Tag Archives: AWS re:Invent

Understanding memory usage in your Java application with Amazon CodeGuru Profiler

Post Syndicated from Fernando Ciciliati original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/understanding-memory-usage-in-your-java-application-with-amazon-codeguru-profiler/

“Where has all that free memory gone?” This is the question we ask ourselves every time our application emits that dreaded OutOfMemoyError just before it crashes. Amazon CodeGuru Profiler can help you find the answer.

Thanks to its brand-new memory profiling capabilities, troubleshooting and resolving memory issues in Java applications (or almost anything that runs on the JVM) is much easier. AWS launched the CodeGuru Profiler Heap Summary feature at re:Invent 2020. This is the first step in helping us, developers, understand what our software is doing with all that memory it uses.

The Heap Summary view shows a list of Java classes and data types present in the Java Virtual Machine heap, alongside the amount of memory they’re retaining and the number of instances they represent. The following screenshot shows an example of this view.

Amazon CodeGuru Profiler heap summary view example

Figure: Amazon CodeGuru Profiler Heap Summary feature

Because CodeGuru Profiler is a low-overhead, production profiling service designed to be always on, it can capture and represent how memory utilization varies over time, providing helpful visual hints about the object types and the data types that exhibit a growing trend in memory consumption.

In the preceding screenshot, we can see that several lines on the graph are trending upwards:

  • The red top line, horizontal and flat, shows how much memory has been reserved as heap space in the JVM. In this case, we see a heap size of 512 MB, which can usually be configured in the JVM with command line parameters like -Xmx.
  • The second line from the top, blue, represents the total memory in use in the heap, independent of their type.
  • The third, fourth, and fifth lines show how much memory space each specific type has been using historically in the heap. We can easily spot that java.util.LinkedHashMap$Entry and java.lang.UUID display growing trends, whereas byte[] has a flat line and seems stable in memory usage.

Types that exhibit constantly growing trend of memory utilization with time deserve a closer look. Profiler helps you focus your attention on these cases. Associating the information presented by the Profiler with your own knowledge of your application and code base, you can evaluate whether the amount of memory being used for a specific data type can be considered normal, or if it might be a memory leak – the unintentional holding of memory by an application due to the failure in freeing-up unused objects. In our example above, java.util.LinkedHashMap$Entry and java.lang.UUIDare good candidates for investigation.

To make this functionality available to customers, CodeGuru Profiler uses the power of Java Flight Recorder (JFR), which is now openly available with Java 8 (since OpenJDK release 262) and above. The Amazon CodeGuru Profiler agent for Java, which already does an awesome job capturing data about CPU utilization, has been extended to periodically collect memory retention metrics from JFR and submit them for processing and visualization via Amazon CodeGuru Profiler. Thanks to its high stability and low overhead, the Profiler agent can be safely deployed to services in production, because it is exactly there, under real workloads, that really interesting memory issues are most likely to show up.

Summary

For more information about CodeGuru Profiler and other AI-powered services in the Amazon CodeGuru family, see Amazon CodeGuru. If you haven’t tried the CodeGuru Profiler yet, start your 90-day free trial right now and understand why continuous profiling is becoming a must-have in every production environment. For Amazon CodeGuru customers who are already enjoying the benefits of always-on profiling, this new feature is available at no extra cost. Just update your Profiler agent to version 1.1.0 or newer, and enable Heap Summary in your agent configuration.

 

Happy profiling!

ICYMI: Serverless Q4 2020

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/icymi-serverless-q4-2020/

Welcome to the 12th edition of the AWS Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap. Every quarter, we share all of the most recent product launches, feature enhancements, blog posts, webinars, Twitch live streams, and other interesting things that you might have missed!

ICYMI Q4 calendar

In case you missed our last ICYMI, check out what happened last quarter here.

AWS re:Invent

re:Invent 2020 banner

re:Invent was entirely virtual in 2020 and free to all attendees. The conference had a record number of registrants and featured over 700 sessions. The serverless developer advocacy team presented a number of talks to help developers build their skills. These are now available on-demand:

AWS Lambda

There were three major Lambda announcements at re:Invent. Lambda duration billing changed granularity from 100 ms to 1 ms, which is shown in the December billing statement. All functions benefit from this change automatically, and it’s especially beneficial for sub-100ms Lambda functions.

Lambda has also increased the maximum memory available to 10 GB. Since memory also controls CPU allocation in Lambda, this means that functions now have up to 6 vCPU cores available for processing. Finally, Lambda now supports container images as a packaging format, enabling teams to use familiar container tooling, such as Docker CLI. Container images are stored in Amazon ECR.

There were three feature releases that make it easier for developers working on data processing workloads. Lambda now supports self-hosted Kafka as an event source, allowing you to source events from on-premises or instance-based Kafka clusters. You can also process streaming analytics with tumbling windows and use custom checkpoints for processing batches with failed messages.

We launched Lambda Extensions in preview, enabling you to more easily integrate monitoring, security, and governance tools into Lambda functions. You can also build your own extensions that run code during Lambda lifecycle events. See this example extensions repo for starting development.

You can now send logs from Lambda functions to custom destinations by using Lambda Extensions and the new Lambda Logs API. Previously, you could only forward logs after they were written to Amazon CloudWatch Logs. Now, logging tools can receive log streams directly from the Lambda execution environment. This makes it easier to use your preferred tools for log management and analysis, including Datadog, Lumigo, New Relic, Coralogix, Honeycomb, or Sumo Logic.

Lambda Logs API architecture

Lambda launched support for Amazon MQ as an event source. Amazon MQ is a managed broker service for Apache ActiveMQ that simplifies deploying and scaling queues. The event source operates in a similar way to using Amazon SQS or Amazon Kinesis. In all cases, the Lambda service manages an internal poller to invoke the target Lambda function.

Lambda announced support for AWS PrivateLink. This allows you to invoke Lambda functions from a VPC without traversing the public internet. It provides private connectivity between your VPCs and AWS services. By using VPC endpoints to access the Lambda API from your VPC, this can replace the need for an Internet Gateway or NAT Gateway.

For developers building machine learning inferencing, media processing, high performance computing (HPC), scientific simulations, and financial modeling in Lambda, you can now use AVX2 support to help reduce duration and lower cost. In this blog post’s example, enabling AVX2 for an image-processing function increased performance by 32-43%.

Lambda now supports batch windows of up to 5 minutes when using SQS as an event source. This is useful for workloads that are not time-sensitive, allowing developers to reduce the number of Lambda invocations from queues. Additionally, the batch size has been increased from 10 to 10,000. This is now the same batch size as Kinesis as an event source, helping Lambda-based applications process more data per invocation.

Code signing is now available for Lambda, using AWS Signer. This allows account administrators to ensure that Lambda functions only accept signed code for deployment. You can learn more about using this new feature in the developer documentation.

AWS Step Functions

Synchronous Express Workflows have been launched for AWS Step Functions, providing a new way to run high-throughput Express Workflows. This feature allows developers to receive workflow responses without needing to poll services or build custom solutions. This is useful for high-volume microservice orchestration and fast compute tasks communicating via HTTPS.

The Step Functions service recently added support for other AWS services in workflows. You can now integrate API Gateway REST and HTTP APIs. This enables you to call API Gateway directly from a state machine as an asynchronous service integration.

Step Functions now also supports Amazon EKS service integration. This allows you to build workflows with steps that synchronously launch tasks in EKS and wait for a response. The service also announced support for Amazon Athena, so workflows can now query data in your S3 data lakes.

Amazon API Gateway

API Gateway now supports mutual TLS authentication, which is commonly used for business-to-business applications and standards such as Open Banking. This is provided at no additional cost. You can now also disable the default REST API endpoint when deploying APIs using custom domain names.

HTTP APIs now supports service integrations with Step Functions Synchronous Express Workflows. This is a result of the service team’s work to add the most popular features of REST APIs to HTTP APIs.

AWS X-Ray

X-Ray now integrates with Amazon S3 to trace upstream requests. If a Lambda function uses the X-Ray SDK, S3 sends tracing headers to downstream event subscribers. This allows you to use the X-Ray service map to view connections between S3 and other services used to process an application request.

X-Ray announced support for end-to-end tracing in Step Functions to make it easier to trace requests across multiple AWS services. It also launched X-Ray Insights in preview, which generates actionable insights based on anomalies detected in an application. For Java developers, the services released an auto-instrumentation agent, for collecting instrumentation without modifying existing code.

Additionally, the AWS Distro for Open Telemetry is now in preview. OpenTelemetry is a collaborative effort by tracing solution providers to create common approaches to instrumentation.

Amazon EventBridge

You can now use event replay to archive and replay events with Amazon EventBridge. After configuring an archive, EventBridge automatically stores all events or filtered events, based upon event pattern matching logic. Event replay can help with testing new features or changes in your code, or hydrating development or test environments.

EventBridge archive and replay

EventBridge also launched resource policies that simplify managing access to events across multiple AWS accounts. Resource policies provide a powerful mechanism for modeling event buses across multiple account and providing fine-grained access control to EventBridge API actions.

EventBridge resource policies

EventBridge announced support for Server-Side Encryption (SSE). Events are encrypted using AES-256 at no additional cost for customers. EventBridge also increased PutEvent quotas to 10,000 transactions per second in US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), and Europe (Ireland). This helps support workloads with high throughput.

Developer tools

The AWS SDK for JavaScript v3 was launched and includes first-class TypeScript support and a modular architecture. This makes it easier to import only the services needed to minimize deployment package sizes.

The AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) is an AWS CloudFormation extension that makes it easier to build, manage, and maintain serverless applications. The latest versions include support for cached and parallel builds, together with container image support for Lambda functions.

You can use AWS SAM in the new AWS CloudShell, which provides a browser-based shell in the AWS Management Console. This can help run a subset of AWS SAM CLI commands as an alternative to using a dedicated instance or AWS Cloud9 terminal.

AWS CloudShell

Amazon SNS

Amazon SNS announced support for First-In-First-Out (FIFO) topics. These are used with SQS FIFO queues for applications that require strict message ordering with exactly once processing and message deduplication.

Amazon DynamoDB

Developers can now use PartiQL, an SQL-compatible query language, with DynamoDB tables, bringing familiar SQL syntax to NoSQL data. You can also choose to use Kinesis Data Streams to capture changes to tables.

For customers using DynamoDB global tables, you can now use your own encryption keys. While all data in DynamoDB is encrypted by default, this feature enables you to use customer managed keys (CMKs). DynamoDB also announced the ability to export table data to data lakes in Amazon S3. This enables you to use services like Amazon Athena and AWS Lake Formation to analyze DynamoDB data with no custom code required.

AWS Amplify and AWS AppSync

You can now use existing Amazon Cognito user pools and identity pools for Amplify projects, making it easier to build new applications for an existing user base. With the new AWS Amplify Admin UI, you can configure application backends without using the AWS Management Console.

AWS AppSync enabled AWS WAF integration, making it easier to protect GraphQL APIs against common web exploits. You can also implement rate-based rules to help slow down brute force attacks. Using AWS Managed Rules for AWS WAF provides a faster way to configure application protection without creating the rules directly.

Serverless Posts

October

November

December

Tech Talks & Events

We hold AWS Online Tech Talks covering serverless topics throughout the year. These are listed in the Serverless section of the AWS Online Tech Talks page. We also regularly deliver talks at conferences and events around the world, speak on podcasts, and record videos you can find to learn in bite-sized chunks.

Here are some from Q4:

Videos

October:

November:

December:

There are also other helpful videos covering Serverless available on the Serverless Land YouTube channel.

The Serverless Land website

Serverless Land website

To help developers find serverless learning resources, we have curated a list of serverless blogs, videos, events, and training programs at a new site, Serverless Land. This is regularly updated with new information – you can subscribe to the RSS feed for automatic updates or follow the LinkedIn page.

Still looking for more?

The Serverless landing page has lots of information. The Lambda resources page contains case studies, webinars, whitepapers, customer stories, reference architectures, and even more Getting Started tutorials.

You can also follow all of us on Twitter to see latest news, follow conversations, and interact with the team.

Amazon Location – Add Maps and Location Awareness to Your Applications

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-location-add-maps-and-location-awareness-to-your-applications/

We want to make it easier and more cost-effective for you to add maps, location awareness, and other location-based features to your web and mobile applications. Until now, doing this has been somewhat complex and expensive, and also tied you to the business and programming models of a single provider.

Introducing Amazon Location Service
Today we are making Amazon Location available in preview form and you can start using it today. Priced at a fraction of common alternatives, Amazon Location Service gives you access to maps and location-based services from multiple providers on an economical, pay-as-you-go basis.

You can use Amazon Location Service to build applications that know where they are and respond accordingly. You can display maps, validate addresses, perform geocoding (turn an address into a location), track the movement of packages and devices, and much more. You can easily set up geofences and receive notifications when tracked items enter or leave a geofenced area. You can even overlay your own data on the map while retaining full control.

You can access Amazon Location Service from the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), or via a set of APIs. You can also use existing map libraries such as Mapbox GL and Tangram.

All About Amazon Location
Let’s take a look at the types of resources that Amazon Location Service makes available to you, and then talk about how you can use them in your applications.

MapsAmazon Location Service lets you create maps that make use of data from our partners. You can choose between maps and map styles provided by Esri and by HERE Technologies, with the potential for more maps & more styles from these and other partners in the future. After you create a map, you can retrieve a tile (at one of up to 16 zoom levels) using the GetMapTile function. You won’t do this directly, but will use Mapbox GL, Tangram, or another library instead.

Place Indexes – You can choose between indexes provided by Esri and HERE. The indexes support the SearchPlaceIndexForPosition function which returns places, such as residential addresses or points of interest (often known as POI) that are closest to the position that you supply, while also performing reverse geocoding to turn the position (a pair of coordinates) into a legible address. Indexes also support the SearchPlaceIndexForText function, which searches for addresses, businesses, and points of interest using free-form text such as an address, a name, a city, or a region.

Trackers –Trackers receive location updates from one or more devices via the BatchUpdateDevicePosition function, and can be queried for the current position (GetDevicePosition) or location history (GetDevicePositionHistory) of a device. Trackers can also be linked to Geofence Collections to implement monitoring of devices as they move in and out of geofences.

Geofence Collections – Each collection contains a list of geofences that define geographic boundaries. Here’s a geofence (created with geojson.io) that outlines a park near me:

Amazon Location in Action
I can use the AWS Management Console to get started with Amazon Location and then move on to the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) or the APIs if necessary. I open the Amazon Location Service Console, and I can either click Try it! to create a set of starter resources, or I can open up the navigation on the left and create them one-by-one. I’ll go for one-by-one, and click Maps:

Then I click Create map to proceed:

I enter a Name and a Description:

Then I choose the desired map and click Create map:

The map is created and ready to be added to my application right away:

Now I am ready to embed the map in my application, and I have several options including the Amplify JavaScript SDK, the Amplify Android SDK, the Amplify iOS SDK, Tangram, and Mapbox GL (read the Developer Guide to learn more about each option).

Next, I want to track the position of devices so that I can be notified when they enter or exit a given region. I use a GeoJSON editing tool such as geojson.io to create a geofence that is built from polygons, and save (download) the resulting file:

I click Create geofence collection in the left-side navigation, and in Step 1, I add my GeoJSON file, enter a Name and Description, and click Next:

Now I enter a Name and a Description for my tracker, and click Next. It will be linked to the geofence collection that I just created:

The next step is to arrange for the tracker to send events to Amazon EventBridge so that I can monitor them in CloudWatch Logs. I leave the settings as-is, and click Next to proceed:

I review all of my choices, and click Finalize to move ahead:

The resources are created, set up, and ready to go:

I can then write code or use the CLI to update the positions of my devices:

$ aws location batch-update-device-position \
   --tracker-name MyTracker1 \
   --updates "DeviceId=Jeff1,Position=-122.33805,47.62748,SampleTime=2020-11-05T02:59:07+0000"

After I do this a time or two, I can retrieve the position history for the device:

$ aws location get-device-position-history \
  -tracker-name MyTracker1 --device-id Jeff1
------------------------------------------------
|           GetDevicePositionHistory           |
+----------------------------------------------+
||               DevicePositions              ||
|+---------------+----------------------------+|
||  DeviceId     |  Jeff1                     ||
||  ReceivedTime |  2020-11-05T02:59:17.246Z  ||
||  SampleTime   |  2020-11-05T02:59:07Z      ||
|+---------------+----------------------------+|
|||                 Position                 |||
||+------------------------------------------+||
|||  -122.33805                              |||
|||  47.62748                                |||
||+------------------------------------------+||
||               DevicePositions              ||
|+---------------+----------------------------+|
||  DeviceId     |  Jeff1                     ||
||  ReceivedTime |  2020-11-05T03:02:08.002Z  ||
||  SampleTime   |  2020-11-05T03:01:29Z      ||
|+---------------+----------------------------+|
|||                 Position                 |||
||+------------------------------------------+||
|||  -122.43805                              |||
|||  47.52748                                |||
||+------------------------------------------+||

I can write Amazon EventBridge rules that watch for the events, and use them to perform any desired processing. Events are published when a device enters or leaves a geofenced area, and look like this:

{
  "version": "0",
  "id": "7cb6afa8-cbf0-e1d9-e585-fd5169025ee0",
  "detail-type": "Location Geofence Event",
  "source": "aws.geo",
  "account": "123456789012",
  "time": "2020-11-05T02:59:17.246Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "resources": [
    "arn:aws:geo:us-east-1:123456789012:geofence-collection/MyGeoFences1",
    "arn:aws:geo:us-east-1:123456789012:tracker/MyTracker1"
  ],
  "detail": {
        "EventType": "ENTER",
        "GeofenceId": "LakeUnionPark",
        "DeviceId": "Jeff1",
        "SampleTime": "2020-11-05T02:59:07Z",
        "Position": [-122.33805, 47.52748]
  }
}

Finally, I can create and use place indexes so that I can work with geographical objects. I’ll use the CLI for a change of pace. I create the index:

$ aws location create-place-index \
  --index-name MyIndex1 --data-source Here

Then I query it to find the addresses and points of interest near the location:

$ aws location search-place-index-for-position --index-name MyIndex1 \
  --position "[-122.33805,47.62748]" --output json \
  |  jq .Results[].Place.Label
"Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"900 Westlake Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109-3523, United States"
"851 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109-4348, United States"
"860 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109-4330, United States"
"Seattle Fireboat Duwamish, 860 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109-4330, United States"
"824 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109-4330, United States"
"9th Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
...

I can also do a text-based search:

$ aws location search-place-index-for-text --index-name MyIndex1 \
  --text Coffee --bias-position "[-122.33805,47.62748]" \
  --output json | jq .Results[].Place.Label
"Mohai Cafe, 860 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Starbucks, 1200 Westlake Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Metropolitan Deli and Cafe, 903 Dexter Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Top Pot Doughnuts, 590 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Caffe Umbria, 1201 Westlake Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Starbucks, 515 Westlake Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Cafe 815 Mercer, 815 9th Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Victrola Coffee Roasters, 500 Boren Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
"Specialty's, 520 Terry Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, United States"
...

Both of the searches have other options; read the Geocoding, Reverse Geocoding, and Search to learn more.

Things to Know
Amazon Location is launching today as a preview, and you can get started with it right away. During the preview we plan to add an API for routing, and will also do our best to respond to customer feedback and feature requests as they arrive.

Pricing is based on usage, with an initial evaluation period that lasts for three months and lets you make numerous calls to the Amazon Location APIs at no charge. After the evaluation period you pay the prices listed on the Amazon Location Pricing page.

Amazon Location is available in the US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), Europe (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Regions.

Jeff;

 

New –  FreeRTOS Long Term Support to Provide Years of Feature Stability

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-freertos-long-term-support-to-provide-years-of-feature-stability/

Today, I’m particularly happy to announce FreeRTOS Long Term Support (LTS). FreeRTOS is an open source, real-time operating system for microcontrollers that makes small, low-power edge devices easy to program, deploy, secure, connect, and manage. LTS releases offer a more stable foundation than standard releases as manufacturers deploy and later update devices in the field. As we have planned, LTS is now included in the FreeRTOS kernel and a set of FreeRTOS libraries needed for embedded and IoT applications, and for securely connecting microcontroller-based (MCU) devices to the cloud.

Embedded developers at original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and MCU vendors using FreeRTOS to build long-lived applications on IoT devices now get the predictability and feature stability of an LTS release without compromising access to critical security updates. The FreeRTOS 202012.00 LTS release applies to the FreeRTOS kernel, connectivity libraries (FreeRTOS+TCP, coreMQTT, coreHTTP), security library (PKCS #11 implementation), and AWS library (AWS IoT Device Shadow).

We will provide security updates and critical bug fixes for all these libraries until December 31, 2022.

Benefits of FreeRTOS LTS
Embedded developers at OEMs who want to use FreeRTOS libraries for their long-lived applications want to benefit from security updates and bug fixes in the latest FreeRTOS mainline releases. Mainline releases can introduce both new features and critical fixes, which may increase time and effort for users to include only fixes.

An LTS release provides years of feature stability of included libraries. With an LTS release, any update will not change public APIs, file structure, or build processes that could require changes to your application. Security updates and critical bug fixes will be backported at least until Dec 31, 2022. LTS releases contain updates that only address critical issues including security vulnerabilities. Therefore, the integration of LTS releases is less disruptive to customers’ development and integration efforts as they approach and move into production. For MCU vendors, this means reduced effort in integrating a stable code base and faster time to market with vendors’ latest libraries.

Available Now
The FreeRTOS 202012.00 LTS release is available now to download. To learn more, visit FreeRTOS LTS and the documentation. Please send us feedback on the Github repository and the forum of FreeRTOS.

Channy

Announcing AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 – With an Open Source Edge Runtime and New Developer Capabilities

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/announcing-aws-iot-greengrass-2-0-with-an-open-source-edge-runtime-and-new-developer-capabilities/

I am happy to announce AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0, a new version of AWS IoT Greengrass that makes it easy for device builders to build, deploy, and manage intelligent device software. AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 provides an open source edge runtime, a rich set of pre-built software components, tools for local software development, and new features for managing software on large fleets of devices.

 

AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 edge runtime is now open source under an Apache 2.0 license, and available on Github. Access to the source code allows you to more easily integrate your applications, troubleshoot problems, and build more reliable and performant applications that use AWS IoT Greengrass.

You can add or remove pre-built software components based on your IoT use case and your device’s CPU and memory resources. For example, you can choose to include pre-built AWS IoT Greengrass components such as stream manager only when you need to process data streams with your application, or machine learning components only when you want to perform machine learning inference locally on your devices.

The AWS IoT Greengrass IoT Greengrass 2.0 includes a new command-line interface (CLI) that allows you to locally develop and debug applications on your device. In addition, there is a new local debug console that helps you visually debug applications on your device. With these new capabilities, you can rapidly develop and debug code on a test device before using the cloud to deploy to your production devices.

AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 is also integrated with AWS IoT thing groups, enabling you to easily organize your devices in groups and manage application deployments across your devices with features to control rollout rates, timeouts, and rollbacks.

AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 – Getting Started
Device builders can use AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 by going to the AWS IoT Greengrass console where you can find a download and install command that you run on your device. Once the installer is downloaded to the device, you can use it to install Greengrass software with all essential features, register the device as an AWS IoT Thing, and create a simple “hello world” software component in less than 10 minutes.

To get started in the AWS IoT Greengrass console, you first register a test device by clicking Set up core device. You assign the name and group of your core device. To deploy to only the core device, select No group. In the next step, install the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software in your device.

When the installer completes, you can find your device in the list of AWS IoT Greengrass Core devices on the Core devices page.

AWS IoT Greengrass components enable you to develop and deploy software to your AWS IoT Greengrass Core devices. You can write your application functionality and bundle it as a private component for deployment. AWS IoT Greengrass also provides public components, which provide pre-built software for common use cases that you can deploy to your devices as you develop your device software. When you finish developing the software for your component, you can register it with AWS IoT Greengrass. Then, you can deploy and run the component on your AWS IoT Greengrass Core devices.

 

To create a component, click the Create component button on the Components page. You can use a recipe or import an AWS Lambda function. The component recipe is a YAML or JSON file that defines the component’s details, dependencies, compatibility, and lifecycle. To learn about the specifications, visit the recipe reference guide.

Here is an example of a YAML recipe.

When you finish developing your component, you can add it to a deployment configuration to deploy to one or more core devices. To create a new deployment or configure the components to deploy to core devices, click the Create button on the Deployments page. You can deploy to a core device or a thing group as a target, and select the components to deploy. The deployment includes the dependencies for each component that you select.

 

You can edit the version and parameters of selected components and advanced settings such as the rollout configuration, which defines the rate at which the configuration deploys to the target devices; timeout configuration, which defines the duration that each device has to apply the deployment; or cancel configuration, which defines when to automatically stop the deployment.

Moving to AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0
Existing devices running AWS IoT Greengrass 1.x will continue to run without any changes. If you want to take advantage of new AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 features, you will need to move your existing AWS IoT Greengrass 1.x devices and workloads to AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0. To learn how to do this, visit the migration guide.

After you move your 1.x applications over, you can start adding components to your applications using new version 2 features, while leaving your version 1 code as-is until you decide to update them.

AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 Partners
At launch, industry-leading partners NVIDIA and NXP have qualified a number of their devices for AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0:

See all partner device listings in the AWS Partner Device Catalog. To learn about getting your device qualified, visit the AWS Device Qualification Program.

Available Now
AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 is available today. Please see the AWS Region table for all the regions where AWS IoT Greengrass is available. For more information, see the developer guide.

Starting today, to help you evaluate, test, and develop with this new release of AWS IoT Greengrass, the first 1,000 devices in your account will not incur any AWS IoT Greengrass charges until December 31, 2021. For pricing information, check out the AWS IoT Greengrass pricing page.

Give it a try, and please send us feedback through your usual AWS Support contacts or the AWS forum for AWS IoT Greengrass.

Learn all the details about AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 and get started with the new version today.

Channy

New – AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN to Connect, Manage, and Secure LoRaWAN Devices at Scale

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-iot-core-for-lorawan-to-connect-manage-and-secure-lorawan-devices-at-scale/

Today, I am happy to announce AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN, a new fully-managed feature that allows AWS IoT Core customers to connect and manage wireless devices that use low-power long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) connectivity with the AWS Cloud.

Using AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN, customers can now set up a private LoRaWAN network by connecting their own LoRaWAN devices and gateways to the AWS Cloud – without developing or operating a LoRaWAN Network Server (LNS) by themselves. The LNS is required to manage LoRaWAN devices and gateways’ connection to the cloud; gateways serve as a bridge and carry device data to and from the LNS, usually over Wi-Fi or Ethernet.

This allows customers to eliminate the undifferentiated work and operational burden of managing an LNS, and enables them to easily and quickly connect and secure LoRaWAN device fleets at scale.

Combined with the long range and deep in-building coverage provided by LoRa technology, AWS IoT Core now enables customers to accelerate IoT application development using AWS services and acting on the data generated easily from connected LoRaWAN devices.

Customers – mostly enterprises – need to develop IoT applications using devices that transmit data over long range (1-3 miles of urban coverage or up to 10 miles for line-of-sight) or through the walls and floors of buildings, for example for real-time asset tracking at airports, remote temperature monitoring in buildings, or predictive maintenance of industrial equipment. Such applications also require devices to be optimized for low-power consumption, so that batteries can last several years without replacement, thus making the implementation cost-effective. Given the extended coverage of LoRaWAN connectivity, it is attractive to enterprises for these use cases, but setting up LoRaWAN connectivity in a privately managed site requires customers to operate an LNS.

With AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN, you can connect LoRaWAN devices and gateways to the cloud with a few simple steps in the AWS IoT Management Console, thus speeding up the network setup time, and connect off-the-shelf LoRaWAN devices, without any requirement to modify embedded software, for a plug and play experience.

AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN – Getting Started
Getting started with a LoRaWAN network setup is easy. You can find AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN qualified gateways and developer kits from the AWS Partner Device Catalog. AWS qualified gateways and developer kits are pre-tested and come with a step by step guide from the manufacturer on how to connect it with AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN.

With AWS IoT Core console, you can register the gateways by providing a gateway’s unique identifier (provided by the gateway vendor) and selecting LoRa frequency band. For registering devices, you can input device credentials (identifiers and security keys provided by the device vendor) on the console.

Each device has a Device Profile that specifies the device capabilities and boot parameters the LNS requires to set up LoRaWAN radio access service. Using the console, you can select a pre-populated Device Profile or create a new one.

A destination automatically routes messages from LoRaWAN devices to AWS IoT Rules Engine. Once a destination is created, you can use it to map multiple LoRaWAN devices to the same IoT rule. You can write rules using simple SQL queries, to transform and act on the device data, like converting data from proprietary binary to JSON format, raising alerts, or routing it to other AWS services like Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). From the console, you can also query metrics for connected devices and gateways to troubleshoot connectivity issues.

Available Now
AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN is available today in US East (N. Virginia) and Europe (Ireland) Regions. With pay-as-you-go pricing and no monthly commitments, you can connect and scale LoRaWAN device fleets reliably, and build applications with AWS services quickly and efficiently. For more information, see the pricing page.

To get started, buy an AWS qualified LoRaWAN developer kit and and launch Getting Started experience in the AWS Management Console. To learn more, visit the developer guide. Give this a try, and please send us feedback either through your usual AWS Support contacts or the AWS forum for AWS IoT.

Learn all the details about AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN and get started with the new feature today.

Channy

Announcing Amazon Managed Service for Grafana (in Preview)

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/announcing-amazon-managed-grafana-service-in-preview/

Today, in partnership with Grafana Labs, we are excited to announce in preview, Amazon Managed Service for Grafana (AMG), a fully managed service that makes it easy to create on-demand, scalable, and secure Grafana workspaces to visualize and analyze your data from multiple sources.

Grafana is one of the most popular open source technologies used to create observability dashboards for your applications. It has a pluggable data source model and support for different kinds of time series databases and cloud monitoring vendors. Grafana centralizes your application data from multiple open-source, cloud, and third-party data sources.

Many of our customers love Grafana, but don’t want the burden of self-hosting and managing it. AMG manages the provisioning, setup, scaling, version upgrades and security patching of Grafana, eliminating the need for customers to do it themselves. AMG automatically scales to support thousands of users with high availability.

With AMG, you will get a fully managed and secure data visualization service where you can query, correlate, and visualize operational metrics, logs and traces across multiple data sources including cloud services such as AWS, Google, and Microsoft. AMG is integrated with AWS data sources, such as Amazon CloudWatch, Amazon Elasticsearch Service, AWS X-Ray, AWS IoT SiteWise, Amazon Timestream, and others to collect operational data in a simple way. Additionally, AMG also provides plug-ins to connect to popular third-party data sources, such as Datadog, Splunk, ServiceNow, and New Relic by upgrading to Grafana Enterprise directly from the AWS Console.

Screenshot for creating and configuring a managed Grafana workspace

AMG integrates directly into your AWS Organizations. You can define a AMG workspace in one AWS account that allows you to discover and access datasources in all your accounts and regions across your AWS organization. Creating dashboards in Grafana is easy as all these different datasources are discoverable in one place.

Customers really like Grafana for the ease of creating dashboards, it comes with many built-in dashboards to use when you add a new data source, or you can take advantage of its broad community of pre-built dashboards. For example, you can see in the following image a really nice dashboard that AMG created for me from one of my AWS Lambda function.

Screenshot of an automatic dashboard for Lambda function

One of my favorite things from AMG is the built-in security features. You can easily enable single sign-on using AWS Single Sign-On, restrict access to data sources and dashboards to the right users, and access audit logs via AWS CloudTrail for your hosted Grafana workspace. With AWS Single Sign-On you can leverage your existing corporate directories to enforce authentication and authorization permissions.

Another powerful feature that AMG has is support for Alerts. AMG integrates with Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) so customers can send Grafana alerts to SNS as a notification destination. It also has support for four other alert destinations including PagerDuty, Slack, VictorOps and OpsGenie.

There are no up-front investments required to use AMG, and you only pay a monthly active user license fee. This means that you can provision many users to access to your Grafana workspace, but will only be billed for active users that log in and use the workspace that month. Users granted access but that do not log in, will not be billed that month. You can also upgrade to Grafana Enterprise using AWS Marketplace, to get access to enterprise plugins, support, and training content directly from Grafana Labs.

Availability

This service is available in US East (N. Virginia) and Europe (Ireland) regions. To learn more visit the AMG service page, and be sure to join our re:Invent session tomorrow 12/16 from 8:00am – 8:30am PST for a demo!

AMG is now available in preview; to get access to this service fill out the registration form here.

Marcia

Join the Preview – Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP)

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/join-the-preview-amazon-managed-service-for-prometheus-amp/

Observability is an essential aspect of running cloud infrastructure at scale. You need to know that your resources are healthy and performing as expected, and that your system is delivering the desired level of performance to your customers.

A lot of challenges arise when monitoring container-based applications. First, because container resources are transient and there are lots of metrics to watch, the monitoring data has strikingly high cardinality. In plain language this means that there are lots of unique values, which can make it harder to define a space-efficient storage model and to create queries that return meaningful results. Second, because a well-architected container-based system is composed using a large number of moving parts, ingesting, processing, and storing the monitoring data can become an infrastructure challenge of its own.

Prometheus is a leading open-source monitoring solution with an active developer and user community. It has a multi-dimensional data model that is a great fit for time series data collected from containers.

Introducing Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP)
Today we are launching a preview of Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP). This fully-managed service is 100% compatible with Prometheus. It supports the same metrics, the same PromQL queries, and can also make use of the 150+ Prometheus exporters. AMP runs across multiple Availability Zones for high availability, and is powered by CNCF Cortex for horizontal scalability. AMP will easily scale to ingest, store, and query millions of time series metrics.

The preview includes support for Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) and Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS). It can also be used to monitor your self-managed Kubernetes clusters that are running in the cloud or on-premises.

Getting Started with Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP)
After joining the preview, I open the AMP Console, enter a name for my AMP workspace, and click Create to get started (API and CLI support is also available):

My workspace is active within a minute or so. The console provides me with the endpoints that I can use to write data to my workspace, and to issue queries:

It also provides guidance on how to configure an existing Prometheus server to send metrics to the AMP workspace:

I can also use AWS Distro for OpenTelemetry to scrape Prometheus metrics and send them to my AMP workspace.

Once I have stored some metrics in my workspace, I can run PromQL queries and I can use Grafana to create dashboards and other visualizations. Here’s a sample Grafana dashboard:

Join the Preview
As noted earlier, we’re launching Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP) in preview form and you are welcome to try it out today.

We’ll have more info (and a more detailed blog post) at launch time.

Jeff;

New – AWS Systems Manager Consolidates Application Management

Post Syndicated from Steve Roberts original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-systems-manager-consolidates-application-management/

A desire for consolidated, and simplified operational oversight isn’t limited to just cloud infrastructure. Increasingly, customers ask us for a “single pane of glass” approach for also monitoring and managing their application portfolios.

These customers tell us that detection and investigation of application issues takes additional time and effort, due to the typical use of multiple consoles, tools, and sources of information such as resource usage metrics, logs, and more, to enable their DevOps engineers to obtain context about the application issue under investigation. Here, an “application” means not just the application code but also the logical group of resources that act as a unit to host the application, along with ownership boundaries for operators, and environments such as development, staging, and production.

Today, I’m pleased to announce a new feature of AWS Systems Manager, called Application Manager. Application Manager aggregates operational information from multiple AWS services and Systems Manager capabilities into a single console, making it easier to view operational data for your applications.

To make it even more convenient, the service can automatically discover your applications. Today, auto-discovery is available for applications running in AWS CloudFormation stacks and Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) clusters, or launched using AWS Launch Wizard. Applications can also be discovered from Resource Groups.

A particular benefit of automated discovery is that application components and resources are automatically kept up-to-date on an ongoing basis, but you can also always revise applications as needed by adding or deleting components manually.

With applications discovered and consolidated into a single console, you can more easily diagnose operational issues and resolve them with minimal time and effort. Automated runbooks targeting an application component or resource can be run to help remediate operational issues. For any given application, you can select a resource and explore relevant details without needing to leave the console.

For example, the application can surface Amazon CloudWatch logs, operational metrics, AWS CloudTrail logs, and configuration changes, removing the need to engage with multiple tools or consoles. This means your on-call engineers can understand issues more quickly and reduce the time needed to resolve them.

Exploring an Application with Application Manager
I can access Application Manager from the Systems Manager home page. Once open, I get an overview of my discovered applications and can see immediately that there are some alarms, without needing to switch context to the Amazon CloudWatch console, and some operations items (“OpsItems”) that I might need to pay attention to. I can also switch to the Applications tab to view the collections of applications, or I can click the buttons in the Applications panel for the collection I’m interested in.

Screenshot of the <span title="">Application Manager</span> overview page

In the screenshot below, I’ve navigated to a sample application and again, have indicators showing that alarms have raised. The various tabs enable me to drill into more detail to view resources used by the application, config resource and rules compliance, monitoring alarms, logs, and automation runbooks associated with the application.

Screenshot of application components and overview

Clicking on the Alarm indicator takes me into the Monitoring tab, and it shows that the ConsumedWriteCapacityUnits alarm has been raised. I can change the timescale to zero in on when the event occurred, or I can use the View recent alarms dashboard link to jump into the Amazon CloudWatch Alarms console to view more detail.

Screenshot of alarms on the <span title="">Application Manager</span> Monitoring tab

The Logs tab shows me a consolidated list of log groups for the application, and clicking a log group name takes me directly to the CloudWatch Logs where I can inspect the log streams, and take advantage of Log Insights to dive deeper by querying the log data.

OpsItems shows me operational issues associated with the resources of my application, and enables me to indicate the current status of the issue (open, in progress, resolved). Below, I am marking investigation of a stopped EC2 instance as in progress.

Screenshot of <span title="">Application Manager</span> OpsItems tab

Finally, Runbooks shows me automation documents associated with the application and their execution status. Below, it’s showing that I ran the AWS-RestartEC2Instance automation document to restart the EC2 instance that was stopped, and I would now resolve the issue logged in the OpsItems tab.

Screenshot of <span title="">Application Manager</span>'s Runbooks tab

Consolidating this information into a single console gives engineers a single starting location to monitor and investigate issues arising with their applications, and automatic discovery of applications and resources makes getting started simple. AWS Systems Manager Application Manager is available today, at no extra charge, in all public AWS Regions where Systems Manager is available.

Learn more about Application Manager and get started at AWS Systems Manager.

— Steve

New – AWS Systems Manager Fleet Manager

Post Syndicated from Steve Roberts original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-systems-manager-fleet-manager/

Organizations, and their systems administrators, routinely face challenges in managing increasingly diverse portfolios of IT infrastructure across cloud and on-premises environments. Different tools, consoles, services, operating systems, procedures, and vendors all contribute to complicate relatively common, and related, management tasks. As workloads are modernized to adopt Linux and open-source software, those same systems administrators, who may be more familiar with GUI-based management tools from a Windows background, have to continually adapt and quickly learn new tools, approaches, and skill sets.

AWS Systems Manager is an operational hub enabling you to manage resources on AWS and on-premises. Available today, Fleet Manager is a new console based experience in Systems Manager that enables systems administrators to view and administer their fleets of managed instances from a single location, in an operating-system-agnostic manner, without needing to resort to remote connections with SSH or RDP. As described in the documentation, managed instances includes those running Windows, Linux, and macOS operating systems, in both the AWS Cloud and on-premises. Fleet Manager gives you an aggregated view of your compute instances regardless of where they exist.

All that’s needed, whether for cloud or on-premises servers, is the Systems Manager agent installed on each server to be managed, some AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions, and AWS Key Management Service (KMS) enabled for Systems Manager‘s Session Manager. This makes it an easy and cost-effective approach for remote management of servers running in multiple environments without needing to pay the licensing cost of expensive management tools you may be using today. As noted earlier, it also works with instances running macOS. With the agent software and permissions set up, Fleet Manager enables you to explore and manage your servers from a single console environment. For example, you can navigate file systems, work with the registry on Windows servers, manage users, and troubleshoot logs (including viewing Windows event logs) and monitor common performance counters without needing the Amazon CloudWatch agent to be installed.

Exploring an Instance With Fleet Manager
To get started exploring my instances using Fleet Manager, I first head to the Systems Manager console. There, I select the new Fleet Manager entry on the navigation toolbar. I can also select the Managed Instances option – Fleet Manager replaces Managed Instances going forward, but the original navigation toolbar entry will be kept for backwards compatibility for a short while. But, before we go on to explore my instances, I need to take you on a brief detour.

When you select Fleet Manager, as with some other views in Systems Manager, a check is performed to verify that a role, named AmazonSSMRoleForInstancesQuickSetup, exists in your account. If you’ve used other components of Systems Manager in the past, it’s quite possible that it does. The role is used to permit Systems Manager to access your instances on your behalf and if the role exists, then you’re directed to the requested view. If however the role doesn’t exist, you’ll first be taken to the Quick Setup view. This in itself will trigger creation of the role, but you might want to explore the capabilities of Quick Setup, which you can also access any time from the navigation toolbar.

Quick Setup is a feature of Systems Manager that you can use to set up specific configuration items, such as the Systems Manager and CloudWatch agents on your instances (and keep them up-to-date), and also IAM roles permitting access to your resources for Systems Manager components. For this post, all the instances I’m going to use already have the required agent set up, including the role permissions, so I’m not going to discuss this view further but I encourage you to check it out. I also want to remind you that to take full advantage of Fleet Manager‘s capabilities you first need to have KMS encryption enabled for your instances and secondly, the role attached to your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instances must have the kms:Decrypt role permission included, referencing the key you selected when you enabled KMS encryption. You can enable encryption, and select the KMS key, using the Preferences section of the Session Manager console, and of course you can set up the role permission in the IAM console.

That’s it for the diversion; if you have the role already, as I do, you’ll now be at the Managed instances list view. If you’re at Quick Setup instead, simply click the Fleet Manager navigation button once more.

The Managed instances view shows me all of my instances, in the cloud or on-premises, that I can access. Selecting an instance, in this case an EC2 Windows instance launched using AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and clicking Instance actions presents me with a menu of options. The options (less those specific to Windows) are available for my Amazon Linux instance too, and for instances running macOS I can use the View file system option.

Screenshot of <span title="">Fleet Manager</span>'s Managed instances view

The File system view displays a read-only view onto the file system of the selected instance. This can be particularly useful for viewing text-based log files, for example, where I can preview up to 10,000 lines of a log file and even tail it to view changes as the log updates. I used this to open and tail an IIS web server log on my Windows Server instance. Having selected the instance, I next select View file system from the Instance actions dropdown (or I can click the Instance ID to open a view onto that instance and select File system from the menu displayed on the instance view).

Having opened the file system view for my instance, I navigate to the folder on the instance containing the IIS web server logs.

Screenshot of <span title="">Fleet Manager</span>'s File system view

Selecting a log file, I then click Actions and select Tail file. This opens a view onto the log file contents, which updates automatically as new content is written.

Screenshot of tailing a log file in <span title="">Fleet Manager</span>

As I mentioned, the File system view is also accessible for macOS-based instances. For example, here is a screenshot of viewing the Applications folder on an EC2 macOS instance.

Screenshot of macOS file system view in <span title="">Fleet Manager</span>

Next, let’s examine the Performance counters view, which is available for both Windows and Linux instances. This view displays CPU, memory, network traffic, and disk I/O and will be familiar to Windows users from Task Manager. The metrics shown reflect the guest OS metrics, whereas EC2 instance metrics you may be used to relate to the hypervisor. On this particular instance I’ve deployed an ASP.NET Core 5 application, which generates a varying length collection of Fibonacci numbers on page refresh. Below is a snapshot of the counters, after I’ve put the instance under a small amount of load. The view updates automatically every 5 seconds.

Screenshot of <span title="">Fleet Manager</span>'s Performance Counters view

There are more views available than I have space for in this post. Using the Windows Registry view, I can view and edit the registry on the selected Windows instance. Windows event logs gives me access to the Application and Service logs, and common Windows logs such as System, Setup, Security, etc. With Users and groups I can manage users or groups, including assignment of users to groups (again for both Windows and Linux instances). For all views, Fleet Manager enables me to use a single and convenient console.

Getting Started
AWS Systems Manager Fleet Manager is available today for use with managed instances running Windows, Linux, and macOS. Information on pricing, for this and other Systems Manager features, can be found at this page.

Learn more, and get started with Fleet Manager today, at AWS Systems Manager.

— Steve

Introducing AWS Systems Manager Change Manager

Post Syndicated from Sébastien Stormacq original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/introducing-systems-manager-change-manager/

Because you are constantly listening to the feedback from your customer, you are iterating, innovating, and improving your applications and infrastructures. You continually modify your IT systems in the cloud. And let’s face it, changing something in a working system risks breaking things or introducing side effects that are sometimes unpredictable; it doesn’t matter how many tests you do. On the other hand, not making changes is stasis, followed by irrelevance, followed by death.

This is why organizations of all sizes and types have embraced a culture of controlling changes. Some organizations adopt change management processes such as the ones defined in ITIL v4. Some have adopted DevOps’ Continuous Deployment, or other methods. In any case, to support your change management processes, it is important to have tools.

Today, we are launching AWS Systems Manager Change Manager, a new change management capability for AWS Systems Manager. It simplifies the way ops engineers track, approve, and implement operational changes to their application configurations and infrastructures.

Using Change Manager has two primary advantages. First, it can improve the safety of changes made to application configurations and infrastructures, reducing the risk of service disruptions. It makes operational changes safer by tracking that only approved changes are being implemented. Secondly, it is tightly integrated with other AWS services, such as AWS Organizations and AWS Single Sign-On, or the integration with the Systems Manager change calendar and Amazon CloudWatch alarms.

Change Manager provides accountability with a consistent way to report and audit changes made across your organization, their intent, and who approved and implemented them.

Change Manager works across AWS Regions and multiple AWS accounts. It works closely with Organizations and AWS SSO to manage changes from a central point and to deploy them in a controlled way across your global infrastructure.

Terminology
You can use AWS Systems Manager Change Manager on a single AWS account, but most of the time, you will use it in a multi-account configuration.

The way you manage changes across multiple AWS accounts depends on how these accounts are linked together. Change Manager uses the relationships between your accounts defined in AWS Organizations. When using Change Manager, there are three types of accounts:

  • The management account – also known as the “main account” or “root account.” The management account is the root account in an AWS Organizations hierarchy. It is the management account by virtue of this fact.
  • The delegated administrator account – A delegated administrator account is an account that has been granted permission to manage other accounts in Organizations. In the Change Manager context, this is the account from which change requests will be initiated. You will typically log in to this account to manage templates and change requests. Using a delegated administrators account allows you to limit connections made to the root account. It also allows you to enforce a least privileges policy by using a specific subset of permissions required by the changes.
  • The member accounts – Member accounts are accounts that are not the management account or a delegated administrator account, but are still included in Organizations. In my mental model for Change Manager, these would be the accounts that hold the resources where changes are deployed. A delegated administrator account would initiate a change request that would impact resources in a member account. System administrators are discouraged from logging directly into these accounts.

Let’s see how you can use AWS Systems Manager Change Manager by taking a short walk-through demo.

One-Time Configuration
In this scenario, I show you how to use Change Manager with multiple AWS accounts linked together with Organizations. If you are not interested in the one-time configuration, jump to the Create a Change Request section below.

There are four one-time configuration actions to take before using Change Manager: one action in the root account and three in the delegated administrator account. In the root account, I use Quick Setup to define my delegated administrator account and initially configure permissions on the accounts. In the delegated administrator account, you define your source of user identities, you define what users have permissions to approve change templates, and you define a change request template.

First, I ensure I have an Organization in place and my AWS accounts are organized in Organizational Units (OU). For the purpose of this simple example, I have three accounts: the root account, the delegated administrator account in the management OU and a member account in the managed OU. When ready, I use Quick Setup on the root account to configure my accounts. There are multiple paths leading to Quick Setup; for this demo, I use the blue banner on top of the Quick Setup console, and I click Setup Change Manager.

Change Manager Quick Setup

 

On the Quick Setup page, I enter the ID of the delegated administrator account if I haven’t defined it already. Then I choose the permissions boundaries I grant to the delegated administrator account to perform changes on my behalf. This is the maximum permissions Change Manager receives to make changes. I will further restrict this permission set when I create change requests in a few minutes. In this example, I grant Change Manager permissions to call any ec2 API. This effectively authorizes Change Manager to only run changes related to EC2 instances.

Change Manager Quick Setup

Lower on the screen, I choose the set of accounts that are targets for my changes. I choose between Entire organization or Custom to select one or multiple OUs.

Change Manager Quick Setup 2

After a while, Quick Setup finishes configuring my AWS accounts permission and I can move to the second part of the one-time setup.

Change Manager Quick Setup 3

Second, I switch to my delegated administrator account. Change Manager asks me how I manage users in my organization: with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) or AWS Single Sign-On? This defines where Change Manager pulls user identities when I choose approvers. This is a one-time configuration option. This can be changed at any time in the Change Manager Settings page.

Change Manager Settings

Third, on the same page, I define an Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) topic to receive notifications about template reviews. This channel is notified any time a template is created or modified, to let template approvers review and approve templates. I also define the IAM (or SSO) user with permission to approve change templates (more about these in one minute).

Change Manager Template Reviewers

Optionally, you can use the existing AWS Systems Manager Change Calendar to define the periods where changes are not authorized, such as marketing events or holiday sales.

Finally, I define a change template. Every change request is created from a template. Templates define common parameters for all change requests based on them, such as the change request approvers, the actions to perform, or the SNS topic to send notifications of progress. You can enforce the review and approval of templates before they can be used. It makes sense to create multiple templates to handle different type of changes. For example, you can create one template for standard changes, and one for emergency changes that overrides the change calendar. Or you can create different templates for different types of automation run books (documents).

To help you to get started, we created a template for you: the “Hello World” template. You can use it as a starting point to create a change request and test out your approval flow.

At any time, I can create my own template. Let’s imagine my system administrator team is frequently restarting EC2 instances. I create a template allowing them to create change requests to restart one or multiple instances. Using the delegated administrator account, I navigate to the Change Manager management console and click Create template.

Change Manager Create Template

In a nutshell, a template defines the list of authorized actions, where to send notifications and who can approve the change request. Actions are an AWS Systems Manager runbook. Emergency change templates allow change requests to bypass the change calendar I wrote about earlier. Under Runbook Options, I choose one or multiple runbooks allowed to run. For this example, I choose the AWS EC2RestartInstance runbook.

I use the console to create the template, but templates are defined internally as YAML. I can edit the YAML using the Editor tab, or when I am using the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) or API. This means I can version control them just like the rest of my infrastructure (as code).Change Manager Create Template part 1

Just below, I document my template using text formatted as markdown format. I use this section to document the defining characteristics of the template and provide any necessary instructions, such as back-out procedures, to the requestor.

Change Manager Template Documentation

I scroll down that page and click Add Approver to define approvers. Approvers can be individual users or groups. The list of approvers are defined either at the template level or in the change request itself. I also choose to create an SNS topic to inform approvers when any requests are created that require their approval.

In the Monitoring section I select the alarm that, when active, stops any change based on this template, and initiate a rollback.

In the Notifications section, I select or create another SNS topic so I’m notified when status changes for this template occur.

Change Manager Create Template part 2

Once I am done, I save the template and submit it for review.

Change Manager Submit Template for Review

Templates have to be reviewed and approved before they can be used. To approve the template, I connect the console as the template_approver user I defined earlier. As template_approver user, I see pending approvals on the Overview tab. Or, I navigate to the Templates tab, select the template I want to review. When I am done reviewing it, I click Approve.

Change Manager Approve Template

Voila, now we’re ready to create change requests based on this template. Remember that all the preceding steps are one-time configurations and can be amended at any time. When existing templates are modified, the changes go through a review and approval process again.

Create a Change Request
To create a change request on any account linked to the Organization, I open a AWS Systems Manager Change Manager console from the delegated administrator account and click Create request.

Change Manager Create Request

I choose the template I want to use and click Next.

Change Manager Select Template I enter a name for this change request. The change is initiated immediately after all approvals are granted, or I specify an optional scheduled time. When the template allows me, I choose the approver for this change. In this example, the approver is defined by the template and cannot be changed. I click Next.

Change Manager Create CR part 1

On the next screen, there are multiple important configuration options, relating to the actual execution of the change:

  • Target location – lets me define on which target AWS accounts and AWS Region I want to run this change.
  • Deployment target – lets me define which resources are the target of this change. One EC2 instance? Or multiple ones identified by their tags, their resources groups, a list of instance IDs, or all EC2 instances.
  • Runbook parameters – lets me define the parameters I want to pass to my runbook, if any.
  • Execution role – lets me define the set of permissions I grant the System Manager to deploy with this change. The permission set must have service changemanagement.ssm.amazonaws.com as principal for the trust policy. Selecting a role allows me to grant the Change Manager runtime a different permission set than the one I have.

Here is an example allowing Change Manager to stop an EC2 instance (you can scope it down to a specific AWS account, specific Region, or specific instances):

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "ec2:StartInstances",
                "ec2:StopInstances"
            ],
            "Resource": "*",
        },
        {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "ec2:DescribeInstances",
            "Resource": "*"
        }
    ]
}

And the associated trust policy:

{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Principal": {
        "Service": "changemanagement.ssm.aws.internal"
      },
      "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
    }
  ]
}

When I am ready, I click Next. On the last page, I review my data entry and click Submit for approval.

At this stage, the approver receives a notification, based on the SNS topic configured in the template. To continue this demo, I sign out of the console and sign in again as the cr_approver user, which I created, with permission to view and approve change requests.

As the cr_approver user, I navigate to the console, review the change request, and click Approve.

Change Manager Review Change Request

The change request status switches to scheduled, and eventually turns green to Success. At any time, I can click the change request to get the status, and to collect errors, if any.

Change Manager Dashboard with Succeeded Request

I click on the change request to see the details. In particular, the Timeline tab shows the history of this CR.

Change Management CR Timeline

Availability and Pricing
AWS Systems Manager Change Manager is available today in all commercial AWS Regions, except mainland China. The pricing is based on two dimensions: the number of change requests you submit and the total number of API calls made. The number of change requests you submit will be the main cost factor. We will charge $0.29 per change request. Check the pricing page for more details.

You can evaluate Change Manager for free for 30 days, starting on your first change request.

As usual, let us know what you think and let’s get started today

— seb

AWS CloudShell – Command-Line Access to AWS Resources

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-cloudshell-command-line-access-to-aws-resources/

No matter how much automation you have built, no matter how great you are at practicing Infrastructure as Code (IAC), and no matter how successfully you have transitioned from pets to cattle, you sometimes need to interact with your AWS resources at the command line. You might need to check or adjust a configuration file, make a quick fix to a production environment, or even experiment with some new AWS services or features.

Some of our customers feel most at home when working from within a web browser and have yet to set up or customize their own command-line interface (CLI). They tell is that they don’t want to deal with client applications, public keys, AWS credentials, tooling, and so forth. While none of these steps are difficult or overly time-consuming, they do add complexity and friction and we always like to help you to avoid both.

Introducing AWS CloudShell
Today we are launching AWS CloudShell, with the goal of making the process of getting to an AWS-enabled shell prompt simple and secure, with as little friction as possible. Every shell environment that you run with CloudShell has the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) (v2) installed and configured so you can run aws commands fresh out of the box. The environments also include the Python and Node runtimes, with many more to come in the future.

To get started, I simply click the CloudShell icon in the AWS Management Console:

My shell sets itself up in a matter of seconds and I can issue my first aws command immediately:

The shell environment is based on Amazon Linux 2. I can store up to 1 GB of files per region in my home directory and they’ll be available each time I open a shell in the region. This includes shell configuration files such as .bashrc and shell history files.

I can access the shell via SSO or as any IAM principal that can login to the AWS Management Console, including federated roles. In order to access CloudShell, the AWSCloudShellFullAccess policy must be in effect. The shell runs as a normal (non-privileged) user, but I can sudo and install packages if necessary.

Here are a couple of features that you should know about:

Themes & Font Sizes – You can switch between light and dark color themes, and choose any one of five font sizes:

Tabs and Sessions – You can have multiple sessions open within the same region, and you can control the tabbing behavior, with options to split horizontally and vertically:

You can also download files from the shell environment to your desktop, and upload them from your desktop to the shell.

Things to Know
Here are a couple of important things to keep in mind when you are evaluating CloudShell:

Timeouts & Persistence – Each CloudShell session will timeout after 20 minutes or so of inactivity, and can be reestablished by refreshing the window:

RegionsCloudShell is available today in the US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), Europe (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Regions, with the remaining regions on the near-term roadmap.

Persistent Storage – Files stored within $HOME persist between invocations of CloudShell with a limit of 1 GB per region; all other storage is ephemeral. This means that any software that is installed outside of $HOME will not persist, and that no matter what you change (or break), you can always begin anew with a fresh CloudShell environment.

Network Access – Sessions can make outbound connections to the Internet, but do not allow any type of inbound connections. Sessions cannot currently connect to resources inside of private VPC subnets, but that’s also on the near-term roadmap.

Runtimes – In addition to the Python and Node runtimes, Bash, PowerShell, jq, git, the ECS CLI, the SAM CLI, npm, and pip already installed and ready to use.

Pricing – You can use up to 10 concurrent shells in each region at no charge. You only pay for other AWS resources you use with CloudShell to create and run your applications.

Try it Out
AWS CloudShell is available now and you can start using it today. Launch one and give it a try, and let us know what you think!

Jeff;

re:Invent 2020 Liveblog: Werner Vogels Keynote

Post Syndicated from AWS News Blog Team original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/reinvent-2020-liveblog-werner-vogels-keynote/

Join us Tuesday, Dec. 15 for Dr. Werner Vogels’ Keynote as he shares how Amazon is solving today’s hardest technology problems. Jeff Barr, Martin Beeby, Steve Roberts and Channy Yun will liveblog the event, sharing all the highlights, insights and major announcements from this final keynote of re:Invent 2020.

See you here Tuesday, 7:30-10:00 AM (PST)!


New – VPC Reachability Analyzer

Post Syndicated from Harunobu Kameda original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-vpc-insights-analyzes-reachability-and-visibility-in-vpcs/

With Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), you can launch a logically isolated customer-specific virtual network on the AWS Cloud. As customers expand their footprint on the cloud and deploy increasingly complex network architectures, it can take longer to resolve network connectivity issues caused by misconfiguration. Today, we are happy to announce VPC Reachability Analyzer, a network diagnostics tool that troubleshoots reachability between two endpoints in a VPC, or within multiple VPCs.

Ensuring Your Network Configuration is as Intended
You have full control over your virtual network environment, including choosing your own IP address range, creating subnets, and configuring route tables and network gateways. You can also easily customize the network configuration of your VPC. For example, you can create a public subnet for a web server that has access to the Internet with Internet Gateway. Security-sensitive backend systems such as databases and application servers can be placed on private subnets that do not have internet access. You can use multiple layers of security, such as security groups and network access control list (ACL), to control access to entities of each subnet by protocol, IP address, and port number.

You can also combine multiple VPCs via VPC peering or AWS Transit Gateway for region-wide, or global network connections that can route traffic privately. You can also use VPN Gateway to connect your site with your AWS account for secure communication. Many AWS services that reside outside the VPC, such as AWS Lambda, or Amazon S3, support VPC endpoints or AWS PrivateLink as entities inside the VPC and can communicate with those privately.

When you have such rich controls and feature set, it is not unusual to have unintended configuration that could lead to connectivity issues. Today, you can use VPC Reachability Analyzer for analyzing reachability between two endpoints without sending any packets. VPC Reachability analyzer looks at the configuration of all the resources in your VPCs and uses automated reasoning to determine what network flows are feasible. It analyzes all possible paths through your network without having to send any traffic on the wire. To learn more about how these algorithms work checkout this re:Invent talk or read this paper.

How VPC Reachability Analyzer Works
Let’s see how it works. Using VPC Reachability Analyzer is very easy, and you can test it with your current VPC. If you need an isolated VPC for test purposes, you can run the AWS CloudFormation YAML template at the bottom of this article. The template creates a VPC with 1 subnet, 2 security groups and 3 instances as A, B, and C. Instance A and B can communicate with each other, but those instances cannot communicate with instance C because the security group attached to instance C does not allow any incoming traffic.

You see Reachability Analyzer in the left navigation of the VPC Management Console.

Click Reachability Analyzer, and also click Create and analyze path button, then you see new windows where you can specify a path between a source and destination, and start analysis.

You can specify any of the following endpoint types: VPN Gateways, Instances, Network Interfaces, Internet Gateways, VPC Endpoints, VPC Peering Connections, and Transit Gateways for your source and destination of communication. For example, we set instance A for source and the instance B for destination. You can choose to check for connectivity via either the TCP or UDP protocols. Optionally, you can also specify a port number, or source, or destination IP address.

Configuring test path

Finally, click the Create and analyze path button to start the analysis. The analysis can take up to several minutes depending on the size and complexity of your VPCs, but it typically takes a few seconds.

You can now see the analysis result as Reachable. If you click the URL link of analysis id nip-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, you can see the route hop by hop.

The communication from instance A to instance C is not reachable because the security group attached to instance C does not allow any incoming traffic.

If you click nip-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx for more detail, you can check the Explanations for details.

Result Detail

Here we see the security group that blocked communication. When you click on the security group listed in the upper right corner, you can go directly to the security group editing window to change the security group rules. In this case adding a properly scoped ingress rule will allow the instances to communicate.

Available Today
This feature is available for all AWS commercial Regions except for China (Beijing), and China (Ningxia) regions. More information is available in our technical documentation, and remember that to use this feature your IAM permissions need to be set up as documented here.

– Kame

CloudFormation YAML template for test

---
Description: An AWS VPC configuration with 1 subnet, 2 security groups and 3 instances. When testing ReachabilityAnalyzer, this provides both a path found and path not found scenario.
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09

Mappings:
  RegionMap:
    us-east-1:
      execution: ami-0915e09cc7ceee3ab
      ecs: ami-08087103f9850bddd

Resources:
  # VPC
  VPC:
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPC
    Properties:
      CidrBlock: 172.0.0.0/16
      EnableDnsSupport: true
      EnableDnsHostnames: true
      InstanceTenancy: default

  # Subnets
  Subnet1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: 172.0.0.0/20
      MapPublicIpOnLaunch: false

  # SGs
  SecurityGroup1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup
    Properties:
      GroupDescription: Allow all ingress and egress traffic
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      SecurityGroupIngress:
        - CidrIp: 0.0.0.0/0
          IpProtocol: "-1" # -1 specifies all protocols

  SecurityGroup2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup
    Properties:
      GroupDescription: Allow all egress traffic
      VpcId: !Ref VPC

  # Instances
  # Instance A and B should have a path between them since they are both in SecurityGroup 1
  InstanceA:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId:
        Fn::FindInMap:
          - RegionMap
          - Ref: AWS::Region
          - execution
      InstanceType: 't3.nano'
      SubnetId:
        Ref: Subnet1
      SecurityGroupIds:
        - Ref: SecurityGroup1

  # Instance A and B should have a path between them since they are both in SecurityGroup 1
  InstanceB:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId:
        Fn::FindInMap:
          - RegionMap
          - Ref: AWS::Region
          - execution
      InstanceType: 't3.nano'
      SubnetId:
        Ref: Subnet1
      SecurityGroupIds:
        - Ref: SecurityGroup1

  # This instance should not be reachable from Instance A or B since it is in SecurityGroup 2
  InstanceC:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId:
        Fn::FindInMap:
          - RegionMap
          - Ref: AWS::Region
          - execution
      InstanceType: 't3.nano'
      SubnetId:
        Ref: Subnet1
      SecurityGroupIds:
        - Ref: SecurityGroup2

 

re:Invent 2020 Liveblog: Infrastructure Keynote

Post Syndicated from AWS News Blog Team original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/reinvent-2020-liveblog-infrastructure-keynote/

Join us Thursday, Dec. 10 from 7:30-9:30 AM (PST) as we liveblog the AWS re:Invent Infrastructure Keynote with Peter DeSantis, senior vice president of AWS Global Infrastructure and Customer Support.

AWS Chief Evangelist Jeff Barr and Developer Advocates Martin Beeby and Steve Roberts will follow all the action with updates and insights as the event unfolds.

See you soon!


New – Amazon EMR on Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS)

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-amazon-emr-on-amazon-elastic-kubernetes-service-eks/

Tens of thousands of customers use Amazon EMR to run big data analytics applications on frameworks such as Apache Spark, Hive, HBase, Flink, Hudi, and Presto at scale. EMR automates the provisioning and scaling of these frameworks and optimizes performance with a wide range of EC2 instance types to meet price and performance requirements. Customer are now consolidating compute pools across organizations using Kubernetes. Some customers who manage Apache Spark on Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) themselves want to use EMR to eliminate the heavy lifting of installing and managing their frameworks and integrations with AWS services. In addition, they want to take advantage of the faster runtimes and development and debugging tools that EMR provides.

Today, we are announcing the general availability of Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS, a new deployment option in EMR that allows customers to automate the provisioning and management of open-source big data frameworks on EKS. With EMR on EKS, customers can now run Spark applications alongside other types of applications on the same EKS cluster to improve resource utilization and simplify infrastructure management.

Customers can deploy EMR applications on the same EKS cluster as other types of applications, which allows them to share resources and standardize on a single solution for operating and managing all their applications. Customers get all the same EMR capabilities on EKS that they use on EC2 today, such as access to the latest frameworks, performance optimized runtimes, EMR Notebooks for application development, and Spark user interface for debugging.

Amazon EMR automatically packages the application into a container with the big data framework and provides pre-built connectors for integrating with other AWS services. EMR then deploys the application on the EKS cluster and manages logging and monitoring. With EMR on EKS, you can get 3x faster performance using the performance-optimized Spark runtime included with EMR compared to standard Apache Spark on EKS.

Amazon EMR on EKS – Getting Started
If you already have a EKS cluster where you run Spark jobs, you simply register your existing EKS cluster with EMR using the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) or APIs to deploy your Spark appication.

For exampe, here is a simple CLI command to register your EKS cluster.

$ aws emr create-virtual-cluster \
          --name <virtual_cluster_name> \
          --container-provider '{
             "id": "<eks_cluster_name>",
             "type": "EKS",
             "info": {
                 "eksInfo": {
                     "namespace": "<namespace_name>"
                 }
             } 
         }'

In the EMR Management console, you can see it in the list of virtual clusters.

When Amazon EKS clusters are registered, EMR workloads are deployed to Kubernates nodes and pods to manage application execution and auto-scaling, and sets up managed endpoints so that you can connect notebooks and SQL clients. EMR builds and deploys a performance-optimized runtime for the open source frameworks used in analytics applications.

You can simply start your Spark jobs.

$ aws emr start-job-run \
          --name <job_name> \
          --virtual-cluster-id <cluster_id> \
          --execution-role-arn <IAM_role_arn> \
          --virtual-cluster-id <cluster_id> \
          --release-label <<emr_release_label> \
          --job-driver '{
            "sparkSubmitJobDriver": {
              "entryPoint": <entry_point_location>,
              "entryPointArguments": ["<arguments_list>"],
              "sparkSubmitParameters": <spark_parameters>
            }
       }'

To monitor and debug jobs, you can use inspect logs uploaded to your Amazon CloudWatch and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) location configured as part of monitoringConfiguration. You can also use the one-click experience from the console to launch the Spark History Server.

Integration with Amazon EMR Studio

Now you can submit analytics applications using AWS SDKs and AWS CLI, Amazon EMR Studio notebooks, and workflow orchestration services like Apache Airflow. We have developed a new Airflow Operator for Amazon EMR on EKS. You can use this connector with self-managed Airflow or by adding it to the Plugin Location with Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow.

You can also use newly previewed Amazon EMR Studio to perform data analysis and data engineering tasks in a web-based integrated development environment (IDE). Amazon EMR Studio lets you submit notebook code to EMR clusters deployed on EKS using the Studio interface. After seting up one or more managed endpoints to which Studio users can attach a Workspace, EMR Studio can communicate with your virtual cluster.

For EMR Studio preview, there is no additional cost when you create managed endpoints for virtual clusters. To learn more, visit the guide document.

Now Available
Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS is available in US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), and Europe (Ireland) Regions. You can run EMR workloads in AWS Fargate for EKS removing the need to provision and manage infrastructure for pods as a serverless option.

To learn more, visit the documentation. Please send feedback to the AWS forum for Amazon EMR or through your usual AWS support contacts.

Learn all the details about Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS and get started today.

Channy;

PennyLane on Braket + Progress Toward Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing + Tensor Network Simulator

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/pennylane-on-braket-progress-toward-fault-tolerant-quantum-computing-tensor-network-simulator/

I first wrote about Amazon Braket last year and invited you to Get Started with Quantum Computing! Since that launch we have continued to push forward, and have added several important & powerful new features to Amazon Braket:

August 2020 – General Availability of Amazon Braket with access to quantum computing hardware from D-Wave, IonQ, and Rigetti.

September 2020 – Access to D-Wave’s Advantage Quantum Processing Unit (QPU), which includes more than 5,000 qubits and 15-way connectivity.

November 2020 – Support for resource tagging, AWS PrivateLink, and manual qubit allocation. The first two features make it easy for you to connect your existing AWS applications to the new ones that you build with Amazon Braket, and should help you to envision what a production-class cloud-based quantum computing application will look like in the future. The last feature is particularly interesting to researchers; from what I understand, certain qubits within a given piece of quantum computing hardware can have individual physical and connectivity properties that might make them perform somewhat better when used as part of a quantum circuit. You can read about Allocating Qubits on QPU Devices to learn more (this is somewhat similar to the way that a compiler allocates CPU registers to frequently used variables).

In my initial blog post I also announced the formation of the AWS Center for Quantum Computing adjacent to Caltech.

As I write this, we are in the Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) era. This description captures the state of the art in quantum computers: each gate in a quantum computing circuit introduces a certain amount of accuracy-destroying noise, and the cumulative effect of this noise imposes some practical limits on the scale of the problems.

Update Time
We are working to address this challenge, as are many others in the quantum computing field. Today I would like to give you an update on what we are doing at the practical and the theoretical level.

Similar to the way that CPUs and GPUs work hand-in-hand to address large scale classical computing problems, the emerging field of hybrid quantum algorithms joins CPUs and QPUs to speed up specific calculations within a classical algorithm. This allows for shorter quantum executions that are less susceptible to the cumulative effects of noise and that run well on today’s devices.

Variational quantum algorithms are an important type of hybrid quantum algorithm. The classical code (in the CPU) iteratively adjusts the parameters of a parameterized quantum circuit, in a manner reminiscent of the way that a neural network is built by repeatedly processing batches of training data and adjusting the parameters based on the results of an objective function. The output of the objective function provides the classical code with guidance that helps to steer the process of tuning the parameters in the desired direction. Mathematically (I’m way past the edge of my comfort zone here), this is called differentiable quantum computing.

So, with this rather lengthy introduction, what are we doing?

First, we are making the PennyLane library available so that you can build hybrid quantum-classical algorithms and run them on Amazon Braket. This library lets you “follow the gradient” and write code to address problems in computational chemistry (by way of the included Q-Chem library), machine learning, and optimization. My AWS colleagues have been working with the PennyLane team to create an integrated experience when PennyLane is used together with Amazon Braket.

PennyLane is pre-installed in Braket notebooks and you can also install the Braket-PennyLane plugin in your IDE. Once you do this, you can train quantum circuits as you would train neural networks, while also making use of familiar machine learning libraries such as PyTorch and TensorFlow. When you use PennyLane on the managed simulators that are included in Amazon Braket, you can train your circuits up to 10 times faster by using parallel circuit execution.

Second, the AWS Center for Quantum Computing is working to address the noise issue in two different ways: we are investigating ways to make the gates themselves more accurate, while also working on the development of more efficient ways to encode information redundantly across multiple qubits. Our new paper, Building a Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computer Using Concatenated Cat Codes speaks to both of these efforts. While not light reading, the 100+ page paper proposes the construction of a 2-D grid of micron-scale electro-acoustic qubits that are coupled via superconducting circuits:

Interestingly, this proposed qubit design was used to model a Toffoli gate, and then tested via simulations that ran for 170 hours on c5.18xlarge instances. In a very real sense, the classical computers are being used to design and then simulate their future quantum companions.

The proposed hybrid electro-acoustic qubits are far smaller than what is available today, and also offer a > 10x reduction in overhead (measured in the number of physical qubits required per error-corrected qubit and the associated control lines). In addition to working on the experimental development of this architecture based around hybrid electro-acoustic qubits, the AWS CQC team will also continue to explore other promising alternatives for fault-tolerant quantum computing to bring new, more powerful computing resources to the world.

And Third, we are expanding the choice of managed simulators that are available on Amazon Braket. In addition to the state vector simulator (which can simulate up to 34 qubits), you can use the new tensor network simulator that can simulate up to 50 qubits for certain circuits. This simulator builds a graph representation of the quantum circuit and uses the graph to find an optimized way to process it.

Help Wanted
If you are ready to help us to push the state of the art in quantum computing, take a look at our open positions. We are looking for Quantum Research Scientists, Software Developers, Hardware Developers, and Solutions Architects.

Time to Learn
It is still Day One (as we often say at Amazon) when it comes to quantum computing and now is the time to learn more and to get some experience with. Be sure to check out the Braket Tutorials repository and let me know what you think.

Jeff;

PS – If you are ready to start exploring ways that you can put quantum computing to work in your organization, be sure to take a look at the Amazon Quantum Solutions Lab.

New for Amazon CodeGuru – Python Support, Security Detectors, and Memory Profiling

Post Syndicated from Danilo Poccia original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-for-amazon-codeguru-python-support-security-detectors-and-memory-profiling/

Amazon CodeGuru is a developer tool that helps you improve your code quality and has two main components:

  • CodeGuru Reviewer uses program analysis and machine learning to detect potential defects that are difficult to find in your code and offers suggestions for improvement.
  • CodeGuru Profiler collects runtime performance data from your live applications, and provides visualizations and recommendations to help you fine-tune your application performance.

Today, I am happy to announce three new features:

  • Python Support for CodeGuru Reviewer and Profiler (Preview) – You can now use CodeGuru to improve applications written in Python. Before this release, CodeGuru Reviewer could analyze Java code, and CodeGuru Profiler supported applications running on a Java virtual machine (JVM).
  • Security Detectors for CodeGuru Reviewer – A new set of detectors for CodeGuru Reviewer to identify security vulnerabilities and check for security best practices in your Java code.
  • Memory Profiling for CodeGuru Profiler – A new visualization of memory retention per object type over time. This makes it easier to find memory leaks and optimize how your application is using memory.

Let’s see these functionalities in more detail.

Python Support for CodeGuru Reviewer and Profiler (Preview)
Python Support for CodeGuru Reviewer is available in Preview and offers recommendations on how to improve the Python code of your applications in multiple categories such as concurrency, data structures and control flow, scientific/math operations, error handling, using the standard library, and of course AWS best practices.

You can now also use CodeGuru Profiler to collect runtime performance data from your Python applications and get visualizations to help you identify how code is running on the CPU and where time is consumed. In this way, you can detect the most expensive lines of code of your application. Focusing your tuning activities on those parts helps you reduce infrastructure cost and improve application performance.

Let’s see the CodeGuru Reviewer in action with some Python code. When I joined AWS eight years ago, one of the first projects I created was a Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) interface to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) called yas3fs (Yet Another S3-backed File System). It was inspired by the more popular s3fs-fuse project but rewritten from scratch to implement a distributed cache synchronized by Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) notifications (now, thanks to the many contributors, it’s using S3 event notifications). It was also a good excuse for me to learn more about Python programming and S3. It’s a personal project that at the time made available as open source. Today, if you need a shared file system, you can use Amazon Elastic File System (EFS).

In the CodeGuru console, I associate the yas3fs repository. You can associate repositories from GitHub, including GitHub Enterprise Cloud and GitHub Enterprise Server, Bitbucket, or AWS CodeCommit.

After that, I can get a code review from CodeGuru in two ways:

  • Automatically, when I create a pull request. This is a great way to use it as you and your team are working on a code base.
  • Manually, creating a repository analysis to get a code review for all the code in one branch. This is useful to start using GodeGuru with an existing code base.

Since I just associated the whole repository, I go for a full analysis and write down the branch name to review (apologies, I was still using master at the time, now I use main for new projects).

After a few minutes, the code review is completed, and there are 14 recommendations. Not bad, but I can definitely improve the code. Here’s a few of the recommendations I get. I was using exceptions and global variables too much at the time.

Security Detectors for CodeGuru Reviewer
The new CodeGuru Reviewer Security Detector uses automated reasoning to analyze all code paths and find potential security issues deep in your Java code, even ones that span multiple methods and files and that may involve multiple sequences of operations. To build this detector, we used learning and best practices from Amazon’s 20+ years of experience.

The Security Detector is also identifying security vulnerabilities in the top 10 Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) categories, such as weak hash encryption.

If the security detector discovers an issue, it offers a suggested remediation along with an explanation. In this way, it’s much easier to follow security best practices for AWS APIs, such as those for AWS Key Management Service (KMS) and Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), and for common Java cryptography and TLS/SSL libraries.

With help from the security detector, security engineers can focus on architectural and application-specific security best-practices, and code reviewers can focus their attention on other improvements.

Memory Profiling for CodeGuru Profiler
For applications running on a JVM, CodeGuru Profiler can now show the Heap Summary, a consolidated view of memory retention during a time frame, tracking both overall sizes and number of objects per object type (such as String, int, char[], and custom types). These metrics are presented in a timeline graph, so that you can easily spot trends and peaks of memory utilization per object type.

Here are a couple of scenarios where this can help:

Memory Leaks – A constantly growing memory utilization curve for one or more object types may indicate a leak (intended here as unnecessary retention of memory objects by the application), possibly leading to out-of-memory errors and application crashes.

Memory Optimizations – Having a breakdown of memory utilization per object type is a step beyond traditional memory utilization monitoring, based solely on JVM-level metrics like total heap usage. By knowing that an unexpectedly high amount of memory has been associated with a specific object type, you can focus your analysis and optimization efforts on the parts of your application that are responsible for allocating and referencing objects of that type.

For example, here is a graph showing how memory is used by a Java application over an interval of time. Apart from the total capacity available and the used space, I can see how memory is being used by some specific object types, such as byte[], java.lang.UUID, and the entries of a java.util.LinkedHashMap. The continuous growth over time of the memory retained by these object types is suspicious. There is probably a memory leak I have to investigate.

In the table just below, I have a longer list of object types allocating memory on the heap. The first three are selected and for that reason are shown in the graph above. Here, I can inspect other object types and select them to see their memory usage over time. It looks like the three I already selected are the ones with more risk of being affected by a memory leak.

Available Now
These new features are available today in all regions where Amazon CodeGuru is offered. For more information, please see the AWS Regional Services table.

There are no pricing changes for Python support, security detectors, and memory profiling. You pay for what you use without upfront fees or commitments.

Learn more about Amazon CodeGuru and start using these new features today to improve the code quality of your applications.  

Danilo

AWS Audit Manager Simplifies Audit Preparation

Post Syndicated from Steve Roberts original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-audit-manager-simplifies-audit-preparation/

Gathering evidence in a timely manner to support an audit can be a significant challenge due to manual, error-prone, and sometimes, distributed processes. If your business is subject to compliance requirements, preparing for an audit can cause significant lost productivity and disruption as a result. You might also have trouble applying traditional audit practices, which were originally designed for legacy on-premises systems, to your cloud infrastructure.

To satisfy complex and evolving sets of regulation and compliance standards, including the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), you’ll need to gather, verify, and synthesize evidence.

You’ll also need to constantly reevaluate how your AWS usage maps to those evolving compliance control requirements. To satisfy requirements you may need to show data encryption was active, and log files showing server configuration changes, diagrams showing application high availability, transcripts showing required training was completed, spreadsheets showing that software usage did not exceed licensed amounts, and more. This effort, sometimes involving dozens of staff and consultants, can last several weeks.

Available today, AWS Audit Manager is a fully managed service that provides prebuilt frameworks for common industry standards and regulations, and automates the continual collection of evidence to help you in preparing for an audit. Continuous and automated gathering of evidence related to your AWS resource usage helps simplify risk assessment and compliance with regulations and industry standards and helps you maintain a continuous, audit-ready posture to provide a faster, less disruptive preparation process.

Built-in and customizable frameworks map usage of your cloud resources to controls for different compliance standards, translating evidence into an audit-ready, immutable assessment report using auditor-friendly terminology. You can also search, filter, and upload additional evidence to include in the final assessment, such as details of on-premises infrastructure, or procedures such as business continuity plans, training transcripts, and policy documents.

Given that audit preparation typically involves multiple teams, a delegation workflow feature lets you assign controls to subject-matter experts for review. For example, you might delegate reviewing evidence of network security to a network security engineer.

The finalized assessment report includes summary statistics and a folder containing all the evidence files, organized in accordance with the exact structure of the associated compliance framework. With the evidence collected and organized into a single location, it’s ready for immediate review, making it easier for audit teams to verify the evidence, answer questions, and add remediation plans.

Getting started with Audit Manager
Let’s get started by creating and configuring a new assessment. From Audit Manager‘s console home page, clicking Launch AWS Audit Manager takes me to my Assessments list (I can also reach here from the navigation toolbar to the left of the console home). There, I click Create assessment to start a wizard that walks me through the settings for the new assessment. First, I give my assessment a name, optional description, and then specify an Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) bucket where the reports associated with the assessment will be stored.

Next, I choose the framework for my assessment. I can select from a variety of prebuilt frameworks, or a custom framework I have created myself. Custom frameworks can be created from scratch or based on an existing framework. Here, I’m going to use the prebuilt PCI DSS framework.

Screenshot of framework selectionAfter clicking Next, I can select the AWS accounts to be included in my assessment (Audit Manager is also integrated with AWS Organizations). Since I have a single account, I select it and click Next, moving on to select the AWS services that I want to be included in evidence gathering. I’m going to include all the suggested services (the default) and click Next to continue.

Screenshot of service selection for assessmentNext I need to select the owners of the assessment, who have full permission to manage it (owners can be AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or roles). You must select at least one owner, so I select my account and click Next to move to the final Review and create page. Finally, clicking Create assessment starts the gathering of evidence for my new assessment. This can take a while to complete, so I’m going to switch to another assessment to examine what kinds of evidence I can view and choose to include in my assessment report.

Back in the Assessments list view, clicking on the assessment name takes me to details of the assessment, a summary of the controls for which evidence is being collected, and a list of the control sets into which the controls are grouped. Total evidence tells me the number of events and supporting documents that are included in the assessment. The additional tabs can be used to give me insight into the evidence I select for the final report, which accounts and services are included in the assessment, who owns it, and more. I can also navigate to the S3 bucket in which the evidence is being collected.

Screenshot of assessment home pageExpanding a control set shows me the related controls, with links to dive deeper on a given control, together with the status (Under review, Reviewed, and Inactive), whom the control has been delegated to for review, the amount of evidence gathered for that control, and whether the control and evidence have been added to the final report. If I change a control to be Inactive, meaning automated evidence gathering will cease for that control, this is logged.

Screenshot of assessment controlLet’s take a closer look at a control to show how the automated evidence gathering can help identify compliance issues before I start compiling the audit report. Expanding Default control set, I click control 8.1.2 For a sample of privileged user IDs… which takes me to a view giving more detailed information on the control and how it is tested. Scrolling down, there is a set of evidence folders listed and here I notice that there are some issues. Clicking the issue link in the Compliance check column summarizes where the data came from. Here, I can also select the evidence that I want included in my final report.

Screenshot of issue summaryGoing further, I can click on the evidence folder to note that there was a failure, and in turn clicking on the time of the failure takes me to a detailed summary of the issues for this control, and how to remediate.

Screenshot of evidence for a controlScreenshot of evidence detailWith the evidence gathered, it’s a simple task to select sufficient controls and appropriate evidence to include in my assessment report that can then be passed to my auditors. For the purposes of this post I’ve gone ahead and selected evidence for a handful of controls into my report. Then, I selected the Assessment report selection tab, where I review my evidence selections, and clicked Generate assessment report. In the dialog that appeared I gave my report a name, and then clicked Generate assessment report. When the dialog closes I am taken to the Assessment reports view and, when my report is ready, I can select it and download a zip file containing the report and the selected evidence. Alternatively, I can open the S3 bucket associated with the assessment (from the assessment’s details page) and view the report details and evidence there, as shown in the screenshot below. The overall report is listed (as a PDF file) and if I drill into the evidence folders, I can also view PDF files related to the specific items of evidence I selected.

Screenshot of assessment report output in S3And to close, below is a screenshot of the beginning of the assessment report PDF file showing the number of selected controls and evidence, and services that I selected to be in scope when I created the assessment. Further pages go into more details.

Screenshot of assessment reportAudit Manager is available today in 10 AWS Regions: US East (Northern Virginia, Ohio), US West (Northern California, Oregon), Asia Pacific (Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo), and Europe (Frankfurt, Ireland, London).

Get all the details about AWS Audit Manager and get started today.

— Steve

Amazon SageMaker JumpStart Simplifies Access to Pre-built Models and Machine Learning Solutions

Post Syndicated from Julien Simon original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-sagemaker-jumpstart-simplifies-access-to-prebuilt-models-and-machine-learning-models/

Today, I’m extremely happy to announce the availability of Amazon SageMaker JumpStart, a capability of Amazon SageMaker that accelerates your machine learning workflows with one-click access to popular model collections (also known as “model zoos”), and to end-to-end solutions that solve common use cases.

In recent years, machine learning (ML) has proven to be a valuable technique in improving and automating business processes. Indeed, models trained on historical data can accurately predict outcomes across a wide range of industry segments: financial services, retail, manufacturing, telecom, life sciences, and so on. Yet, working with these models requires skills and experience that only a subset of scientists and developers have: preparing a dataset, selecting an algorithm, training a model, optimizing its accuracy, deploying it in production, and monitoring its performance over time.

In order to simplify the model building process, the ML community has created model zoos, that is to say, collections of models built with popular open source libraries, and often pretrained on reference datasets. For example, the TensorFlow Hub and the PyTorch Hub provide developers with a long list of models ready to be downloaded, and integrated in applications for computer vision, natural language processing, and more.

Still, downloading a model is just part of the answer. Developers then need to deploy it for evaluation and testing, using either a variety of tools, such as the TensorFlow Serving and TorchServe model servers, or their own bespoke code. Once the model is running, developers need to figure out the correct format that incoming data should have, a long-lasting pain point. I’m sure I’m not the only one regularly pulling my hair out here!

Of course, a full-ML application usually has a lot of moving parts. Data needs to be preprocessed, enriched with additional data fetched from a backend, and funneled into the model. Predictions are often postprocessed, and stored for further analysis and visualization. As useful as they are, model zoos only help with the modeling part. Developers still have lots of extra work to deliver a complete ML solution.

Because of all this, ML experts are flooded with a long backlog of projects waiting to start. Meanwhile, less experienced practitioners struggle to get started. These barriers are incredibly frustrating, and our customers asked us to remove them.

Introducing Amazon SageMaker JumpStart
Amazon SageMaker JumpStart is integrated in Amazon SageMaker Studio, our fully integrated development environment (IDE) for ML, making it intuitive to discover models, solutions, and more. At launch, SageMaker JumpStart includes:

  • 15+ end-to-end solutions for common ML use cases such as fraud detection, predictive maintenance, and so on.
  • 150+ models from the TensorFlow Hub and the PyTorch Hub, for computer vision (image classification, object detection), and natural language processing (sentence classification, question answering).
  • Sample notebooks for the built-in algorithms available in Amazon SageMaker.

SageMaker JumpStart also provides notebooks, blogs, and video tutorials designed to help you learn and remove roadblocks. Content is easily accessible within Amazon SageMaker Studio, enabling you to get started with ML faster.

It only takes a single click to deploy solutions and models. All infrastructure is fully managed, so all you have to do is enjoy a nice cup of tea or coffee while deployment takes place. After a few minutes, you can start testing, thanks to notebooks and sample prediction code that are readily available in Amazon SageMaker Studio. Of course, you can easily modify them to use your own data.

SageMaker JumpStart makes it extremely easy for experienced practitioners and beginners alike to quickly deploy and evaluate models and solutions, saving days or even weeks of work. By drastically shortening the path from experimentation to production, SageMaker JumpStart accelerates ML-powered innovation, particularly for organizations and teams that are early on their ML journey, and haven’t yet accumulated a lot of skills and experience.

Now, let me show you how SageMaker JumpStart works.

Deploying a Solution with Amazon SageMaker JumpStart
Opening SageMaker Studio, I select the “JumpStart” icon on the left. This opens a new tab showing me all available content (solutions, models, and so on).

Let’s say that I’m interested in using computer vision to detect defects in manufactured products. Could ML be the answer?

Browsing the list of available solutions, I see one for product defect detection.

Opening it, I can learn more about the type of problems that it solves, the sample dataset used in the demo, the AWS services involved, and more.

SageMaker screenshot

A single click is all it takes to deploy this solution. Under the hood, AWS CloudFormation uses a built-in template to provision all appropriate AWS resources.

A few minutes later, the solution is deployed, and I can open its notebook.

SageMaker screenshot

The notebook opens immediately in SageMaker Studio. I run the demo, and understand how ML can help me detect product defects. This is also a nice starting point for my own project, making it easy to experiment with my own dataset (feel free to click on the image below to zoom in).

SageMaker screenshot

Once I’m done with this solution, I can delete all its resources in one click, letting AWS CloudFormation clean up without having to worry about leaving idle AWS resources behind.

SageMaker screenshot

Now, let’s look at models.

Deploying a Model with Amazon SageMaker JumpStart
SageMaker JumpStart includes a large collection of models available in the TensorFlow Hub and the PyTorch Hub. These models are pre-trained on reference datasets, and you can use them directly to handle a wide range of computer vision and natural language processing tasks. You can also fine-tune them on your own datasets for greater accuracy, a technique called transfer learning.

SageMaker screenshot
Here, I pick a version of the BERT model trained on question answering. I can either deploy it as is, or fine-tune it. For the sake of brevity, I go with the former here, and I just click on the “Deploy” button.

SageMaker screenshot

A few minutes later, the model has been deployed to a real-time endpoint powered by fully managed infrastructure.

SageMaker screenshot

Time to test it! Clicking on “Open Notebook” launches a sample notebook that I run right away to test the model, without having to change a line of code (again, feel free to click on the image below to zoom in). Here, I’m asking two questions (“What is Southern California often abbreviated as?” and “Who directed Spectre?“), passing some context containing the answer. In both cases, the BERT model gives the correct answer, respectively “socal” and “Sam Mendes“.

SageMaker screenshot

When I’m done testing, I can delete the endpoint in one click, and stop paying for it.

Getting Started
As you can see, it’s extremely easy to deploy models and solutions with SageMaker JumpStart in minutes, even if you have little or no ML skills.

You can start using this capability today in all regions where SageMaker Studio is available, at no additional cost.

Give it a try and let us know what you think.

As always, we’re looking forward to your feedback, either through your usual AWS support contacts, or on the AWS Forum for SageMaker.

– Julien

Special thanks to my colleague Jared Heywood for his precious help during early testing.