never really know until it happens.
Anything else you’d like to tell us?
I’m a friendly car guy who will always be in love with my European cars and I really enjoy the Backblaze community!
We’re happy you joined us Out West! Welcome aboard Jack!
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backing-up-your-cryptocurrency/
In our blog post on Tuesday, Cryptocurrency Security Challenges, we wrote about the two primary challenges faced by anyone interested in safely and profitably participating in the cryptocurrency economy: 1) make sure you’re dealing with reputable and ethical companies and services, and, 2) keep your cryptocurrency holdings safe and secure.
In this post, we’re going to focus on how to make sure you don’t lose any of your cryptocurrency holdings through accident, theft, or carelessness. You do that by backing up the keys needed to sell or trade your currencies.
Of the 16.4 million bitcoins said to be in circulation in the middle of 2017, close to 3.8 million may have been lost because their owners no longer are able to claim their holdings. Based on today’s valuation, that could total as much as $34 billion dollars in lost value. And that’s just bitcoins. There are now over 1,500 different cryptocurrencies, and we don’t know how many of those have been misplaced or lost.
Now that some cryptocurrencies have reached (at least for now) staggering heights in value, it’s likely that owners will be more careful in keeping track of the keys needed to use their cryptocurrencies. For the ones already lost, however, the owners have been separated from their currencies just as surely as if they had thrown Benjamin Franklins and Grover Clevelands over the railing of a ship.
In our previous post, we reviewed how cryptocurrency keys work, and the common ways owners can keep track of them. A cryptocurrency owner needs two keys to use their currencies: a public key that can be shared with others is used to receive currency, and a private key that must be kept secure is used to spend or trade currency.
Many wallets and applications allow the user to require extra security to access them, such as a password, or iris, face, or thumb print scan. If one of these options is available in your wallets, take advantage of it. Beyond that, it’s essential to back up your wallet, either using the backup feature built into some applications and wallets, or manually backing up the data used by the wallet. When backing up, it’s a good idea to back up the entire wallet, as some wallets require additional private data to operate that might not be apparent.
No matter which backup method you use, it is important to back up often and have multiple backups, preferable in different locations. As with any valuable data, a 3-2-1 backup strategy is good to follow, which ensures that you’ll have a good backup copy if anything goes wrong with one or more copies of your data.
One more caveat, don’t reuse passwords. This applies to all of your accounts, but is especially important for something as critical as your finances. Don’t ever use the same password for more than one account. If security is breached on one of your accounts, someone could connect your name or ID with other accounts, and will attempt to use the password there, as well. Consider using a password manager such as LastPass or 1Password, which make creating and using complex and unique passwords easy no matter where you’re trying to sign in.
There are numerous ways to be sure your keys are backed up. Let’s take them one by one.
1. Automatic backups using a backup program
If you’re using a wallet program on your computer, for example, Bitcoin Core, it will store your keys, along with other information, in a file. For Bitcoin Core, that file is wallet.dat. Other currencies will use the same or a different file name and some give you the option to select a name for the wallet file.
To back up the wallet.dat or other wallet file, you might need to tell your backup program to explicitly back up that file. Users of Backblaze Backup don’t have to worry about configuring this, since by default, Backblaze Backup will back up all data files. You should determine where your particular cryptocurrency, wallet, or application stores your keys, and make sure the necessary file(s) are backed up if your backup program requires you to select which files are included in the backup.
Backblaze B2 is an option for those interested in low-cost and high security cloud storage of their cryptocurrency keys. Backblaze B2 supports 2-factor verification for account access, works with a number of apps that support automatic backups with encryption, error-recovery, and versioning, and offers an API and command-line interface (CLI), as well. The first 10GB of storage is free, which could be all one needs to store encrypted cryptocurrency keys.
2. Backing up by exporting keys to a file
Apps and wallets will let you export your keys from your app or wallet to a file. Once exported, your keys can be stored on a local drive, USB thumb drive, DAS, NAS, or in the cloud with any cloud storage or sync service you wish. Encrypting the file is strongly encouraged — more on that later. If you use 1Password or LastPass, or other secure notes program, you also could store your keys there.
3. Backing up by saving a mnemonic recovery seed
A mnemonic phrase, mnemonic recovery phrase, or mnemonic seed is a list of words that stores all the information needed to recover a cryptocurrency wallet. Many wallets will have the option to generate a mnemonic backup phrase, which can be written down on paper. If the user’s computer no longer works or their hard drive becomes corrupted, they can download the same wallet software again and use the mnemonic recovery phrase to restore their keys.
The phrase can be used by anyone to recover the keys, so it must be kept safe. Mnemonic phrases are an excellent way of backing up and storing cryptocurrency and so they are used by almost all wallets.
A mnemonic recovery seed is represented by a group of easy to remember words. For example:
eye female unfair moon genius pipe nuclear width dizzy forum cricket know expire purse laptop scale identify cube pause crucial day cigar noise receive
The above words represent the following seed:
0a5b25e1dab6039d22cd57469744499863962daba9d2844243fec 9c0313c1448d1a0b2cd9e230a78775556f9b514a8be45802c2808e fd449a20234e9262dfa69
These words have certain properties:
Bitcoin and most other cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, Ethereum, and others use mnemonic seeds that are 12 to 24 words long. Other currencies might use different length seeds.
4. Physical backups — Paper, Metal
Some cryptocurrency holders believe that their backup, or even all their cryptocurrency account information, should be stored entirely separately from the internet to avoid any risk of their information being compromised through hacks, exploits, or leaks. This type of storage is called “cold storage.” One method of cold storage involves printing out the keys to a piece of paper and then erasing any record of the keys from all computer systems. The keys can be entered into a program from the paper when needed, or scanned from a QR code printed on the paper.
Printed public and private keys
Some who go to extremes suggest separating the mnemonic needed to access an account into individual pieces of paper and storing those pieces in different locations in the home or office, or even different geographical locations. Some say this is a bad idea since it could be possible to reconstruct the mnemonic from one or more pieces. How diligent you wish to be in protecting these codes is up to you.
Mnemonic recovery phrase booklet
There’s another option that could make you the envy of your friends. That’s the CryptoSteel wallet, which is a stainless steel metal case that comes with more than 250 stainless steel letter tiles engraved on each side. Codes and passwords are assembled manually from the supplied part-randomized set of tiles. Users are able to store up to 96 characters worth of confidential information. Cryptosteel claims to be fireproof, waterproof, and shock-proof.
Cryptosteel cold wallet
Of course, if you leave your Cryptosteel wallet in the pocket of a pair of ripped jeans that gets thrown out by the housekeeper, as happened to the character Russ Hanneman on the TV show Silicon Valley in last Sunday’s episode, then you’re out of luck. That fictional billionaire investor lost a USB drive with $300 million in cryptocoins. Let’s hope that doesn’t happen to you.
Whether you store your keys on your computer, an external disk, a USB drive, DAS, NAS, or in the cloud, you want to make sure that no one else can use those keys. The best way to handle that is to encrypt the backup.
With Backblaze Backup for Windows and Macintosh, your backups are encrypted in transmission to the cloud and on the backup server. Users have the option to add an additional level of security by adding a Personal Encryption Key (PEK), which secures their private key. Your cryptocurrency backup files are secure in the cloud. Using our web or mobile interface, previous versions of files can be accessed, as well.
Our object storage cloud offering, Backblaze B2, can be used with a variety of applications for Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. With B2, cryptocurrency users can choose whichever method of encryption they wish to use on their local computers and then upload their encrypted currency keys to the cloud. Depending on the client used, versioning and life-cycle rules can be applied to the stored files.
Other backup programs and systems provide some or all of these capabilities, as well. If you are backing up to a local drive, it is a good idea to encrypt the local backup, which is an option in some backup programs.
Some experts recommend using a different address for each cryptocurrency transaction. Since the address is not the same as your wallet, this means that you are not creating a new wallet, but simply using a new identifier for people sending you cryptocurrency. Creating a new address is usually as easy as clicking a button in the wallet.
One of the chief advantages of using a different address for each transaction is anonymity. Each time you use an address, you put more information into the public ledger (blockchain) about where the currency came from or where it went. That means that over time, using the same address repeatedly could mean that someone could map your relationships, transactions, and incoming funds. The more you use that address, the more information someone can learn about you. For more on this topic, refer to Address reuse.
Note that a downside of using a paper wallet with a single key pair (type-0 non-deterministic wallet) is that it has the vulnerabilities listed above. Each transaction using that paper wallet will add to the public record of transactions associated with that address. Newer wallets, i.e. “deterministic” or those using mnemonic code words support multiple addresses and are now recommended.
There are other approaches to keeping your cryptocurrency transaction secure. Here are a couple of them.
Multi-signature refers to requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction, much like requiring more than one key to open a safe. It is generally used to divide up responsibility for possession of cryptocurrency. Standard transactions could be called “single-signature transactions” because transfers require only one signature — from the owner of the private key associated with the currency address (public key). Some wallets and apps can be configured to require more than one signature, which means that a group of people, businesses, or other entities all must agree to trade in the cryptocurrencies.
Deep Cold Storage
Deep cold storage ensures the entire transaction process happens in an offline environment. There are typically three elements to deep cold storage.
First, the wallet and private key are generated offline, and the signing of transactions happens on a system not connected to the internet in any manner. This ensures it’s never exposed to a potentially compromised system or connection.
Second, details are secured with encryption to ensure that even if the wallet file ends up in the wrong hands, the information is protected.
Third, storage of the encrypted wallet file or paper wallet is generally at a location or facility that has restricted access, such as a safety deposit box at a bank.
Deep cold storage is used to safeguard a large individual cryptocurrency portfolio held for the long term, or for trustees holding cryptocurrency on behalf of others, and is possibly the safest method to ensure a crypto investment remains secure.
You should always make sure that you are using the latest version of your app or wallet software, which includes important stability and security fixes. Installing updates for all other software on your computer or mobile device is also important to keep your wallet environment safer.
Your cryptocurrency funds can be lost forever if you don’t have a backup plan for your peers and family. If the location of your wallets or your passwords is not known by anyone when you are gone, there is no hope that your funds will ever be recovered. Taking a bit of time on these matters can make a huge difference.
Are you comfortable with how you’re managing and backing up your cryptocurrency wallets and keys? Do you have a suggestion for keeping your cryptocurrencies safe that we missed above? Please let us know in the comments.
*To the Moon — Crypto slang for a currency that reaches an optimistic price projection.
Post Syndicated from Andy Klein original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/helium-filled-hard-drive-failure-rates/
In November 2013, the first commercially available helium-filled hard drive was introduced by HGST, a Western Digital subsidiary. The 6 TB drive was not only unique in being helium-filled, it was for the moment, the highest capacity hard drive available. Fast forward a little over 4 years later and 12 TB helium-filled drives are readily available, 14 TB drives can be found, and 16 TB helium-filled drives are arriving soon.
Backblaze has been purchasing and deploying helium-filled hard drives over the past year and we thought it was time to start looking at their failure rates compared to traditional air-filled drives. This post will provide an overview, then we’ll continue the comparison on a regular basis over the coming months.
We all know that helium is lighter than air — that’s why helium-filled balloons float. Inside of an air-filled hard drive there are rapidly spinning disk platters that rotate at a given speed, 7200 rpm for example. The air inside adds an appreciable amount of drag on the platters that in turn requires an appreciable amount of additional energy to spin the platters. Replacing the air inside of a hard drive with helium reduces the amount of drag, thereby reducing the amount of energy needed to spin the platters, typically by 20%.
We also know that after a few days, a helium-filled balloon sinks to the ground. This was one of the key challenges in using helium inside of a hard drive: helium escapes from most containers, even if they are well sealed. It took years for hard drive manufacturers to create containers that could contain helium while still functioning as a hard drive. This container innovation allows helium-filled drives to function at spec over the course of their lifetime.
Three years ago, we identified SMART 22 as the attribute assigned to recording the status of helium inside of a hard drive. We have both HGST and Seagate helium-filled hard drives, but only the HGST drives currently report the SMART 22 attribute. It appears the normalized and raw values for SMART 22 currently report the same value, which starts at 100 and goes down.
To date only one HGST drive has reported a value of less than 100, with multiple readings between 94 and 99. That drive continues to perform fine, with no other errors or any correlating changes in temperature, so we are not sure whether the change in value is trying to tell us something or if it is just a wonky sensor.
There are several different ways to compare these two types of drives. Below we decided to use just our 8, 10, and 12 TB drives in the comparison. We did this since we have helium-filled drives in those sizes. We left out of the comparison all of the drives that are 6 TB and smaller as none of the drive models we use are helium-filled. We are open to trying different comparisons. This just seemed to be the best place to start.
The most obvious observation is that there seems to be little difference in the Annualized Failure Rate (AFR) based on whether they contain helium or air. One conclusion, given this evidence, is that helium doesn’t affect the AFR of hard drives versus air-filled drives. My prediction is that the helium drives will eventually prove to have a lower AFR. Why? Drive Days.
Let’s go back in time to Q1 2017 when the air-filled drives listed in the table above had a similar number of Drive Days to the current number of Drive Days for the helium drives. We find that the failure rate for the air-filled drives at the time (Q1 2017) was 1.61%. In other words, when the drives were in use a similar number of hours, the helium drives had a failure rate of 1.06% while the failure rate of the air-filled drives was 1.61%.
My hypothesis is that after normalizing the data so that the helium and air-filled drives have the same (or similar) usage (Drive Days), the helium-filled drives we use will continue to have a lower Annualized Failure Rate versus the air-filled drives we use. I expect this trend to continue for the next year at least. What side do you come down on? Will the Annualized Failure Rate for helium-filled drives be better than air-filled drives or vice-versa? Or do you think the two technologies will be eventually produce the same AFR over time? Pick a side and we’ll document the results over the next year and see where the data takes us.
Post Syndicated from Andy Klein original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-stats-for-q1-2018/
As of March 31, 2018 we had 100,110 spinning hard drives. Of that number, there were 1,922 boot drives and 98,188 data drives. This review looks at the quarterly and lifetime statistics for the data drive models in operation in our data centers. We’ll also take a look at why we are collecting and reporting 10 new SMART attributes and take a sneak peak at some 8 TB Toshiba drives. Along the way, we’ll share observations and insights on the data presented and we look forward to you doing the same in the comments.
Since April 2013, Backblaze has recorded and saved daily hard drive statistics from the drives in our data centers. Each entry consists of the date, manufacturer, model, serial number, status (operational or failed), and all of the SMART attributes reported by that drive. Currently there are about 97 million entries totaling 26 GB of data. You can download this data from our website if you want to do your own research, but for starters here’s what we found.
At the end of Q1 2018 Backblaze was monitoring 98,188 hard drives used to store data. For our evaluation below we remove from consideration those drives which were used for testing purposes and those drive models for which we did not have at least 45 drives. This leaves us with 98,046 hard drives. The table below covers just Q1 2018.
If a drive model has a failure rate of 0%, it only means there were no drive failures of that model during Q1 2018.
The overall Annualized Failure Rate (AFR) for Q1 is just 1.2%, well below the Q4 2017 AFR of 1.65%. Remember that quarterly failure rates can be volatile, especially for models that have a small number of drives and/or a small number of Drive Days.
There were 142 drives (98,188 minus 98,046) that were not included in the list above because we did not have at least 45 of a given drive model. We use 45 drives of the same model as the minimum number when we report quarterly, yearly, and lifetime drive statistics.
We mentioned Toshiba 8 TB drives in the first paragraph, but they don’t show up in the Q1 Stats chart. What gives? We only had 20 of the Toshiba 8 TB drives in operation in Q1, so they were excluded from the chart. Why do we have only 20 drives? When we test out a new drive model we start with the “tome test” and it takes 20 drives to fill one tome. A tome is the same drive model in the same logical position in each of the 20 Storage Pods that make up a Backblaze Vault. There are 60 tomes in each vault.
In this test, we created a Backblaze Vault of 8 TB drives, with 59 of the tomes being Seagate 8 TB drives and 1 tome being the Toshiba drives. Then we monitored the performance of the vault and its member tomes to see if, in this case, the Toshiba drives performed as expected.
So far the Toshiba drive is performing fine, but they have been in place for only 20 days. Next up is the “pod test” where we fill a Storage Pod with Toshiba drives and integrate it into a Backblaze Vault comprised of like-sized drives. We hope to have a better look at the Toshiba 8 TB drives in our Q2 report — stay tuned.
While the quarterly chart presented earlier gets a lot of interest, the real test of any drive model is over time. Below is the lifetime failure rate chart for all the hard drive models which have 45 or more drives in operation as of March 31st, 2018. For each model, we compute their reliability starting from when they were first installed.
The failure rates of all of the larger drives (8-, 10- and 12 TB) are very good, 1.2% AFR (Annualized Failure Rate) or less. Many of these drives were deployed in the last year, so there is some volatility in the data, but you can use the Confidence Interval to get a sense of the failure percentage range.
The overall failure rate of 1.84% is the lowest we have ever achieved, besting the previous low of 2.00% from the end of 2017.
Our regular readers and drive stats wonks may have noticed a sizable jump in the number of HGST 8 TB drives (model: HUH728080ALE600), from 45 last quarter to 1,045 this quarter. As the 10 TB and 12 TB drives become more available, the price per terabyte of the 8 TB drives has gone down. This presented an opportunity to purchase the HGST drives at a price in line with our budget.
We purchased and placed into service the 45 original HGST 8 TB drives in Q2 of 2015. They were our first Helium-filled drives and our only ones until the 10 TB and 12 TB Seagate drives arrived in Q3 2017. We’ll take a first look into whether or not Helium makes a difference in drive failure rates in an upcoming blog post.
If you have previously worked with the hard drive stats data or plan to, you’ll notice that we added 10 more columns of data starting in 2018. There are 5 new SMART attributes we are tracking each with a raw and normalized value:
The 5 values are all related to SSD drives.
Yes, SSD drives, but before you jump to any conclusions, we used 10 Samsung 850 EVO SSDs as boot drives for a period of time in Q1. This was an experiment to see if we could reduce boot up time for the Storage Pods. In our case, the improved boot up speed wasn’t worth the SSD cost, but it did add 10 new columns to the hard drive stats data.
Speaking of hard drive stats data, the complete data set used to create the information used in this review is available on our Hard Drive Test Data page. You can download and use this data for free for your own purpose, all we ask are three things: 1) you cite Backblaze as the source if you use the data, 2) you accept that you are solely responsible for how you use the data, and 3) you do not sell this data to anyone. It is free.
If you just want the summarized data used to create the tables and charts in this blog post, you can download the ZIP file containing the MS Excel spreadsheet.
Good luck and let us know if you find anything interesting.
[Ed: 5/1/2018 – Updated Lifetime chart to fix error in confidence interval for HGST 4TB drive, model: HDS5C4040ALE630]
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backblaze-at-nab-2018-in-las-vegas/
Backblaze just returned from exhibiting at NAB in Las Vegas, April 9-12, where the response to our recent announcements was tremendous. In case you missed the news, Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage continues to extend its lead as the most affordable, high performance cloud on the planet.
The Backblaze booth just before opening
Our booth was busy from start to finish with attendees interested in learning more about Backblaze and B2 Cloud Storage. Here are the questions we were asked most often in the booth.
Q. How long has Backblaze been in business?
A. The company was founded in 2007. Today, we have over 500 petabytes of data from customers in over 150 countries.
Q. Where is your data stored?
A. We have data centers in California and Arizona and expect to expand to Europe by the end of the year.
Q. How can your services be so inexpensive?
A. Backblaze’s goal from the beginning was to offer cloud backup and storage that was easy to use and affordable. All the existing options were simply too expensive to be viable, so we created our own infrastructure. Our purpose-built storage system — the Backblaze’s Storage Pod — is recognized as one of the most cost efficient storage platforms available.
Q. Tell me about your hardware.
A. Backblaze’s Storage Pods hold 60 HDDs each, containing as much as 720TB data per pod, stored using Reed-Solomon error correction. Storage Pods are arranged in Tomes with twenty Storage Pods making up a Vault.
Q. Where do you fit in the data workflow?
A. People typically use B2 in for archiving completed projects. All data is readily available for download from B2, making it more convenient than off-line storage. In addition, DAM and MAM systems such as CatDV, axle ai, Cantemo, and others have integrated with B2 to store raw images behind the proxies.
Q. Who uses B2 in the M&E business?
A. KLRU-TV, the PBS station in Austin Texas, uses B2 to archive their entire 43 year catalog of Austin City Limits episodes and related materials. WunderVu, the production house for Pixvana, uses B2 to back up and archive their local storage systems on which they build virtual reality experiences for their customers.
Q. You’re the company that publishes the hard drive stats, right?
A. Yes, we are!
If you were, we hope you stopped by the Backblaze booth to say hello. We’d like to hear what you saw at the show that was interesting or exciting. Please tell us in the comments.
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/cloud-empire-meet-the-rebel-alliance/
Last week Backblaze made the exciting announcement that through partnerships with Packet and ServerCentral, cloud computing is available to Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage customers.
Those of you familiar with cloud computing will understand the significance of this news. We are now offering the least expensive cloud storage + cloud computing available anywhere. You no longer have to submit to the lock-in tactics and exorbitant prices charged by the other big players in the cloud services biz.
We understand that some of our cloud backup and storage customers might be unfamiliar with cloud computing. Backblaze made its name in cloud backup and object storage, and that’s what our customers know us for. In response to customers requests, we’ve directly connected our B2 cloud object storage with cloud compute providers. This adds the ability to use and run programs on data once it’s in the B2 cloud, opening up a world of new uses for B2. Just some of the possibilities include media transcoding and rendering, web hosting, application development and testing, business analytics, disaster recovery, on-demand computing capacity (cloud bursting), AI, and mobile and IoT applications.
The world has been moving to a multi-cloud / hybrid cloud world, and customers are looking for more choices than those offered by the existing cloud players. Our B2 compute partnerships build on our mission to offer cloud storage that’s astonishingly easy and low-cost. They enable our customers to move into a more flexible and affordable cloud services ecosystem that provides a greater variety of choices and costs far less. We believe we are helping to fulfill the promise of the internet by allowing customers to choose the best-of-breed services from the best vendors.
Cloud computing is another component of cloud services, like object storage, that replicates in the cloud a basic function of a computer system. Think of services that operate in a cloud as an infinitely scalable version of what happens on your desktop computer. In your desktop computer you have computing/processing (CPU), fast storage (like an SSD), data storage (like your disk drive), and memory (RAM). Their counterparts in the cloud are computing (CPU), block storage (fast storage), object storage (data storage), and processing memory (RAM).
CPU, RAM, fast internal storage, and a hard drive are the basic building blocks of a computer
They also are the basic building blocks of cloud computing
Some customers require only some of these services, such as cloud storage. B2 as a standalone service has proven to be an outstanding solution for those customers interested in backing up or archiving data. There are many customers that would like additional capabilities, such as performing operations on that data once it’s in the cloud. They need object storage combined with computing.
With the just announced compute partnerships, Backblaze is able to offer computing services to anyone using B2. A direct connection between Backblaze’s and our partners’ data centers means that our customers can process data stored in B2 with high speed, low latency, and zero data transfer costs.
Cloud service providers package up CPU, storage, and memory into services that you can rent on an hourly basis
You can scale up and down and add or remove services as you need them
Those wanting to use B2 with computing will need to sign up for accounts with Backblaze and either Packet or ServerCentral. Packet customers need only select “SJC1” as their region and then get started. The process is also simple for ServerCentral customers — they just need to register with a ServerCentral account rep.
The direct connection between B2 and our compute partners means customers will experience very low latency (less than 10ms) between services. Even better, all data transfers between B2 and the compute partner are free. When combined with Backblaze B2, customers can obtain cloud computing services for as little as 50% of the cost of Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
Traditionally, cloud vendors charge fees for customers to move data outside the “walled garden” of that particular vendor. These fees reach upwards of $0.12 per gigabyte (GB) for data egress. This large fee for customers accessing their own data restricts users from using a multi-cloud approach and taking advantage of less expensive or better performing options. With free transfers between B2 and Packet or ServerCentral, customers now have a predictable, scalable solution for computing and data storage while avoiding vendor lock in. Dropbox made waves when they saved $75 million by migrating off of AWS. Adding computing to B2 helps anyone interested in moving some or all of their computing off of AWS and thereby cutting their AWS bill by 50% or more.
Using computing and storage in the cloud provide a number of advantages over using in-house resources.
We encourage B2 customers to explore the options available at our partner sites, Packet and ServerCentral. They are happy to help customers understand what services are available and how to get started.
We are excited to see what you build! And please tell us in the comments what you are doing or have planned with B2 + computing.
P.S. May the force be with all of us!
Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backblazes-new-cloud-storage-offering/
We’ve spent the last month making changes to Backblaze B2. We’ve reduced the B2 Download Prices in Half, expanded on our Snapshot USB Restore program by offering refunds if the hard drives are shipped back to us, and have built out our Backblaze Fireball program into a self-service model where you can seed 70TBs of data into your Backblaze B2 account. For any other cloud storage company, all of these value-adds would be enough, but we noticed that something was missing.
We kept hearing from our customers that we were simply doing too much and not charging enough. People were worried about our ability to stay in the market, despite our track record over the last 10 years of providing low cost storage, all while operating a cash-flow positive business. Our customers simply couldn’t believe that we could keep this charade going for much longer, and demanded that we do something to bolster our financial stability and to “stop giving everything away — practically for free,” even if it meant that we would make more money.
We listened, and today we are proud to announce a new service that compliments our wildly popular B2 Cloud Storage: Backblaze Bling2 Cloud Storage. It’s very similar to Backblaze B2, identical in fact, except for one minor change. It’s 4x more expensive for both storage and downloads, just like our competitors! We’re confident that the same level of service for 4x the price will appeal to our users who think that we’re simply not charging enough.
If you’re interested in this Bling2, we’ve made a tool to help you calculate your storage costs with Bling2 Cloud Storage, and compare it to leading cloud storage providers such as Backblaze B2, Amazon S3, Google Cloud Service, and Microsoft Azure!
We hope you enjoy this new service from Backblaze. If you think that Backblaze B2 is too affordable, you’ll be happy to know that Bling2 storage prices are available to you at the “industry standard” 4x markup. Why pay less when you can Bling2?!
Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/welcome-billy-senior-systems-administrator/
The data center keeps growing, with well over 500 Petabytes of data under management we needed more systems administrators to help us keep track of all the systems as our operation expands. Our latest systems administrator is Billy! Let’s learn a bit more about him shall we?
What is your Backblaze Title?
Sr. Systems Administrator
Where are you originally from?
What attracted you to Backblaze?
I’ve read the hard drive articles that were published and was excited to be a part of the company that took the time to do that kind of analysis and share it with the world.
What do you expect to learn while being at Backblaze?
I expect that I’ll learn about the problems that arise from a larger scale operation and how to solve them. I’m very curious to find out what they are.
Where else have you worked?
I’ve worked for the MIT Math Dept, Google, a social network owned by AOL called Bebo, Evernote, a contractor recommendation site owned by The Home Depot called RedBeacon, and a few others that weren’t as interesting.
Where did you go to school?
I started college at The Cooper Union, discovered that Electrical Engineering wasn’t my thing, then graduated from the Computer Science program at Northeastern.
What’s your dream job?
Is couch potato a job? I like to solve puzzles and play with toys, which is why I really enjoy being a sysadmin. My dream job is to do pretty much what I do now, but not have to participate in on-call.
Favorite place you’ve traveled?
We did a 2 week tour through Europe on our honeymoon. I’d go back to any place there.
Reading and listening to music. I spent a stupid amount of money on a stereo, so I make sure it gets plenty of use. I spent much less money on my library card, but I try to utilize it quite a bit as well.
Of what achievement are you most proud?
I designed a built a set of shelves for the closet in my kids’ room. Built with hand tools. The only electricity I used was the lights to see what I was doing.
Star Trek or Star Wars?
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Coke or Pepsi?
Pesto. Usually on angel hair, but it also works well on bread, or steak, or a spoon.
Why do you like certain things?
I like things that are a little outside the norm, like musical covers and mashups, or things that look like 1 thing but are really something else. Secret compartments are also fun.
Anything else you’d like you’d like to tell us?
I’m full of anecdotes and lines from songs and movies and tv shows.
Pesto is delicious! Welcome to the systems administrator team Billy, we’ll keep the fridge stocked with Coke for you!
Post Syndicated from Ahin Thomas original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/b2-snapshot-return-refund-program/
Backblaze’s mission is making cloud storage astonishingly easy and affordable. That guides our focus — making our customers’ data more usable. Today, we’re pleased to introduce a trial of the B2 Snapshot Return Refund program. B2 customers have long been able to create a Snapshot of their data and order a hard drive with that data sent via FedEx anywhere in the world. Starting today, if the customer sends the drive back to Backblaze within 30 days, they will get a full refund. This new feature is available automatically for B2 customers when they order a Snapshot. There are no extra buttons to push or boxes to check — just send back the drive within 30 days and we’ll refund your money. To put it simply, we are offering the cloud storage industry’s only refundable rapid data egress service.
Last week, we cut the price of B2 downloads in half — from 2¢ per GB to 1¢ per GB. That 50% reduction makes B2’s download price 1/5 that of Amazon’s S3 (with B2 storage pricing already 1/4 that of S3). The price reduction and today’s introduction of the B2 Snapshot Return Refund program are deliberate moves to eliminate the industry’s biggest barrier to entry — the cost of using data stored in the cloud. Storage vendors who make it expensive to restore, or place time lag impediments to access, are reducing the usefulness of your data. We believe this is antithetical to encouraging the use of the cloud in the first place.
Our Computer Backup product already has a Restore Return Refund program. It’s incredibly popular, and we enjoy the almost daily “you just saved my bacon” letters that come back with the returned hard drives. Our customer surveys have repeatedly demonstrated that the ability to get data back is one of the things that has made our Computer Backup service one of the most popular in the industry. So, it made sense to us that our B2 customers could use a similar program.
There are many ways B2 customers can benefit from using the B2 Snapshot Return Refund program, here is a typical scenario.
Businesses in the Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry tend to have large quantities of digital media, and the amount of data will continue to increase in the coming years with more 4K and 8K cameras coming into regular use. When an organization needs to deliver or share that data, they typically have to manually download data from their internal storage system, and copy it on a thumb drive or hard drive, or perhaps create an LTO tape. Once that is done, they take their storage device, label it, and mail to their customer. Not only is this practice costly, time consuming, and potentially insecure, it doesn’t scale well with larger amounts of data.
With just a few clicks, you can easily distribute or share your digital media if it stored in the B2 Cloud. Here’s how the process works:
You can always keep the hard drive or flash drive and Backblaze, of course, will keep your money.
Each drive containing a Snapshot is encrypted. The encryption key can be found in your Backblaze B2 account after you log in. The FedEX tracking number is there as well. When the hard drive arrives at its destination you can provide the encryption key to the recipient and they’ll be able to access the files. Note that the encryption key must be entered each time the hard drive is started, so the data remains protected even if the hard drive is returned to Backblaze.
The B2 Snapshot Return Refund program supports Snapshots as large as 3.5 terabytes. That means you can send about 50 hours of 4k video to a client or partner by selecting the hard drive option. If you select the flash drive option, a Snapshot can be up to 110 gigabytes, which is about 1hr and 45 min of 4k video.
While the example uses an M&E workflow, any workflow requiring the exchange or distribution of large amounts of data across distinct geographies will benefit from this service.
Backblaze fully intends to offer the B2 Snapshot Return Refund Program for a long time. That said, there is no program like this in the industry and so we want to put some guardrails on it to ensure we can offer a sustainable program for all. Thus, the “fine print”:
Our industry has a habit of charging little to store data and then usurious amounts to get it back. There are certainly real costs involved in data retrieval. We outlined them in our post on the Cost of Cloud Storage. The industry rates charged for data retrieval are clearly strategic moves to try and lock customers in. To us, that runs counter to trying to do our part to make data useful and our customers’ lives easier. That viewpoint drives our efforts behind lowering our download pricing and the creation of this program.
We hope you enjoy the B2 Snapshot Return Refund program. If you have a moment, please tell us in the comments below how you might use it!
Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/needed-software-engineering-director/
Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2, robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. We offer the lowest price of any of the big players and are still profitable.
Backblaze has a culture of openness. The hardware designs for our storage pods are open source. Key parts of the software, including the Reed-Solomon erasure coding are open-source. Backblaze is the only company that publishes hard drive reliability statistics.
We’ve managed to nurture a team-oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. The team is distributed across the U.S., but we work in Pacific Time, so work is limited to work time, leaving evenings and weekends open for personal and family time. Check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.
We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.
Our engineering team is 10 software engineers, and 2 quality assurance engineers. Most engineers are experienced, and a couple are more junior. The team will be growing as the company grows to meet the demand for our products; we plan to add at least 6 more engineers in 2018. The software includes the storage systems that run in the data center, the web APIs that clients access, the web site, and client programs that run on phones, tablets, and computers.
As the Director of Engineering, you will be:
A successful director will have the opportunity to grow into the role of VP of Engineering. Backblaze expects to continue our exponential growth of our storage services in the upcoming years, with matching growth in the engineering team..
This position is located in San Mateo, California.
We are a looking for a director who:
Required for all Backblaze Employees:
Some Backblaze Perks:
If this sounds like you, follow these steps:
Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer.
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-to-recover-your-files-with-backblaze/
The worst thing for a computer user has happened. The hard drive on your computer crashed, or your computer is lost or completely unusable.
Fortunately, you’re a Backblaze customer with a current backup in the cloud. That’s great. The challenge is that you’ve got a presentation to make in just 48 hours and the document and materials you need for the presentation were on the hard drive that crashed.
Relax. Backblaze has your data (and your back). The question is, how do you get what you need to make that presentation deadline?
Here are some strategies you could use.
One — The first approach is to get back the presentation file and materials you need to meet your presentation deadline as quickly as possible. You can use another computer (maybe even your smartphone) to make that presentation.
Two — The second approach is to get your computer (or a new computer, if necessary) working again and restore all the files from your Backblaze backup.
Let’s start with Option One, which gets you back to work with just the files you need now as quickly as possible.
You want to get your computer working again as soon as possible, but perhaps your top priority is getting access to the files you need for your presentation. The computer can wait.
First of all. You’re going to need a computer to use. If you have another computer handy, you’re all set. If you don’t, you’re going to need one. Here are some ideas on where to find one:
If you have a smartphone that you can use to give your presentation or to print materials, that’s great. With the Backblaze app for iOS and Android, you can download files directly from your Backblaze account to your smartphone. You also have the option with your smartphone to email or share files from your Backblaze backup so you can use them elsewhere.
Once you have the computer, you need to connect to your Backblaze backup through a web browser or the Backblaze smartphone app.
Sign into your Backblaze account. You can download the files directly or use the share link to share files with yourself or someone else.
If you need step-by-step instructions on retrieving your files, see Restore the Files to the Drive section below. You also can find help at https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217665888-How-to-Create-a-Restore-from-Your-Backblaze-Backup.
If you have an iOS or Android smartphone, you can use the Backblaze app and retrieve the files you need. You then could view the file on your phone, use a smartphone app with the file, or email it to yourself or someone else.
Backblaze Smartphone app (iOS)
Using one of the approaches above, you got your files back in time for your presentation. Way to go!
Now, the next step is to get the computer with the bad drive running again and restore all your files, or, if that computer is no longer usable, restore your Backblaze backup to a new computer.
If the computer with the failed drive can’t be saved, then you’re going to need a new computer. A new computer likely will come with the operating system installed and ready to boot. If you’ve got a running computer and are ready to restore your files from Backblaze, you can skip forward to Restore the Files to the Drive.
If you need to replace the hard drive in your computer before you restore your files, you can continue reading.
The hard drive is gone, so you’re going to need a new drive. If you have a computer or electronics store nearby, you could get one there. Another choice is to order a drive online and pay for one or two-day delivery. You have a few choices:
Be sure that the drive dimensions are compatible with where you’re going to install the drive in your computer, and the drive connector is compatible with your computer system (SATA, PCIe, etc.) Here’s some help.
If you’re handy with computers, you can install the drive yourself. It’s not hard, and there are numerous videos on YouTube and elsewhere on how to do this. Just be sure to note how everything was connected so you can get everything connected and put back together correctly. Also, be sure that you discharge any static electricity from your body by touching something metallic before you handle anything inside the computer. If all this sounds like too much to handle, find a friend or a local computer store to help you.
Note: If the drive that failed is a boot drive for your operating system (either Macintosh or Windows), you need to make sure that the drive is bootable and has the operating system files on it. You may need to reinstall from an operating system source disk or install files.
To start, you will need to sign in to the Backblaze website with your registered email address and password. Visit https://secure.backblaze.com/user_signin.htm to login.
Once logged in, you will be brought to the account Overview page. On this page, all of the computers registered for backup under your account are shown with some basic information about each. Select the backup from which you wish to restore data by using the appropriate “Restore” button.
Backblaze offers three different ways in which you can receive your restore data: downloadable ZIP file, USB flash drive, or USB hard drive. The downloadable ZIP restore option will create a ZIP file of the files you request that is made available for download for 7 days. ZIP restores do not have any additional cost and are a great option for individual files or small sets of data.
Depending on the speed of your internet connection to the Backblaze data center, downloadable restores may not always be the best option for restoring very large amounts of data. ZIP restores are limited to 500 GB per request and a maximum of 5 active requests can be submitted under a single account at any given time.
USB flash and hard drive restores are built with the data you request and then shipped to an address of your choosing via FedEx Overnight or FedEx Priority International. USB flash restores cost $99 and can contain up to 128 GB (110,000 MB of data) and USB hard drive restores cost $189 and can contain up to 4TB max (3,500,000 MB of data). Both include the cost of shipping.
You can return the ZIP drive within 30 days for a full refund with our Restore Return Refund Program, effectively making the process of restoring free, even with a shipped USB drive.
Using the left hand file viewer, navigate to the location of the files you wish to restore. You can use the disclosure triangles to see subfolders. Clicking on a folder name will display the folder’s files in the right hand file viewer. If you are attempting to restore files that have been deleted or are otherwise missing or files from a failed or disconnected secondary or external hard drive, you may need to change the time frame parameters.
Put checkmarks next to disks, files or folders you’d like to recover. Once you have selected the files and folders you wish to restore, select the “Continue with Restore” button above or below the file viewer. Backblaze will then build the restore via the option you select (ZIP or USB drive). You’ll receive an automated email notifying you when the ZIP restore has been built and is ready for download or when the USB restore drive ships.
If you are using the downloadable ZIP option, and the restore is over 2 GB, we highly recommend using the Backblaze Downloader for better speed and reliability. We have a guide on using the Backblaze Downloader for Mac OS X or for Windows.
For additional assistance, visit our help files at https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217665888-How-to-Create-a-Restore-from-Your-Backblaze-Backup
Recent versions of both macOS and Windows have built-in capability to extract files from a ZIP archive. If the built-in capabilities aren’t working for you, you can find additional utilities for Macintosh and Windows.
Now that you’ve got a working computer again, you’re going to need to reinstall Backblaze Backup (if it’s not on the system already) and connect with your existing account. Start by downloading and reinstalling Backblaze.
If you’ve restored the files from your Backblaze Backup to your new computer or drive, you don’t want to have to reupload the same files again to your Backblaze backup. To let Backblaze know that this computer is on the same account and has the same files, you need to use “Inherit Backup State.” See https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217666358-Inherit-Backup-State
You should be all set, either with the files you needed for your presentation, or with a restored computer that is again ready to do productive work.
We hope your presentation wowed ’em.
If you have any additional questions on restoring from a Backblaze backup, please ask away in the comments. Also, be sure to check out our help resources at https://www.backblaze.com/help.html.
The post Your Hard Drive Crashed — Get Working Again Fast with Backblaze appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hdd-vs-ssd-in-data-centers/
In Part 1 of HDD vs SSD: What Does the Future for Storage Hold?, we looked at the primary differences between HDDs and SSDs, the history of both of these types of data storage, and we considered the best uses for each.
In Part 2, we take a deeper look at the differences between HDDs and SSDs, how both HDD and SSD technologies are evolving, and how Backblaze takes advantage of SSDs in our operations and data centers.
The first time you booted a computer or opened an app on a computer with a solid-state-drive (SSD), you likely were delighted. I know I was. I loved the speed, silence, and just the wow factor of this new technology that seemed better in just about every way compared to hard drives.
I was ready to fully embrace the promise of SSDs. And I have. My desktop uses an SSD for booting, applications, and for working files. My laptop has a single 512GB SSD. I still use hard drives, however. The second, third, and fourth drives in my desktop computer are HDDs. The external USB RAID I use for local backup uses HDDs in four drive bays. When my laptop is at my desk it is attached to a 1.5TB USB backup hard drive. HDDs still have a place in my personal computing environment, as they likely do in yours.
Nothing stays the same for long, however, especially in the fast-changing world of computing, so we are certain to see new storage technologies coming to the fore, perhaps with even more wow factor.
Before we get to what’s coming, let’s review the primary differences between HDDs and SSDs in a little more detail in the following table.
|Power Draw/Battery Life||More power draw, averages 6–7 watts and therefore uses more battery||Less power draw, averages 2–3 watts, resulting in 30+ minute battery boost|
|Cost||Only around $0.03 per gigabyte, very cheap (buying a 4TB model)||Expensive, roughly $0.20- $0.30 per gigabyte (based on buying a 1TB drive)|
|Capacity||Typically around 500GB and 2TB maximum for notebook size drives; 10TB max for desktops||Typically not larger than 1TB for notebook size drives; 4TB for desktops|
|Operating System Boot Time||Around 30-40 seconds average bootup time||Around 8-13 seconds average bootup time|
|Noise||Audible clicks and spinning platters can be heard||There are no moving parts, hence no sound|
|Vibration||The spinning of the platters can sometimes result in vibration||No vibration as there are no moving parts|
|Heat Produced||HDD doesn’t produce much heat, but it will have a measurable amount more heat than an SSD due to moving parts and higher power draw||Lower power draw and no moving parts so little heat is produced|
|Failure Rate||Mean time between failure rate of 1.5 million hours||Mean time between failure rate of 2.0 million hours|
|File Copy / Write Speed||The range can be anywhere from 50–120MB/s||Generally above 200 MB/s and up to 550 MB/s for cutting edge drives|
|Encryption||Full Disk Encryption (FDE) Supported on some models||Full Disk Encryption (FDE) Supported on some models|
|File Opening Speed||Slower than SSD||Up to 30% faster than HDD|
|Affected by Magnetism||Magnets can erase data||An SSD is safe from any effects of magnetism|
|Ruggedness||Vulnerable to physical jolts and movement||Not vulnerable to jolts and vibration|
Note: We previously wrote about the differences between HDDs and SSDs in our blog post, Hard Disk Drive Versus Solid State Drive: What’s the Diff?
The HDD has an amazing history of improvement and innovation. From its inception in 1956 the hard drive has decreased in size 57,000 times, increased storage 1 million times, and decreased cost 2,000 times. In other words, the cost per gigabyte has decreased by 2 billion times in about 60 years.
Hard drive manufacturers made these dramatic advances by reducing the size, and consequently the seek times, of platters while increasing their density, improving disk reading technologies, adding multiple arms and read/write heads, developing better bus interfaces, and increasing spin speed and reducing friction with techniques such as filling drives with helium.
In 2005, the drive industry introduced perpendicular recording technology to replace the older longitudinal recording technology, which enabled areal density to reach more than 100 gigabits per square inch. Longitudinal recording aligns data bits horizontally in relation to the drive’s spinning platter, parallel to the surface of the disk, while perpendicular recording aligns bits vertically, perpendicular to the disk surface.
Other technologies such as bit patterned media recording (BPMR) are contributing to increased densities, as well. Introduced by Toshiba in 2010, BPMR is a proposed hard disk drive technology that could succeed perpendicular recording. It records data using nanolithography in magnetic islands, with one bit per island. This contrasts with current disk drive technology where each bit is stored in 20 to 30 magnetic grains within a continuous magnetic film.
Shingled magnetic recording (SMR) is a magnetic storage data recording technology used in HDDs to increase storage density and overall per-drive storage capacity. Shingled recording writes new tracks that overlap part of the previously written magnetic track, leaving the previous track narrower and allowing for higher track density. Thus, the tracks partially overlap similar to roof shingles. This approach was selected because physical limitations prevent recording magnetic heads from having the same width as reading heads, leaving recording heads wider.
Track Spacing Enabled by SMR Technology (Seagate)
To increase the amount of data stored on a drive’s platter requires cramming the magnetic regions closer together, which means the grains need to be smaller so they won’t interfere with each other. In 2002, Seagate successfully demoed heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR). HAMR records magnetically using laser-thermal assistance that ultimately could lead to a 20 terabyte drive by 2019. (See our post on HAMR by Seagate’s CTO Mark Re, What is HAMR and How Does It Enable the High-Capacity Needs of the Future?)
Western Digital claims that its competing microwave-assisted magnetic recording (MAMR) could enable drive capacity to increase up to 40TB by the year 2025. Some industry watchers and drive manufacturers predict increases in areal density from today’s .86 tbpsi terabit-per-square-inch (TBPSI) to 10 tbpsi by 2025 resulting in as much as 100TB drive capacity in the next decade.
In addition to heat and microwaves, other techniques being investigated include using extreme cold to increase HDD density.
The future certainly does look bright for HDDs continuing to be with us for a while.
SSDs are also in for some amazing advances.
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is the common hardware interface that allows the transfer of data to and from HDDs and SSDs. SATA SSDs are fine for the majority of home users, as they are generally cheaper, operate at a lower speed, and have a lower write life.
While fine for everyday computing, in a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks), server array or data center environment, often a better alternative has been to use ‘SAS’ drives, which stands for Serial Attached SCSI. This is another type of interface that, again, is usable either with HDDs or SSDs. ‘SCSI’ stands for Small Computer System Interface (which is why SAS drives are sometimes referred to as ‘scuzzy’ drives). SAS has increased IOPS (Inputs Outputs Per Second) over SATA, meaning it has the ability to read and write data faster. This has made SAS an optimal choice for systems that require high performance and availability.
On an enterprise level, SAS prevails over SATA, as SAS supports over-provisioning to prolong write life and has been specifically designed to run in environments that require constant drive usage.
PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is a high speed serial computer expansion bus standard that supports drastically higher data transfer rates over SATA or SAS interfaces due to the fact that there are more channels available for the flow of data.
Many leading drive manufacturers have been adopting PCIe as the standard for new home and enterprise storage and some peripherals. For example, you’ll see that the latest Apple Macbooks ship with PCIe-based flash storage, something that Apple has been adopting over the years with their consumer devices.
PCIe can also be used within data centers for RAID systems and to create high-speed networking capabilities, increasing overall performance and supporting the newer and higher capacity HDDs.
As we covered in Part 1, SSDs are based on a type of non-volatile flash memory called NAND.The latest trend in NAND flash is quad-level-cell (QLC) NAND. NAND is subdivided into types based on how many bits of data are stored in each physical memory cell. SLC (single-level-cell) stores one bit, MLC (multi-level-cell) stores two, TLC (triple-level cell) stores three, and QLC (quad-level-cell) stores four.
Storing more data per cell makes NAND more dense, but it also makes the memory slower — it takes more time to read and write data when so much additional information (and so many more charge states) are stored within the same cell of memory.
QLC NAND memory is built on older process nodes with larger cells that can more easily store multiple bits of data. The new NAND tech has higher overall reliability with higher total number of program / erase cycles (P/E cycles).
QLC NAND wafer from which individual microcircuits are made
QLC NAND promises to produce faster and denser SSDs. The effect on price also could be dramatic. Tom’s Hardware is predicting that the advent of QLC could push 512GB SSDs down to $100.
There is significant work being done that is pushing the bounds of data storage beyond what is possible with spinning platters and microcircuits. A team at Harvard University has used genome-editing to encode video into live bacteria.
Scientists from the University of Southampton’s Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) have developed the recording and retrieval processes of five dimensional (5D) digital data by femtosecond laser writing. These discs can hold 360 TB of data and are theoretically stable for up to 14 billion years, thanks to ‘5D data storage’ inscribed by laser nanostructuring in quartz silica glass. Space-X’s Falcon Heavy recently carried this technology into space.
Arch Mission quartz crystal discs
We’ve already discussed the benefits of SSDs. The benefits of SSDs that apply particularly to the data center are:
The top drive manufacturers say that they expect HDDs and SSDs to coexist for the foreseeable future in all areas — home, business, and data center, with customers choosing which technology and product will best fit their application.
In just about all respects, SSDs are superior to HDDs. So why don’t we replace the 100,000+ hard drives we have spinning in our data centers with SSDs?
The primary reason is cost.
We’d love to have the performance and density of SSDs available for our Storage Pods (see our post Seagate Introduces a 60TB SSD — Is a 3.6PB Storage Pod Next?), but the cost/benefit ratio of SSDs is not yet in our favor.
Our operations team takes advantage of the benefits and savings of SSDs wherever they can, using them in every place that’s appropriate other than primary data storage. They’re particularly useful in our caching and restore layers, where we use them strategically to speed up data transfers. SSDs also speed up access to B2 Cloud Storage metadata. Our operations teams is considering moving to SSDs to boot our Storage Pods, where the cost of a small SSD is competitive with hard drives, and their other attributes (small size, lack of vibration, speed, low-power consumption, reliability) are all pluses.
IDC predicts that total data created will grow from approximately 33 zettabytes in 2018 to about 160 zettabytes in 2025. (See What’s a Byte? if you’d like help understanding the size of a zettabyte.)
Annual Size of the Global Datasphere
Over 90% of enterprise drive shipments today are HDD, according to IDC. By 2025, SSDs will comprise almost 20% of drive shipments. SSDs will gain share, but total growth in data created will result in massive sales of both HDDs and SSDs.
Enterprise Byte Shipments: NDD and SSD
As both HDD and SSD sales grow, so does the capacity of both technologies. Given the benefits of SSDs in many applications, we’re likely going to see SSDs replacing HDDs in all but the highest capacity uses.
It’s clear that there are merits to both HDDs and SSDs. If you’re not running a data center, and don’t have more than one or two terabytes of data to store on your home or business computer, your first choice likely should be an SSD. They provide a noticeable improvement in performance during boot-up and data transfer, and are smaller, quieter, and more reliable as well. Save the HDDs for secondary drives, NAS, RAID, and local backup devices in your system.
Perhaps some day we’ll look back at the days of spinning platters with the same nostalgia we look back at stereo LPs, and some of us will have an HDD paperweight on our floating anti-gravity desk as a conversation piece. Until the day that SSD’s performance, capacity, and finally, price, expel the last HDD out of the home and data center, we can expect to live in a world that contains both solid state SSDs and magnetic platter HDDs, and as users we will reap the benefits from both technologies.
Here’s a tip on finding all the posts tagged with SSD on our blog. Just follow https://www.backblaze.com/blog/tag/ssd/.
The post HDD vs SSD: What Does the Future for Storage Hold? — Part 2 appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/ssd-vs-hdd-future-of-storage/
Customers frequently ask us whether and when we plan to move our cloud backup and data storage to SSDs (Solid-State Drives). That’s not a surprising question considering the many advantages SSDs have over magnetic platter type drives, also known as HDDs (Hard-Disk Drives).
We’re a large user of HDDs in our data centers (currently 100,000 hard drives holding over 500 petabytes of data). We want to provide the best performance, reliability, and economy for our cloud backup and cloud storage services, so we continually evaluate which drives to use for operations and in our data centers. While we use SSDs for some applications, which we’ll describe below, there are reasons why HDDs will continue to be the primary drives of choice for us and other cloud providers for the foreseeable future.
HDD vs SSD
The laptop computer I am writing this on has a single 512GB SSD, which has become a common feature in higher end laptops. The SSD’s advantages for a laptop are easy to understand: they are smaller than an HDD, faster, quieter, last longer, and are not susceptible to vibration and magnetic fields. They also have much lower latency and access times.
Today’s typical online price for a 2.5” 512GB SSD is $140 to $170. The typical online price for a 3.5” 512 GB HDD is $44 to $65. That’s a pretty significant difference in price, but since the SSD helps make the laptop lighter, enables it to be more resistant to the inevitable shocks and jolts it will experience in daily use, and adds of benefits of faster booting, faster waking from sleep, and faster launching of applications and handling of big files, the extra cost for the SSD in this case is worth it.
Some of these SSD advantages, chiefly speed, also will apply to a desktop computer, so desktops are increasingly outfitted with SSDs, particularly to hold the operating system, applications, and data that is accessed frequently. Replacing a boot drive with an SSD has become a popular upgrade option to breathe new life into a computer, especially one that seems to take forever to boot or is used for notoriously slow-loading applications such as Photoshop.
We covered upgrading your computer with an SSD in our blog post SSD 101: How to Upgrade Your Computer With An SSD.
Data centers are an entirely different kettle of fish. The primary concerns for data center storage are reliability, storage density, and cost. While SSDs are strong in the first two areas, it’s the third where they are not yet competitive. At Backblaze we adopt higher density HDDs as they become available — we’re currently using both 10TB and 12TB drives (among other capacities) in our data centers. Higher density drives provide greater storage density per Storage Pod and Vault and reduce our overhead cost through less required maintenance and lower total power requirements. Comparable SSDs in those sizes would cost roughly $1,000 per terabyte, considerably higher than the corresponding HDD. Simply put, SSDs are not yet in the price range to make their use economical for the benefits they provide, which is the reason why we expect to be using HDDs as our primary storage media for the foreseeable future.
HDDs have been around over 60 years since IBM introduced them in 1956. The first disk drive was the size of a car, stored a mere 3.75 megabytes, and cost $300,000 in today’s dollars.
IBM 350 Disk Storage System — 3.75MB in 1956
The 350 Disk Storage System was a major component of the IBM 305 RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) system, which was introduced in September 1956. It consisted of 40 platters and a dual read/write head on a single arm that moved up and down the stack of magnetic disk platters.
The basic mechanism of an HDD remains unchanged since then, though it has undergone continual refinement. An HDD uses magnetism to store data on a rotating platter. A read/write head is affixed to an arm that floats above the spinning platter reading and writing data. The faster the platter spins, the faster an HDD can perform. Typical laptop drives today spin at either 5400 RPM (revolutions per minute) or 7200 RPM, though some server-based platters spin at even higher speeds.
Exploded drawing of a hard drive
The platters inside the drives are coated with a magnetically sensitive film consisting of tiny magnetic grains. Data is recorded when a magnetic write-head flies just above the spinning disk; the write head rapidly flips the magnetization of one magnetic region of grains so that its magnetic pole points up or down, to encode a 1 or a 0 in binary code. If all this sounds like an HDD is vulnerable to shocks and vibration, you’d be right. They also are vulnerable to magnets, which is one way to destroy the data on an HDD if you’re getting rid of it.
The major advantage of an HDD is that it can store lots of data cheaply. One and two terabyte (1,024 and 2,048 gigabytes) hard drives are not unusual for a laptop these days, and 10TB and 12TB drives are now available for desktops and servers. Densities and rotation speeds continue to grow. However, if you compare the cost of common HDDs vs SSDs for sale online, the SSDs are roughly 3-5x the cost per gigabyte. So if you want cheap storage and lots of it, using a standard hard drive is definitely the more economical way to go.
What are the best uses for HDDs?
SSDs go back almost as far as HDDs, with the first semiconductor storage device compatible with a hard drive interface introduced in 1978, the StorageTek 4305.
Storage Technology 4305 SSD
The StorageTek was an SSD aimed at the IBM mainframe compatible market. The STC 4305 was seven times faster than IBM’s popular 2305 HDD system (and also about half the price). It consisted of a cabinet full of charge-coupled devices and cost $400,000 for 45MB capacity with throughput speeds up to 1.5 MB/sec.
SSDs are based on a type of non-volatile memory called NAND (named for the Boolean operator “NOT AND,” and one of two main types of flash memory). Flash memory stores data in individual memory cells, which are made of floating-gate transistors. Though they are semiconductor-based memory, they retain their information when no power is applied to them — a feature that’s obviously a necessity for permanent data storage.
Samsung SSD 850 Pro
Compared to an HDD, SSDs have higher data-transfer rates, higher areal storage density, better reliability, and much lower latency and access times. For most users, it’s the speed of an SSD that primarily attracts them. When discussing the speed of drives, what we are referring to is the speed at which they can read and write data.
For HDDs, the speed at which the platters spin strongly determines the read/write times. When data on an HDD is accessed, the read/write head must physically move to the location where the data was encoded on a magnetic section on the platter. If the file being read was written sequentially to the disk, it will be read quickly. As more data is written to the disk, however, it’s likely that the file will be written across multiple sections, resulting in fragmentation of the data. Fragmented data takes longer to read with an HDD as the read head has to move to different areas of the platter(s) to completely read all the data requested.
Because SSDs have no moving parts, they can operate at speeds far above those of a typical HDD. Fragmentation is not an issue for SSDs. Files can be written anywhere with little impact on read/write times, resulting in read times far faster than any HDD, regardless of fragmentation.
Samsung SSD 850 Pro (back)
Due to the way data is written and read to the drive, however, SSD cells can wear out over time. SSD cells push electrons through a gate to set its state. This process wears on the cell and over time reduces its performance until the SSD wears out. This effect takes a long time and SSDs have mechanisms to minimize this effect, such as the TRIM command. Flash memory writes an entire block of storage no matter how few pages within the block are updated. This requires reading and caching the existing data, erasing the block and rewriting the block. If an empty block is available, a write operation is much faster. The TRIM command, which must be supported in both the OS and the SSD, enables the OS to inform the drive which blocks are no longer needed. It allows the drive to erase the blocks ahead of time in order to make empty blocks available for subsequent writes.
The effect of repeated reading and erasing on an SSD is cumulative and an SSD can slow down and even display errors with age. It’s more likely, however, that the system using the SSD will be discarded for obsolescence before the SSD begins to display read/write errors. Hard drives eventually wear out from constant use as well, since they use physical recording methods, so most users won’t base their selection of an HDD or SSD drive based on expected longevity.
SSD circuit board
Overall, SSDs are considered far more durable than HDDs due to a lack of mechanical parts. The moving mechanisms within an HDD are susceptible to not only wear and tear over time, but to damage due to movement or forceful contact. If one were to drop a laptop with an HDD, there is a high likelihood that all those moving parts will collide, resulting in potential data loss and even destructive physical damage that could kill the HDD outright. SSDs have no moving parts so, while they hold the risk of a potentially shorter life span due to high use, they can survive the rigors we impose upon our portable devices and laptops.
What are the best uses for SSDs?
That’s it for part 1. In our second part we’ll take a deeper look at the differences between HDDs and SSDs, how both HDD and SSD technologies are evolving, and how Backblaze takes advantage of SSDs in our operations and data centers.
Here’s a tip on finding all the posts tagged with SSD on our blog. Just follow https://www.backblaze.com/blog/tag/ssd/.
The post HDD vs SSD: What Does the Future for Storage Hold? appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.
Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/factors-for-choosing-data-center/
This is part two of a series on the factors that an organization needs to consider when opening a data center and the challenges that must be met in the process.
In Part 1 of this series, we looked at the different types of data centers, the importance of location in planning a data center, data center certification, and the single most expensive factor in running a data center, power.
In Part 2, we continue to look at factors that need to considered both by those interested in a dedicated data center and those seeking to colocate in an existing center.
In part 1, we began our discussion of the power requirements of data centers.
As we discussed, redundancy and failover is a chief requirement for data center power. A redundantly designed power supply system is also a necessity for maintenance, as it enables repairs to be performed on one network, for example, without having to turn off servers, databases, or electrical equipment.
The common critical components of a data center’s power flow are:
Utility Supply is the power that comes from one or more utility grids. While most of us consider the grid to be our primary power supply (hats off to those of you who manage to live off the grid), politics, economics, and distribution make utility supply power susceptible to outages, which is why data centers must have autonomous power available to maintain availability.
Generators are used to supply power when the utility supply is unavailable. They convert mechanical energy, usually from motors, to electrical energy.
Transfer Switches are used to transfer electric load from one source or electrical device to another, such as from one utility line to another, from a generator to a utility, or between generators. The transfer could be manually activated or automatic to ensure continuous electrical power.
Distribution Panels get the power where it needs to go, taking a power feed and dividing it into separate circuits to supply multiple loads.
A UPS, as we touched on earlier, ensures that continuous power is available even when the main power source isn’t. It often consists of batteries that can come online almost instantaneously when the current power ceases. The power from a UPS does not have to last a long time as it is considered an emergency measure until the main power source can be restored. Another function of the UPS is to filter and stabilize the power from the main power supply.
Data center UPSs
PDU stands for the Power Distribution Unit and is the device that distributes power to the individual pieces of equipment.
After power, the networking connections to the data center are of prime importance. Can the data center obtain and maintain high-speed networking connections to the building? With networking, as with all aspects of a data center, availability is a primary consideration. Data center designers think of all possible ways service can be interrupted or lost, even briefly. Details such as the vulnerabilities in the route the network connections make from the core network (the backhaul) to the center, and where network connections enter and exit a building, must be taken into consideration in network and data center design.
Routers and switches are used to transport traffic between the servers in the data center and the core network. Just as with power, network redundancy is a prime factor in maintaining availability of data center services. Two or more upstream service providers are required to ensure that availability.
How fast a customer can transfer data to a data center is affected by: 1) the speed of the connections the data center has with the outside world, 2) the quality of the connections between the customer and the data center, and 3) the distance of the route from customer to the data center. The longer the length of the route and the greater the number of packets that must be transferred, the more significant a factor will be played by latency in the data transfer. Latency is the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer. Generally latency, not speed, will be the most significant factor in transferring data to and from a data center. Packets transferred using the TCP/IP protocol suite, which is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the internet and similar computer networks, must be acknowledged when received (ACK’d) and requires a communications roundtrip for each packet. If the data is in larger packets, the number of ACKs required is reduced, so latency will be a smaller factor in the overall network communications speed.
Latency generally will be less significant for data storage transfers than for cloud computing. Optimizations such as multi-threading, which is used in Backblaze’s Cloud Backup service, will generally improve overall transfer throughput if sufficient bandwidth is available.
Data center telecommunications equipment
Data center under floor cable runs
Computer, networking, and power generation equipment generates heat, and there are a number of solutions employed to rid a data center of that heat. The location and climate of the data center is of great importance to the data center designer because the climatic conditions dictate to a large degree what cooling technologies should be deployed that in turn affect the power used and the cost of using that power. The power required and cost needed to manage a data center in a warm, humid climate will vary greatly from managing one in a cool, dry climate. Innovation is strong in this area and many new approaches to efficient and cost-effective cooling are used in the latest data centers.
Switch’s uninterruptible, multi-system, HVAC Data Center Cooling Units
There are three primary ways data center cooling can be achieved:
Room Cooling cools the entire operating area of the data center. This method can be suitable for small data centers, but becomes more difficult and inefficient as IT equipment density and center size increase.
Row Cooling concentrates on cooling a data center on a row by row basis. In its simplest form, hot aisle/cold aisle data center design involves lining up server racks in alternating rows with cold air intakes facing one way and hot air exhausts facing the other. The rows composed of rack fronts are called cold aisles. Typically, cold aisles face air conditioner output ducts. The rows the heated exhausts pour into are called hot aisles. Typically, hot aisles face air conditioner return ducts.
Rack Cooling tackles cooling on a rack by rack basis. Air-conditioning units are dedicated to specific racks. This approach allows for maximum densities to be deployed per rack. This works best in data centers with fully loaded racks, otherwise there would be too much cooling capacity, and the air-conditioning losses alone could exceed the total IT load.
Data Centers are high-security facilities as they house business, government, and other data that contains personal, financial, and other secure information about businesses and individuals.
This list contains the physical-security considerations when opening or co-locating in a data center:
Layered Security Zones. Systems and processes are deployed to allow only authorized personnel in certain areas of the data center. Examples include keycard access, alarm systems, mantraps, secure doors, and staffed checkpoints.
Physical Barriers. Physical barriers, fencing and reinforced walls are used to protect facilities. In a colocation facility, one customers’ racks and servers are often inaccessible to other customers colocating in the same data center.
Backblaze racks secured in the data center
Monitoring Systems. Advanced surveillance technology monitors and records activity on approaching driveways, building entrances, exits, loading areas, and equipment areas. These systems also can be used to monitor and detect fire and water emergencies, providing early detection and notification before significant damage results.
Top-tier providers evaluate their data center security and facilities on an ongoing basis. Technology becomes outdated quickly, so providers must stay-on-top of new approaches and technologies in order to protect valuable IT assets.
To pass into high security areas of a data center requires passing through a security checkpoint where credentials are verified.
The gauntlet of cameras and steel bars one must pass before entering this data center
Data center colocation providers often differentiate themselves by offering value-added services. In addition to the required space, power, cooling, connectivity and security capabilities, the best solutions provide several on-site amenities. These accommodations include offices and workstations, conference rooms, and access to phones, copy machines, and office equipment.
Additional features may consist of kitchen facilities, break rooms and relaxation lounges, storage facilities for client equipment, and secure loading docks and freight elevators.
Moving into a data center is a major job for any organization. We wrote a post last year, Desert To Data in 7 Days — Our New Phoenix Data Center, about what it was like to move into our new data center in Phoenix, Arizona.
Our Director of Product Marketing Andy Klein wrote a popular post last year on what it’s like to visit a data center called A Day in the Life of a Data Center.
That’s it for part 2 of this series. If readers are interested, we could write a post about some of the new technologies and trends affecting data center design and use. Please let us know in the comments.
Here’s a tip on finding all the posts tagged with data center on our blog. Just follow https://www.backblaze.com/blog/tag/data-center/.
Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/02/jumping_air_gap_2.html
Nice profile of Mordechai Guri, who researches a variety of clever ways to steal data over air-gapped computers.
Guri and his fellow Ben-Gurion researchers have shown, for instance, that it's possible to trick a fully offline computer into leaking data to another nearby device via the noise its internal fan generates, by changing air temperatures in patterns that the receiving computer can detect with thermal sensors, or even by blinking out a stream of information from a computer hard drive LED to the camera on a quadcopter drone hovering outside a nearby window. In new research published today, the Ben-Gurion team has even shown that they can pull data off a computer protected by not only an air gap, but also a Faraday cage designed to block all radio signals.
Here’s a page with all the research results.
Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/all-in-on-unlimited-backup/
The cloud backup industry has seen its share of tumultuousness. BitCasa, Dell DataSafe, Xdrive, and a dozen others have closed up shop. Mozy, Amazon, and Microsoft offered, but later canceled, their unlimited offerings. Recently, CrashPlan for Home customers were notified that their service was being end-of-lifed. Then today we’ve heard from Carbonite customers who are frustrated by this morning’s announcement of a price increase from Carbonite.
We believe that the fundamental goal of a cloud backup is having peace-of-mind: knowing your data — all of it — is safe. For over 10 years Backblaze has been providing that peace-of-mind by offering completely unlimited cloud backup to our customers. And we continue to be committed to that. Knowing that your cloud backup vendor is not going to disappear or fundamentally change their service is an essential element in achieving that peace-of-mind.
When Mozy discontinued their unlimited backup on Jan 31, 2011, a lot of people asked, “Does this mean Backblaze will discontinue theirs as well?” At that time I wrote the blog post Backblaze is committed to unlimited backup. That was seven years ago. Since then we’ve continued to make Backblaze cloud backup better: dramatically speeding up backups and restores, offering the unique and very popular Restore Return Refund program, enabling direct access and sharing of any file in your backup, and more. We also introduced Backblaze Groups to enable businesses and families to manage backups — all at no additional cost.
I’d like to answer the question of “How have you been able to do this when others haven’t?
First, commitment. It’s not impossible to offer unlimited cloud backup, but it’s not easy. The Backblaze team has been committed to unlimited as a core tenet.
Second, we have pursued the technical, business, and cultural steps required to make it happen. We’ve designed our own servers, written our cloud storage software, run our own operations, and been continually focused on every place we could optimize a penny out of the cost of storage. We’ve built a culture at Backblaze that cares deeply about that.
Price increases and plan changes happen in our industry, but Backblaze has consistently been the low price leader, and continues to stand by the foundational element of our service — truly unlimited backup storage. Carbonite just announced a price increase from $60 to $72/year, and while that’s not an astronomical increase, it’s important to keep in mind the service that they are providing at that rate. The basic Carbonite plan provides a service that doesn’t back up videos or external hard drives by default. We think that’s dangerous. No one wants to discover that their videos weren’t backed up after their computer dies, or have to worry about the safety and durability of their data. That is why we have continued to build on our foundation of unlimited, as well as making our service faster and more accessible. All of these serve the goal of ensuring peace-of-mind for our customers.
As part of our commitment to unlimited, refer your friends to receive three months of Backblaze service through March 15, 2018. When you Refer-a-Friend with your personal referral link, and they subscribe, both of you will receive three months of service added to your account. See promotion details on our Refer-a-Friend page.
If you’re considering switching from Carbonite, we’d love to be your new backup provider. Enter your email and the date you’d like to be reminded in the form below and you’ll get a friendly reminder email from us to start a new backup plan with Backblaze. Or, you could start a free trial today.
We think you’ll be glad you switched, and you’ll have a chance to experience some of that Backblaze peace-of-mind for your data.
Please Send Me a Reminder When I Need a New Backup Provider
Post Syndicated from Andy Klein original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-stats-for-2017/
Beginning in April 2013, Backblaze has recorded and saved daily hard drive statistics from the drives in our data centers. Each entry consists of the date, manufacturer, model, serial number, status (operational or failed), and all of the SMART attributes reported by that drive. As of the end of 2017, there are about 88 million entries totaling 23 GB of data. You can download this data from our website if you want to do your own research, but for starters here’s what we found.
At the end of 2017 we had 93,240 spinning hard drives. Of that number, there were 1,935 boot drives and 91,305 data drives. This post looks at the hard drive statistics of the data drives we monitor. We’ll review the stats for Q4 2017, all of 2017, and the lifetime statistics for all of the drives Backblaze has used in our cloud storage data centers since we started keeping track. Along the way we’ll share observations and insights on the data presented and we look forward to you doing the same in the comments.
At the end of Q4 2017 Backblaze was monitoring 91,305 hard drives used to store data. For our evaluation we remove from consideration those drives which were used for testing purposes and those drive models for which we did not have at least 45 drives (read why after the chart). This leaves us with 91,243 hard drives. The table below is for the period of Q4 2017.
Looking back over 2017, we not only added new drives, we “bulked up” by swapping out functional and smaller 2, 3, and 4TB drives with larger 8, 10, and 12TB drives. The changes in drive quantity by quarter are shown in the chart below:
For 2017 we added 25,746 new drives, and lost 6,442 drives to retirement for a net of 19,304 drives. When you look at storage space, we added 230 petabytes and retired 19 petabytes, netting us an additional 211 petabytes of storage in our data center in 2017.
Below are the lifetime hard drive failure statistics for the hard drive models that were operational at the end of Q4 2017. As with the quarterly results above, we have removed any non-production drives and any models that had fewer than 45 drives.
The chart above gives us the lifetime view of the various drive models in our data center. The Q4 2017 chart at the beginning of the post gives us a snapshot of the most recent quarter of the same models.
Let’s take a look at the same models over time, in our case over the past 3 years (2015 through 2017), by looking at the annual failure rates for each of those years.
The failure rate for each year is calculated for just that year. In looking at the results the following observations can be made:
To save you countless hours of looking, we’ve culled through the data to uncover the following tidbits regarding our ever changing hard drive farm.
We’ll be presenting the webinar “Backblaze Hard Drive Stats for 2017” on Thursday February 9, 2017 at 10:00 Pacific time. The webinar will dig deeper into the quarterly, yearly, and lifetime hard drive stats and include the annual and lifetime stats by drive size and manufacturer. You will need to subscribe to the Backblaze BrightTALK channel to view the webinar. Sign up today.
As a reminder, the complete data set used to create the information used in this review is available on our Hard Drive Test Data page. You can download and use this data for free for your own purpose. All we ask are three things: 1) you cite Backblaze as the source if you use the data, 2) you accept that you are solely responsible for how you use the data, and 3) you do not sell this data to anyone — it is free.
Good luck and let us know if you find anything interesting.
Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/500-petabytes-and-counting/
It seems like only yesterday that we crossed the 350 petabyte mark. It was actually June 2017, but boy have we been growing since. In October 2017 we crossed 400 petabytes. Today, we’re proud to announce we’ve crossed the 500 petabyte mark. That’s a very healthy clip, see for yourself!
Whether you have 50 GB, 500 GB or are just an avid blog reader, thank you for being on this incredible journey with us through the years.
…we’re literally moving at 1,000,000 files per hour.
We’re extremely proud of our track record. Throughout these 11 years we’ve striven to be the simplest, fastest, and most affordable online backup (and now cloud storage) solution available. We’re not just focusing on data ingress, but also adhering to our original goal of making sure that “no one ever loses data again.” How quickly are we restoring data? On average, we’re literally moving at 1,000,000 files per hour.
Even after all these years, one of the most frequent questions asked is, “How has Backblaze maintained such affordable pricing, particularly when the industry continues to move away from unlimited data plans?”
The cloud storage industry is very competitive, with cloud sync, storage, and backup providers leaving the unlimited market every single day: OneDrive, Amazon Cloud Storage, and most recently CrashPlan. Other providers either have tiered pricing (iDrive), or charge almost double or even triple for all the features we provide for our unlimited backup service (Carbonite). So how do we do it?
The answer comes down to our relentless pursuit of lowering costs. Our open-source Backblaze Storage Pods comprise our Backblaze Vaults, and the less expensive and more performant our Storage Pods are, the better the service that we can provide. This all directly translates into the service and pricing we can offer you.
A key part of our service is to be as open as possible with our costs and structure. After all, you are entrusting us with some of your most valuable assets. Still, it is very difficult to find an apples to apples comparison to what our competitors are doing. For example, we can gain some insight from a 2011 interview with Carbonite’s CEO, who gave an interview in which he said Carbonite’s cost of storing a petabyte was $250,000. At the time, our cost to store a petabyte was $76,481 (more on that calculation can be found here and here). If Backblaze’s fundamental cost to store data is one-third that of Carbonite’s, it makes sense that Carbonite’s cost to its customers would be more than Backblaze’s. Today, Backblaze backup is $50/year and Carbonite’s equivalent service is $149.99.
Our continued focus on reducing costs has allowed us to maintain a healthy business. And after accepting customer data for almost 10 years, we sincerely want to thank you all for giving us your trust, and allowing us to protect your important data and memories for you. Here’s to the next 500 petabytes; they’ll be here before we know it.
Since publishing this post, we have posted the latest in our series of Hard Drive Stats, in which we summarize the performance of the hard drives we used in our data centers in 2017 and previously.
Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/managing-cash-flow/
This post by Backblaze’s CEO and co-founder Gleb Budman is the eighth in a series about entrepreneurship. You can choose posts in the series from the list below:
Use thebutton above to receive notification of new posts in this series.
Running out of cash is one of the quickest ways for a startup to go out of business. When you are starting a company the question of where to get cash is usually the top priority, but managing cash flow is critical for every stage in the lifecycle of a company. As a primarily bootstrapped but capital-intensive business, managing cash flow at Backblaze was and still is a key element of our success and requires continued focus. Let’s look at what we learned over the years.
When starting a tech business in Silicon Valley, the default assumption is that you will immediately try to raise venture funding. There are certainly many advantages to raising funding — not the least of which is that you don’t need to be cash-flow positive since you have cash in the bank and the expectation is that you will have a “burn rate,” i.e. you’ll be spending more than you make.
Note: While you’re not expected to be cash-flow positive, that doesn’t mean you don’t have to worry about cash. Cash-flow management will determine your burn rate. Whether you can get to cash-flow breakeven or need to raise another round of funding is a direct byproduct of your cash flow management.
Also, raising funding takes time (most successful fundraising cycles take 3-6 months start-to-finish), and time at a startup is in short supply. Constantly trying to raise funding can take away from product development and pursuing growth opportunities. If you’re not successful in raising funding, you then have to either shut down or find an alternate method of funding the business.
Depending on the stage of the company, type of company, and other factors, you may have access to different sources of funding. Let’s list a number of them:
Sales — the best kind of funding. It is non-dilutive, doesn’t have to be paid back, and is a direct metric of the success of your company.
Pre-Sales — some customers may be willing to pay you for a product in beta, a test, or pre-pay for a product they’ll receive when finished. Pre-Sales income also is great because it shares the characteristics of cash from sales, but you get the cash early. It also can be a good sign that the product you’re building fills a market need. We started charging for Backblaze computer backup while it was still in private beta, which allowed us to not only collect cash from customers, but also test the billing experience and users’ real desire for the service.
Services — if you’re a service company and customers are paying you for that, great. You can effectively scale for the number of hours available in a day. As demand grows, you can add more employees to increase the total number of billable hours.
Note: If you’re a product company and customers are paying you to consult, that can provide much needed cash, and could provide feedback toward the right product. However, it can also distract from your core business, send you down a path where you’re building a product for a single customer, and addict you to a path that prevents you from building a scalable business.
Yourself — you likely are putting your time into the business, and deferring salary in the process. You may also put your own cash into the business either as an investment or a loan.
Angels — angels are ideal as early investors since they are used to investing in businesses with little to no traction. AngelList is a good place to find them, though finding people you’re connected with through someone that knows you well is best.
Crowdfunding — a component of the JOBS Act permitted entrepreneurs to raise money from nearly anyone since May 2016. The SEC imposes limits on both investors and the companies. This article goes into some depth on the options and sites available.
VCs — VCs are ideal for companies that need to raise at least a few million dollars and intend to build a business that will be worth over $1 billion.
Friends & Family — F&F are often the first people to give you money because they are investing in you. It’s great to have some early supporters, but it also can be risky to take money from people who aren’t used to the risks. The key advice here is to only take money from people who won’t mind losing it. If someone is talking about using their children’s college funds or borrowing from their 401k, say ‘no thank you’ — even if they’re sure they want to loan you money.
Bank Loans — a variety of loan types exist, but most either require the company to have been operational for a couple years, be able to borrow against money the company has or is making, or be able to get a personal guarantee from the founders whereby their own credit is on the line. Fundera provides a good overview of loan options and can help secure some, but most will not be an option for a brand new startup.
Government — in some areas there is the potential for government grants to facilitate research. The SBIR program facilitates some such grants.
At Backblaze, we used a number of these options:
The variety and quantity of sources we used is by no means uncommon.
Most companies start tracking financials based on cash, and as they scale they switch to GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). Cash is easier to track — we got paid $XXXX and spent $YYY — and as often mentioned, is required for the business to stay alive. GAAP has more subtlety and complexity, but provides a clearer picture of how the business is really doing. Backblaze was on a ‘cash’ system for the first few years, then switched to GAAP. For this post, I’m going to focus on things that help cash flow, not GAAP profitability.
In a pure service business (e.g. solo proprietor law firm), you may have no expenses other than your time, so this stage doesn’t exist. However, in a product business there is a period of time where you are building the product and have nothing to sell. You have zero cash coming in, but have cash going out. Your cash-flow is completely negative and you need funds to cover that.
Starting to see cash come in from customers is thrilling. I initially had our system set up to email me with every $5 payment we received. You’re making sales, but not covering expenses.
But it takes a lot of $5 payments to pay for servers and salaries, so for a while expenses are likely to outstrip sales. Getting to ramen-profitable is a critical stage where sales cover the business expenses and are “paying enough for the founders to eat ramen.” This extends the runway for a business, but is not completely sustainable, since presumably the founders can’t (or won’t) live forever on a subsistence salary.
This is the ultimate stage whereby the business is truly profitable, including paying everyone market-rate salaries. A business at this stage is self-sustaining. (Of course, market shifts and plenty of other challenges can kill the business, but cash-flow issues alone will not.)
Note, I’m using the word ‘profitable’ here to mean this is still on a cash-basis.
Backblaze was in the all-spend stage for just over a year, during which time we built the service and hadn’t yet made the service available to customers. Backblaze was in the sales-generating stage for nearly another year before the company was barely ramen-profitable where sales were covering the company expenses and paying the founders minimum wage. (I say ‘barely’ since minimum wage in the SF Bay Area is arguably never subsistence.) It took almost three more years before the company was business-profitable, paying everyone including the founders market-rate.
When raising funding it’s helpful to think of milestones reached. You don’t necessarily need enough cash on day one to last for the next 100 years of the company. Some good milestones to consider are how much cash you need to prove there is a market need, prove you can build a product to meet that need, or get to ramen-profitable.
Two things to consider:
If your product is 100% software, this may not be relevant. Once software is built it costs effectively nothing to deliver the product to one customer or one million customers. However, in most businesses there is some incremental cost to provide the product. If you’re selling a hardware device, perhaps you sell it for $100 but it costs you $50 to make it. This is called “COGS” (Cost of Goods Sold).
Many products rely on cloud services where the costs scale with growth. That model works great, but it’s still important to understand what the costs are for the cloud service you use per unit of product you sell.
Support is often done by the founders early-on in a business, but that is another real cost to factor in and estimate on a per-user basis. Taking all of the per unit costs combined, you may charge $10/month/user for your service, but if it costs you $7/month/user in cloud services, you’re only netting $3/month/user.
These are expenses that don’t scale with the number of product units you sell. Typically this includes research & development, sales & marketing, and general & administrative expenses. Presumably there is a certain level of these functions required to build the product, market it, sell it, and run the organization. You can choose to invest or cut back on these, but you’ll still make the same amount per product unit.
If you’ve calculated your COGS and your unit economics are “upside down,” where the amount you charge is less than that it costs you to provide your service, it’s worth thinking hard about how that’s going to change over time. If it will not change, there is no scale that will make the business work. Presuming you do make money on each unit of product you sell — what is sometimes referred to as “Contribution Margin” — consider how many of those product units you need to sell to cover your operating expenses as described above.
The math on getting to ramen-profitable is simple:
(Number of Product Units Sold x Contribution Margin) - Operating Expenses = Profit
If your operating expenses include subsistence salaries for the founders and profit > $0, you’re ramen-profitable.
Having access to sources of cash, whether from selling to customers or other methods, is excellent. But needing less cash gives you more choices and allows you to either dilute less, owe less, or invest more.
There are two ways to improve cash flow:
The best way to collect more cash is to provide more value to your customers and as a result have them pay you more. Additional features/products/services can allow this. However, you can also collect more cash by changing how you charge for your product. If you have a subscription, changing from charging monthly to yearly dramatically improves your cash flow. If you have a product that customers use up, selling a year’s supply instead of selling them one-by-one can help.
Reducing COGS is a fantastic way to spend less cash in a scalable way. If you can do this without harming the product or customer experience, you win. There are a myriad of ways to also reduce operating expenses, including taking sub-market salaries, using your home instead of renting office space, staying focused on your core product, etc.
Ultimately, collecting more and spending less cash dramatically simplifies the process of getting to ramen-profitable and later to business-profitable.
A word of caution: while running out of cash will put you out of business immediately, overextending yourself will likely put you out of business not much later. GAAP shows how a business is really doing; cash doesn’t. If you only focus on cash, it is possible to commit yourself to both delivering products and repaying loans in the future in an unsustainable fashion. If you’re taking out loans, watch the total balance and monthly payments you’re committing to. If you’re asking customers for pre-payment, make sure you believe you can deliver on what they’ve paid for.
There are numerous challenges to building a business, and ensuring you have enough cash is amongst the most important. Having the cash to keep going lets you keep working on all of the other challenges. The frameworks above were critical for maintaining Backblaze’s cash flow and cash balance. Hopefully you can take some of the lessons we learned and apply them to your business. Let us know what works for you in the comments below.
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