Tag Archives: serverless

Serverless ICYMI Q1 2024

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/serverless-icymi-q1-2024/

Welcome to the 25th edition of the AWS Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap. Every quarter, we share all the most recent product launches, feature enhancements, blog posts, webinars, live streams, and other interesting things that you might have missed!

In case you missed our last ICYMI, check out what happened last quarter here.

2024 Q1 calendar

2024 Q1 calendar

Adobe Summit

At the Adobe Summit, the AWS Serverless Developer Advocacy team showcased a solution developed for the NFL using AWS serverless technologies and Adobe Photoshop APIs. The system automates image processing tasks, including background removal and dynamic resizing, by integrating AWS Step Functions, AWS Lambda, Amazon EventBridge, and AI/ML capabilities via Amazon Rekognition. This solution reduced image processing time from weeks to minutes and saved the NFL significant costs. Combining cloud-based serverless architectures with advanced machine learning and API technologies can optimize digital workflows for cost-effective and agile digital asset management.

Adobe Summit ServerlessVideo

Adobe Summit ServerlessVideo

ServerlessVideo is a demo application to stream live videos and also perform advanced post-video processing. It uses several AWS services, including Step Functions, Lambda, EventBridge, Amazon ECS, and Amazon Bedrock in a serverless architecture that makes it fast, flexible, and cost-effective. The team used ServerlessVideo to interview attendees about the conference experience and Adobe and partners about how they use Adobe. Learn more about the project and watch videos from Adobe Summit 2024 at video.serverlessland.com.

AWS Lambda

AWS launched support for the latest long-term support release of .NET 8, which includes API enhancements, improved Native Ahead of Time (Native AOT) support, and improved performance.

AWS Lambda .NET 8

AWS Lambda .NET 8

Learn how to compare design approaches for building serverless microservices. This post covers the trade-offs to consider with various application architectures. See how you can apply single responsibility, Lambda-lith, and read and write functions.

The AWS Serverless Java Container has been updated. This makes it easier to modernize a legacy Java application written with frameworks such as Spring, Spring Boot, or JAX-RS/Jersey in Lambda with minimal code changes.

AWS Serverless Java Container

AWS Serverless Java Container

Lambda has improved the responsiveness for configuring Event Source Mappings (ESMs) and Amazon EventBridge Pipes with event sources such as self-managed Apache Kafka, Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (MSK), Amazon DocumentDB, and Amazon MQ.

Chaos engineering is a popular practice for building confidence in system resilience. However, many existing tools assume the ability to alter infrastructure configurations, and cannot be easily applied to the serverless application paradigm. You can use the AWS Fault Injection Service (FIS) to automate and manage chaos experiments across different Lambda functions to provide a reusable testing method.

Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate

Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) now provides managed instance draining as a built-in feature of Amazon ECS capacity providers. This allows Amazon ECS to safely and automatically drain tasks from Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances that are part of an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling Group associated with an Amazon ECS capacity provider. This simplification allows you to remove custom lifecycle hooks previously used to drain Amazon EC2 instances. You can now perform infrastructure updates such as rolling out a new version of the ECS agent by seamlessly using Auto Scaling Group instance refresh, with Amazon ECS ensuring workloads are not interrupted.

Credentials Fetcher makes it easier to run containers that depend on Windows authentication when using Amazon EC2. Credentials Fetcher now integrates with Amazon ECS, using either the Amazon EC2 launch type, or AWS Fargate serverless compute launch type.

Amazon ECS Service Connect is a networking capability to simplify service discovery, connectivity, and traffic observability for Amazon ECS. You can now more easily integrate certificate management to encrypt service-to-service communication using Transport Layer Security (TLS). You do not need to modify your application code, add additional network infrastructure, or operate service mesh solutions.

Amazon ECS Service Connect

Amazon ECS Service Connect

Running distributed machine learning (ML) workloads on Amazon ECS allows ML teams to focus on creating, training and deploying models, rather than spending time managing the container orchestration engine. Amazon ECS provides a great environment to run ML projects as it supports workloads that use NVIDIA GPUs and provides optimized images with pre-installed NVIDIA Kernel drivers and Docker runtime.

See how to build preview environments for Amazon ECS applications with AWS Copilot. AWS Copilot is an open source command line interface that makes it easier to build, release, and operate production ready containerized applications.

Learn techniques for automatic scaling of your Amazon Elastic Container Service  (Amazon ECS) container workloads to enhance the end user experience. This post explains how to use AWS Application Auto Scaling which helps you configure automatic scaling of your Amazon ECS service. You can also use Amazon ECS Service Connect and AWS Distro for OpenTelemetry (ADOT) in Application Auto Scaling.

AWS Step Functions

AWS workloads sometimes require access to data stored in on-premises databases and storage locations. Traditional solutions to establish connectivity to the on-premises resources require inbound rules to firewalls, a VPN tunnel, or public endpoints. Discover how to use the MQTT protocol (AWS IoT Core) with AWS Step Functions to dispatch jobs to on-premises workers to access or retrieve data stored on-premises.

You can use Step Functions to orchestrate many business processes. Many industries are required to provide audit trails for decision and transactional systems. Learn how to build a serverless pipeline to create a reliable, performant, traceable, and durable pipeline for audit processing.

Amazon EventBridge

Amazon EventBridge now supports publishing events to AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs as native targets. The new integration allows you to publish events easily to a wider variety of consumers and simplifies updating clients with near real-time data.

Amazon EventBridge publishing events to AWS AppSync

Amazon EventBridge publishing events to AWS AppSync

Discover how to send and receive CloudEvents with EventBridge. CloudEvents is an open-source specification for describing event data in a common way. You can publish CloudEvents directly to EventBridge, filter and route them, and use input transformers and API Destinations to send CloudEvents to downstream AWS services and third-party APIs.

AWS Application Composer

AWS Application Composer lets you create infrastructure as code templates by dragging and dropping cards on a virtual canvas. These represent CloudFormation resources, which you can wire together to create permissions and references. Application Composer has now expanded to the VS Code IDE as part of the AWS Toolkit. This now includes a generative AI partner that helps you write infrastructure as code (IaC) for all 1100+ AWS CloudFormation resources that Application Composer now supports.

AWS AppComposer generate suggestions

AWS AppComposer generate suggestions

Amazon API Gateway

Learn how to consume private Amazon API Gateway APIs using mutual TLS (mTLS). mTLS helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and protects against threats such as impersonation attempts, data interception, and tampering.

Serverless at AWS re:Invent

Serverless at AWS reInvent

Serverless at AWS reInvent

Visit the Serverless Land YouTube channel to find a list of serverless and serverless container sessions from reinvent 2023. Hear from experts like Chris Munns and Julian Wood in their popular session, Best practices for serverless developers, or Nathan Peck and Jessica Deen in Deploying multi-tenant SaaS applications on Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate.

Serverless blog posts

January

February

March

Serverless container blog posts

January

February

December

Serverless Office Hours

Serverless Office Hours

Serverless Office Hours

January

February

March

Containers from the Couch

Containers from the Couch

Containers from the Couch

January

February

March

FooBar Serverless

FooBar Serverless

FooBar Serverless

January

February

March

Still looking for more?

The Serverless landing page has more information. The Lambda resources page contains case studies, webinars, whitepapers, customer stories, reference architectures, and even more Getting Started tutorials.

You can also follow the Serverless Developer Advocacy team on Twitter to see the latest news, follow conversations, and interact with the team.

And finally, visit the Serverless Land and Containers on AWS websites for all your serverless and serverless container needs.

Automating chaos experiments with AWS Fault Injection Service and AWS Lambda

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/automating-chaos-experiments-with-aws-fault-injection-service-and-aws-lambda/

This post is written by André Stoll, Solution Architect.

Chaos engineering is a popular practice for building confidence in system resilience. However, many existing tools assume the ability to alter infrastructure configurations, and cannot be easily applied to the serverless application paradigm. Due to the stateless, ephemeral, and distributed nature of serverless architectures, you must evolve the traditional technique when running chaos experiments on these systems.

This blog post explains a technique for running chaos engineering experiments on AWS Lambda functions. The approach uses Lambda extensions to induce failures in a runtime-agnostic way requiring no function code changes. It shows how you can use the AWS Fault Injection Service (FIS) to automate and manage chaos experiments across different Lambda functions to provide a reusable testing method.

Overview

Chaos experiments are commonly applied to cloud applications to uncover latent issues and prevent service disruptions. IT teams use chaos experiments to build confidence in the robustness of their systems. However, the traditional methods used in server-based chaos engineering do not easily translate to the serverless world since many existing tools are based on altering the underlying infrastructure configurations, such as cluster nodes or server instances of your applications.

In serverless applications, AWS handles the undifferentiated heavy lifting of managing infrastructure, so you can focus on delivering business value. But this also means that engineering teams have limited control over the infrastructure, and must rely on application-level tooling to run chaos experiments. Two techniques commonly used in the serverless community for conducting chaos experiments on Lambda functions are modifying the function configuration or using runtime-specific libraries.

Changing the configuration of a Lambda function allows you to induce rudimentary failures. For example, you can set the reserved concurrency of a Lambda function to simulate invocation throttling. Alternatively, you might change the function execution role permissions or the function policy to simulate IAM access denial. These types of failures are easy to implement, but the range of possible fault injection types is limited.

The other technique—injecting chaos into Lambda functions through purpose-built, runtime-specific libraries—is more flexible. There are various open-source libraries that allow you to inject failures, such as added latency, exceptions, or disk exhaustion. Examples of such libraries are Python’s chaos_lambda and failure-lambda for Node.js. The downside is that you must change the function code for every function you want to run chaos experiments on. In addition, those libraries are runtime-specific and each library comes with a set of different capabilities and configurations. This reduces the reusability of your chaos experiments across Lambda functions implemented in different languages.

Injecting chaos using Lambda extensions

Implementing chaos experiments using Lambda extensions allows you to address all of the previous concerns. Lambda extensions augment your functions by adding functionality, such as capturing diagnostic information or automatically instrumenting your code. You can integrate your preferred monitoring, observability, or security tooling deeply into the Lambda environment without complex installation or configuration management. Lambda extensions are generally packaged as Lambda layers and run as a separate process in the Lambda execution environment. You may use extensions from AWS, AWS Lambda partners, or build your own custom functionality.

With Lambda extensions, you can implement a chaos extension to inject the desired failures into your Lambda environments. This chaos extension uses the Runtime API proxy pattern that enables you to hook into the function invocation request and response lifecycle. Lambda runtimes use the Lambda Runtime API to retrieve the next incoming event to be processed by the function handler and return the handler response to the Lambda service.

The Runtime API HTTP endpoint is available within the Lambda execution environment. Runtimes get the API endpoint from the environment variable AWS_LAMBDA_RUNTIME_API. During the initialization of the execution environment, you can modify the runtime startup behavior. This lets you change the value of AWS_LAMBDA_RUNTIME_API to the port the chaos extension process is listening on. Now, all requests to the Runtime API go through the chaos extension proxy. You can use this workflow for blocking malicious events, auditing payloads, or injecting failures.

Injecting chaos using Lambda extensions

  1. The chaos extension intercepts incoming events and outbound responses, and injects failures according to the chaos experiment configuration.
  2. The extension accesses environment variables to read the chaos experiment configuration.
  3. A wrapper script configures the runtime to proxy requests through the chaos extension.

When intercepting incoming events and outbound responses to the Lambda Runtime API, you can simulate failures such as introducing artificial delay or generate an error response to return to the Lambda service. This workflow adds latency to your function calls:

Workflow

All Lambda runtimes support extensions. Since extensions run as a separate process, you can implement them in a language other than the function code. AWS recommends you implement extensions using a programming language that compiles to a binary executable, such as Golang or Rust. This allows you to use the extension with any Lambda runtime.

Some of the open source projects following this technique are the chaos-lambda-extension, implemented in Rust, or the serverless-chaos-extension, implemented in Python.

Extensions provide you with a flexible and reusable method to run your chaos experiments on Lambda functions. You can reuse the chaos extension for all runtimes without having to change function code. Add the extension to any Lambda function where you want to run chaos experiments.

Automating with AWS FIS experiment templates

According to the Principles of Chaos Engineering, you should “automate your experiments to run continuously”. To achieve this, you can use the AWS Fault Injection Service (FIS).

This service allows you to generate reusable experiment templates. The template specifies the targets and the actions to run on them during the experiment, and an optional stop condition that prevents the experiment from going out of bounds. You can also execute AWS Systems Manager Automation runbooks which support custom fault types. You can write your own custom Systems Manager documents to define the individual steps involved in the automation. To carry out the actions of the experiment, you define scripts in the document to manage your Lambda function and set it up for the chaos experiment.

To use the chaos extension for your serverless chaos experiments:

  1. Set up the Lambda function for the experiment. Add the chaos extension as a layer and configure the experiment, for example, by adding environment variables specifying the fault type and its corresponding value.
  2. Pause the automation and conduct the experiment. To do this, use the aws:sleep automation action. During this period, you conduct the experiment, measure and observe the outcome.
  3. Clean up the experiment. The script removes the layer again and also resets the environment variables.

Running your first serverless chaos experiment

This sample repository provides you with the necessary code to run your first serverless chaos experiment in AWS. The experiment uses the chaos-lambda-extension extension to inject chaos.

The sample deploys the AWS FIS experiment template, the necessary SSM Automation runbooks including the IAM role used by the runbook to configure the Lambda functions. The sample also provisions a Lambda function for testing and an Amazon CloudWatch alarm used to roll back the experiment.

Prerequisites

Running the experiment

Follow the steps outlined in the repository to conduct your first experiment. Starting the experiment triggers the automation execution.

Actions summary

This automation includes adding the extension and configuring the experiment, pausing the execution and observing the system and reverting all changes to the initial state.

Executed steps

If you invoke the targeted Lambda function during the second step, failures (in this case, artificial latency) are simulated.

Output result

Security best practices

Extensions run within the same execution environment as the function, so they have the same level of access to resources such as file system, networking, and environment variables. IAM permissions assigned to the function are shared with extensions. AWS recommends you assign the least required privileges to your functions.

Always install extensions from a trusted source only. Use Infrastructure as Code (IaC) and automation tools, such as CloudFormation or AWS Systems Manager, to simplify attaching the same extension configuration, including AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions, to multiple functions. IaC and automation tools allow you to have an audit record of extensions and versions used previously.

When building extensions, do not log sensitive data. Sanitize payloads and metadata before logging or persisting them for audit purposes.

Conclusion

This blog post details how to run chaos experiments for serverless applications built using Lambda. The described approach uses Lambda extension to inject faults into the execution environment. This allows you to use the same method regardless of runtime or configuration of the Lambda function.

To automate and successfully conduct the experiment, you can use the AWS Fault Injection Service. By creating an experiment template, you can specify the actions to run on the defined targets, such as adding the extension during the experiment. Since the extension can be used for any runtime, you can reuse the experiment template to inject failures into different Lambda functions.

Visit this repository to deploy your first serverless chaos experiment, or watch this video guide for learning more about building extensions. Explore the AWS FIS documentation to learn how to create your own experiments.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Sending and receiving CloudEvents with Amazon EventBridge

Post Syndicated from David Boyne original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/sending-and-receiving-cloudevents-with-amazon-eventbridge/

Amazon EventBridge helps developers build event-driven architectures (EDA) by connecting loosely coupled publishers and consumers using event routing, filtering, and transformation. CloudEvents is an open-source specification for describing event data in a common way. Developers can publish CloudEvents directly to EventBridge, filter and route them, and use input transformers and API Destinations to send CloudEvents to downstream AWS services and third-party APIs.

Overview

Event design is an important aspect in any event-driven architecture. Developers building event-driven architectures often overlook the event design process when building their architectures. This leads to unwanted side effects like exposing implementation details, lack of standards, and version incompatibility.

Without event standards, it can be difficult to integrate events or streams of messages between systems, brokers, and organizations. Each system has to understand the event structure or rely on custom-built solutions for versioning or validation.

CloudEvents is a specification for describing event data in common formats to provide interoperability between services, platforms, and systems using Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) projects. As CloudEvents is a CNCF graduated project, many third-party brokers and systems adopt this specification.

Using CloudEvents as a standard format to describe events makes integration easier and you can use open-source tooling to help build event-driven architectures and future proof any integrations. EventBridge can route and filter CloudEvents based on common metadata, without needing to understand the business logic within the event itself.

CloudEvents support two implementation modes, structured mode and binary mode, and a range of protocols including HTTP, MQTT, AMQP, and Kafka. When publishing events to an EventBridge bus, you can structure events as CloudEvents and route them to downstream consumers. You can use input transformers to transform any event into the CloudEvents specification. Events can also be forwarded to public APIs, using EventBridge API destinations, which supports both structured and binary mode encodings, enhancing interoperability with external systems.

Standardizing events using Amazon EventBridge

When publishing events to an EventBridge bus, EventBridge uses its own event envelope and represents events as JSON objects. EventBridge requires that you define top-level fields, such as detail-type and source. You can use any event/payload in the detail field.

This example event shows an OrderPlaced event from the orders-service that is unstructured without any event standards. The data within the event contains the order_id, customer_id and order_total.

{
  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c57",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T11:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    }
  }
}

Publishers may also choose to add an additional metadata field along with the data field within the detail field to help define a set of standards for their events.

{
  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "metadata": {
      "idempotency_key": "29d2b068-f9c7-42a0-91e3-5ba515de5dbe",
      "correlation_id": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",
      "domain": "ORDERS",
      "time": "1707908605"
    },
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    }
  }
}

This additional event information helps downstream consumers, improves debugging, and can manage idempotency. While this approach offers practical benefits, it duplicates solutions that are already solved with the CloudEvents specification.

Publishing CloudEvents using Amazon EventBridge

When publishing events to EventBridge, you can use CloudEvents structured mode. A structured-mode message is where the entire event (attributes and data) is encoded in the message body, according to a specific event format. A binary-mode message is where the event data is stored in the message body, and event attributes are stored as part of the message metadata.

CloudEvents has a list of required fields but also offers flexibility with optional attributes and extensions. CloudEvents also offers a solution to implement idempotency, requiring that the combination of id and source must uniquely identify an event, which can be used as the idempotency key in downstream implementations.

{
  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "specversion": "1.0",
    "id": "bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61",
    "source": "myapp.orders-service",
    "type": "OrderPlaced",
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    },
    "time": "2024-01-01T17:31:00Z",
    "dataschema": "https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced",
    "correlationid": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",
    "domain": "ORDERS"
  }
}

By incorporating the required fields, the OrderPlaced event is now CloudEvents compliant. The event also contains optional and extension fields for additional information. Optional fields such as dataschema can be useful for brokers and consumers to retrieve a URI path to the published event schema. This example event references the schema in the EventBridge schema registry, so downstream consumers can fetch the schema to validate the payload.

Mapping existing events into CloudEvents using input transformers

When you define a target in EventBridge, input transformations allow you to modify the event before it reaches its destination. Input transformers are configured per target, allowing you to convert events when your downstream consumer requires the CloudEvents format and you want to avoid duplicating information.

Input transformers allow you to map EventBridge fields, such as id, region, detail-type, and source, into corresponding CloudEvents attributes.

This example shows how to transform any EventBridge event into CloudEvents format using input transformers, so the target receives the required structure.

{
  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2024-01-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
    "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
    "order_total": "120.00"
  }
}

Using this input transformer and input template EventBridge transforms the event schema into the CloudEvents specification for downstream consumers.

Input transformer for CloudEvents:

{
  "id": "$.id",
  "source": "$.source",
  "type": "$.detail-type",
  "time": "$.time",
  "data": "$.detail"
}

Input template for CloudEvents:

{
  "specversion": "1.0",
  "id": "<id>",
  "source": "<source>",
  "type": "<type>",
  "time": "<time>",
  "data": <data>
}

This example shows the event payload that is received by downstream targets, which is mapped to the CloudEvents specification.

{
  "specversion": "1.0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "type": "OrderPlaced",
  "time": "2024-01-23T12:38:46Z",
  "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    }
}

For more information on using input transformers with CloudEvents, see this pattern on Serverless Land.

Transforming events into CloudEvents using API destinations

EventBridge API destinations allows you to trigger HTTP endpoints based on matched rules to integrate with third-party systems using public APIs. You can route events to APIs that support the CloudEvents format by using input transformations and custom HTTP headers to convert EventBridge events to CloudEvents. API destinations now supports custom content-type headers. This allows you to send structured or binary CloudEvents to downstream consumers.

Sending binary CloudEvents using API destinations

When sending binary CloudEvents over HTTP, you must use the HTTP binding specification and set the necessary CloudEvents headers. These headers tell the downstream consumer that the incoming payload uses the CloudEvents format. The body of the request is the event itself.

CloudEvents headers are prefixed with ce-. You can find the list of headers in the HTTP protocol binding documentation.

This example shows the Headers for a binary event:

POST /order HTTP/1.1 
Host: webhook.example.com
ce-specversion: 1.0
ce-type: OrderPlaced
ce-source: myapp.orders-service
ce-id: bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61
ce-time: 2024-01-01T17:31:00Z
ce-dataschema: https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced
correlationid: dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222
domain: ORDERS
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8

This example shows the body for a binary event:

{
  "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
  "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
  "order_total": "120.00"
}

For more information when using binary CloudEvents with API destinations, explore this pattern available on Serverless Land.

Sending structured CloudEvents using API destinations

To support structured mode with CloudEvents, you must specify the content-type as application/cloudevents+json; charset=UTF-8, which tells the API consumer that the payload of the event is adhering to the CloudEvents specification.

POST /order HTTP/1.1
Host: webhook.example.com
 
Content-Type: application/cloudevents+json; charset=utf-8
{
    "specversion": "1.0",
    "id": "bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61",
    "source": "myapp.orders-service",
    "type": "OrderPlaced",      
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    },
    "time": "2024-01-01T17:31:00Z",
    "dataschema": "https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced",
    "correlationid": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",
    "domain":"ORDERS"
}

Conclusion

Carefully designing events plays an important role when building event-driven architectures to integrate producers and consumers effectively. The open-source CloudEvents specification helps developers to standardize integration processes, simplifying interactions between internal systems and external partners.

EventBridge allows you to use a flexible payload structure within an event’s detail property to standardize events. You can publish structured CloudEvents directly onto an event bus in the detail field and use payload transformations to allow downstream consumers to receive events in the CloudEvents format.

EventBridge simplifies integration with third-party systems using API destinations. Using the new custom content-type headers with input transformers to modify the event structure, you can send structured or binary CloudEvents to integrate with public APIs.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

How the GoDaddy data platform achieved over 60% cost reduction and 50% performance boost by adopting Amazon EMR Serverless

Post Syndicated from Brandon Abear original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/how-the-godaddy-data-platform-achieved-over-60-cost-reduction-and-50-performance-boost-by-adopting-amazon-emr-serverless/

This is a guest post co-written with Brandon Abear, Dinesh Sharma, John Bush, and Ozcan IIikhan from GoDaddy.

GoDaddy empowers everyday entrepreneurs by providing all the help and tools to succeed online. With more than 20 million customers worldwide, GoDaddy is the place people come to name their ideas, build a professional website, attract customers, and manage their work.

At GoDaddy, we take pride in being a data-driven company. Our relentless pursuit of valuable insights from data fuels our business decisions and ensures customer satisfaction. Our commitment to efficiency is unwavering, and we’ve undertaken an exciting initiative to optimize our batch processing jobs. In this journey, we have identified a structured approach that we refer to as the seven layers of improvement opportunities. This methodology has become our guide in the pursuit of efficiency.

In this post, we discuss how we enhanced operational efficiency with Amazon EMR Serverless. We share our benchmarking results and methodology, and insights into the cost-effectiveness of EMR Serverless vs. fixed capacity Amazon EMR on EC2 transient clusters on our data workflows orchestrated using Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow (Amazon MWAA). We share our strategy for the adoption of EMR Serverless in areas where it excels. Our findings reveal significant benefits, including over 60% cost reduction, 50% faster Spark workloads, a remarkable five-times improvement in development and testing speed, and a significant reduction in our carbon footprint.

Background

In late 2020, GoDaddy’s data platform initiated its AWS Cloud journey, migrating an 800-node Hadoop cluster with 2.5 PB of data from its data center to EMR on EC2. This lift-and-shift approach facilitated a direct comparison between on-premises and cloud environments, ensuring a smooth transition to AWS pipelines, minimizing data validation issues and migration delays.

By early 2022, we successfully migrated our big data workloads to EMR on EC2. Using best practices learned from the AWS FinHack program, we fine-tuned resource-intensive jobs, converted Pig and Hive jobs to Spark, and reduced our batch workload spend by 22.75% in 2022. However, scalability challenges emerged due to the multitude of jobs. This prompted GoDaddy to embark on a systematic optimization journey, establishing a foundation for more sustainable and efficient big data processing.

Seven layers of improvement opportunities

In our quest for operational efficiency, we have identified seven distinct layers of opportunities for optimization within our batch processing jobs, as shown in the following figure. These layers range from precise code-level enhancements to more comprehensive platform improvements. This multi-layered approach has become our strategic blueprint in the ongoing pursuit of better performance and higher efficiency.

Seven layers of improvement opportunities

The layers are as follows:

  • Code optimization – Focuses on refining the code logic and how it can be optimized for better performance. This involves performance enhancements through selective caching, partition and projection pruning, join optimizations, and other job-specific tuning. Using AI coding solutions is also an integral part of this process.
  • Software updates – Updating to the latest versions of open source software (OSS) to capitalize on new features and improvements. For example, Adaptive Query Execution in Spark 3 brings significant performance and cost improvements.
  • Custom Spark configurations Tuning of custom Spark configurations to maximize resource utilization, memory, and parallelism. We can achieve significant improvements by right-sizing tasks, such as through spark.sql.shuffle.partitions, spark.sql.files.maxPartitionBytes, spark.executor.cores, and spark.executor.memory. However, these custom configurations might be counterproductive if they are not compatible with the specific Spark version.
  • Resource provisioning time The time it takes to launch resources like ephemeral EMR clusters on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2). Although some factors influencing this time are outside of an engineer’s control, identifying and addressing the factors that can be optimized can help reduce overall provisioning time.
  • Fine-grained scaling at task level Dynamically adjusting resources such as CPU, memory, disk, and network bandwidth based on each stage’s needs within a task. The aim here is to avoid fixed cluster sizes that could result in resource waste.
  • Fine-grained scaling across multiple tasks in a workflow Given that each task has unique resource requirements, maintaining a fixed resource size may result in under- or over-provisioning for certain tasks within the same workflow. Traditionally, the size of the largest task determines the cluster size for a multi-task workflow. However, dynamically adjusting resources across multiple tasks and steps within a workflow result in a more cost-effective implementation.
  • Platform-level enhancements – Enhancements at preceding layers can only optimize a given job or a workflow. Platform improvement aims to attain efficiency at the company level. We can achieve this through various means, such as updating or upgrading the core infrastructure, introducing new frameworks, allocating appropriate resources for each job profile, balancing service usage, optimizing the use of Savings Plans and Spot Instances, or implementing other comprehensive changes to boost efficiency across all tasks and workflows.

Layers 1–3: Previous cost reductions

After we migrated from on premises to AWS Cloud, we primarily focused our cost-optimization efforts on the first three layers shown in the diagram. By transitioning our most costly legacy Pig and Hive pipelines to Spark and optimizing Spark configurations for Amazon EMR, we achieved significant cost savings.

For example, a legacy Pig job took 10 hours to complete and ranked among the top 10 most expensive EMR jobs. Upon reviewing TEZ logs and cluster metrics, we discovered that the cluster was vastly over-provisioned for the data volume being processed and remained under-utilized for most of the runtime. Transitioning from Pig to Spark was more efficient. Although no automated tools were available for the conversion, manual optimizations were made, including:

  • Reduced unnecessary disk writes, saving serialization and deserialization time (Layer 1)
  • Replaced Airflow task parallelization with Spark, simplifying the Airflow DAG (Layer 1)
  • Eliminated redundant Spark transformations (Layer 1)
  • Upgraded from Spark 2 to 3, using Adaptive Query Execution (Layer 2)
  • Addressed skewed joins and optimized smaller dimension tables (Layer 3)

As a result, job cost decreased by 95%, and job completion time was reduced to 1 hour. However, this approach was labor-intensive and not scalable for numerous jobs.

Layers 4–6: Find and adopt the right compute solution

In late 2022, following our significant accomplishments in optimization at the previous levels, our attention moved towards enhancing the remaining layers.

Understanding the state of our batch processing

We use Amazon MWAA to orchestrate our data workflows in the cloud at scale. Apache Airflow is an open source tool used to programmatically author, schedule, and monitor sequences of processes and tasks referred to as workflows. In this post, the terms workflow and job are used interchangeably, referring to the Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) consisting of tasks orchestrated by Amazon MWAA. For each workflow, we have sequential or parallel tasks, and even a combination of both in the DAG between create_emr and terminate_emr tasks running on a transient EMR cluster with fixed compute capacity throughout the workflow run. Even after optimizing a portion of our workload, we still had numerous non-optimized workflows that were under-utilized due to over-provisioning of compute resources based on the most resource-intensive task in the workflow, as shown in the following figure.

This highlighted the impracticality of static resource allocation and led us to recognize the necessity of a dynamic resource allocation (DRA) system. Before proposing a solution, we gathered extensive data to thoroughly understand our batch processing. Analyzing the cluster step time, excluding provisioning and idle time, revealed significant insights: a right-skewed distribution with over half of the workflows completing in 20 minutes or less and only 10% taking more than 60 minutes. This distribution guided our choice of a fast-provisioning compute solution, dramatically reducing workflow runtimes. The following diagram illustrates step times (excluding provisioning and idle time) of EMR on EC2 transient clusters in one of our batch processing accounts.

Furthermore, based on the step time (excluding provisioning and idle time) distribution of the workflows, we categorized our workflows into three groups:

  • Quick run – Lasting 20 minutes or less
  • Medium run – Lasting between 20–60 minutes
  • Long run – Exceeding 60 minutes, often spanning several hours or more

Another factor we needed to consider was the extensive use of transient clusters for reasons such as security, job and cost isolation, and purpose-built clusters. Additionally, there was a significant variation in resource needs between peak hours and periods of low utilization.

Instead of fixed-size clusters, we could potentially use managed scaling on EMR on EC2 to achieve some cost benefits. However, migrating to EMR Serverless appears to be a more strategic direction for our data platform. In addition to potential cost benefits, EMR Serverless offers additional advantages such as a one-click upgrade to the newest Amazon EMR versions, a simplified operational and debugging experience, and automatic upgrades to the latest generations upon rollout. These features collectively simplify the process of operating a platform on a larger scale.

Evaluating EMR Serverless: A case study at GoDaddy

EMR Serverless is a serverless option in Amazon EMR that eliminates the complexities of configuring, managing, and scaling clusters when running big data frameworks like Apache Spark and Apache Hive. With EMR Serverless, businesses can enjoy numerous benefits, including cost-effectiveness, faster provisioning, simplified developer experience, and improved resilience to Availability Zone failures.

Recognizing the potential of EMR Serverless, we conducted an in-depth benchmark study using real production workflows. The study aimed to assess EMR Serverless performance and efficiency while also creating an adoption plan for large-scale implementation. The findings were highly encouraging, showing EMR Serverless can effectively handle our workloads.

Benchmarking methodology

We split our data workflows into three categories based on total step time (excluding provisioning and idle time): quick run (0–20 minutes), medium run (20–60 minutes), and long run (over 60 minutes). We analyzed the impact of the EMR deployment type (Amazon EC2 vs. EMR Serverless) on two key metrics: cost-efficiency and total runtime speedup, which served as our overall evaluation criteria. Although we did not formally measure ease of use and resiliency, these factors were considered throughout the evaluation process.

The high-level steps to assess the environment are as follows:

  1. Prepare the data and environment:
    1. Choose three to five random production jobs from each job category.
    2. Implement required adjustments to prevent interference with production.
  2. Run tests:
    1. Run scripts over several days or through multiple iterations to gather precise and consistent data points.
    2. Perform tests using EMR on EC2 and EMR Serverless.
  3. Validate data and test runs:
    1. Validate input and output datasets, partitions, and row counts to ensure identical data processing.
  4. Gather metrics and analyze results:
    1. Gather relevant metrics from the tests.
    2. Analyze results to draw insights and conclusions.

Benchmark results

Our benchmark results showed significant enhancements across all three job categories for both runtime speedup and cost-efficiency. The improvements were most pronounced for quick jobs, directly resulting from faster startup times. For instance, a 20-minute (including cluster provisioning and shut down) data workflow running on an EMR on EC2 transient cluster of fixed compute capacity finishes in 10 minutes on EMR Serverless, providing a shorter runtime with cost benefits. Overall, the shift to EMR Serverless delivered substantial performance improvements and cost reductions at scale across job brackets, as seen in the following figure.

Historically, we devoted more time to tuning our long-run workflows. Interestingly, we discovered that the existing custom Spark configurations for these jobs did not always translate well to EMR Serverless. In cases where the results were insignificant, a common approach was to discard previous Spark configurations related to executor cores. By allowing EMR Serverless to autonomously manage these Spark configurations, we often observed improved outcomes. The following graph shows the average runtime and cost improvement per job when comparing EMR Serverless to EMR on EC2.

Per Job Improvement

The following table shows a sample comparison of results for the same workflow running on different deployment options of Amazon EMR (EMR on EC2 and EMR Serverless).

Metric EMR on EC2
(Average)
EMR Serverless
(Average)
EMR on EC2 vs
EMR Serverless
Total Run Cost ($) $ 5.82 $ 2.60 55%
Total Run Time (Minutes) 53.40 39.40 26%
Provisioning Time (Minutes) 10.20 0.05 .
Provisioning Cost ($) $ 1.19 . .
Steps Time (Minutes) 38.20 39.16 -3%
Steps Cost ($) $ 4.30 . .
Idle Time (Minutes) 4.80 . .
EMR Release Label emr-6.9.0 .
Hadoop Distribution Amazon 3.3.3 .
Spark Version Spark 3.3.0 .
Hive/HCatalog Version Hive 3.1.3, HCatalog 3.1.3 .
Job Type Spark .

AWS Graviton2 on EMR Serverless performance evaluation

After seeing compelling results with EMR Serverless for our workloads, we decided to further analyze the performance of the AWS Graviton2 (arm64) architecture within EMR Serverless. AWS had benchmarked Spark workloads on Graviton2 EMR Serverless using the TPC-DS 3TB scale, showing a 27% overall price-performance improvement.

To better understand the integration benefits, we ran our own study using GoDaddy’s production workloads on a daily schedule and observed an impressive 23.8% price-performance enhancement across a range of jobs when using Graviton2. For more details about this study, see GoDaddy benchmarking results in up to 24% better price-performance for their Spark workloads with AWS Graviton2 on Amazon EMR Serverless.

Adoption strategy for EMR Serverless

We strategically implemented a phased rollout of EMR Serverless via deployment rings, enabling systematic integration. This gradual approach let us validate improvements and halt further adoption of EMR Serverless, if needed. It served both as a safety net to catch issues early and a means to refine our infrastructure. The process mitigated change impact through smooth operations while building team expertise of our Data Engineering and DevOps teams. Additionally, it fostered tight feedback loops, allowing prompt adjustments and ensuring efficient EMR Serverless integration.

We divided our workflows into three main adoption groups, as shown in the following image:

  • Canaries This group aids in detecting and resolving any potential problems early in the deployment stage.
  • Early adopters This is the second batch of workflows that adopt the new compute solution after initial issues have been identified and rectified by the canaries group.
  • Broad deployment rings The largest group of rings, this group represents the wide-scale deployment of the solution. These are deployed after successful testing and implementation in the previous two groups.

Rings

We further broke down these workflows into granular deployment rings to adopt EMR Serverless, as shown in the following table.

Ring # Name Details
Ring 0 Canary Low adoption risk jobs that are expected to yield some cost saving benefits.
Ring 1 Early Adopters Low risk Quick-run Spark jobs that expect to yield high gains.
Ring 2 Quick-run Rest of the Quick-run (step_time <= 20 min) Spark jobs
Ring 3 LargerJobs_EZ High potential gain, easy move, medium-run and long-run Spark jobs
Ring 4 LargerJobs Rest of the medium-run and long-run Spark jobs with potential gains
Ring 5 Hive Hive jobs with potentially higher cost savings
Ring 6 Redshift_EZ Easy migration Redshift jobs that suit EMR Serverless
Ring 7 Glue_EZ Easy migration Glue jobs that suit EMR Serverless

Production adoption results summary

The encouraging benchmarking and canary adoption results generated considerable interest in wider EMR Serverless adoption at GoDaddy. To date, the EMR Serverless rollout remains underway. Thus far, it has reduced costs by 62.5% and accelerated total batch workflow completion by 50.4%.

Based on preliminary benchmarks, our team expected substantial gains for quick jobs. To our surprise, actual production deployments surpassed projections, averaging 64.4% faster vs. 42% projected, and 71.8% cheaper vs. 40% predicted.

Remarkably, long-running jobs also saw significant performance improvements due to the rapid provisioning of EMR Serverless and aggressive scaling enabled by dynamic resource allocation. We observed substantial parallelization during high-resource segments, resulting in a 40.5% faster total runtime compared to traditional approaches. The following chart illustrates the average enhancements per job category.

Prod Jobs Savings

Additionally, we observed the highest degree of dispersion for speed improvements within the long-run job category, as shown in the following box-and-whisker plot.

Whisker Plot

Sample workflows adopted EMR Serverless

For a large workflow migrated to EMR Serverless, comparing 3-week averages pre- and post-migration revealed impressive cost savings—a 75.30% decrease based on retail pricing with 10% improvement in total runtime, boosting operational efficiency. The following graph illustrates the cost trend.

Although quick-run jobs realized minimal per-dollar cost reductions, they delivered the most significant percentage cost savings. With thousands of these workflows running daily, the accumulated savings are substantial. The following graph shows the cost trend for a small workload migrated from EMR on EC2 to EMR Serverless. Comparing 3-week pre- and post-migration averages revealed a remarkable 92.43% cost savings on the retail on-demand pricing, alongside an 80.6% acceleration in total runtime.

Sample workflows adopted EMR Serverless 2

Layer 7: Platform-wide improvements

We aim to revolutionize compute operations at GoDaddy, providing simplified yet powerful solutions for all users with our Intelligent Compute Platform. With AWS compute solutions like EMR Serverless and EMR on EC2, it provided optimized runs of data processing and machine learning (ML) workloads. An ML-powered job broker intelligently determines when and how to run jobs based on various parameters, while still allowing power users to customize. Additionally, an ML-powered compute resource manager pre-provisions resources based on load and historical data, providing efficient, fast provisioning at optimum cost. Intelligent compute empowers users with out-of-the-box optimization, catering to diverse personas without compromising power users.

The following diagram shows a high-level illustration of the intelligent compute architecture.

Insights and recommended best-practices

The following section discusses the insights we’ve gathered and the recommended best practices we’ve developed during our preliminary and wider adoption stages.

Infrastructure preparation

Although EMR Serverless is a deployment method within EMR, it requires some infrastructure preparedness to optimize its potential. Consider the following requirements and practical guidance on implementation:

  • Use large subnets across multiple Availability Zones – When running EMR Serverless workloads within your VPC, make sure the subnets span across multiple Availability Zones and are not constrained by IP addresses. Refer to Configuring VPC access and Best practices for subnet planning for details.
  • Modify maximum concurrent vCPU quota For extensive compute requirements, it is recommended to increase your max concurrent vCPUs per account service quota.
  • Amazon MWAA version compatibility When adopting EMR Serverless, GoDaddy’s decentralized Amazon MWAA ecosystem for data pipeline orchestration created compatibility issues from disparate AWS Providers versions. Directly upgrading Amazon MWAA was more efficient than updating numerous DAGs. We facilitated adoption by upgrading Amazon MWAA instances ourselves, documenting issues, and sharing findings and effort estimates for accurate upgrade planning.
  • GoDaddy EMR operator To streamline migrating numerous Airflow DAGs from EMR on EC2 to EMR Serverless, we developed custom operators adapting existing interfaces. This allowed seamless transitions while retaining familiar tuning options. Data engineers could easily migrate pipelines with simple find-replace imports and immediately use EMR Serverless.

Unexpected behavior mitigation

The following are unexpected behaviors we ran into and what we did to mitigate them:

  • Spark DRA aggressive scaling For some jobs (8.33% of initial benchmarks, 13.6% of production), cost increased after migrating to EMR Serverless. This was due to Spark DRA excessively assigning new workers briefly, prioritizing performance over cost. To counteract this, we set maximum executor thresholds by adjusting spark.dynamicAllocation.maxExecutor, effectively limiting EMR Serverless scaling aggression. When migrating from EMR on EC2, we suggest observing the max core count in the Spark History UI to replicate similar compute limits in EMR Serverless, such as --conf spark.executor.cores and --conf spark.dynamicAllocation.maxExecutors.
  • Managing disk space for large-scale jobs When transitioning jobs that process large data volumes with substantial shuffles and significant disk requirements to EMR Serverless, we recommend configuring spark.emr-serverless.executor.disk by referring to existing Spark job metrics. Furthermore, configurations like spark.executor.cores combined with spark.emr-serverless.executor.disk and spark.dynamicAllocation.maxExecutors allow control over the underlying worker size and total attached storage when advantageous. For example, a shuffle-heavy job with relatively low disk usage may benefit from using a larger worker to increase the likelihood of local shuffle fetches.

Conclusion

As discussed in this post, our experiences with adopting EMR Serverless on arm64 have been overwhelmingly positive. The impressive results we’ve achieved, including a 60% reduction in cost, 50% faster runs of batch Spark workloads, and an astounding five-times improvement in development and testing speed, speak volumes about the potential of this technology. Furthermore, our current results suggest that by widely adopting Graviton2 on EMR Serverless, we could potentially reduce the carbon footprint by up to 60% for our batch processing.

However, it’s crucial to understand that these results are not a one-size-fits-all scenario. The enhancements you can expect are subject to factors including, but not limited to, the specific nature of your workflows, cluster configurations, resource utilization levels, and fluctuations in computational capacity. Therefore, we strongly advocate for a data-driven, ring-based deployment strategy when considering the integration of EMR Serverless, which can help optimize its benefits to the fullest.

Special thanks to Mukul Sharma and Boris Berlin for their contributions to benchmarking. Many thanks to Travis Muhlestein (CDO), Abhijit Kundu (VP Eng), Vincent Yung (Sr. Director Eng.), and Wai Kin Lau (Sr. Director Data Eng.) for their continued support.


About the Authors

Brandon Abear is a Principal Data Engineer in the Data & Analytics (DnA) organization at GoDaddy. He enjoys all things big data. In his spare time, he enjoys traveling, watching movies, and playing rhythm games.

Dinesh Sharma is a Principal Data Engineer in the Data & Analytics (DnA) organization at GoDaddy. He is passionate about user experience and developer productivity, always looking for ways to optimize engineering processes and saving cost. In his spare time, he loves reading and is an avid manga fan.

John Bush is a Principal Software Engineer in the Data & Analytics (DnA) organization at GoDaddy. He is passionate about making it easier for organizations to manage data and use it to drive their businesses forward. In his spare time, he loves hiking, camping, and riding his ebike.

Ozcan Ilikhan is the Director of Engineering for the Data and ML Platform at GoDaddy. He has over two decades of multidisciplinary leadership experience, spanning startups to global enterprises. He has a passion for leveraging data and AI in creating solutions that delight customers, empower them to achieve more, and boost operational efficiency. Outside of his professional life, he enjoys reading, hiking, gardening, volunteering, and embarking on DIY projects.

Harsh Vardhan is an AWS Solutions Architect, specializing in big data and analytics. He has over 8 years of experience working in the field of big data and data science. He is passionate about helping customers adopt best practices and discover insights from their data.

AWS Weekly Roundup — Claude 3 Sonnet support in Bedrock, new instances, and more — March 11, 2024

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-claude-3-sonnet-support-in-bedrock-new-instances-and-more-march-11-2024/

Last Friday was International Women’s Day (IWD), and I want to take a moment to appreciate the amazing ladies in the cloud computing space that are breaking the glass ceiling by reaching technical leadership positions and inspiring others to go and build, as our CTO Werner Vogels says.Now go build

Last week’s launches
Here are some launches that got my attention during the previous week.

Amazon Bedrock – Now supports Anthropic’s Claude 3 Sonnet foundational model. Claude 3 Sonnet is two times faster and has the same level of intelligence as Anthropic’s highest-performing models, Claude 2 and Claude 2.1. My favorite characteristic is that Sonnet is better at producing JSON outputs, making it simpler for developers to build applications. It also offers vision capabilities. You can learn more about this foundation model (FM) in the post that Channy wrote early last week.

AWS re:Post – Launched last week! AWS re:Post Live is a weekly Twitch livestream show that provides a way for the community to reach out to experts, ask questions, and improve their skills. The show livestreams every Monday at 11 AM PT.

Amazon CloudWatchNow streams daily metrics on CloudWatch metric streams. You can use metric streams to send a stream of near real-time metrics to a destination of your choice.

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)Announced the general availability of new metal instances, C7gd, M7gd, and R7gd. These instances have up to 3.8 TB of local NVMe-based SSD block-level storage and are built on top of the AWS Nitro System.

AWS WAFNow supports configurable evaluation time windows for request aggregation with rate-based rules. Previously, AWS WAF was fixed to a 5-minute window when aggregating and evaluating the rules. Now you can select windows of 1, 2, 5 or 10 minutes, depending on your application use case.

AWS Partners – Last week, we announced the AWS Generative AI Competency Partners. This new specialization features AWS Partners that have shown technical proficiency and a track record of successful projects with generative artificial intelligence (AI) powered by AWS.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS news
Some other updates and news that you may have missed:

One of the articles that caught my attention recently compares different design approaches for building serverless microservices. This article, written by Luca Mezzalira and Matt Diamond, compares the three most common designs for serverless workloads and explains the benefits and challenges of using one over the other.

And if you are interested in the serverless space, you shouldn’t miss the Serverless Office Hours, which airs live every Tuesday at 10 AM PT. Join the AWS Serverless Developer Advocates for a weekly chat on the latest from the serverless space.

Serverless office hours

The Official AWS Podcast – Listen each week for updates on the latest AWS news and deep dives into exciting use cases. There are also official AWS podcasts in several languages. Check out the ones in FrenchGermanItalian, and Spanish.

AWS Open Source News and Updates – This is a newsletter curated by my colleague Ricardo to bring you the latest open source projects, posts, events, and more.

Upcoming AWS events
Check your calendars and sign up for these AWS events:

AWS Summit season is about to start. The first ones are Paris (April 3), Amsterdam (April 9), and London (April 24). AWS Summits are free events that you can attend in person and learn about the latest in AWS technology.

GOTO x AWS EDA Day London 2024 – On May 14, AWS partners with GOTO bring to you the event-driven architecture (EDA) day conference. At this conference, you will get to meet experts in the EDA space and listen to very interesting talks from customers, experts, and AWS.

GOTO EDA Day 2022

You can browse all upcoming in-person and virtual events here.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— Marcia

This post is part of our Weekly Roundup series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

In-stream anomaly detection with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion and Amazon OpenSearch Serverless

Post Syndicated from Rupesh Tiwari original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/in-stream-anomaly-detection-with-amazon-opensearch-ingestion-and-amazon-opensearch-serverless/

Unsupervised machine learning analytics has emerged as a powerful tool for anomaly detection in today’s data-rich landscape, especially with the growing volume of machine-generated data. In-stream anomaly detection offers real-time insights into data anomalies, enabling proactive response. Amazon OpenSearch Serverless focuses on delivering seamless scalability and management of search workloads; Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion complements this by providing a robust solution for anomaly detection on indexed data.

In this post, we provide a solution using OpenSearch Ingestion that empowers you to perform in-stream anomaly detection within your own AWS environment.

In-stream anomaly detection with OpenSearch Ingestion

OpenSearch Ingestion makes the process of in-stream anomaly detection straightforward and at less cost. In-stream anomaly detection helps you save on indexing and avoids the need for extensive resources to handle big data. It lets organizations apply the appropriate resources at the appropriate time, managing large data efficiently and saving money. Using peer forwarders and aggregate processors can make things more complex and expensive; OpenSearch Ingestion reduces these issues.

Let’s look at a use case showing an OpenSearch Ingestion configuration YAML for in-stream anomaly detection.

Solution overview

In this example, we walk through the setup of OpenSearch Ingestion using a random cut forest anomaly detector for monitoring log counts within a 5-minute period. We also index the raw logs to provide a comprehensive demonstration of the incoming data flow. If your use case requires the analysis of raw logs, you can streamline the process by bypassing the initial pipeline and focus directly on in-stream anomaly detection, indexing only the identified anomalies.

The following diagram illustrates our solution architecture.

The configuration outlines two OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines. The first, non-ad-pipeline, ingests HTTP data, timestamps it, and forwards it to both ad-pipeline and an OpenSearch index, non-ad-index. The second, ad-pipeline, receives this data, performs aggregation based on the ID within a 5-minute window, and conducts anomaly detection. Results are stored in the index ad-anomaly-index. This setup showcases data processing, anomaly detection, and storage within OpenSearch Service, enhancing analysis capabilities.

Implement the solution

Complete the following steps to set up the solution:

  1. Create a pipeline role.
  2. Create a collection.
  3. Create a pipeline in which you specify the pipeline role.

The pipeline assumes this role in order to sign requests to the OpenSearch Serverless collection endpoint. Specify the values for the keys within the following pipeline configuration:

  • For sts_role_arn, specify the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the pipeline role that you created.
  • For hosts, specify the endpoint of the collection that you created.
  • Set serverless to true.
version: "2"
# 1st pipeline
non-ad-pipeline:
  source:
    http:
      path: "/${pipelineName}/test_ingestion_path"
  processor:
    - date:
        from_time_received: true
        destination: "@timestamp"
  sink:
    - pipeline:
        name: "ad-pipeline"
    - opensearch:
        hosts:
          [
            "https://{collection-id}.us-east-1.aoss.amazonaws.com",
          ]
        index: "non-ad-index"
        
        aws:
          sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::{account-id}:role/pipeline-role"
          region: "us-east-1"
          serverless: true
# 2nd pipeline
ad-pipeline:
  source:
    pipeline:
      name: "non-ad-pipeline"
  processor:
    - aggregate:
        identification_keys: ["id"]
        action:
          count:
        group_duration: "300s"
    - anomaly_detector:
        keys: ["value"] # value will have sum of logs
        mode:
          random_cut_forest:
            output_after: 200 
  sink:
    - opensearch:
        hosts:
          [
            "https://{collection-id}.us-east-1.aoss.amazonaws.com",
          ]
        aws:
          sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::{account-id}:role/pipeline-role"
          region: "us-east-1"
          serverless: true
        index: "ad-anomaly-index"

For a detailed guide on the required parameters and any limitations, see Supported plugins and options for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines.

  1. After you update the configuration, confirm the validity of your pipeline settings by choosing Validate pipeline.

A successful validation will display a message stating Pipeline configuration validation successful.” as shown in the following screenshot.

If validation fails, refer to Troubleshooting Amazon OpenSearch Service for troubleshooting and guidance.

Cost estimation for OpenSearch Ingestion

You are only charged for the number of Ingestion OpenSearch Compute Units (Ingestion OCUs) that are allocated to a pipeline, regardless of whether there’s data flowing through the pipeline. OpenSearch Ingestion immediately accommodates your workloads by scaling pipeline capacity up or down based on usage. For an overview of expenses, refer to Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion.

The following table shows approximate monthly costs based on specified throughputs and compute needs. Let’s assume that operation occurs from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM on weekdays, with a cost of $0.24 per OCU per hour.

The formula would be: Total Cost/Month = OCU Requirement * OCU Price * Hours/Day * Days/Month.

Throughput Compute Required (OCUs) Total Cost/Month (USD)
1 Gbps 10 576
10 Gbps 100 5760
50 Gbps 500 28800
100 Gbps 1000 57600
500 Gbps 5000 288000

Clean up

When you are done using the solution, delete the resources you created, including the pipeline role, pipeline, and collection.

Summary

With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can explore in-stream anomaly detection with OpenSearch Service. The use case in this post demonstrates how OpenSearch Ingestion simplifies the process, achieving more with fewer resources. It showcases the service’s ability to analyze log rates, generate anomaly notifications, and empower proactive response to anomalies. With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can improve operational efficiency and enhance real-time risk management capabilities.

Leave any thoughts and questions in the comments.


About the Authors

Rupesh Tiwari, an AWS Solutions Architect, specializes in modernizing applications with a focus on data analytics, OpenSearch, and generative AI. He’s known for creating scalable, secure solutions that leverage cloud technology for transformative business outcomes, also dedicating time to community engagement and sharing expertise.

Muthu Pitchaimani is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics of networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.

Building a Serverless Streaming Pipeline to Deliver Reliable Messaging

Post Syndicated from Chris McPeek original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/building-a-serverless-streaming-pipeline-to-deliver-reliable-messaging/

This post is written by Jeff Harman, Senior Prototyping Architect, Vaibhav Shah, Senior Solutions Architect and Erik Olsen, Senior Technical Account Manager.

Many industries are required to provide audit trails for decision and transactional systems. AI assisted decision making requires monitoring the full inputs to the decision system in near real time to prevent fraud, detect model drift, and discrimination. Modern systems often use a much wider array of inputs for decision making, including images, unstructured text, historical values, and other large data elements. These large data elements pose a challenge to traditional audit systems that deal with relatively small text messages in structured formats. This blog shows the use of serverless technology to create a reliable, performant, traceable, and durable streaming pipeline for audit processing.

Overview

Consider the following four requirements to develop an architecture for audit record ingestion:

  1. Audit record size: Store and manage large payloads (256k – 6 MB in size) that may be heterogeneous, including text, binary data, and references to other storage systems.
  2. Audit traceability: The data stored has full traceability of the payload and external processes to monitor the process via subscription-based events.
  3. High Performance: The time required for blocking writes to the system is limited to the time it takes to transmit the audit record over the network.
  4. High data durability: Once the system sends a payload receipt, the payload is at very low risk of loss because of system failures.

The following diagram shows an architecture that meets these requirements and models the flow of the audit record through the system.

The primary source of latency is the time it takes for an audit record to be transmitted across the network. Applications sending audit records make an API call to an Amazon API Gateway endpoint. An AWS Lambda function receives the message and an Amazon ElastiCache for Redis cluster provides a low latency initial storage mechanism for the audit record. Once the data is stored in ElastiCache, the AWS Step Functions workflow then orchestrates the communication and persistence functions.

Subscribers receive four Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) notifications pertaining to arrival and storage of the audit record payload, storage of the audit record metadata, and audit record archive completion. Users can subscribe an Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) queue to the SNS topic and use fan out mechanisms to achieve high reliability.

  1. The Ingest Message Lambda function sends an initial receipt notification
  2. The Message Archive Handler Lambda function notifies on storage of the audit record from ElastiCache to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
  3. The Message Metadata Handler Lambda function notifies on storage of the message metadata into Amazon DynamoDB
  4. The Final State Aggregation Lambda function notifies that the audit record has been archived.

Any failure by the three fundamental processing steps: Ingestion, Data Archive, and Metadata Archive triggers a message in an SQS Dead Letter Queue (DLQ) which contains the original request and an explanation of the failure reason. Any failure in the Ingest Message function invokes the Ingest Message Failure function, which stores the original parameters to the S3 Failed Message Storage bucket for later analysis.

The Step Functions workflow provides orchestration and parallel path execution for the system. The detailed workflow below shows the execution flow and notification actions. The transformer steps convert the internal data structures into the format required for consumers.

Data structures

There are types three events and messages managed by this system:

  1. Incoming message: This is the message the producer sends to an API Gateway endpoint.
  2. Internal message: This event contains the message metadata allowing subsequent systems to understand the originating message producer context.
  3. Notification message: Messages that allow downstream subscribers to act based on the message.

Solution walkthrough

The message producer calls the API Gateway endpoint, which enforces the security requirements defined by the business. In this implementation, API Gateway uses an API key for providing more robust security. API Gateway also creates a security header for consumption by the Ingest Message Lambda function. API Gateway can be configured to enforce message format standards, see Use request validation in API Gateway for more information.

The Ingest Message Lambda function generates a message ID that tracks the message payload throughout its lifecycle. Then it stores the full message in the ElastiCache for Redis cache. The Ingest Message Lambda function generates an internal message with all the elements necessary as described above. Finally, the Lambda function handler code starts the Step Functions workflow with the internal message payload.

If the Ingest Message Lambda function fails for any reason, the Lambda function invokes the Ingestion Failure Handler Lambda function. This Lambda function writes any recoverable incoming message data to an S3 bucket and sends a notification on the Ingest Message dead letter queue.

The Step Functions workflow then runs three processes in parallel.

  • The Step Functions workflow triggers the Message Archive Data Handler Lambda function to persist message data from the ElastiCache cache to an S3 bucket. Once stored, the Lambda function returns the S3 bucket reference and state information. There are two options to remove the internal message from the cache. Remove the message from cache immediately before sending the internal message and updating the ElastiCache cache flag or wait for the ElastiCache lifecycle to remove a stale message from cache. This solution waits for the ElastiCache lifecycle to remove the message.
  • The workflow triggers the Message Metadata Handler Lambda function to write all message metadata and security information to DynamoDB. The Lambda function replies with the DynamoDB reference information.
  • Finally, the Step Functions workflow sends a message to the SNS topic to inform subscribers that the message has arrived and the data persistence processes have started.

After each of the Lambda functions’ processes complete, the Lambda function sends a notification to the SNS notification topic to alert subscribers that each action is complete. When both Message Metadata and Message Archive Lambda functions are done, the Final Aggregation function makes a final update to the metadata in DynamoDB to include S3 reference information and to remove the ElastiCache Redis reference.

Deploying the solution

Prerequisites:

  1. AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) is installed (see Getting started with AWS SAM)
  2. AWS User/Credentials with appropriate permissions to run AWS CloudFormation templates in the target AWS account
  3. Python 3.8 – 3.10
  4. The AWS SDK for Python (Boto3) is installed
  5. The requests python library is installed

The source code for this implementation can be found at  https://github.com/aws-samples/blog-serverless-reliable-messaging

Installing the Solution:

  1. Clone the git repository to a local directory
  2. git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/blog-serverless-reliable-messaging.git
  3. Change into the directory that was created by the clone operation, usually blog_serverless_reliable_messaging
  4. Execute the command: sam build
  5. Execute the command: sam deploy –-guided. You are asked to supply the following parameters:
    1. Stack Name: Name given to this deployment (example: serverless-streaming)
    2. AWS Region: Where to deploy (example: us-east-1)
    3. ElasticacheInstanceClass: EC2 cache instance type to use with (example: cache.t3.small)
    4. ElasticReplicaCount: How many replicas should be used with ElastiCache (recommended minimum: 2)
    5. ProjectName: Used for naming resources in account (example: serverless-streaming)
    6. MultiAZ: True/False if multiple Availability Zones should be used (recommend: True)
    7. The default parameters can be selected for the remainder of questions

Testing:

Once you have deployed the stack, you can test it through the API gateway endpoint with the API key that is referenced in the deployment output. There are two methods for retrieving the API key either via the AWS console (from the link provided in the output – ApiKeyConsole) or via the AWS CLI (from the AWS CLI reference in the output – APIKeyCLI).

You can test directly in the Lambda service console by invoking the ingest message function.

A test message is available at the root of the project test_message.json for direct Lambda function testing of the Ingest function.

  1. In the console navigate to the Lambda service
  2. From the list of available functions, select the “<project name> -IngestMessageFunction-xxxxx” function
  3. Under the “Function overview” select the “Test” tab
  4. Enter an event name of your choosing
  5. Copy and paste the contents of test_message.json into the “Event JSON” box
  6. Click “Save” then after it has saved, click the “Test”
  7. If successful, you should see something similar to the below in the details:
    {
    "isBase64Encoded": false,
    "statusCode": 200,
    "headers": {
    "Access-Control-Allow-Headers": "Content-Type",
    "Access-Control-Allow-Origin": "*",
    "Access-Control-Allow-Methods": "OPTIONS,POST"
    },
    "body": "{\"messageID\": \"XXXXXXXXXXXXXX\"}"
    }
  8. In the S3 bucket “<project name>-s3messagearchive-xxxxxx“, find the payload of the original json with a key based on the date and time of the script execution, e.g.: YEAR/MONTH/DAY/HOUR/MINUTE with a file name of the messageID
  9. In a DynamoDB table named metaDataTable, you should find a record with a messageID equal to the messageID from above that contains all of the metadata related to the payload

A python script is included with the code in the test_client folder

  1. Replace the <Your API key key here> and the <Your API Gateway URL here (IngestMessageApi)> values with the correct ones for your environment in the test_client.py file
  2. Execute the test script with Python 3.8 or higher with the requests package installed
    Example execution (from main directory of git clone):
    python3 -m pip install -r ./test_client/requirements.txt
    python3 ./test_client/test_client.py
  3. Successful output shows the messageID and the header JSON payload:
    {
    "messageID": " XXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
    }
  4. In the S3 bucket “<project name>-s3messagearchive-xxxxxx“, you should be able to find the payload of the original json with a key based on the date and time of the script execution, e.g.: YEAR/MONTH/DAY/HOUR/MINUTE with a file name of the messageID
  5. In a DynamoDB table named metaDataTable, you should find a record with a messageID equal to the messageID from above that contains all of the meta data related to the payload

Conclusion

This blog describes architectural patterns, messaging patterns, and data structures that support a highly reliable messaging system for large messages. The use of serverless services including Lambda functions, Step Functions, ElastiCache, DynamoDB, and S3 meet the requirements of modern audit systems to be scalable and reliable. The architecture shared in this blog post is suitable for a highly regulated environment to store and track messages that are larger than typical logging systems, records sized between 256k and 6MB. The architecture serves as a blueprint that can be extended and adapted to fit further serverless use cases.

For serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Comparing design approaches for building serverless microservices

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/comparing-design-approaches-for-building-serverless-microservices/

This post is written by Luca Mezzalira, Principal SA, and Matt Diamond, Principal, SA.

Designing a workload with AWS Lambda creates questions for developers due to the modularity that can be expressed either at the code or infrastructure level. Using serverless for running code requires additional planning to extract the business logic from the underlying functional components. This deliberate separation of concerns ensures a robust modularity, paving the way for evolutionary architectures.

This post focuses on synchronous workloads, but similar considerations are applicable in other workload types. After identifying the bounded context of your API and agreeing on API contracts with consumers, it’s time to structure the architecture of your bounded context and the associated infrastructure.

The two most common ways to structure an API using Lambda functions are single responsibility and Lambda-lith. However, this blog post explores an alternative to these approaches, which can provide the best of both.

Single responsibility Lambda functions

Single responsibility Lambda functions are designed to run a specific task or handle a particular event-triggered operation within a serverless architecture:

c:\temp\design1.png

This approach provides a strong separation of concerns between business logic and capabilities. You can test in isolation specific capabilities, deploy a Lambda function independently, reduce the surface to introduce bugs, and enable easier debugging for issues in Amazon CloudWatch.

Additionally, single purpose functions enable efficient resource allocation as Lambda automatically scales based on demand, optimizing resource consumption, and minimizing costs. This means you can modify the memory size, architecture, and any other configuration available per function. Moreover, requesting an update of concurrent function execution via a support ticket becomes easier because you are not aggregating the traffic to a single Lambda function that handles every request but you can request specific increase based on the traffic of a single task.

Another advantage is rapid execution time. Considering the business logic for a single-purpose Lambda function designed for a single task, you can optimize the size of a function more easily, without the need of additional libraries required in other approaches. This helps reduce the cold start time due to a smaller bundle size.

Despite these benefits, some issues exist when solely relying on single-purpose Lambda functions. While the cold start time is mitigated, you might experience a higher number of cold starts, particularly for functions with sporadic or infrequent invocations. For example, a function that deletes users in an Amazon DynamoDB table likely won’t be triggered as often as one that reads user data. Also, relying heavily on single-purpose Lambda functions can lead to increased system complexity, especially as the number of functions grows.

A good separation of concerns helps maintain your code base, at the cost of a lack of cohesion. In functions with similar tasks, such as write operations of an API (POST, PUT, DELETE), you might duplicate code and behaviors across multiple functions. Moreover, updating common libraries shared via Lambda Layers, or other dependency management systems, requires multiple changes across every function instead of an atomic change on a single file. This is also true for any other change across multiple functions, for instance, updating the runtime version.

Lambda-lith: Using one single Lambda function

When many workloads use single purpose Lambda functions, developers end up with a proliferation of Lambda functions across an AWS account. One of the main challenges developers face is updating common dependencies or function configurations. Unless there is a clear governance strategy implemented for addressing this problem (such as using Dependabot for enforcing the update of dependencies, or parameterized parameters that are retrieved at provisioning time), developers may opt for a different strategy.

As a result, many development teams move in the opposite direction, aggregating all code related to an API inside the same Lambda function.

Lambda-lith: Using one single Lambda function

This approach is often referred to as a Lambda-lith, because it gathers all the HTTP verbs that compose an API and sometimes multiple APIs in the same function.

This allows you to have a higher code cohesion and colocation across the different parts of the application. Modularity in this case is expressed at the code level, where patterns like single responsibility, dependency injection, and façade are applied to structure your code. The discipline and code best practices applied by the development teams is crucial for maintaining large code bases.

However, considering the reduced number of Lambda functions, updating a configuration or implementing a new standard across multiple APIs can be achieved more easily compared with the single responsibility approach.

Moreover, since every request invokes the same Lambda function for every HTTP verb, it’s more likely that little-used parts of your code have a better response time because an execution environment is more likely to be available to fulfill the request.

Another factor to consider is the function size. This increases when collocating verbs in the same function with all the dependencies and business logic of an API. This may affect the cold start of your Lambda functions with spiky workloads. Customers should evaluate the benefits of this approach, especially when applications have restrictive SLAs, which would be impacted by cold starts. Developers can mitigate this problem by paying attention to the dependencies used and implementing techniques like tree-shaking, minification, and dead code elimination, where the programming language allows.

This coarse grain approach won’t allow you to tune your function configurations individually. But you must find a configuration that matches all the code capabilities with a possibly higher memory size and looser security permissions that might clash with the requirements defined by the security team.

Read and write functions

These two approaches both have trade-offs, but there is a third option that can combine their benefits.

Often, API traffic leans towards more reads or writes and that forces developers to optimize code and configurations more on one side over the other.

For example, consider building a user API that allows consumers to create, update, and delete a user but also to find a user or a list of users. In this scenario, you can change one user at a time with no bulk operations available, but you can get one or more users per API request. Dividing the design of the API into read and write operations results in this architecture:

Read and write functions

The cohesion of code for write operations (create, update, and delete) is beneficial for many reasons. For instance, you may need to validate the request body, ensuring it contains all the mandatory parameters. If the workload is heavy on writes, the less-used operations (for instance, Delete) benefit from warm execution environments. The code colocation enables reusability of code on similar actions, reducing the cognitive load to structure your projects with shared libraries or Lambda layers, for instance.

When looking at the read operations side, you can reduce the code bundled with this function, having a faster cold start, and heavily optimize the performance compared to a write operation. You can also store partial or full query results in-memory of an execution environment to improve the execution time of a Lambda function.

This approach helps you further with its evolutionary nature. Imagine if this platform becomes much more popular. Now, you must optimize the API even further by improving reads and adding a cache aside pattern with ElastiCache and Redis. Moreover, you have decided to optimize the read queries with a second database that is optimized for the read capability when the cache is missed.

On the write side, you have agreed with the API consumers that receiving and acknowledging user creation or deletion is adequate, considering they fully embraced the eventual consistency nature of distributed systems.

Now, you can improve the response time of write operations by adding an SQS queue before the Lambda function. You can update the write database in batches to reduce the number of invocations needed for handling write operations, instead of dealing with every request individually.

CQRS pattern

Command query responsibility segregation (CQRS) is a well-established pattern that separates the data mutation, or the command part of a system, from the query part. You can use the CQRS pattern to separate updates and queries if they have different requirements for throughput, latency, or consistency.

While it’s not mandatory to start with a full CQRS pattern, you can evolve from the infrastructure highlighted more easily in the initial read and write implementation, without massive refactoring of your API.

Comparison of the three approaches

Here is a comparison of the three approaches:

 

Single responsibility Lambda-lith Read and write
Benefits
  • Strong separation of concerns
  • Granular configuration
  • Better debug
  • Rapid execution time
  • Fewer cold start invocations
  • Higher code cohesion
  • Simpler maintenance
  • Code cohesion where needed
  • Evolutionary architecture
  • Optimization of read and write operations
Issues
  • Code duplication
  • Complex maintenance
  • Higher cold start invocations
  • Corse grain configuration
  • Higher cold start time
  • Using CQRS with two data models
  • CQRS adds eventual consistency to your system

Conclusion

Developers often move from single responsibility functions to the Lambda-lith as their architectures evolve, but both approaches have relative trade-offs. This post shows how it’s possible to have the best of both approaches by dividing your workloads per read and write operations.

All three approaches are viable for designing serverless APIs, and understanding what you are optimizing for is the key for making the best decision. Remember, understanding your context and business requirements to express in your applications leads you towards the acceptable trade-offs to specify inside a specific workload. Keep an open mind and find the solution that solves the problem and balances security, developer experience, cost, and maintainability.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Top Architecture Blog Posts of 2023

Post Syndicated from Andrea Courtright original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/top-architecture-blog-posts-of-2023/

2023 was a rollercoaster year in tech, and we at the AWS Architecture Blog feel so fortunate to have shared in the excitement. As we move into 2024 and all of the new technologies we could see, we want to take a moment to highlight the brightest stars from 2023.

As always, thanks to our readers and to the many talented and hardworking Solutions Architects and other contributors to our blog.

I give you our 2023 cream of the crop!

#10: Build a serverless retail solution for endless aisle on AWS

In this post, Sandeep and Shashank help retailers and their customers alike in this guided approach to finding inventory that doesn’t live on shelves.

Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Figure 1. Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Check it out!

#9: Optimizing data with automated intelligent document processing solutions

Who else dreads wading through large amounts of data in multiple formats? Just me? I didn’t think so. Using Amazon AI/ML and content-reading services, Deependra, Anirudha, Bhajandeep, and Senaka have created a solution that is scalable and cost-effective to help you extract the data you need and store it in a format that works for you.

AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Figure 2: AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Check it out!

#8: Disaster Recovery Solutions with AWS managed services, Part 3: Multi-Site Active/Passive

Disaster recovery posts are always popular, and this post by Brent and Dhruv is no exception. Their creative approach in part 3 of this series is most helpful for customers who have business-critical workloads with higher availability requirements.

Warm standby with managed services

Figure 3. Warm standby with managed services

Check it out!

#7: Simulating Kubernetes-workload AZ failures with AWS Fault Injection Simulator

Continuing with the theme of “when bad things happen,” we have Siva, Elamaran, and Re’s post about preparing for workload failures. If resiliency is a concern (and it really should be), the secret is test, test, TEST.

Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Figure 4. Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Check it out!

#6: Let’s Architect! Designing event-driven architectures

Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira weren’t content with their four top-10 spots last year – they’re back with some things you definitely need to know about event-driven architectures.

Let's Architect

Figure 5. Let’s Architect artwork

Check it out!

#5: Use a reusable ETL framework in your AWS lake house architecture

As your lake house increases in size and complexity, you could find yourself facing maintenance challenges, and Ashutosh and Prantik have a solution: frameworks! The reusable ETL template with AWS Glue templates might just save you a headache or three.

Reusable ETL framework architecture

Figure 6. Reusable ETL framework architecture

Check it out!

#4: Invoking asynchronous external APIs with AWS Step Functions

It’s possible that AWS’ menagerie of services doesn’t have everything you need to run your organization. (Possible, but not likely; we have a lot of amazing services.) If you are using third-party APIs, then Jorge, Hossam, and Shirisha’s architecture can help you maintain a secure, reliable, and cost-effective relationship among all involved.

Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Figure 7. Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Check it out!

#3: Announcing updates to the AWS Well-Architected Framework

The Well-Architected Framework continues to help AWS customers evaluate their architectures against its six pillars. They are constantly striving for improvement, and Haleh’s diligence in keeping us up to date has not gone unnoticed. Thank you, Haleh!

Well-Architected logo

Figure 8. Well-Architected logo

Check it out!

#2: Let’s Architect! Designing architectures for multi-tenancy

The practically award-winning Let’s Architect! series strikes again! This time, Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira were joined by Federica to discuss multi-tenancy and why that concept is so crucial for SaaS providers.

Let's Architect

Figure 9. Let’s Architect

Check it out!

And finally…

#1: Understand resiliency patterns and trade-offs to architect efficiently in the cloud

Haresh, Lewis, and Bonnie revamped this 2022 post into a masterpiece that completely stole our readers’ hearts and is among the top posts we’ve ever made!

Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Figure 10. Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Check it out!

Bonus! Three older special mentions

These three posts were published before 2023, but we think they deserve another round of applause because you, our readers, keep coming back to them.

Thanks again to everyone for their contributions during a wild year. We hope you’re looking forward to the rest of 2024 as much as we are!

Use Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion to migrate to Amazon OpenSearch Serverless

Post Syndicated from Muthu Pitchaimani original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/use-amazon-opensearch-ingestion-to-migrate-to-amazon-opensearch-serverless/

Amazon OpenSearch Serverless is an on-demand auto scaling configuration for Amazon OpenSearch Service. Since its release, the interest for OpenSearch Serverless had been steadily growing. Customers prefer to let the service manage its capacity automatically rather than having to manually provision capacity. Until now, customers have had to rely on using custom code or third-party solutions to move the data between provisioned OpenSearch Service domains and OpenSearch Serverless.

We recently introduced a feature with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion (OSI) to make this migration even more effortless. OSI is a fully managed, serverless data collector that delivers real-time log, metric, and trace data to OpenSearch Service domains and OpenSearch Serverless collections.

In this post, we outline the steps to make migrate the data between provisioned OpenSearch Service domains and OpenSearch Serverless. Migration of metadata such as security roles and dashboard objects will be covered in another subsequent post.

Solution overview

The following diagram shows the necessary components for moving data between OpenSearch Service provisioned domains and OpenSearch Serverless using OSI. You will use OSI with OpenSearch Service as source and an OpenSearch Serverless collection as sink.

Prerequisites

Before getting started, complete the following steps to create the necessary resources:

  1. Create an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role that the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline will assume to write to the OpenSearch Serverless collection. This role needs to be specified in the sts_role_arn parameter of the pipeline configuration.
  2. Attach a permissions policy to the role to allow it to read data from the OpenSearch Service domain. The following is a sample policy with least privileges:
    {
       "Version":"2012-10-17",
       "Statement":[
          {
             "Effect":"Allow",
             "Action":"es:ESHttpGet",
             "Resource":[
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/_cat/indices",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/_search",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/_search/scroll",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/*/_search"
             ]
          },
          {
             "Effect":"Allow",
             "Action":"es:ESHttpPost",
             "Resource":[
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/*/_search/point_in_time",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/*/_search/scroll"
             ]
          },
          {
             "Effect":"Allow",
             "Action":"es:ESHttpDelete",
             "Resource":[
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/_search/point_in_time",
                "arn:aws:es:us-east-1:{account-id}:domain/{domain-name}/_search/scroll"
             ]
          }
       ]
    }

  3. Attach a permissions policy to the role to allow it to send data to the collection. The following is a sample policy with least privileges:
    {
      "Version": "2012-10-17",
      "Statement": [
        {
          "Action": [
            "aoss:BatchGetCollection",
            "aoss:APIAccessAll"
          ],
          "Effect": "Allow",
          "Resource": "arn:aws:aoss:{region}:{your-account-id}:collection/{collection-id}"
        },
        {
          "Action": [
            "aoss:CreateSecurityPolicy",
            "aoss:GetSecurityPolicy",
            "aoss:UpdateSecurityPolicy"
          ],
          "Effect": "Allow",
          "Resource": "*",
          "Condition": {
            "StringEquals": {
              "aoss:collection": "{collection-name}"
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }

  4. Configure the role to assume the trust relationship, as follows:
    {
            "Version": "2012-10-17",
            "Statement": [
                {
                    "Effect": "Allow",
                    "Principal": {
                        "Service": "osis-pipelines.amazonaws.com"
                    },
                    "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
                }
            ]
        }

  5. It’s recommended to add the aws:SourceAccount and aws:SourceArn condition keys to the policy for protection against the confused deputy problem:
    "Condition": {
        "StringEquals": {
            "aws:SourceAccount": "{your-account-id}"
        },
        "ArnLike": {
            "aws:SourceArn": "arn:aws:osis:{region}:{your-account-id}:pipeline/*"
        }
    }

  6. Map the OpenSearch Ingestion domain role ARN as a backend user (as an all_access user) to the domain user. We show a simplified example to use the all_access role. For production scenarios, make sure to use a role with just enough permissions to read and write.
  7. Create an OpenSearch Serverless collection, which is where data will be ingested.
  8. Associate a data policy, as shown in the following code, to grant the OpenSearch Ingestion role permissions on the collection:
    [
      {
        "Rules": [
          {
            "Resource": [
              "index/collection-name/*"
            ],
            "Permission": [
              "aoss:CreateIndex",
              "aoss:UpdateIndex",
              "aoss:DescribeIndex",
              "aoss:WriteDocument",
            ],
            "ResourceType": "index"
          }
        ],
        "Principal": [
          "arn:aws:iam::{account-id}:role/pipeline-role"
        ],
        "Description": "Pipeline role access"
      }
    ]

  9. If the collection is defined as a VPC collection, you need to create a network policy and configure it in the ingestion pipeline.

Now you’re ready to move data from your provisioned domain to OpenSearch Serverless.

Move data from provisioned domains to Serverless

Setup Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion
To get started, you must have an active OpenSearch Service domain (source) and OpenSearch Serverless collection (sink). Complete the following steps to set up an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline for migration:

  1. On the OpenSearch Service console, choose Pipeline under Ingestion in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Create a pipeline.
  3. For Pipeline name, enter a name (for example, octank-migration).
  4. For Pipeline capacity, you can define the minimum and maximum capacity to scale up the resources. For now, you can leave the default minimum as 1 and maximum as 4.
  5. For Configuration Blueprint, select AWS-OpenSearchDataMigrationPipeline.
  6. Update the following information for the source:
    1. Uncomment hosts and specify the endpoint of the existing OpenSearch Service endpoint.
    2. Uncomment distribution_version if your source cluster is an OpenSearch Service cluster with compatibility mode enabled; otherwise, leave it commented.
    3. Uncomment indices, include, index_name_regex, and add an index name or pattern that you want to migrate (for example, octank-iot-logs-2023.11.0*).
    4. Update region under aws where your source domain is (for example, us-west-2).
    5. Update sts_role_arn under aws to the role that has permission to read data from the OpenSearch Service domain (for example, arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/osis-pipeline). This role should be added as a backend role within the OpenSearch Service security roles.
  7. Update the following information for the sink:
    1. Uncomment hosts and specify the endpoint of the existing OpenSearch Serverless endpoint.
    2. Update sts_role_arn under aws to the role that has permission to write data into the OpenSearch Serverless collection (for example, arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/osis-pipeline). This role should be added as part of the data access policy in the OpenSearch Serverless collection.
    3. Update the serverless flag to be true.
    4. For index, you can leave it as default, which will get the metadata from the source index and write to the same name in the destination as of the sources. Alternatively, if you want to have a different index name at the destination, modify this value with your desired name.
    5. For document_id, you can get the ID from the document metadata in the source and use the same in the target. Note that custom document IDs are supported only for the SEARCH type of collection; if you have your collection as TIMESERIES or VECTORSEARCH, you should comment this line.
  8. Next, you can validate your pipeline to check the connectivity of source and sink to make sure the endpoint exists and is accessible.
  9. For Network settings, choose your preferred setting:
    1. Choose VPC access and select your VPC, subnet, and security group to set up the access privately.
    2. Choose Public to use public access. AWS recommends that you use a VPC endpoint for all production workloads, but this walkthrough, select Public.
  10. For Log Publishing Option, you can either create a new Amazon CloudWatch group or use an existing CloudWatch group to write the ingestion logs. This provides access to information about errors and warnings raised during the operation, which can help during troubleshooting. For this walkthrough, choose Create new group.
  11. Choose Next, and verify the details you specified for your pipeline settings.
  12. Choose Create pipeline.

It should take a couple of minutes to create the ingestion pipeline.
The following graphic gives a quick demonstration of creating the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline via the preceding steps.

Verify ingested data in the target OpenSearch Serverless collection

After the pipeline is created and active, log in to OpenSearch Dashboards for your OpenSearch Serverless collection and run the following command to list the indexes:

GET _cat/indices?v

The following graphic gives a quick demonstration of listing the indexes before and after the pipeline becomes active.

Conclusion

In this post, we saw how OpenSearch Ingestion can ingest data into an OpenSearch Serverless collection without the need to use the third-party solutions. With minimal data producer configuration, it automatically ingested data to the collection. OSI also allows you to transform or reindex the data from ES7.x version before ingestion to an OpenSearch Service domain or OpenSearch Serverless collection. OSI eliminates the need to provision, scale, or manage servers. AWS offers various resources for you to quickly start building pipelines using OpenSearch Ingestion. You can use various built-in pipeline integrations to quickly ingest data from Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK), Amazon Security Lake, Fluent Bit, and many more. The following OpenSearch Ingestion blueprints enable you to build data pipelines with minimal configuration changes.


About the Authors

Muthu Pitchaimani is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics of networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.

Prashant Agrawal is a Sr. Search Specialist Solutions Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He works closely with customers to help them migrate their workloads to the cloud and helps existing customers fine-tune their clusters to achieve better performance and save on cost. Before joining AWS, he helped various customers use OpenSearch and Elasticsearch for their search and log analytics use cases. When not working, you can find him traveling and exploring new places. In short, he likes doing Eat → Travel → Repeat.

Rahul Sharma is a Technical Account Manager at Amazon Web Services. He is passionate about the data technologies that help leverage data as a strategic asset and is based out of New York city, New York.

Introducing the .NET 8 runtime for AWS Lambda

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-the-net-8-runtime-for-aws-lambda/

This post is written by Beau Gosse, Senior Software Engineer and Paras Jain, Senior Technical Account Manager.

AWS Lambda now supports .NET 8 as both a managed runtime and container base image. With this release, Lambda developers can benefit from .NET 8 features including API enhancements, improved Native Ahead of Time (Native AOT) support, and improved performance. .NET 8 supports C# 12, F# 8, and PowerShell 7.4. You can develop Lambda functions in .NET 8 using the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio, the AWS Extensions for .NET CLI, AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM), AWS CDK, and other infrastructure as code tools.

Creating .NET 8 function in the console

Creating .NET 8 function in the console

What’s new

Upgraded operating system

The .NET 8 runtime is built on the Amazon Linux 2023 (AL2023) minimal container image. This provides a smaller deployment footprint than earlier Amazon Linux 2 (AL2) based runtimes and updated versions of common libraries such as glibc 2.34 and OpenSSL 3.

The new image also uses microdnf as a package manager, symlinked as dnf. This replaces the yum package manager used in earlier AL2-based images. If you deploy your Lambda functions as container images, you must update your Dockerfiles to use dnf instead of yum when upgrading to the .NET 8 base image. For more information, see Introducing the Amazon Linux 2023 runtime for AWS Lambda.

Performance

There are a number of language performance improvements available as part of .NET 8. Initialization time can impact performance, as Lambda creates new execution environments to scale your function automatically. There are a number of ways to optimize performance for Lambda-based .NET workloads, including using source generators in System.Text.Json or using Native AOT.

Lambda has increased the default memory size from 256 MB to 512 MB in the blueprints and templates for improved performance with .NET 8. Perform your own functional and performance tests on your .NET 8 applications. You can use AWS Compute Optimizer or AWS Lambda Power Tuning for performance profiling.

At launch, new Lambda runtimes receive less usage than existing established runtimes. This can result in longer cold start times due to reduced cache residency within internal Lambda subsystems. Cold start times typically improve in the weeks following launch as usage increases. As a result, AWS recommends not drawing performance comparison conclusions with other Lambda runtimes until the performance has stabilized.

Native AOT

Lambda introduced .NET Native AOT support in November 2022. Benchmarks show up to 86% improvement in cold start times by eliminating the JIT compilation. Deploying .NET 8 Native AOT functions using the managed dotnet8 runtime rather than the OS-only provided.al2023 runtime gives your function access to .NET system libraries. For example, libicu, which is used for globalization, is not included by default in the provided.al2023 runtime but is in the dotnet8 runtime.

While Native AOT is not suitable for all .NET functions, .NET 8 has improved trimming support. This allows you to more easily run ASP.NET APIs. Improved trimming support helps eliminate build time trimming warnings, which highlight possible runtime errors. This can give you confidence that your Native AOT function behaves like a JIT-compiled function. Trimming support has been added to the Lambda runtime libraries, AWS .NET SDK, .NET Lambda Annotations, and .NET 8 itself.

Using.NET 8 with Lambda

To use .NET 8 with Lambda, you must update your tools.

  1. Install or update the .NET 8 SDK.
  2. If you are using AWS SAM, install or update to the latest version.
  3. If you are using Visual Studio, install or update the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio.
  4. If you use the .NET Lambda Global Tools extension (Amazon.Lambda.Tools), install the CLI extension and templates. You can upgrade existing tools with dotnet tool update -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools and existing templates with dotnet new install Amazon.Lambda.Templates.

You can also use .NET 8 with Powertools for AWS Lambda (.NET), a developer toolkit to implement serverless best practices such as observability, batch processing, retrieving parameters, idempotency, and feature flags.

Building new .NET 8 functions

Using AWS SAM

  1. Run sam init.
  2. Choose 1- AWS Quick Start Templates.
  3. Choose one of the available templates such as Hello World Example.
  4. Select N for Use the most popular runtime and package type?
  5. Select dotnet8 as the runtime. The dotnet8 Hello World Example also includes a Native AOT template option.
  6. Follow the rest of the prompts to create the .NET 8 function.
AWS SAM .NET 8 init options

AWS SAM .NET 8 init options

You can amend the generated function code and use sam deploy --guided to deploy the function.

Using AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. From the Create a new project wizard, filter the templates to either the Lambda or Serverless project type and select a template. Use Lambda for deploying a single function. Use Serverless for deploying a collection of functions using AWS CloudFormation.
  2. Continue with the steps to finish creating your project.
  3. You can amend the generated function code.
  4. To deploy, right click on the project in the Solution Explorer and select Publish to AWS Lambda.

Using AWS extensions for the .NET CLI

  1. Run dotnet new list --tag Lambda to get a list of available Lambda templates.
  2. Choose a template and run dotnet new <template name>. To build a function using Native AOT, use dotnet new lambda.NativeAOT or dotnet new serverless.NativeAOT when using the .NET Lambda Annotations Framework.
  3. Locate the generated Lambda function in the directory under src which contains the .csproj file. You can amend the generated function code.
  4. To deploy, run dotnet lambda deploy-function and follow the prompts.
  5. You can test the function in the cloud using dotnet lambda invoke-function or by using the test functionality in the Lambda console.

You can build and deploy .NET Lambda functions using container images. Follow the instructions in the documentation.

Migrating from .NET 6 to .NET 8 without Native AOT

Using AWS SAM

  1. Open the template.yaml file.
  2. Update Runtime to dotnet8.
  3. Open a terminal window and rebuild the code using sam build.
  4. Run sam deploy to deploy the changes.

Using AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. Open the .csproj project file and update the TargetFramework to net8.0. Update NuGet packages for your Lambda functions to the latest version to pull in .NET 8 updates.
  2. Verify that the build command you are using is targeting the .NET 8 runtime.
  3. There may be additional steps depending on what build/deploy tool you’re using. Updating the function runtime may be sufficient.

.NET function in AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

Using AWS extensions for the .NET CLI or AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. Open the aws-lambda-tools-defaults.json file if it exists.
    1. Set the framework field to net8.0. If unspecified, the value is inferred from the project file.
    2. Set the function-runtime field to dotnet8.
  2. Open the serverless.template file if it exists. For any AWS::Lambda::Function or AWS::Servereless::Function resources, set the Runtime property to dotnet8.
  3. Open the .csproj project file if it exists and update the TargetFramework to net8.0. Update NuGet packages for your Lambda functions to the latest version to pull in .NET 8 updates.

Migrating from .NET 6 to .NET 8 Native AOT

The following example migrates a .NET 6 class library function to a .NET 8 Native AOT executable function. This uses the optional Lambda Annotations framework which provides idiomatic .NET coding patterns.

Update your project file

  1. Open the project file.
  2. Set TargetFramework to net8.0.
  3. Set OutputType to exe.
  4. Remove PublishReadyToRun if it exists.
  5. Add PublishAot and set to true.
  6. Add or update NuGet package references to Amazon.Lambda.Annotations and Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport. You can update using the NuGet UI in your IDE, manually, or by running dotnet add package Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport and dotnet add package Amazon.Lambda.Annotations from your project directory.

Your project file should look similar to the following:

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk">
  <PropertyGroup>
    <OutputType>exe</OutputType>
    <TargetFramework>net8.0</TargetFramework>
    <ImplicitUsings>enable</ImplicitUsings>
    <Nullable>enable</Nullable>
    <AWSProjectType>Lambda</AWSProjectType>
    <CopyLocalLockFileAssemblies>true</CopyLocalLockFileAssemblies>
    <!-- Generate native aot images during publishing to improve cold start time. -->
    <PublishAot>true</PublishAot>
	  <!-- StripSymbols tells the compiler to strip debugging symbols from the final executable if we're on Linux and put them into their own file. 
		This will greatly reduce the final executable's size.-->
	  <StripSymbols>true</StripSymbols>
  </PropertyGroup>
  <ItemGroup>
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.Core" Version="2.2.0" />
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport" Version="1.10.0" />
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.Serialization.SystemTextJson" Version="2.4.0" />
  </ItemGroup>
</Project>

Updating your function code

    1. Reference the annotations library with using Amazon.Lambda.Annotations;
    2. Add [assembly:LambdaGlobalProperties(GenerateMain = true)] to allow the annotations framework to create the main method. This is required as the project is now an executable instead of a library.
    3. Add the below partial class and include a JsonSerializable attribute for any types that you need to serialize, including for your function input and output This partial class is used at build time to generate reflection free code dedicated to serializing the listed types. The following is an example:
    4. /// <summary>
      /// This class is used to register the input event and return type for the FunctionHandler method with the System.Text.Json source generator.
      /// There must be a JsonSerializable attribute for each type used as the input and return type or a runtime error will occur 
      /// from the JSON serializer unable to find the serialization information for unknown types.
      /// </summary>
      [JsonSerializable(typeof(APIGatewayHttpApiV2ProxyRequest))]
      [JsonSerializable(typeof(APIGatewayHttpApiV2ProxyResponse))]
      public partial class MyCustomJsonSerializerContext : JsonSerializerContext
      {
          // By using this partial class derived from JsonSerializerContext, we can generate reflection free JSON Serializer code at compile time
          // which can deserialize our class and properties. However, we must attribute this class to tell it what types to generate serialization code for
          // See https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/serialization/system-text-json-source-generation
      }

    5. After the using statement, add the following to specify the serializer to use. [assembly: LambdaSerializer(typeof(SourceGeneratorLambdaJsonSerializer<LambdaFunctionJsonSerializerContext>))]

    Swap LambdaFunctionJsonSerializerContext for your context if you are not using the partial class from the previous step.

    Updating your function configuration

    If you are using aws-lambda-tools-defaults.json.

    1. Set function-runtime to dotnet8.
    2. Set function-architecture to match your build machine – either x86_64 or arm64.
    3. Set (or update) environment-variables to include ANNOTATIONS_HANDLER=<YourFunctionHandler>. Replace <YourFunctionHandler> with the method name of your function handler, so the annotations framework knows which method to call from the generated main method.
    4. Set function-handler to the name of the executable assembly in your bin directory. By default, this is your project name, which tells the .NET Lambda bootstrap script to run your native binary instead of starting the .NET runtime. If your project file has AssemblyName then use that value for the function handler.
    {
      "function-architecture": "x86_64",
      "function-runtime": "dotnet8",
      "function-handler": "<your-assembly-name>",
      "environment-variables",
      "ANNOTATIONS_HANDLER=<your-function-handler>",
    }

    Deploy and test

    1. Deploy your function. If you are using Amazon.Lambda.Tools, run dotnet lambda deploy-function. Check for trim warnings during build and refactor to eliminate them.
    2. Test your function to ensure that the native calls into AL2023 are working correctly. By default, running local unit tests on your development machine won’t run natively and will still use the JIT compiler. Running with the JIT compiler does not allow you to catch native AOT specific runtime errors.

    Conclusion

    Lambda is introducing the new .NET 8 managed runtime. This post highlights new features in .NET 8. You can create new Lambda functions or migrate existing functions to .NET 8 or .NET 8 Native AOT.

    For more information, see the AWS Lambda for .NET repository, documentation, and .NET on Serverless Land.

    For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Re-platforming Java applications using the updated AWS Serverless Java Container

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/re-platforming-java-applications-using-the-updated-aws-serverless-java-container/

This post is written by Dennis Kieselhorst, Principal Solutions Architect.

The combination of portability, efficiency, community, and breadth of features has made Java a popular choice for businesses to build their applications for over 25 years. The introduction of serverless functions, pioneered by AWS Lambda, changed what you need in a programming language and runtime environment. Functions are often short-lived, single-purpose, and do not require extensive infrastructure configuration.

This blog post shows how you can modernize a legacy Java application to run on Lambda with minimal code changes using the updated AWS Serverless Java Container.

Deployment model comparison

Classic Java enterprise applications often run on application servers such as JBoss/ WildFly, Oracle WebLogic and IBM WebSphere, or servlet containers like Apache Tomcat. The underlying Java virtual machine typically runs 24/7 and serves multiple requests using its multithreading capabilities.

Typical long running Java application server

Typical long running Java application server

When building Lambda functions with Java, an HTTP server is no longer required and there are other considerations for running code in a Lambda environment. Code runs in an execution environment, which processes a single invocation at a time. Functions can run for up to 15 minutes with a maximum of 10 Gb allocated memory.

Functions are triggered by events such as an HTTP request with a corresponding payload. An Amazon API Gateway HTTP request invokes the function with the following JSON payload:

Amazon API Gateway HTTP request payload

Amazon API Gateway HTTP request payload

The code to process these events is different from how you implement it in a traditional application.

AWS Serverless Java Container

The AWS Serverless Java Container makes it easier to run Java applications written with frameworks such as Spring, Spring Boot, or JAX-RS/Jersey in Lambda.

The container provides adapter logic to minimize code changes. Incoming events are translated to the Servlet specification so that frameworks work as before.

AWS Serverless Java Container adapter

AWS Serverless Java Container adapter

Version 1 of this library was released in 2018. Today, AWS is announcing the release of version 2, which supports the latest Jakarta EE specification, along with Spring Framework 6.x, Spring Boot 3.x and Jersey 3.x.

Example: Modifying a Spring Boot application

This following example illustrates how to migrate a Spring Boot 3 application. You can find the full example for Spring and other frameworks in the GitHub repository.

  1. Add the AWS Serverless Java dependency to your Maven POM build file (or Gradle accordingly):
  2. <dependency>
        <groupId>com.amazonaws.serverless</groupId>
        <artifactId>aws-serverless-java-container-springboot3</artifactId>
        <version>2.0.0</version>
    </dependency>
  3. Spring Boot, by default, embeds Apache Tomcat to deal with HTTP requests. The examples use Amazon API Gateway to handle inbound HTTP requests so you can exclude the dependency.
  4. <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <createDependencyReducedPom>false</createDependencyReducedPom>
                </configuration>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <phase>package</phase>
                        <goals>
                            <goal>shade</goal>
                        </goals>
                        <configuration>
                            <artifactSet>
                                <excludes>
                                    <exclude>org.apache.tomcat.embed:*</exclude>
                                </excludes>
                            </artifactSet>
                        </configuration>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

    The AWS Serverless Java Container accepts API Gateway proxy requests and transforms them into a plain Java object. The library also transforms outputs into a suitable API Gateway response object.

    Once you run your build process, Maven’s Shade-plugin now produces an Uber-JAR that bundles all dependencies, which you can upload to Lambda.

  5. The Lambda runtime must know which handler method to invoke. You can configure and use the SpringDelegatingLambdaContainerHandler implementation or implement your own handler Java class that delegates to AWS Serverless Java Container. This is useful if you want to add additional functionality.
  6. Configure the handler name in the runtime settings of your function.
  7. Configure the handler name

    Configure the handler name

  8. Configure an environment variable named MAIN_CLASS to let the generic handler know where to find your original application main class, which is usually annotated with @SpringBootApplication.
  9. Configure MAIN_CLASS environment variable

    Configure MAIN_CLASS environment variable

    You can also configure these settings using infrastructure as code (IaC) tools such as AWS CloudFormation, the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK), or the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM).

    In an AWS SAM template, the related changes are as follows. Full templates are part of the GitHub repository.

    Handler: com.amazonaws.serverless.proxy.spring.SpringDelegatingLambdaContainerHandler 
    Environment:
      Variables:
        MAIN_CLASS: com.amazonaws.serverless.sample.springboot3.Application

    Optimizing memory configuration

    When running Lambda functions, start-up time and memory footprint are important considerations. The amount of memory you configure for your Lambda function also determines the amount of virtual CPU available. Adding more memory proportionally increases the amount of CPU, and therefore increases the overall computational power available. If a function is CPU-, network- or memory-bound, adding more memory can improve performance.

    Lambda charges for the total amount of gigabyte-seconds consumed by a function. Gigabyte-seconds are a combination of total memory (in gigabytes) and duration (in seconds). Increasing memory incurs additional cost. However, in many cases, increasing the memory available causes a decrease in the function duration due to the additional CPU available. As a result, the overall cost increase may be negligible for additional performance, or may even decrease.

    Choosing the memory allocated to your Lambda functions is an optimization process that balances speed (duration) and cost. You can manually test functions by selecting different memory allocations and measuring the completion time. AWS Lambda Power Tuning is a tool to simplify and automate the process, which you can use to optimize your configuration.

    Power Tuning uses AWS Step Functions to run multiple concurrent versions of a Lambda function at different memory allocations and measures the performance. The function runs in your AWS account, performing live HTTP calls and SDK interactions, to measure performance in a production scenario.

    Improving cold-start time with AWS Lambda SnapStart

    Traditional applications often have a large tree of dependencies. Lambda loads the function code and initializes dependencies during Lambda lifecycle initialization phase. With many dependencies, this initialization time may be too long for your requirements. AWS Lambda SnapStart for Java based functions can deliver up to 10 times faster startup performance.

    Instead of running the function initialization phase on every cold-start, Lambda SnapStart runs the function initialization process at deployment time. Lambda takes a snapshot of the initialized execution environment. This snapshot is encrypted and persisted in a tiered cache for low latency access. When the function is invoked and scales, Lambda resumes the execution environment from the persisted snapshot instead of running the full initialization process. This results in lower startup latency.

    To enable Lambda SnapStart you must first enable the configuration setting, and also publish a function version.

    Enabling SnapStart

    Enabling SnapStart

    Ensure you point your API Gateway endpoint to the published version or an alias to ensure you are using the SnapStart enabled function.

    The corresponding settings in an AWS SAM template contain the following:

    SnapStart: 
      ApplyOn: PublishedVersions
    AutoPublishAlias: my-function-alias

    Read the Lambda SnapStart compatibility considerations in the documentation as your application may contain specific code that requires attention.

    Conclusion

    When building serverless applications with Lambda, you can deliver features faster, but your language and runtime must work within the serverless architectural model. AWS Serverless Java Container helps to bridge between traditional Java Enterprise applications and modern cloud-native serverless functions.

    You can optimize the memory configuration of your Java Lambda function using AWS Lambda Power Tuning tool and enable SnapStart to optimize the initial cold-start time.

    The self-paced Java on AWS Lambda workshop shows how to build cloud-native Java applications and migrate existing Java application to Lambda.

    Explore the AWS Serverless Java Container GitHub repo where you can report related issues and feature requests.

    For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Build real-time applications with Amazon EventBridge and AWS AppSync

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/build-real-time-applications-with-amazon-eventbridge-and-aws-appsync/

This post is written by Josh Kahn, Tech Leader, Serverless.

Amazon EventBridge now supports publishing events to AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs as native targets. The new integration enables builders to publish events easily to a wider variety of consumers and simplifies updating clients with near real-time data. You can use EventBridge and AWS AppSync to build resilient, subscription-based event-driven architectures across consumers.

To illustrate using EventBridge with AWS AppSync, consider a simplified airport operations scenario. In this example, airlines publish flight events (for example, boarding, push back, gate changes, and delays) to a service that maintains flight status on in-airport displays. Airlines also publish events that are useful for other entities at the airport, such as baggage handlers and maintenance, but not to passengers. This depicts a conceptual view of the system:

Conceptual view of the system

Passengers want the in-airport displays to be up-to-date and accurate. There are a number of ways to design the display application so that data remains up-to-date. Broadly, these include the application polling some API or the application subscribing to data changes.

Subscriptions for this scenario are better as the data changes are small and incremental relative to the large amount of information displayed. In a delay, for example, the display updates the status and departure time but no other details of a single flight among a larger list of flight information.

Flight board

AWS AppSync can enable clients to listen for real-time data changes through the use of GraphQL subscriptions. These are implemented using a WebSocket connection between the client and the AWS AppSync service. The display application client invokes the GraphQL subscription operation to establish a secure connection. AWS AppSync will automatically push data changes (or mutations) via the GraphQL API to subscribers using that connection.

Previously, builders could use EventBridge API Destinations to wire events published and routed through EventBridge to AWS AppSync, as described in an earlier blog post, and available in Serverless Land patterns (API Key, OAuth). The approach is useful for dealing with “out-of-band” updates in which data changes outside of an AWS AppSync mutation. Out-of-band updates generally require a NONE data source in AWS AppSync to notify subscribers of changes, as described in the AWS re:Post Knowledge Center. The addition of AWS AppSync as a target for EventBridge simplifies these use cases as you can now trigger a mutation in response to an event without additional code.

Airport Operations Events

Expanding the scenario, airport operations events look like this:

{
  "flightNum": 123,
  "carrierCode": "JK",
  "date": "2024-01-25",
  "event": "FlightDelayed",
  "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
  "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"
}

The event field identifies the type of event and if it is relevant to passengers. The event details provide further information about the event, which varies based on the type of event. The airport publishes a variety of events but the airport displays only need a subset of those changes.

AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs start with a GraphQL schema that defines the types, fields, and operations available in that API. AWS AppSync documentation provides an overview of schema and other GraphQL essentials. The partial GraphQL schema for the airport scenario is as follows:


type DelayEventInfo implements EventInfo {
	message: String
	delayMinutes: Int
	newDepTime: AWSDateTime
}

interface EventInfo {
	message: String
}

enum StatusEvent {
	FlightArrived
	FlightBoarding
	FlightCancelled
	FlightDelayed
	FlightGateChanged
	FlightLanded
	FlightPushBack
	FlightTookOff
}

type StatusUpdate {
	num: Int!
	carrier: String!
	date: AWSDate!
	event: StatusEvent!
	info: EventInfo
}

input StatusUpdateInput {
	num: Int!
	carrier: String!
	date: AWSDate!
	event: StatusEvent!
	message: String
	extra: AWSJSON
}

type Mutation {
	updateFlightStatus(input: StatusUpdateInput!): StatusUpdate!
}

type Query {
	listStatusUpdates(by: String): [StatusUpdate]
}

type Subscription {
	onFlightStatusUpdate(date: AWSDate, carrier: String): StatusUpdate
		@aws_subscribe(mutations: ["updateFlightStatus"])
}

schema {
	query: Query
	mutation: Mutation
	subscription: Subscription
}

Connect EventBridge to AWS AppSync

EventBridge allows you to filter, transform, and route events to a number of targets. The airport display service only needs events that directly impact passengers. You can define a rule in EventBridge that routes only those events (included in the preceding GraphQL schema) to the AWS AppSync target. Other events are routed elsewhere, as defined by other rules, or dropped. Details on creating EventBridge rules and the event matching pattern format can be found in EventBridge documentation.

The previous flight delayed event would be delivered using EventBridge as follows:

{
  "id": "b051312994104931b0980d1ad1c5340f",
  "detail-type": "Operations: Flight delayed",
  "source": "airport-operations",
  "time": "2024-01-25T16:58:37Z",
  "detail": {
    "flightNum": 123,
    "carrierCode": "JK",
    "date": "2024-01-25",
    "event": "FlightDelayed",
    "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
    "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"
  }
}

In this scenario, there is a specific list of events of interest, but EventBridge provides a flexible set of operations to match patterns, inspect arrays, and filter by content using prefix, numerical, or other matching. Some organizations will also allow subscribers to define their own rules on an EventBridge event bus, allowing targets to subscribe to events via self-service.

The following event pattern matches on the events needed for the airport display service:

{
  "source": [ "airport-operations" ],
  "detail": {
    "event": [ "FlightArrived", "FlightBoarding", "FlightCancelled", ... ]
  }
}

To create a new EventBridge rule, you can use the AWS Management Console or infrastructure as code. You can find the CloudFormation definition for the completed rule, with the AWS AppSync target, later in this post.

Console view

Create the AWS AppSync target

Now that EventBridge is configured to route selected events, define AWS AppSync as the target for the rule. The AWS AppSync API must support IAM authorization to be used as an EventBridge target. AWS AppSync supports multiple authorization types on a single GraphQL type, so you can also use OpenID Connect, Amazon Cognito User Pools, or other authorization methods as needed.

To configure AWS AppSync as an EventBridge target, define the target using the AWS Management Console or infrastructure as code. In the console, select the Target Type as “AWS Service” and Target as “AppSync.” Select your API. EventBridge parses the GraphQL schema and allows you to select the mutation to invoke when the rule is triggered.

When using the AWS Management Console, EventBridge will also configure the necessary AWS IAM role to invoke the selected mutation. Remember to create and associate a role with an appropriate trust policy when configuring with IaC.

EventBridge target types

EventBridge supports input transformation to customize the contents of an event before passing the information as input to the target. Configure the input transformer to extract needed values from the event using JSON path and a template in the input format expected by the AWS AppSync API. EventBridge provides a handy utility in the Console to pass and test the output of a sample event.

Target input transformer

Finally, configure the selection set to include the response from the AWS AppSync API. These are the fields that will be returned to EventBridge when the mutation is invoked. While the result returned to EventBridge is not overly useful (aside from troubleshooting), the mutation selection set will also determine the fields available to subscribers to the onFlightStatusUpdate subscription.

Configuring the selection set

Define the EventBridge to AWS AppSync rule in CloudFormation

Infrastructure as code templates, including AWS CloudFormation and AWS CDK, are useful for codifying infrastructure definitions to deploy across Regions and accounts. While you can write CloudFormation by hand, EventBridge provides a useful CloudFormation export in the AWS Management Console. You can use this feature to export the definition for a defined rule.

Export definition

This is the CloudFormation for the previous configured rule and AWS AppSync target. This snippet includes both the rule definition and the target configuration.

PassengerEventsToDisplayServiceRule:
    Type: AWS::Events::Rule
    Properties:
      Description: Route passenger related events to the display service endpoint
      EventBusName: eb-to-appsync
      EventPattern:
        source:
          - airport-operations
        detail:
          event:
            - FlightArrived
            - FlightBoarding
            - FlightCancelled
            - FlightDelayed
            - FlightGateChanged
            - FlightLanded
            - FlightPushBack
            - FlightTookOff
      Name: passenger-events-to-display-service
      State: ENABLED
      Targets:
        - Id: 12344535353263463
          Arn: <AppSync API GraphQL API ARN>
          RoleArn: <EventBridge Role ARN (defined elsewhere)>
          InputTransformer:
            InputPathsMap:
              carrier: $.detail.carrierCode
              date: $.detail.date
              event: $.detail.event
              extra: $.detail.info
              message: $.detail.message
              num: $.detail.flightNum
            InputTemplate: |-
              {
                "input": {
                  "num": <num>,
                  "carrier": <carrier>,
                  "date": <date>,
                  "event": <event>,
                  "message": "<message>",
                  "extra": <extra>
                }
              }
          AppSyncParameters:
            GraphQLOperation: >-
              mutation
              UpdateFlightStatus($input:StatusUpdateInput!){updateFlightStatus(input:$input){
                event
                date
                carrier
                num
                info {
                  __typename
                  ... on DelayEventInfo {
                    message
                    delayMinutes
                    newDepTime
                  }
                }
              }}

The ARN of the AWS AppSync API follows the form arn:aws:appsync:<AWS_REGION>:<ACCOUNT_ID>:endpoints/graphql-api/<GRAPHQL_ENDPOINT_ID>. The ARN is available in CloudFormation (see GraphQLEndpointArn return value) or can be created using the identifier found in the AWS AppSync GraphQL endpoint. The ARN included in the EventBridge execution role policy is the AWS AppSync API ARN (a different ARN).

The AppSyncParameters field includes the GraphQL operation for EventBridge to invoke on the AWS AppSync API. This must be well formatted and match the GraphQL schema. Include any fields that must be available to subscribers in the selection set.

Testing subscriptions

AWS AppSync is now configured as a target for the EventBridge rule. The real-life display application would use a GraphQL library, such as AWS Amplify, to subscribe to real-time data changes. The AWS Management Console provides a useful utility to test. Navigate to the AWS AppSync console and select Queries in the menu for your API. Enter the following query and choose Run to subscribe for data changes:

subscription MySubscription {
  onFlightStatusUpdate {
    carrier
    date
    event
    num
    info {
      __typename
      … on DelayEventInfo {
        message
        delayMinutes
        newDepTime
      }
    }
  }
}

In a separate browser tab, navigate to the EventBridge console, and choose Send events. On the Send events page, select the required event bus and set the Event source to “airport-operations.” Then enter a detail type of your choice. Finally, paste the following as the Event detail, then choose Send.

{
  "id": "b051312994104931b0980d1ad1c5340f",
  "detail-type": "Operations: Flight delayed",
  "source": "airport-operations",
  "time": "2024-01-25T16:58:37Z",
  "detail": {
    "flightNum": 123,
    "carrierCode": "JK",
    "date": "2024-01-25",
    "event": "FlightDelayed",
    "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
    "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"
  }
}

Return to the AWS AppSync tab in your browser to see the changed data in the result pane:

Result pane

Conclusion

Directly invoking AWS AppSync GraphQL API targets from EventBridge simplifies and streamlines integration between these two services, ideal for notifying a variety of subscribers of data changes in event-driven workloads. You can also take advantage of other features available from the two services. For example, use AWS AppSync enhanced subscription filtering to update only airport displays in the terminal in which they are located.

To learn more about serverless, visit Serverless Land for a wide array of reusable patterns, tutorials, and learning materials. Newly added to the pattern library is an EventBridge to AWS AppSync pattern similar to the one described in this post. Visit EventBridge documentation for more details.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Invoking on-premises resources interactively using AWS Step Functions and MQTT

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/invoking-on-premises-resources-interactively-using-aws-step-functions-and-mqtt/

This post is written by Alex Paramonov, Sr. Solutions Architect, ISV, and Pieter Prinsloo, Customer Solutions Manager.

Workloads in AWS sometimes require access to data stored in on-premises databases and storage locations. Traditional solutions to establish connectivity to the on-premises resources require inbound rules to firewalls, a VPN tunnel, or public endpoints.

This blog post demonstrates how to use the MQTT protocol (AWS IoT Core) with AWS Step Functions to dispatch jobs to on-premises workers to access or retrieve data stored on-premises. The state machine can communicate with the on-premises workers without opening inbound ports or the need for public endpoints on on-premises resources. Workers can run behind Network Access Translation (NAT) routers while keeping bidirectional connectivity with the AWS Cloud. This provides a more secure and cost-effective way to access data stored on-premises.

Overview

By using Step Functions with AWS Lambda and AWS IoT Core, you can access data stored on-premises securely without altering the existing network configuration.

AWS IoT Core lets you connect IoT devices and route messages to AWS services without managing infrastructure. By using a Docker container image running on-premises as a proxy IoT Thing, you can take advantage of AWS IoT Core’s fully managed MQTT message broker for non-IoT use cases.

MQTT subscribers receive information via MQTT topics. An MQTT topic acts as a matching mechanism between publishers and subscribers. Conceptually, an MQTT topic behaves like an ephemeral notification channel. You can create topics at scale with virtually no limit to the number of topics. In SaaS applications, for example, you can create topics per tenant. Learn more about MQTT topic design here.

The following reference architecture shown uses the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) for deployment, Step Functions to orchestrate the workflow, AWS Lambda to send and receive on-premises messages, and AWS IoT Core to provide the MQTT message broker, certificate and policy management, and publish/subscribe topics.

Reference architecture

  1. Start the state machine, either “on demand” or on a schedule.
  2. The state: “Lambda: Invoke Dispatch Job to On-Premises” publishes a message to an MQTT message broker in AWS IoT Core.
  3. The message broker sends the message to the topic corresponding to the worker (tenant) in the on-premises container that runs the job.
  4. The on-premises container receives the message and starts work execution. Authentication is done using client certificates and the attached policy limits the worker access to only the tenant’s topic.
  5. The worker in the on-premises container can access local resources like DBs or storage locations.
  6. The on-premises container sends the results and job status back to another MQTT topic.
  7. The AWS IoT Core rule invokes the “TaskToken Done” Lambda function.
  8. The Lambda function submits the results to Step Functions via SendTaskSuccess or SendTaskFailure API.

Deploying and testing the sample

Ensure you can manage AWS resources from your terminal and that:

  • Latest versions of AWS CLI and AWS SAM CLI are installed.
  • You have an AWS account. If not, visit this page.
  • Your user has sufficient permissions to manage AWS resources.
  • Git is installed.
  • Python version 3.11 or greater is installed.
  • Docker is installed.

You can access the GitHub repository here and follow these steps to deploy the sample.

The aws-resources directory contains the required AWS resources including the state machine, Lambda functions, topics, and policies. The directory on-prem-worker contains the Docker container image artifacts. Use it to run the on-premises worker locally.

In this example, the worker container adds two numbers, provided as an input in the following format:

{
  "a": 15,
  "b": 42
}

In a real-world scenario, you can substitute this operation with business logic. For example, retrieving data from on-premises databases, generating aggregates, and then submitting the results back to your state machine.

Follow these steps to test the sample end-to-end.

Using AWS IoT Core without IoT devices

There are no IoT devices in the example use case. However, the fully managed MQTT message broker in AWS IoT Core lets you route messages to AWS services without managing infrastructure.

AWS IoT Core authenticates clients using X.509 client certificates. You can attach a policy to a client certificate allowing the client to publish and subscribe only to certain topics. This approach does not require IAM credentials inside the worker container on-premises.

AWS IoT Core’s security, cost efficiency, managed infrastructure, and scalability make it a good fit for many hybrid applications beyond typical IoT use cases.

Dispatching jobs from Step Functions and waiting for a response

When a state machine reaches the state to dispatch the job to an on-premises worker, the execution pauses and waits until the job finishes. Step Functions support three integration patterns: Request-Response, Sync Run a Job, and Wait for a Callback with Task Token. The sample uses the “Wait for a Callback with Task Token“ integration. It allows the state machine to pause and wait for a callback for up to 1 year.

When the on-premises worker completes the job, it publishes a message to the topic in AWS IoT Core. A rule in AWS IoT Core then invokes a Lambda function, which sends the result back to the state machine by calling either SendTaskSuccess or SendTaskFailure API in Step Functions.

You can prevent the state machine from timing out by adding HeartbeatSeconds to the task in the Amazon States Language (ASL). Timeouts happen if the job freezes and the SendTaskFailure API is not called. HeartbeatSeconds send heartbeats from the worker via the SendTaskHeartbeat API call and should be less than the specified TimeoutSeconds.

To create a task in ASL for your state machine, which waits for a callback token, use the following code:

{
      "Type": "Task",
      "Resource": "arn:aws:states:::lambda:invoke.waitForTaskToken",
      "Parameters": {
        "FunctionName": "${LambdaNotifierToWorkerArn}",
        "Payload": {
          "Input.$": "$",
          "TaskToken.$": "$$.Task.Token"
        }
}

The .waitForTaskToken suffix indicates that the task must wait for the callback. The state machine generates a unique callback token, accessible via the $$.Task.Token built-in variable, and passes it as an input to the Lambda function defined in FunctionName.

The Lambda function then sends the token to the on-premises worker via an AWS IoT Core topic.

Lambda is not the only service that supports Wait for Callback integration – see the full list of supported services here.

In addition to dispatching tasks and getting the result back, you can implement progress tracking and shut down mechanisms. To track progress, the worker sends metrics via a separate topic.

Depending on your current implementation, you have several options:

  1. Storing progress data from the worker in Amazon DynamoDB and visualizing it via REST API calls to a Lambda function, which reads from the DynamoDB table. Refer to this tutorial on how to store data in DynamoDB directly from the topic.
  2. For a reactive user experience, create a rule to invoke a Lambda function when new progress data arrives. Open a WebSocket connection to your backend. The Lambda function sends progress data via WebSocket directly to the frontend.

To implement a shutdown mechanism, you can run jobs in separate threads on your worker and subscribe to the topic, to which your state machine publishes the shutdown messages. If a shutdown message arrives, end the job thread on the worker and send back the status including the callback token of the task.

Using AWS IoT Core Rules and Lambda Functions

A message with job results from the worker does not arrive to the Step Functions API directly. Instead, an AWS IoT Core Rule and a dedicated Lambda function forward the status message to Step Functions. This allows for more granular permissions in AWS IoT Core policies, which result in improved security because the worker container can only publish and subscribe to specific topics. No IAM credentials exist on-premises.

The Lambda function’s execution role contains the permissions for SendTaskSuccess, SendTaskHeartbeat, and SendTaskFailure API calls only.

Alternatively, a worker can run API calls in Step Functions workflows directly, which replaces the need for a topic in AWS IoT Core, a rule, and a Lambda function to invoke the Step Functions API. This approach requires IAM credentials inside the worker’s container. You can use AWS Identity and Access Management Roles Anywhere to obtain temporary security credentials. As your worker’s functionality evolves over time, you can add further AWS API calls while adding permissions to the IAM execution role.

Cleaning up

The services used in this solution are eligible for AWS Free Tier. To clean up the resources in the aws-resources/ directory of the repository run:

sam delete

This removes all resources provisioned by the template.yml file.

To remove the client certificate from AWS, navigate to AWS IoT Core Certificates and delete the certificate, which you added during the manual deployment steps.

Lastly, stop the Docker container on-premises and remove it:

docker rm --force mqtt-local-client

Finally, remove the container image:

docker rmi mqtt-client-waitfortoken

Conclusion

Accessing on-premises resources with workers controlled via Step Functions using MQTT and AWS IoT Core is a secure, reactive, and cost effective way to run on-premises jobs. Consider updating your hybrid workloads from using inefficient polling or schedulers to the reactive approach described in this post. This offers an improved user experience with fast dispatching and tracking of jobs outside of cloud.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Use Amazon Athena with Spark SQL for your open-source transactional table formats

Post Syndicated from Pathik Shah original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/use-amazon-athena-with-spark-sql-for-your-open-source-transactional-table-formats/

AWS-powered data lakes, supported by the unmatched availability of Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), can handle the scale, agility, and flexibility required to combine different data and analytics approaches. As data lakes have grown in size and matured in usage, a significant amount of effort can be spent keeping the data consistent with business events. To ensure files are updated in a transactionally consistent manner, a growing number of customers are using open-source transactional table formats such as Apache Iceberg, Apache Hudi, and Linux Foundation Delta Lake that help you store data with high compression rates, natively interface with your applications and frameworks, and simplify incremental data processing in data lakes built on Amazon S3. These formats enable ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) transactions, upserts, and deletes, and advanced features such as time travel and snapshots that were previously only available in data warehouses. Each storage format implements this functionality in slightly different ways; for a comparison, refer to Choosing an open table format for your transactional data lake on AWS.

In 2023, AWS announced general availability for Apache Iceberg, Apache Hudi, and Linux Foundation Delta Lake in Amazon Athena for Apache Spark, which removes the need to install a separate connector or associated dependencies and manage versions, and simplifies the configuration steps required to use these frameworks.

In this post, we show you how to use Spark SQL in Amazon Athena notebooks and work with Iceberg, Hudi, and Delta Lake table formats. We demonstrate common operations such as creating databases and tables, inserting data into the tables, querying data, and looking at snapshots of the tables in Amazon S3 using Spark SQL in Athena.

Prerequisites

Complete the following prerequisites:

Download and import example notebooks from Amazon S3

To follow along, download the notebooks discussed in this post from the following locations:

After you download the notebooks, import them into your Athena Spark environment by following the To import a notebook section in Managing notebook files.

Navigate to specific Open Table Format section

If you are interested in Iceberg table format, navigate to Working with Apache Iceberg tables section.

If you are interested in Hudi table format, navigate to Working with Apache Hudi tables section.

If you are interested in Delta Lake table format, navigate to Working with Linux foundation Delta Lake tables section.

Working with Apache Iceberg tables

When using Spark notebooks in Athena, you can run SQL queries directly without having to use PySpark. We do this by using cell magics, which are special headers in a notebook cell that change the cell’s behavior. For SQL, we can add the %%sql magic, which will interpret the entire cell contents as a SQL statement to be run on Athena.

In this section, we show how you can use SQL on Apache Spark for Athena to create, analyze, and manage Apache Iceberg tables.

Set up a notebook session

In order to use Apache Iceberg in Athena, while creating or editing a session, select the Apache Iceberg option by expanding the Apache Spark properties section. It will pre-populate the properties as shown in the following screenshot.

This image shows the Apache Iceberg properties set while creating Spak session in Athena.

For steps, see Editing session details or Creating your own notebook.

The code used in this section is available in the SparkSQL_iceberg.ipynb file to follow along.

Create a database and Iceberg table

First, we create a database in the AWS Glue Data Catalog. With the following SQL, we can create a database called icebergdb:

%%sql
CREATE DATABASE icebergdb

Next, in the database icebergdb, we create an Iceberg table called noaa_iceberg pointing to a location in Amazon S3 where we will load the data. Run the following statement and replace the location s3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/ with your S3 bucket and prefix:

%%sql
CREATE TABLE icebergdb.noaa_iceberg(
station string,
date string,
latitude string,
longitude string,
elevation string,
name string,
temp string,
temp_attributes string,
dewp string,
dewp_attributes string,
slp string,
slp_attributes string,
stp string,
stp_attributes string,
visib string,
visib_attributes string,
wdsp string,
wdsp_attributes string,
mxspd string,
gust string,
max string,
max_attributes string,
min string,
min_attributes string,
prcp string,
prcp_attributes string,
sndp string,
frshtt string)
USING iceberg
PARTITIONED BY (year string)
LOCATION 's3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/noaaiceberg/'

Insert data into the table

To populate the noaa_iceberg Iceberg table, we insert data from the Parquet table sparkblogdb.noaa_pq that was created as part of the prerequisites. You can do this using an INSERT INTO statement in Spark:

%%sql
INSERT INTO icebergdb.noaa_iceberg select * from sparkblogdb.noaa_pq

Alternatively, you can use CREATE TABLE AS SELECT with the USING iceberg clause to create an Iceberg table and insert data from a source table in one step:

%%sql
CREATE TABLE icebergdb.noaa_iceberg
USING iceberg
PARTITIONED BY (year)
AS SELECT * FROM sparkblogdb.noaa_pq

Query the Iceberg table

Now that the data is inserted in the Iceberg table, we can start analyzing it. Let’s run a Spark SQL to find the minimum recorded temperature by year for the 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' location:

%%sql
select name, year, min(MIN) as minimum_temperature
from icebergdb.noaa_iceberg
where name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'
group by 1,2

We get following output.

Image shows output of first select query

Update data in the Iceberg table

Let’s look at how to update data in our table. We want to update the station name 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' to 'Sea-Tac'. Using Spark SQL, we can run an UPDATE statement against the Iceberg table:

%%sql
UPDATE icebergdb.noaa_iceberg
SET name = 'Sea-Tac'
WHERE name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'

We can then run the previous SELECT query to find the minimum recorded temperature for the 'Sea-Tac' location:

%%sql
select name, year, min(MIN) as minimum_temperature
from icebergdb.noaa_iceberg
where name = 'Sea-Tac'
group by 1,2

We get the following output.

Image shows output of second select query

Compact data files

Open table formats like Iceberg work by creating delta changes in file storage, and tracking the versions of rows through manifest files. More data files leads to more metadata stored in manifest files, and small data files often cause an unnecessary amount of metadata, resulting in less efficient queries and higher Amazon S3 access costs. Running Iceberg’s rewrite_data_files procedure in Spark for Athena will compact data files, combining many small delta change files into a smaller set of read-optimized Parquet files. Compacting files speeds up the read operation when queried. To run compaction on our table, run the following Spark SQL:

%%sql
CALL spark_catalog.system.rewrite_data_files
(table => 'icebergdb.noaa_iceberg', strategy=>'sort', sort_order => 'zorder(name)')

rewrite_data_files offers options to specify your sort strategy, which can help reorganize and compact data.

List table snapshots

Each write, update, delete, upsert, and compaction operation on an Iceberg table creates a new snapshot of a table while keeping the old data and metadata around for snapshot isolation and time travel. To list the snapshots of an Iceberg table, run the following Spark SQL statement:

%%sql
SELECT *
FROM spark_catalog.icebergdb.noaa_iceberg.snapshots

Expire old snapshots

Regularly expiring snapshots is recommended to delete data files that are no longer needed, and to keep the size of table metadata small. It will never remove files that are still required by a non-expired snapshot. In Spark for Athena, run the following SQL to expire snapshots for the table icebergdb.noaa_iceberg that are older than a specific timestamp:

%%sql
CALL spark_catalog.system.expire_snapshots
('icebergdb.noaa_iceberg', TIMESTAMP '2023-11-30 00:00:00.000')

Note that the timestamp value is specified as a string in format yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.fff. The output will give a count of the number of data and metadata files deleted.

Drop the table and database

You can run the following Spark SQL to clean up the Iceberg tables and associated data in Amazon S3 from this exercise:

%%sql
DROP TABLE icebergdb.noaa_iceberg PURGE

Run the following Spark SQL to remove the database icebergdb:

%%sql
DROP DATABASE icebergdb

To learn more about all the operations you can perform on Iceberg tables using Spark for Athena, refer to Spark Queries and Spark Procedures in the Iceberg documentation.

Working with Apache Hudi tables

Next, we show how you can use SQL on Spark for Athena to create, analyze, and manage Apache Hudi tables.

Set up a notebook session

In order to use Apache Hudi in Athena, while creating or editing a session, select the Apache Hudi option by expanding the Apache Spark properties section.

This image shows the Apache Hudi properties set while creating Spak session in Athena.

For steps, see Editing session details or Creating your own notebook.

The code used in this section should be available in the SparkSQL_hudi.ipynb file to follow along.

Create a database and Hudi table

First, we create a database called hudidb that will be stored in the AWS Glue Data Catalog followed by Hudi table creation:

%%sql
CREATE DATABASE hudidb

We create a Hudi table pointing to a location in Amazon S3 where we will load the data. Note that the table is of copy-on-write type. It is defined by type= 'cow' in the table DDL. We have defined station and date as the multiple primary keys and preCombinedField as year. Also, the table is partitioned on year. Run the following statement and replace the location s3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/ with your S3 bucket and prefix:

%%sql
CREATE TABLE hudidb.noaa_hudi(
station string,
date string,
latitude string,
longitude string,
elevation string,
name string,
temp string,
temp_attributes string,
dewp string,
dewp_attributes string,
slp string,
slp_attributes string,
stp string,
stp_attributes string,
visib string,
visib_attributes string,
wdsp string,
wdsp_attributes string,
mxspd string,
gust string,
max string,
max_attributes string,
min string,
min_attributes string,
prcp string,
prcp_attributes string,
sndp string,
frshtt string,
year string)
USING HUDI
PARTITIONED BY (year)
TBLPROPERTIES(
primaryKey = 'station, date',
preCombineField = 'year',
type = 'cow'
)
LOCATION 's3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/noaahudi/'

Insert data into the table

Like with Iceberg, we use the INSERT INTO statement to populate the table by reading data from the sparkblogdb.noaa_pq table created in the previous post:

%%sql
INSERT INTO hudidb.noaa_hudi select * from sparkblogdb.noaa_pq

Query the Hudi table

Now that the table is created, let’s run a query to find the maximum recorded temperature for the 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' location:

%%sql
select name, year, max(MAX) as maximum_temperature
from hudidb.noaa_hudi
where name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'
group by 1,2

Update data in the Hudi table

Let’s change the station name 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' to 'Sea–Tac'. We can run an UPDATE statement on Spark for Athena to update the records of the noaa_hudi table:

%%sql
UPDATE hudidb.noaa_hudi
SET name = 'Sea-Tac'
WHERE name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'

We run the previous SELECT query to find the maximum recorded temperature for the 'Sea-Tac' location:

%%sql
select name, year, max(MAX) as maximum_temperature
from hudidb.noaa_hudi
where name = 'Sea-Tac'
group by 1,2

Run time travel queries

We can use time travel queries in SQL on Athena to analyze past data snapshots. For example:

%%sql
select name, year, max(MAX) as maximum_temperature
from hudidb.noaa_hudi timestamp as of '2023-12-01 23:53:43.100'
where name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'
group by 1,2

This query checks the Seattle Airport temperature data as of a specific time in the past. The timestamp clause lets us travel back without altering current data. Note that the timestamp value is specified as a string in format yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.fff.

Optimize query speed with clustering

To improve query performance, you can perform clustering on Hudi tables using SQL in Spark for Athena:

%%sql
CALL run_clustering(table => 'hudidb.noaa_hudi', order => 'name')

Compact tables

Compaction is a table service employed by Hudi specifically in Merge On Read (MOR) tables to merge updates from row-based log files to the corresponding columnar-based base file periodically to produce a new version of the base file. Compaction is not applicable to Copy On Write (COW) tables and only applies to MOR tables. You can run the following query in Spark for Athena to perform compaction on MOR tables:

%%sql
CALL run_compaction(op => 'run', table => 'hudi_table_mor');

Drop the table and database

Run the following Spark SQL to remove the Hudi table you created and associated data from the Amazon S3 location:

%%sql
DROP TABLE hudidb.noaa_hudi PURGE

Run the following Spark SQL to remove the database hudidb:

%%sql
DROP DATABASE hudidb

To learn about all the operations you can perform on Hudi tables using Spark for Athena, refer to SQL DDL and Procedures in the Hudi documentation.

Working with Linux foundation Delta Lake tables

Next, we show how you can use SQL on Spark for Athena to create, analyze, and manage Delta Lake tables.

Set up a notebook session

In order to use Delta Lake in Spark for Athena, while creating or editing a session, select Linux Foundation Delta Lake by expanding the Apache Spark properties section.

This image shows the Delta Lake properties set while creating Spak session in Athena.

For steps, see Editing session details or Creating your own notebook.

The code used in this section should be available in the SparkSQL_delta.ipynb file to follow along.

Create a database and Delta Lake table

In this section, we create a database in the AWS Glue Data Catalog. Using following SQL, we can create a database called deltalakedb:

%%sql
CREATE DATABASE deltalakedb

Next, in the database deltalakedb, we create a Delta Lake table called noaa_delta pointing to a location in Amazon S3 where we will load the data. Run the following statement and replace the location s3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/ with your S3 bucket and prefix:

%%sql
CREATE TABLE deltalakedb.noaa_delta(
station string,
date string,
latitude string,
longitude string,
elevation string,
name string,
temp string,
temp_attributes string,
dewp string,
dewp_attributes string,
slp string,
slp_attributes string,
stp string,
stp_attributes string,
visib string,
visib_attributes string,
wdsp string,
wdsp_attributes string,
mxspd string,
gust string,
max string,
max_attributes string,
min string,
min_attributes string,
prcp string,
prcp_attributes string,
sndp string,
frshtt string)
USING delta
PARTITIONED BY (year string)
LOCATION 's3://<your-S3-bucket>/<prefix>/noaadelta/'

Insert data into the table

We use an INSERT INTO statement to populate the table by reading data from the sparkblogdb.noaa_pq table created in the previous post:

%%sql
INSERT INTO deltalakedb.noaa_delta select * from sparkblogdb.noaa_pq

You can also use CREATE TABLE AS SELECT to create a Delta Lake table and insert data from a source table in one query.

Query the Delta Lake table

Now that the data is inserted in the Delta Lake table, we can start analyzing it. Let’s run a Spark SQL to find the minimum recorded temperature for the 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' location:

%%sql
select name, year, max(MAX) as minimum_temperature
from deltalakedb.noaa_delta
where name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'
group by 1,2

Update data in the Delta lake table

Let’s change the station name 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US' to 'Sea–Tac'. We can run an UPDATE statement on Spark for Athena to update the records of the noaa_delta table:

%%sql
UPDATE deltalakedb.noaa_delta
SET name = 'Sea-Tac'
WHERE name = 'SEATTLE TACOMA AIRPORT, WA US'

We can run the previous SELECT query to find the minimum recorded temperature for the 'Sea-Tac' location, and the result should be the same as earlier:

%%sql
select name, year, max(MAX) as minimum_temperature
from deltalakedb.noaa_delta
where name = 'Sea-Tac'
group by 1,2

Compact data files

In Spark for Athena, you can run OPTIMIZE on the Delta Lake table, which will compact the small files into larger files, so the queries are not burdened by the small file overhead. To perform the compaction operation, run the following query:

%%sql
OPTIMIZE deltalakedb.noaa_delta

Refer to Optimizations in the Delta Lake documentation for different options available while running OPTIMIZE.

Remove files no longer referenced by a Delta Lake table

You can remove files stored in Amazon S3 that are no longer referenced by a Delta Lake table and are older than the retention threshold by running the VACCUM command on the table using Spark for Athena:

%%sql
VACUUM deltalakedb.noaa_delta

Refer to Remove files no longer referenced by a Delta table in the Delta Lake documentation for options available with VACUUM.

Drop the table and database

Run the following Spark SQL to remove the Delta Lake table you created:

%%sql
DROP TABLE deltalakedb.noaa_delta

Run the following Spark SQL to remove the database deltalakedb:

%%sql
DROP DATABASE deltalakedb

Running DROP TABLE DDL on the Delta Lake table and database deletes the metadata for these objects, but doesn’t automatically delete the data files in Amazon S3. You can run the following Python code in the notebook’s cell to delete the data from the S3 location:

import boto3

s3 = boto3.resource('s3')
bucket = s3.Bucket('<your-S3-bucket>')
bucket.objects.filter(Prefix="<prefix>/noaadelta/").delete()

To learn more about the SQL statements that you can run on a Delta Lake table using Spark for Athena, refer to the quickstart in the Delta Lake documentation.

Conclusion

This post demonstrated how to use Spark SQL in Athena notebooks to create databases and tables, insert and query data, and perform common operations like updates, compactions, and time travel on Hudi, Delta Lake, and Iceberg tables. Open table formats add ACID transactions, upserts, and deletes to data lakes, overcoming limitations of raw object storage. By removing the need to install separate connectors, Spark on Athena’s built-in integration reduces configuration steps and management overhead when using these popular frameworks for building reliable data lakes on Amazon S3. To learn more about selecting an open table format for your data lake workloads, refer to Choosing an open table format for your transactional data lake on AWS.


About the Authors

Pathik Shah is a Sr. Analytics Architect on Amazon Athena. He joined AWS in 2015 and has been focusing in the big data analytics space since then, helping customers build scalable and robust solutions using AWS analytics services.

Raj Devnath is a Product Manager at AWS on Amazon Athena. He is passionate about building products customers love and helping customers extract value from their data. His background is in delivering solutions for multiple end markets, such as finance, retail, smart buildings, home automation, and data communication systems.

Consuming private Amazon API Gateway APIs using mutual TLS

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/consuming-private-amazon-api-gateway-apis-using-mutual-tls/

This post is written by Thomas Moore, Senior Solutions Architect and Josh Hart, Senior Solutions Architect.

A previous blog post explores using Amazon API Gateway to create private REST APIs that can be consumed across different AWS accounts inside a virtual private cloud (VPC). Private cross-account APIs are useful for software vendors (ISVs) and SaaS companies providing secure connectivity for customers, and organizations building internal APIs and backend microservices.

Mutual TLS (mTLS) is an advanced security protocol that provides two-way authentication via certificates between a client and server. mTLS requires the client to send an X.509 certificate to prove its identity when making a request, together with the default server certificate verification process. This ensures that both parties are who they claim to be.

mTLS connection process

The mTLS connection process illustrated in the diagram above:

  1. Client connects to the server.
  2. Server presents its certificate, which is verified by the client.
  3. Client presents its certificate, which is verified by the server.
  4. Encrypted TLS connection established.

Customers use mTLS because it offers stronger security and identity verification than standard TLS connections. mTLS helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and protects against threats such as impersonation attempts, data interception, and tampering. As threats become more advanced, mTLS provides an extra layer of defense to validate connections.

Implementing mTLS increases overhead for certificate management, but for applications transmitting valuable or sensitive data, the extra security is important. If security is a priority for your systems and users, you should consider deploying mTLS.

Regional API Gateway endpoints have native support for mTLS but private API Gateway endpoints do not support mTLS, so you must terminate mTLS before API Gateway. The previous blog post shows how to build private mTLS APIs using a self-managed verification process inside a container running an NGINX proxy. Since then, Application Load Balancer (ALB) now supports mTLS natively, simplifying the architecture.

This post explores building mTLS private APIs using this new feature.

Application Load Balancer mTLS configuration

You can enable mutual authentication (mTLS) on a new or existing Application Load Balancer. By enabling mTLS on the load balancer listener, clients are required to present trusted certificates to connect. The load balancer validates the certificates before allowing requests to the backends.

Application Load Balancer mTLS configuration

There are two options available when configuring mTLS on the Application Load Balancer: Passthrough mode and Verify with trust store mode.

In Passthrough mode, the client certificate chain is passed as an X-Amzn-Mtls-Clientcert HTTP header for the application to inspect for authorization. In this scenario, there is still a backend verification process. The benefit in adding the ALB to the architecture is that you can perform application (layer 7) routing, such as path-based routing, allowing more complex application routing configurations.

In Verify with trust store mode, the load balancer validates the client certificate and only allows clients providing trusted certificates to connect. This simplifies the management and reduces load on backend applications.

This example uses AWS Private Certificate Authority but the steps are similar for third-party certificate authorities (CA).

To configure the certificate Trust Store for the ALB:

  1. Create an AWS Private Certificate Authority. Specify the Common Name (CN) to be the domain you use to host the application at (for example, api.example.com).
  2. Export the CA using either the CLI or the Console and upload the resulting Certificate.pem to an Amazon S3 bucket.
  3. Create a Trust Store, point this at the certificate uploaded in the previous step.
  4. Update the listener of your Application Load Balancer to use this trust store and select the required mTLS verification behavior.
  5. Generate certificates for the client application against the private certificate authority, for example using the following commands:
openssl req -new -newkey rsa:2048 -days 365 -keyout my_client.key -out my_client.csr

aws acm-pca issue-certificate –certificate-authority-arn arn:aws:acm-pca:us-east-1:111122223333:certificate-authority/certificate_authority_id–csr fileb://my_client.csr –signing-algorithm “SHA256WITHRSA” –validity Value=365,Type=”DAYS” –template-arn arn:aws:acm-pca:::template/EndEntityCertificate/V1

aws acm-pca get-certificate -certificate-authority-arn arn:aws:acm-pca:us-east-1:111122223333:certificate-authority/certificate_authority_id–certificate-arn arn:aws:acm-pca:us-east-1:account_id:certificate-authority/certificate_authority_id/certificate/certificate_id–output text

For more details on this part of the process, see Use ACM Private CA for Amazon API Gateway Mutual TLS.

Private API Gateway mTLS verification using an ALB

Using the ALB Verify with trust store mode together with API Gateway can enable private APIs with mTLS, without the operational burden of a self-managed proxy service.

You can use this pattern to access API Gateway in the same AWS account, or cross-account.

Private API Gateway mTLS verification using an ALB

The same account pattern allows clients inside the VPC to consume the private API Gateway by calling the Application Load Balancer URL. The ALB is configured to verify the provided client certificate against the trust store before passing the request to the API Gateway.

If the certificate is invalid, the API never receives the request. A resource policy on the API Gateway ensures that can requests are only allowed via the VPC endpoint, and a security group on the VPC endpoint ensures that it can only receive requests from the ALB. This prevents the client from bypassing mTLS by invoking the API Gateway or VPC endpoints directly.

Cross-account private API Gateway mTLS using AWS PrivateLink.

The cross-account pattern using AWS PrivateLink provides the ability to connect to the ALB endpoint securely across accounts and across VPCs. It avoids the need to connect VPCs together using VPC Peering or AWS Transit Gateway and enables software vendors to deliver SaaS services to be consumed by their end customers. This pattern is available to deploy as sample code in the GitHub repository.

The flow of a client request through the cross-account architecture is as follows:

  1. A client in the consumer application sends a request to the producer API endpoint.
  2. The request is routed via AWS PrivateLink to a Network Load Balancer in the consumer account. The Network Load Balancer is a requirement of AWS PrivateLink services.
  3. The Network Load Balancer uses an Application Load Balancer-type Target Group.
  4. The Application Load Balancer listener is configured for mTLS in verify with trust store mode.
  5. An authorization decision is made comparing the client certificate to the chain in the certificate trust store.
  6. If the client certificate is allowed the request is routed to the API Gateway via the execute-api VPC Endpoint. An API Gateway resource policy is used to allow connections only via the VPC endpoint.
  7. Any additional API Gateway authentication and authorization is performed, such as using a Lambda authorizer to validate a JSON Web Token (JWT).

Using the example deployed from the GitHub repo, this is the expected response from a successful request with a valid certificate:

curl –key my_client.key –cert my_client.pem https://api.example.com/widgets 

{“id”:”1”,”value”:”4.99”}

When passing an invalid certificate, the following response is received:

curl: (35) Recv failure: Connection reset by peer

Custom domain names

An additional benefit to implementing the mTLS solution with an Application Load Balancer is support for private custom domain names. Private API Gateway endpoints do not support custom domain names currently. But in this case, clients first connect to an ALB endpoint, which does support a custom domain. The sample code implements private custom domains using a public AWS Certificate Manager (ACM) certificate on the internal ALB, and an Amazon Route 53 hosted DNS zone. This allows you to provide a static URL to consumers so that if the API Gateway is replaced the consumer does not need to update their code.

Certificate revocation list

Optionally, as another layer of security, you can also configure a certificate revocation list for a trust store on the ALB. Revocation lists allow you to revoke and invalidate issued certificates before their expiry date. You can use this feature to off-boarding customers or denying compromised credentials, for example.

You can add the certificate revocation list to a new or existing trust store. The list is provided via an Amazon S3 URI as a PEM formatted file.

Conclusion

This post explores ways to provide mutual TLS authentication for private API Gateway endpoints. A previous post shows how to achieve this using a self-managed NGINX proxy. This post simplifies the architecture by using the native mTLS support now available for Application Load Balancers.

This new pattern centralizes authentication at the edge, streamlines deployment, and minimizes operational overhead compared to self-managed verification. AWS Private Certificate Authority and certificate revocation lists integrate with managed credentials and security policies. This makes it easier to expose private APIs safely across accounts and VPCs.

Mutual authentication and progressive security controls are growing in importance when architecting secure cloud-based workloads. To get started, visit the GitHub repository.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Using generative infrastructure as code with Application Composer

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/using-generative-infrastructure-as-code-with-application-composer/

This post is written by Anna Spysz, Frontend Engineer, AWS Application Composer

AWS Application Composer launched in the AWS Management Console one year ago, and has now expanded to the VS Code IDE as part of the AWS Toolkit. This includes access to a generative AI partner that helps you write infrastructure as code (IaC) for all 1100+ AWS CloudFormation resources that Application Composer now supports.

Overview

Application Composer lets you create IaC templates by dragging and dropping cards on a virtual canvas. These represent CloudFormation resources, which you can wire together to create permissions and references. With support for all 1100+ resources that CloudFormation allows, you can now build with everything from AWS Amplify to AWS X-Ray.

­­Previously, standard CloudFormation resources came only with a basic configuration. Adding an Amplify App resource resulted in the following configuration by default:

  MyAmplifyApp:
    Type: AWS::Amplify::App
    Properties:
      Name: <String>

And in the console:

AWS App Composer in the console

AWS App Composer in the console

Now, Application Composer in the IDE uses generative AI to generate resource-specific configurations with safeguards such as validation against the CloudFormation schema to ensure valid values.

When working on a CloudFormation or AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) template in VS Code, you can sign in with your Builder ID and generate multiple suggested configurations in Application Composer. Here is an example of an AI generated configuration for the AWS::Amplify::App type:

AI generated configuration for the Amplify App type

AI generated configuration for the Amplify App type

These suggestions are specific to the resource type, and are safeguarded by a check against the CloudFormation schema to ensure valid values or helpful placeholders. You can then select, use, and modify the suggestions to fit your needs.

You now know how to generate a basic example with one resource, but let’s look at building a full application with the help of AI-generated suggestions. This example recreates a serverless application from a Serverless Land tutorial, “Use GenAI capabilities to build a chatbot,” using Application Composer and generative AI-powered code suggestions.

Getting started with the AWS Toolkit in VS Code

If you don’t yet have the AWS Toolkit extension, you can find it under the Extensions tab in VS Code. Install or update it to at least version 2.1.0, so that the screen shows Amazon Q and Application Composer:

Amazon Q and Application Composer

Amazon Q and Application Composer

Next, to enable gen AI-powered code suggestions, you must enable Amazon CodeWhisperer using your Builder ID. The easiest way is to open Amazon Q chat, and select Authenticate. On the next screen, select the Builder ID option, then sign in with your Builder ID.

Enable Amazon CodeWhisperer using your Builder ID

Enable Amazon CodeWhisperer using your Builder ID

After sign-in, your connection appears in the VS Code toolkit panel:

Connection in VS Code toolkit panel

Connection in VS Code toolkit panel

Building with Application Composer

With the toolkit installed and connected with your Builder ID, you are ready to start building.

  1. In a new workspace, create a folder for the application and a blank template.yaml file.
  2. Open this file and initiate Application Composer by choosing the icon in the top right.
Initiate Application Composer

Original architecture diagram

The original tutorial includes this architecture diagram:

Original architecture diagram

Initiate Application Composer

First, add the services in the diagram to sketch out the application architecture, which simultaneously creates a deployable CloudFormation template:

  1. From the Enhanced components list, drag in a Lambda function and a Lambda layer.
  2. Double-click the Function resource to edit its properties. Rename the Lambda function’s Logical ID to LexGenAIBotLambda.
  3. Change the Source path to src/LexGenAIBotLambda, and the runtime to Python.
  4. Change the handler value to TextGeneration.lambda_handler, and choose Save.
  5. Double-click the Layer resource to edit its properties. Rename the layer Boto3Layer and change its build method to Python. Change its Source path to src/Boto3PillowPyshorteners.zip.
  6. Finally, connect the layer to the function to add a reference between them. Your canvas looks like this:
Your App Composer canvas

Your App Composer canvas

The template.yaml file is now updated to include those resources. In the source directory, you can see some generated function files. You will replace them with the tutorial function and layers later.

In the first step, you added some resources and Application Composer generated IaC that includes best practices defaults. Next, you will use standard CloudFormation components.

Using AI for standard components

Start by using the search bar to search for and add several of the Standard components needed for your application.

Search for and add Standard components

Search for and add Standard components

  1. In the Resources search bar, enter “lambda” and add the resource type AWS::Lambda::Permission to the canvas.
  2. Enter “iam” in the search bar, and add type AWS::IAM::Policy.
  3. Add two resources of the type AWS::IAM::Role.

Your application now look like this:

Updated canvas

Updated canvas

Some standard resources have all the defaults you need. For example, when you add the AWS::Lambda::Permission resource, replace the placeholder values with:

FunctionName: !Ref LexGenAIBotLambda
Action: lambda:InvokeFunction
Principal: lexv2.amazonaws.com

Other resources, such as the IAM roles and IAM policy, have a vanilla configuration. This is where you can use the AI assistant. Select an IAM Role resource and choose Generate suggestions to see what the generative AI suggests.

Generate suggestions

Generate suggestions

Because these suggestions are generated by a Large Language Model (LLM), they may differ between each generation. These are checked against the CloudFormation schema, ensuring validity and providing a range of configurations for your needs.

Generating different configurations gives you an idea of what a resource’s policy should look like, and often gives you keys that you can then fill in with the values you need. Use the following settings for each resource, replacing the generated values where applicable.

  1. Double-click the “Permission” resource to edit its settings. Change its Logical ID to LexGenAIBotLambdaInvoke and replace its Resource configuration with the following, then choose Save:
  2. Action: lambda:InvokeFunction
    FunctionName: !GetAtt LexGenAIBotLambda.Arn
    Principal: lexv2.amazonaws.com
  3. Double-click the “Role” resource to edit its settings. Change its Logical ID to CfnLexGenAIDemoRole and replace its Resource configuration with the following, then choose Save:
  4. AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
      Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            Service: lexv2.amazonaws.com
      Version: '2012-10-17'
    ManagedPolicyArns:
      - !Join
        - ''
        - - 'arn:'
          - !Ref AWS::Partition
          - ':iam::aws:policy/AWSLambdaExecute'
  5. Double-click the “Role2” resource to edit its settings. Change its Logical ID to LexGenAIBotLambdaServiceRole and replace its Resource configuration with the following, then choose Save:
  6. AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
      Statement:
        - Action: sts:AssumeRole
          Effect: Allow
          Principal:
            Service: lambda.amazonaws.com
      Version: '2012-10-17'
    ManagedPolicyArns:
      - !Join
        - ''
        - - 'arn:'
          - !Ref AWS::Partition
          - ':iam::aws:policy/service-role/AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole'
  7. Double-click the “Policy” resource to edit its settings. Change its Logical ID to LexGenAIBotLambdaServiceRoleDefaultPolicy and replace its Resource configuration with the following, then choose Save:
PolicyDocument:
  Statement:
    - Action:
        - lex:*
        - logs:*
        - s3:DeleteObject
        - s3:GetObject
        - s3:ListBucket
        - s3:PutObject
      Effect: Allow
      Resource: '*'
    - Action: bedrock:InvokeModel
      Effect: Allow
      Resource: !Join
        - ''
        - - 'arn:aws:bedrock:'
          - !Ref AWS::Region
          - '::foundation-model/anthropic.claude-v2'
  Version: '2012-10-17'
PolicyName: LexGenAIBotLambdaServiceRoleDefaultPolicy
Roles:
  - !Ref LexGenAIBotLambdaServiceRole

Once you have updated the properties of each resource, you see the connections and groupings automatically made between them:

Connections and automatic groupings

Connections and automatic groupings

To add the Amazon Lex bot:

  1. In the resource picker, search for and add the type AWS::Lex::Bot. Here’s another chance to see what configuration the AI suggests.
  2. Change the Amazon Lex bot’s logical ID to LexGenAIBot update its configuration to the following:
  3. DataPrivacy:
      ChildDirected: false
    IdleSessionTTLInSeconds: 300
    Name: LexGenAIBot
    RoleArn: !GetAtt CfnLexGenAIDemoRole.Arn
    AutoBuildBotLocales: true
    BotLocales:
      - Intents:
          - InitialResponseSetting:
              CodeHook:
                EnableCodeHookInvocation: true
                IsActive: true
                PostCodeHookSpecification: {}
            IntentClosingSetting:
              ClosingResponse:
                MessageGroupsList:
                  - Message:
                      PlainTextMessage:
                        Value: Hi there, I'm a GenAI Bot. How can I help you?
            Name: WelcomeIntent
            SampleUtterances:
              - Utterance: Hi
              - Utterance: Hey there
              - Utterance: Hello
              - Utterance: I need some help
              - Utterance: Help needed
              - Utterance: Can I get some help?
          - FulfillmentCodeHook:
              Enabled: true
              IsActive: true
              PostFulfillmentStatusSpecification: {}
            InitialResponseSetting:
              CodeHook:
                EnableCodeHookInvocation: true
                IsActive: true
                PostCodeHookSpecification: {}
            Name: GenerateTextIntent
            SampleUtterances:
              - Utterance: Generate content for
              - Utterance: 'Create text '
              - Utterance: 'Create a response for '
              - Utterance: Text to be generated for
          - FulfillmentCodeHook:
              Enabled: true
              IsActive: true
              PostFulfillmentStatusSpecification: {}
            InitialResponseSetting:
              CodeHook:
                EnableCodeHookInvocation: true
                IsActive: true
                PostCodeHookSpecification: {}
            Name: FallbackIntent
            ParentIntentSignature: AMAZON.FallbackIntent
        LocaleId: en_US
        NluConfidenceThreshold: 0.4
    Description: Bot created demonstration of GenAI capabilities.
    TestBotAliasSettings:
      BotAliasLocaleSettings:
        - BotAliasLocaleSetting:
            CodeHookSpecification:
              LambdaCodeHook:
                CodeHookInterfaceVersion: '1.0'
                LambdaArn: !GetAtt LexGenAIBotLambda.Arn
            Enabled: true
          LocaleId: en_US
  4. Choose Save on the resource.

Once all of your resources are configured, your application looks like this:

New AI generated canvas

New AI generated canvas

Adding function code and deployment

Once your architecture is defined, review and refine your template.yaml file. For a detailed reference and to ensure all your values are correct, visit the GitHub repository and check against the template.yaml file.

  1. Copy the Lambda layer directly from the repository, and add it to ./src/Boto3PillowPyshorteners.zip.
  2. In the .src/ directory, rename the generated handler.py to TextGeneration.py. You can also delete any unnecessary files.
  3. Open TextGeneration.py and replace the placeholder code with the following:
  4. import json
    import boto3
    import os
    import logging
    from botocore.exceptions import ClientError
    
    LOG = logging.getLogger()
    LOG.setLevel(logging.INFO)
    
    region_name = os.getenv("region", "us-east-1")
    s3_bucket = os.getenv("bucket")
    model_id = os.getenv("model_id", "anthropic.claude-v2")
    
    # Bedrock client used to interact with APIs around models
    bedrock = boto3.client(service_name="bedrock", region_name=region_name)
    
    # Bedrock Runtime client used to invoke and question the models
    bedrock_runtime = boto3.client(service_name="bedrock-runtime", region_name=region_name)
    
    
    def get_session_attributes(intent_request):
        session_state = intent_request["sessionState"]
        if "sessionAttributes" in session_state:
            return session_state["sessionAttributes"]
    
        return {}
    
    def close(intent_request, session_attributes, fulfillment_state, message):
        intent_request["sessionState"]["intent"]["state"] = fulfillment_state
        return {
            "sessionState": {
                "sessionAttributes": session_attributes,
                "dialogAction": {"type": "Close"},
                "intent": intent_request["sessionState"]["intent"],
            },
            "messages": [message],
            "sessionId": intent_request["sessionId"],
            "requestAttributes": intent_request["requestAttributes"]
            if "requestAttributes" in intent_request
            else None,
        }
    
    def lambda_handler(event, context):
        LOG.info(f"Event is {event}")
        accept = "application/json"
        content_type = "application/json"
        prompt = event["inputTranscript"]
    
        try:
            request = json.dumps(
                {
                    "prompt": "\n\nHuman:" + prompt + "\n\nAssistant:",
                    "max_tokens_to_sample": 4096,
                    "temperature": 0.5,
                    "top_k": 250,
                    "top_p": 1,
                    "stop_sequences": ["\\n\\nHuman:"],
                }
            )
    
            response = bedrock_runtime.invoke_model(
                body=request,
                modelId=model_id,
                accept=accept,
                contentType=content_type,
            )
    
            response_body = json.loads(response.get("body").read())
            LOG.info(f"Response body: {response_body}")
            response_message = {
                "contentType": "PlainText",
                "content": response_body["completion"],
            }
            session_attributes = get_session_attributes(event)
            fulfillment_state = "Fulfilled"
    
            return close(event, session_attributes, fulfillment_state, response_message)
    
        except ClientError as e:
            LOG.error(f"Exception raised while execution and the error is {e}")
  5. To deploy the infrastructure, go back to the App Composer extension, and choose the Sync icon. Follow the guided AWS SAM instructions to complete the deployment.
App Composer Sync

App Composer Sync

After the message SAM Sync succeeded, navigate to CloudFormation in the AWS Management Console to see the newly created resources. To continue building the chatbot, follow the rest of the original tutorial.

Conclusion

This guide demonstrates how AI-generated CloudFormation can streamline your workflow in Application Composer, enhance your understanding of resource configurations, and speed up the development process. As always, adhere to the AWS Responsible AI Policy when using these features.

Serverless ICYMI Q4 2023

Post Syndicated from Eric Johnson original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/serverless-icymi-q4-2023/

Welcome to the 24th edition of the AWS Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap. Every quarter, we share all the most recent product launches, feature enhancements, blog posts, webinars, live streams, and other interesting things that you might have missed!

In case you missed our last ICYMI, check out what happened last quarter here.

2023 Q4 Calendar

2023 Q4 Calendar

ServerlessVideo

ServerlessVideo at re:Invent 2024

ServerlessVideo at re:Invent 2024

ServerlessVideo is a demo application built by the AWS Serverless Developer Advocacy team to stream live videos and also perform advanced post-video processing. It uses several AWS services including AWS Step Functions, Amazon EventBridge, AWS Lambda, Amazon ECS, and Amazon Bedrock in a serverless architecture that makes it fast, flexible, and cost-effective. Key features include an event-driven core with loosely coupled microservices that respond to events routed by EventBridge. Step Functions orchestrates using both Lambda and ECS for video processing to balance speed, scale, and cost. There is a flexible plugin-based architecture using Step Functions and EventBridge to integrate and manage multiple video processing workflows, which include GenAI.

ServerlessVideo allows broadcasters to stream video to thousands of viewers using Amazon IVS. When a broadcast ends, a Step Functions workflow triggers a set of configured plugins to process the video, generating transcriptions, validating content, and more. The application incorporates various microservices to support live streaming, on-demand playback, transcoding, transcription, and events. Learn more about the project and watch videos from reinvent 2023 at video.serverlessland.com.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda enabled outbound IPv6 connections from VPC-connected Lambda functions, providing virtually unlimited scale by removing IPv4 address constraints.

The AWS Lambda and AWS SAM teams also added support for sharing test events across teams using AWS SAM CLI to improve collaboration when testing locally.

AWS Lambda introduced integration with AWS Application Composer, allowing users to view and export Lambda function configuration details for infrastructure as code (IaC) workflows.

AWS added advanced logging controls enabling adjustable JSON-formatted logs, custom log levels, and configurable CloudWatch log destinations for easier debugging. AWS enabled monitoring of errors and timeouts occurring during initialization and restore phases in CloudWatch Logs as well, making troubleshooting easier.

For Kafka event sources, AWS enabled failed event destinations to prevent functions stalling on failing batches by rerouting events to SQS, SNS, or S3. AWS also enhanced Lambda auto scaling for Kafka event sources in November to reach maximum throughput faster, reducing latency for workloads prone to large bursts of messages.

AWS launched support for Python 3.12 and Java 21 Lambda runtimes, providing updated libraries, smaller deployment sizes, and better AWS service integration. AWS also introduced a simplified console workflow to automate complex network configuration when connecting functions to Amazon RDS and RDS Proxy.

Additionally in December, AWS enabled faster individual Lambda function scaling allowing each function to rapidly absorb traffic spikes by scaling up to 1000 concurrent executions every 10 seconds.

Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate

In Q4 of 2023, AWS introduced several new capabilities across its serverless container services including Amazon ECS, AWS Fargate, AWS App Runner, and more. These features help improve application resilience, security, developer experience, and migration to modern containerized architectures.

In October, Amazon ECS enhanced its task scheduling to start healthy replacement tasks before terminating unhealthy ones during traffic spikes. This prevents going under capacity due to premature shutdowns. Additionally, App Runner launched support for IPv6 traffic via dual-stack endpoints to remove the need for address translation.

In November, AWS Fargate enabled ECS tasks to selectively use SOCI lazy loading for only large container images in a task instead of requiring it for all images. Amazon ECS also added idempotency support for task launches to prevent duplicate instances on retries. Amazon GuardDuty expanded threat detection to Amazon ECS and Fargate workloads which users can easily enable.

Also in November, the open source Finch container tool for macOS became generally available. Finch allows developers to build, run, and publish Linux containers locally. A new website provides tutorials and resources to help developers get started.

Finally in December, AWS Migration Hub Orchestrator added new capabilities for replatforming applications to Amazon ECS using guided workflows. App Runner also improved integration with Route 53 domains to automatically configure required records when associating custom domains.

AWS Step Functions

In Q4 2023, AWS Step Functions announced the redrive capability for Standard Workflows. This feature allows failed workflow executions to be redriven from the point of failure, skipping unnecessary steps and reducing costs. The redrive functionality provides an efficient way to handle errors that require longer investigation or external actions before resuming the workflow.

Step Functions also launched support for HTTPS endpoints in AWS Step Functions, enabling easier integration with external APIs and SaaS applications without needing custom code. Developers can now connect to third-party HTTP services directly within workflows. Additionally, AWS released a new test state capability that allows testing individual workflow states before full deployment. This feature helps accelerate development by making it faster and simpler to validate data mappings and permissions configurations.

AWS announced optimized integrations between AWS Step Functions and Amazon Bedrock for orchestrating generative AI workloads. Two new API actions were added specifically for invoking Bedrock models and training jobs from workflows. These integrations simplify building prompt chaining and other techniques to create complex AI applications with foundation models.

Finally, the Step Functions Workflow Studio is now integrated in the AWS Application Composer. This unified builder allows developers to design workflows and define application resources across the full project lifecycle within a single interface.

Amazon EventBridge

Amazon EventBridge announced support for new partner integrations with Adobe and Stripe. These integrations enable routing events from the Adobe and Stripe platforms to over 20 AWS services. This makes it easier to build event-driven architectures to handle common use cases.

Amazon SNS

In Q4, Amazon SNS added native in-place message archiving for FIFO topics to improve event stream durability by allowing retention policies and selective replay of messages without provisioning separate resources. Additional message filtering operators were also introduced including suffix matching, case-insensitive equality checks, and OR logic for matching across properties to simplify routing logic implementation for publishers and subscribers. Finally, delivery status logging was enabled through AWS CloudFormation.

Amazon SQS

Amazon SQS has introduced several major new capabilities and updates. These improve visibility, throughput, and message handling for users. Specifically, Amazon SQS enabled AWS CloudTrail logging of key SQS APIs. This gives customers greater visibility into SQS activity. Additionally, SQS increased the throughput quota for the high throughput mode of FIFO queues. This was significantly increased in certain Regions. It also boosted throughput in Asia Pacific Regions. Furthermore, Amazon SQS added dead letter queue redrive support. This allows you to redrive messages that failed and were sent to a dead letter queue (DLQ).

Serverless at AWS re:Invent

Serverless videos from re:Invent

Serverless videos from re:Invent

Visit the Serverless Land YouTube channel to find a list of serverless and serverless container sessions from reinvent 2023. Hear from experts like Chris Munns and Julian Wood in their popular session, Best practices for serverless developers, or Nathan Peck and Jessica Deen in Deploying multi-tenant SaaS applications on Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate.

EDA Day Nashville

EDA Day Nashville

EDA Day Nashville

The AWS Serverless Developer Advocacy team hosted an event-driven architecture (EDA) day conference on October 26, 2022 in Nashville, Tennessee. This inaugural GOTO EDA day convened over 200 attendees ranging from prominent EDA community members to AWS speakers and product managers. Attendees engaged in 13 sessions, two workshops, and panels covering EDA adoption best practices. The event built upon 2022 content by incorporating additional topics like messaging, containers, and machine learning. It also created opportunities for students and underrepresented groups in tech to participate. The full-day conference facilitated education, inspiration, and thoughtful discussion around event-driven architectural patterns and services on AWS.

Videos from EDA Day are now available on the Serverless Land YouTube channel.

Serverless blog posts

October

November

December

Serverless container blog posts

October

November

December

Serverless Office Hours

Serverless office hours: Q4 videos

October

November

December

Containers from the Couch

Containers from the Couch

October

November

December

FooBar

FooBar

October

November

December

Still looking for more?

The Serverless landing page has more information. The Lambda resources page contains case studies, webinars, whitepapers, customer stories, reference architectures, and even more Getting Started tutorials.

You can also follow the Serverless Developer Advocacy team on Twitter to see the latest news, follow conversations, and interact with the team.

And finally, visit the Serverless Land and Containers on AWS websites for all your serverless and serverless container needs.

Introducing Amazon MQ cross-Region data replication for ActiveMQ brokers

Post Syndicated from Pascal Vogel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-amazon-mq-cross-region-data-replication-for-activemq-brokers/

This post is written by Dominic Gagné, Senior Software Development Engineer, and Vinodh Kannan Sadayamuthu, Senior Solutions Architect

Amazon MQ now supports cross-Region data replication for ActiveMQ brokers. This feature enables you to build regionally resilient messaging applications and makes it easier to set up cross-Region message replication between ActiveMQ brokers in Amazon MQ. This blog post explains how cross-Region data replication works in Amazon MQ, how to setup cross-Region replica brokers for ActiveMQ, and how to test promoting a replica broker.

Amazon MQ is a managed message broker service for Apache ActiveMQ and RabbitMQ that simplifies setting up and operating message brokers on AWS.

Cross-Region replication improves the resilience and disaster recovery capabilities of your systems. This new Amazon MQ feature makes it easier to increase resilience of your ActiveMQ messaging systems across AWS Regions.

How cross-Region data replication works in Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ

The Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ cross-Region data replication feature replicates broker state from the primary broker in one AWS Region to the replica broker in another Region. Broker state consists of messages that have been sent to a broker by a message producer. Additionally, message acknowledgments and transactions are replicated. Scheduled messages and broker XML configuration are not replicated from the primary to the replica broker.

State replication occurs asynchronously and runs in the background. When a message is sent to a cross-Region data replication enabled broker, the data is persisted both to the primary data store and also on a queue used to replicate data. The replica broker acts as a client of this queue and consumes data that represents broker state from the primary broker.

At any given moment, only the primary broker is available for client connections. The replica broker is a hot standby and passively replicates the primary broker’s state. However, it does not accept client connections. The following diagram shows a simplified version of a cross-Region data replication broker pair. All replication traffic is encrypted using TLS and remains within AWS’ private backbone.

Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ cross-region data replication architecture

Configuring cross-Region replica brokers for Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ

To set up a cross-Region replica broker, your Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ primary broker must meet the following eligibility criteria:

  • ActiveMQ version 5.17.6 or above
  • Instance size m5.large or higher
  • Active/standby broker deployment enabled
  • Be in the Running state

If you do not have an ActiveMQ broker that meets these criteria, see Creating and configuring an ActiveMQ broker for instructions on how to create a primary broker.

To configure cross-Region replication

  1. Navigate to the Amazon MQ console and choose Create replica broker.
    Amazon MQ console create replica broker
  2. Select a primary broker from the list of eligible primary brokers and choose Next.
    Amazon MQ console choose primary broker
  3. Under Replica broker details, select the Region for your replica broker and enter a Replica broker name.
    Amazon MQ console configure replica broker
  4. In the ActiveMQ console user for replica broker panel, enter a Username and Password for broker access.
    Amazon MQ console user for replica broker
  5. In the Data replication user to bridge access between brokers panel, enter a replication user Username and Password.
    Amazon MQ console user for replica broker
  6. In the Additional settings panel, keep the defaults and choose Next.
  7. Review the settings and choose Create replica broker.
    Note: The broker access type is automatically set based on the primary broker access type.
    Amazon MQ console create replica broker setting summary
  8. The creation process takes up to 25 minutes. Once the replica broker creation is complete, begin replication between the primary and the replica brokers by rebooting the primary broker.
  9. Once the primary broker is rebooted and its status is Running, you can see the replica details in the Data replication panel of the primary broker.
    Amazon MQ console broker replication details

Both brokers now synchronize with each other to establish an inter-Region network and connection through which broker state is replicated. Once both brokers are in the Running state, the primary broker accepts client connections and passes all broker state changes (messages, acknowledgments, transactions, etc.) to the replica broker.

The replica broker now asynchronously mirrors the state of the primary broker. However, it does not become available for client connections until it is promoted via a switchover or a failover. These operations are covered in the following section.

Testing data replication and promoting the replica broker

There are two ways to promote a replica broker: initiating a switchover or a failover.

Switchover Failover
  • Prioritizes consistency over availability.
  • Prioritizes availability over consistency.
  • Brokers are guaranteed to have identical states.
  • Brokers are not guaranteed to be in identical states.
  • Brokers may not be available immediately to serve client traffic.
  • Replica broker is immediately available to serve client traffic.

To initiate a failover or switchover

    1. Navigate to the Amazon MQ console, choose your primary broker, and log in to the ActiveMQ Web Console using the URLs located in the Connections panel.
    2. In the top menu, select Queues. You should be able to see four ActiveMQ.Plugin.Replication queues used by the replication feature.
      Active MQ console queues
    3. To test message replication from the primary to a replica broker, create a queue and send messages. To create the queue:
      • For Queue Name, enter TestQueue.
      • Choose Create.

      ActiveMQ console create queue

    4. Under Operations for the TestQueue, choose Send To and perform the following steps:
      • For Number of messages to send, enter 10 and keep the other defaults.
      • Under Message body, enter a test message.
      • Choose Send.

      ActiveMQ console send test message

    5. To promote the replica broker, navigate to the Amazon MQ console and change the Region to the AWS Region where the replica broker is located.
    6. Select the replica broker (in this example called Secondarybroker) and choose Promote replica.
      Amazon MQ console promote broker
    7. In the Promote replica broker pop-up window:
      • Select Failover or Switchover.
      • Enter confirm in text box.
      • Choose Confirm.

      Amazon MQ console confirm broker promotion

    8. While a replica broker is being promoted, its replication status changes to Promotion in progress. The corresponding primary broker’s replication status changes to Demotion in progress.

Replica Secondarybroker status – Promotion in progress:

Replica Secondarybroker status - Promotion in progress

Primary broker status – Demotion in progress:

Primary broker status - Demotion in progress

Secondarybroker status – Promoted to new primary broker:

Secondarybroker status – Promoted to new primary broker

  1. Once the Secondarybroker status is Running, log in to the ActiveMQ Web Console from the URLs located in the Connections panel. You can see the replicated messages sent from the former primary broker in Step 4 in the TestQueue:
    Replicated message from primary broker in TestQueue

Monitoring cross-Region data replication

To monitor cross-Region data replication progress, you can use the Amazon CloudWatch metrics TotalReplicationLag and ReplicationLag.

Amazon CloudWatch metrics TotalReplicationLag and ReplicationLag

You can use these two metrics to monitor the progress of a switchover. When their value reaches zero, the switchover will complete because the broker states have been synchronized and the replica broker begins accepting client connections. If the switchover does not progress fast enough, or if you need the replica broker to be immediately available to serve client traffic, you can request a failover at any time.

Note: A failover can interrupt an ongoing switchover. However, a switchover cannot interrupt an ongoing failover.

Issuing a failover request causes the replica broker to become immediately available, but does not provide any guarantees about what data has been replicated to the replica broker. This means that a failover can make data tracking and reconciliation more challenging for your client application than a switchover.

For this reason, we recommend that you always start with a switchover and interrupt it with a failover if necessary. To interrupt an ongoing switchover, follow the same steps as for promoting a replica broker, select the failover option, and confirm.

Note: If you fail back to the original primary broker, messages that are not replicated from the primary to the replica broker during the failover will still exist on the primary broker. Therefore, consumers must manage these messages. We recommend tracking the processed message IDs in a data store such as Amazon DynamoDB global tables and comparing the message to the processed message IDs.

If you no longer need to replicate broker data across Regions or if you need to delete a primary or replica broker, you must unpair the replica broker and reboot the primary broker. You can unpair the replica broker in the Amazon MQ console by following Delete a CRDR broker.

To unpair the broker using the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), run the following command, replacing the --broker-id with your primary broker ID:

aws mq update-broker --broker-id <primary broker ID> \
--data-replication-mode "NONE" \
--region us-east-1

Conclusion

Using the cross-Region data replication feature for Amazon MQ for ActiveMQ provides a straightforward way to implement cross-Region replication to improve the resilience of your architecture and meet your business continuity and disaster recovery requirements. This post explains how cross-Region data replication works in Amazon MQ, how to set up a cross-Region replica broker, and how to test and promote the replica broker.

For more details, see the Amazon MQ documentation.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Python 3.12 runtime now available in AWS Lambda

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/python-3-12-runtime-now-available-in-aws-lambda/

This post is written by Jeff Gebhart, Sr. Specialist TAM, Serverless.

AWS Lambda now supports Python 3.12 as both a managed runtime and container base image. Python 3.12 builds on the performance enhancements that were first released with Python 3.11, and adds a number of performance and language readability features in the interpreter. With this release, Python developers can now take advantage of these new features and enhancements when creating serverless applications on AWS Lambda.

You can use Python 3.12 with Powertools for AWS Lambda (Python), a developer toolkit to implement Serverless best practices such as observability, batch processing, Parameter Store integration, idempotency, feature flags, CloudWatch Metrics, and structured logging among other features.

You can also use Python 3.12 with Lambda@Edge, allowing you to customize low-latency content delivered through Amazon CloudFront.

Python is a popular language for building serverless applications. The Python 3.12 release has a number of interpreter and syntactic improvements.

At launch, new Lambda runtimes receive less usage than existing, established runtimes. This can result in longer cold start times due to reduced cache residency within internal Lambda sub-systems. Cold start times typically improve in the weeks following launch as usage increases. As a result, AWS recommends not drawing conclusions from side-by-side performance comparisons with other Lambda runtimes until the performance has stabilized. Since performance is highly dependent on workload, customers with performance-sensitive workloads should conduct their own testing, instead of relying on generic test benchmarks.

Lambda runtime changes

Amazon Linux 2023

The Python 3.12 runtime is based on the provided.al2023 runtime, which is based on the Amazon Linux 2023 minimal container image. This OS update brings several improvements over the Amazon Linux 2 (AL2)-based OS used for Lambda Python runtimes from Python 3.8 to Python 3.11.

provided.al2023 contains only the essential components necessary to install other packages and offers a smaller deployment footprint of less than 40MB compared to over 100MB for Lambda’s AL2-based images.

With glibc version 2.34, customers have access to a modern version of glibc, updated from version 2.26 in AL2-based images.

The Amazon Linux 2023 minimal image uses microdnf as a package manager, symlinked as dnf. This replaces the yum package manager used in earlier AL2-based images. If you deploy your Lambda functions as container images, you must update your Dockerfiles to use dnf instead of yum when upgrading to the Python 3.12 base image.

Additionally, curl and gnupg2 are also included as their minimal versions curl-minimal and gnupg2-minimal.

Learn more about the provided.al2023 runtime in the blog post Introducing the Amazon Linux 2023 runtime for AWS Lambda and the Amazon Linux 2023 launch blog post.

Response format change

Starting with the Python 3.12 runtime, functions return Unicode characters as part of their JSON response. Previous versions return escaped sequences for Unicode characters in responses.

For example, in Python 3.11, if you return a Unicode string such as “こんにちは”, it escapes the Unicode characters and returns “\u3053\u3093\u306b\u3061\u306f”. The Python 3.12 runtime returns the original “こんにちは”.

This change reduces the size of the payload returned by Lambda. In the previous example, the escaped version is 32 bytes compared to 17 bytes with the Unicode string. Using Unicode responses reduces the size of Lambda responses, making it easier to fit larger responses into the 6MB Lambda response (synchronous) limit.

When upgrading to Python 3.12, you may need to adjust your code in other modules to account for this new behavior. If the caller expects escaped Unicode based on the previous runtime behavior, you must either add code to the returning function to escape the Unicode manually, or adjust the caller to handle the Unicode return.

Extensions processing for graceful shutdown

Lambda functions with external extensions can now benefit from improved graceful shutdown capabilities. When the Lambda service is about to shut down the runtime, it sends a SIGTERM signal to the runtime and then a SHUTDOWN event to each registered external extension.

These events are sent each time an execution environment shuts down. This allows you to catch the SIGTERM signal in your Lambda function and clean up resources, such as database connections, which were created by the function.

To learn more about the Lambda execution environment lifecycle, see Lambda execution environment. More details and examples of how to use graceful shutdown with extensions is available in the AWS Samples GitHub repository.

New Python features

Comprehension inlining

With the implementation of PEP 709, dictionary, list, and set comprehensions are now inlined. Prior versions create a single-use function to execute such comprehensions. Removing this overhead results in faster comprehension execution by a factor of two.

There are some behavior changes to comprehensions because of this update. For example, a call to the ‘locals()’ function from within the comprehension now includes objects from the containing scope, not just within the comprehension itself as in prior versions. You should test functions you are migrating from an earlier version of Python to Python 3.12.

Typing changes

Python 3.12 continues the evolution of including type annotations to Python. PEP 695 includes a new, more compact syntax for generic classes and functions, and adds a new “type” statement to allow for type alias creation. Type aliases are evaluated on demand. This permits aliases to refer to other types defined later.

Type parameters are visible within the scope of the declaration and any nested scopes, but not in the outer scope.

Formalization of f-strings

One of the largest changes in Python 3.12, the formalization of f-strings syntax, is covered under PEP 701. Any valid expression can now be contained within an f-string, including other f-strings.

In prior versions of Python, reusing quotes within an f-string results in errors. With Python 3.12, quote reuse is fully supported in nested f-strings such as the following example:

>>>songs = ['Take me back to Eden', 'Alkaline', 'Ascensionism']

>>>f"This is the playlist: {", ".join(songs)}"

'This is the playlist: Take me back to Eden, Alkaline, Ascensionism'

Additionally, any valid Python expression can be contained within an f-string. This includes multi-line expressions and the ability to embed comments within an f-string.

Before Python 3.12, the “\” character is not permitted within an f-string. This prevented use of “\N” syntax for defining escaped Unicode characters within the body of an f-string.

Asyncio improvements

There are a number of improvements to the asyncio module. These include performance improvements to writing of sockets and a new implementation of asyncio.current_task() that can yield a 4–6 times performance improvement. Event loops now optimize their child watchers for their underlying environment.

Using Python 3.12 in Lambda

AWS Management Console

To use the Python 3.12 runtime to develop your Lambda functions, specify a runtime parameter value Python 3.12 when creating or updating a function. The Python 3.12 version is now available in the Runtime dropdown in the Create Function page:

To update an existing Lambda function to Python 3.12, navigate to the function in the Lambda console and choose Edit in the Runtime settings panel. The new version of Python is available in the Runtime dropdown:

AWS Lambda container image

Change the Python base image version by modifying the FROM statement in your Dockerfile:

FROM public.ecr.aws/lambda/python:3.12
# Copy function code
COPY lambda_handler.py ${LAMBDA_TASK_ROOT}

Customers running the Python 3.12 Docker images locally, including customers using AWS SAM, must upgrade their Docker install to version 20.10.10 or later.

AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM)

In AWS SAM set the Runtime attribute to python3.12 to use this version.

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09'
Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31
Description: Simple Lambda Function
  MyFunction:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::Function
    Properties:
      Description: My Python Lambda Function
      CodeUri: my_function/
      Handler: lambda_function.lambda_handler
      Runtime: python3.12

AWS SAM supports generating this template with Python 3.12 for new serverless applications using the `sam init` command. Refer to the AWS SAM documentation.

AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK)

In AWS CDK, set the runtime attribute to Runtime.PYTHON_3_12 to use this version. In Python CDK:

from constructs import Construct 
from aws_cdk import ( App, Stack, aws_lambda as _lambda )

class SampleLambdaStack(Stack):
    def __init__(self, scope: Construct, id: str, **kwargs) -> None:
        super().__init__(scope, id, **kwargs)
        
        base_lambda = _lambda.Function(self, 'SampleLambda', 
                                       handler='lambda_handler.handler', 
                                    runtime=_lambda.Runtime.PYTHON_3_12, 
                                 code=_lambda.Code.from_asset('lambda'))

In TypeScript CDK:

import * as cdk from 'aws-cdk-lib';
import * as lambda from 'aws-cdk-lib/aws-lambda'
import * as path from 'path';
import { Construct } from 'constructs';

export class CdkStack extends cdk.Stack {
  constructor(scope: Construct, id: string, props?: cdk.StackProps) {
    super(scope, id, props);

    // The code that defines your stack goes here

    // The python3.12 enabled Lambda Function
    const lambdaFunction = new lambda.Function(this, 'python311LambdaFunction', {
      runtime: lambda.Runtime.PYTHON_3_12,
      memorySize: 512,
      code: lambda.Code.fromAsset(path.join(__dirname, '/../lambda')),
      handler: 'lambda_handler.handler'
    })
  }
}

Conclusion

Lambda now supports Python 3.12. This release uses the Amazon Linux 2023 OS, supports Unicode responses, and graceful shutdown for functions with external extensions, and Python 3.12 language features.

You can build and deploy functions using Python 3.12 using the AWS Management Console, AWS CLI, AWS SDK, AWS SAM, AWS CDK, or your choice of Infrastructure as Code (IaC) tool. You can also use the Python 3.12 container base image if you prefer to build and deploy your functions using container images.

Python 3.12 runtime support helps developers to build more efficient, powerful, and scalable serverless applications. Try the Python 3.12 runtime in Lambda today and experience the benefits of this updated language version.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.