Tag Archives: wifi

New – AWS SAM Local (Beta) – Build and Test Serverless Applications Locally

Post Syndicated from Randall Hunt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-sam-local-beta-build-and-test-serverless-applications-locally/

Today we’re releasing a beta of a new tool, SAM Local, that makes it easy to build and test your serverless applications locally. In this post we’ll use SAM local to build, debug, and deploy a quick application that allows us to vote on tabs or spaces by curling an endpoint. AWS introduced Serverless Application Model (SAM) last year to make it easier for developers to deploy serverless applications. If you’re not already familiar with SAM my colleague Orr wrote a great post on how to use SAM that you can read in about 5 minutes. At it’s core, SAM is a powerful open source specification built on AWS CloudFormation that makes it easy to keep your serverless infrastructure as code – and they have the cutest mascot.

SAM Local takes all the good parts of SAM and brings them to your local machine.

There are a couple of ways to install SAM Local but the easiest is through NPM. A quick npm install -g aws-sam-local should get us going but if you want the latest version you can always install straight from the source: go get github.com/awslabs/aws-sam-local (this will create a binary named aws-sam-local, not sam).

I like to vote on things so let’s write a quick SAM application to vote on Spaces versus Tabs. We’ll use a very simple, but powerful, architecture of API Gateway fronting a Lambda function and we’ll store our results in DynamoDB. In the end a user should be able to curl our API curl https://SOMEURL/ -d '{"vote": "spaces"}' and get back the number of votes.

Let’s start by writing a simple SAM template.yaml:

AWSTemplateFormatVersion : '2010-09-09'
Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31
Resources:
  VotesTable:
    Type: "AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable"
  VoteSpacesTabs:
    Type: "AWS::Serverless::Function"
    Properties:
      Runtime: python3.6
      Handler: lambda_function.lambda_handler
      Policies: AmazonDynamoDBFullAccess
      Environment:
        Variables:
          TABLE_NAME: !Ref VotesTable
      Events:
        Vote:
          Type: Api
          Properties:
            Path: /
            Method: post

So we create a [dynamo_i] table that we expose to our Lambda function through an environment variable called TABLE_NAME.

To test that this template is valid I’ll go ahead and call sam validate to make sure I haven’t fat-fingered anything. It returns Valid! so let’s go ahead and get to work on our Lambda function.

import os
import os
import json
import boto3
votes_table = boto3.resource('dynamodb').Table(os.getenv('TABLE_NAME'))

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    print(event)
    if event['httpMethod'] == 'GET':
        resp = votes_table.scan()
        return {'body': json.dumps({item['id']: int(item['votes']) for item in resp['Items']})}
    elif event['httpMethod'] == 'POST':
        try:
            body = json.loads(event['body'])
        except:
            return {'statusCode': 400, 'body': 'malformed json input'}
        if 'vote' not in body:
            return {'statusCode': 400, 'body': 'missing vote in request body'}
        if body['vote'] not in ['spaces', 'tabs']:
            return {'statusCode': 400, 'body': 'vote value must be "spaces" or "tabs"'}

        resp = votes_table.update_item(
            Key={'id': body['vote']},
            UpdateExpression='ADD votes :incr',
            ExpressionAttributeValues={':incr': 1},
            ReturnValues='ALL_NEW'
        )
        return {'body': "{} now has {} votes".format(body['vote'], resp['Attributes']['votes'])}

So let’s test this locally. I’ll need to create a real DynamoDB database to talk to and I’ll need to provide the name of that database through the enviornment variable TABLE_NAME. I could do that with an env.json file or I can just pass it on the command line. First, I can call:
$ echo '{"httpMethod": "POST", "body": "{\"vote\": \"spaces\"}"}' |\
TABLE_NAME="vote-spaces-tabs" sam local invoke "VoteSpacesTabs"

to test the Lambda – it returns the number of votes for spaces so theoritically everything is working. Typing all of that out is a pain so I could generate a sample event with sam local generate-event api and pass that in to the local invocation. Far easier than all of that is just running our API locally. Let’s do that: sam local start-api. Now I can curl my local endpoints to test everything out.
I’ll run the command: $ curl -d '{"vote": "tabs"}' http://127.0.0.1:3000/ and it returns: “tabs now has 12 votes”. Now, of course I did not write this function perfectly on my first try. I edited and saved several times. One of the benefits of hot-reloading is that as I change the function I don’t have to do any additional work to test the new function. This makes iterative development vastly easier.

Let’s say we don’t want to deal with accessing a real DynamoDB database over the network though. What are our options? Well we can download DynamoDB Local and launch it with java -Djava.library.path=./DynamoDBLocal_lib -jar DynamoDBLocal.jar -sharedDb. Then we can have our Lambda function use the AWS_SAM_LOCAL environment variable to make some decisions about how to behave. Let’s modify our function a bit:

import os
import json
import boto3
if os.getenv("AWS_SAM_LOCAL"):
    votes_table = boto3.resource(
        'dynamodb',
        endpoint_url="http://docker.for.mac.localhost:8000/"
    ).Table("spaces-tabs-votes")
else:
    votes_table = boto3.resource('dynamodb').Table(os.getenv('TABLE_NAME'))

Now we’re using a local endpoint to connect to our local database which makes working without wifi a little easier.

SAM local even supports interactive debugging! In Java and Node.js I can just pass the -d flag and a port to immediately enable the debugger. For Python I could use a library like import epdb; epdb.serve() and connect that way. Then we can call sam local invoke -d 8080 "VoteSpacesTabs" and our function will pause execution waiting for you to step through with the debugger.

Alright, I think we’ve got everything working so let’s deploy this!

First I’ll call the sam package command which is just an alias for aws cloudformation package and then I’ll use the result of that command to sam deploy.

$ sam package --template-file template.yaml --s3-bucket MYAWESOMEBUCKET --output-template-file package.yaml
Uploading to 144e47a4a08f8338faae894afe7563c3  90570 / 90570.0  (100.00%)
Successfully packaged artifacts and wrote output template to file package.yaml.
Execute the following command to deploy the packaged template
aws cloudformation deploy --template-file package.yaml --stack-name 
$ sam deploy --template-file package.yaml --stack-name VoteForSpaces --capabilities CAPABILITY_IAM
Waiting for changeset to be created..
Waiting for stack create/update to complete
Successfully created/updated stack - VoteForSpaces

Which brings us to our API:
.

I’m going to hop over into the production stage and add some rate limiting in case you guys start voting a lot – but otherwise we’ve taken our local work and deployed it to the cloud without much effort at all. I always enjoy it when things work on the first deploy!

You can vote now and watch the results live! http://spaces-or-tabs.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/

We hope that SAM Local makes it easier for you to test, debug, and deploy your serverless apps. We have a CONTRIBUTING.md guide and we welcome pull requests. Please tweet at us to let us know what cool things you build. You can see our What’s New post here and the documentation is live here.

Randall

Top 10 Most Obvious Hacks of All Time (v0.9)

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/07/top-10-most-obvious-hacks-of-all-time.html

For teaching hacking/cybersecurity, I thought I’d create of the most obvious hacks of all time. Not the best hacks, the most sophisticated hacks, or the hacks with the biggest impact, but the most obvious hacks — ones that even the least knowledgeable among us should be able to understand. Below I propose some hacks that fit this bill, though in no particular order.

The reason I’m writing this is that my niece wants me to teach her some hacking. I thought I’d start with the obvious stuff first.

Shared Passwords

If you use the same password for every website, and one of those websites gets hacked, then the hacker has your password for all your websites. The reason your Facebook account got hacked wasn’t because of anything Facebook did, but because you used the same email-address and password when creating an account on “beagleforums.com”, which got hacked last year.

I’ve heard people say “I’m sure, because I choose a complex password and use it everywhere”. No, this is the very worst thing you can do. Sure, you can the use the same password on all sites you don’t care much about, but for Facebook, your email account, and your bank, you should have a unique password, so that when other sites get hacked, your important sites are secure.

And yes, it’s okay to write down your passwords on paper.

Tools: HaveIBeenPwned.com

PIN encrypted PDFs

My accountant emails PDF statements encrypted with the last 4 digits of my Social Security Number. This is not encryption — a 4 digit number has only 10,000 combinations, and a hacker can guess all of them in seconds.
PIN numbers for ATM cards work because ATM machines are online, and the machine can reject your card after four guesses. PIN numbers don’t work for documents, because they are offline — the hacker has a copy of the document on their own machine, disconnected from the Internet, and can continue making bad guesses with no restrictions.
Passwords protecting documents must be long enough that even trillion upon trillion guesses are insufficient to guess.

Tools: Hashcat, John the Ripper

SQL and other injection

The lazy way of combining websites with databases is to combine user input with an SQL statement. This combines code with data, so the obvious consequence is that hackers can craft data to mess with the code.
No, this isn’t obvious to the general public, but it should be obvious to programmers. The moment you write code that adds unfiltered user-input to an SQL statement, the consequence should be obvious. Yet, “SQL injection” has remained one of the most effective hacks for the last 15 years because somehow programmers don’t understand the consequence.
CGI shell injection is a similar issue. Back in early days, when “CGI scripts” were a thing, it was really important, but these days, not so much, so I just included it with SQL. The consequence of executing shell code should’ve been obvious, but weirdly, it wasn’t. The IT guy at the company I worked for back in the late 1990s came to me and asked “this guy says we have a vulnerability, is he full of shit?”, and I had to answer “no, he’s right — obviously so”.

XSS (“Cross Site Scripting”) [*] is another injection issue, but this time at somebody’s web browser rather than a server. It works because websites will echo back what is sent to them. For example, if you search for Cross Site Scripting with the URL https://www.google.com/search?q=cross+site+scripting, then you’ll get a page back from the server that contains that string. If the string is JavaScript code rather than text, then some servers (thought not Google) send back the code in the page in a way that it’ll be executed. This is most often used to hack somebody’s account: you send them an email or tweet a link, and when they click on it, the JavaScript gives control of the account to the hacker.

Cross site injection issues like this should probably be their own category, but I’m including it here for now.

More: Wikipedia on SQL injection, Wikipedia on cross site scripting.
Tools: Burpsuite, SQLmap

Buffer overflows

In the C programming language, programmers first create a buffer, then read input into it. If input is long than the buffer, then it overflows. The extra bytes overwrite other parts of the program, letting the hacker run code.
Again, it’s not a thing the general public is expected to know about, but is instead something C programmers should be expected to understand. They should know that it’s up to them to check the length and stop reading input before it overflows the buffer, that there’s no language feature that takes care of this for them.
We are three decades after the first major buffer overflow exploits, so there is no excuse for C programmers not to understand this issue.

What makes particular obvious is the way they are wrapped in exploits, like in Metasploit. While the bug itself is obvious that it’s a bug, actually exploiting it can take some very non-obvious skill. However, once that exploit is written, any trained monkey can press a button and run the exploit. That’s where we get the insult “script kiddie” from — referring to wannabe-hackers who never learn enough to write their own exploits, but who spend a lot of time running the exploit scripts written by better hackers than they.

More: Wikipedia on buffer overflow, Wikipedia on script kiddie,  “Smashing The Stack For Fun And Profit” — Phrack (1996)
Tools: bash, Metasploit

SendMail DEBUG command (historical)

The first popular email server in the 1980s was called “SendMail”. It had a feature whereby if you send a “DEBUG” command to it, it would execute any code following the command. The consequence of this was obvious — hackers could (and did) upload code to take control of the server. This was used in the Morris Worm of 1988. Most Internet machines of the day ran SendMail, so the worm spread fast infecting most machines.
This bug was mostly ignored at the time. It was thought of as a theoretical problem, that might only rarely be used to hack a system. Part of the motivation of the Morris Worm was to demonstrate that such problems was to demonstrate the consequences — consequences that should’ve been obvious but somehow were rejected by everyone.

More: Wikipedia on Morris Worm

Email Attachments/Links

I’m conflicted whether I should add this or not, because here’s the deal: you are supposed to click on attachments and links within emails. That’s what they are there for. The difference between good and bad attachments/links is not obvious. Indeed, easy-to-use email systems makes detecting the difference harder.
On the other hand, the consequences of bad attachments/links is obvious. That worms like ILOVEYOU spread so easily is because people trusted attachments coming from their friends, and ran them.
We have no solution to the problem of bad email attachments and links. Viruses and phishing are pervasive problems. Yet, we know why they exist.

Default and backdoor passwords

The Mirai botnet was caused by surveillance-cameras having default and backdoor passwords, and being exposed to the Internet without a firewall. The consequence should be obvious: people will discover the passwords and use them to take control of the bots.
Surveillance-cameras have the problem that they are usually exposed to the public, and can’t be reached without a ladder — often a really tall ladder. Therefore, you don’t want a button consumers can press to reset to factory defaults. You want a remote way to reset them. Therefore, they put backdoor passwords to do the reset. Such passwords are easy for hackers to reverse-engineer, and hence, take control of millions of cameras across the Internet.
The same reasoning applies to “default” passwords. Many users will not change the defaults, leaving a ton of devices hackers can hack.

Masscan and background radiation of the Internet

I’ve written a tool that can easily scan the entire Internet in a short period of time. It surprises people that this possible, but it obvious from the numbers. Internet addresses are only 32-bits long, or roughly 4 billion combinations. A fast Internet link can easily handle 1 million packets-per-second, so the entire Internet can be scanned in 4000 seconds, little more than an hour. It’s basic math.
Because it’s so easy, many people do it. If you monitor your Internet link, you’ll see a steady trickle of packets coming in from all over the Internet, especially Russia and China, from hackers scanning the Internet for things they can hack.
People’s reaction to this scanning is weirdly emotional, taking is personally, such as:
  1. Why are they hacking me? What did I do to them?
  2. Great! They are hacking me! That must mean I’m important!
  3. Grrr! How dare they?! How can I hack them back for some retribution!?

I find this odd, because obviously such scanning isn’t personal, the hackers have no idea who you are.

Tools: masscan, firewalls

Packet-sniffing, sidejacking

If you connect to the Starbucks WiFi, a hacker nearby can easily eavesdrop on your network traffic, because it’s not encrypted. Windows even warns you about this, in case you weren’t sure.

At DefCon, they have a “Wall of Sheep”, where they show passwords from people who logged onto stuff using the insecure “DefCon-Open” network. Calling them “sheep” for not grasping this basic fact that unencrypted traffic is unencrypted.

To be fair, it’s actually non-obvious to many people. Even if the WiFi itself is not encrypted, SSL traffic is. They expect their services to be encrypted, without them having to worry about it. And in fact, most are, especially Google, Facebook, Twitter, Apple, and other major services that won’t allow you to log in anymore without encryption.

But many services (especially old ones) may not be encrypted. Unless users check and verify them carefully, they’ll happily expose passwords.

What’s interesting about this was 10 years ago, when most services which only used SSL to encrypt the passwords, but then used unencrypted connections after that, using “cookies”. This allowed the cookies to be sniffed and stolen, allowing other people to share the login session. I used this on stage at BlackHat to connect to somebody’s GMail session. Google, and other major websites, fixed this soon after. But it should never have been a problem — because the sidejacking of cookies should have been obvious.

Tools: Wireshark, dsniff

Stuxnet LNK vulnerability

Again, this issue isn’t obvious to the public, but it should’ve been obvious to anybody who knew how Windows works.
When Windows loads a .dll, it first calls the function DllMain(). A Windows link file (.lnk) can load icons/graphics from the resources in a .dll file. It does this by loading the .dll file, thus calling DllMain. Thus, a hacker could put on a USB drive a .lnk file pointing to a .dll file, and thus, cause arbitrary code execution as soon as a user inserted a drive.
I say this is obvious because I did this, created .lnks that pointed to .dlls, but without hostile DllMain code. The consequence should’ve been obvious to me, but I totally missed the connection. We all missed the connection, for decades.

Social Engineering and Tech Support [* * *]

After posting this, many people have pointed out “social engineering”, especially of “tech support”. This probably should be up near #1 in terms of obviousness.

The classic example of social engineering is when you call tech support and tell them you’ve lost your password, and they reset it for you with minimum of questions proving who you are. For example, you set the volume on your computer really loud and play the sound of a crying baby in the background and appear to be a bit frazzled and incoherent, which explains why you aren’t answering the questions they are asking. They, understanding your predicament as a new parent, will go the extra mile in helping you, resetting “your” password.

One of the interesting consequences is how it affects domain names (DNS). It’s quite easy in many cases to call up the registrar and convince them to transfer a domain name. This has been used in lots of hacks. It’s really hard to defend against. If a registrar charges only $9/year for a domain name, then it really can’t afford to provide very good tech support — or very secure tech support — to prevent this sort of hack.

Social engineering is such a huge problem, and obvious problem, that it’s outside the scope of this document. Just google it to find example after example.

A related issue that perhaps deserves it’s own section is OSINT [*], or “open-source intelligence”, where you gather public information about a target. For example, on the day the bank manager is out on vacation (which you got from their Facebook post) you show up and claim to be a bank auditor, and are shown into their office where you grab their backup tapes. (We’ve actually done this).

More: Wikipedia on Social Engineering, Wikipedia on OSINT, “How I Won the Defcon Social Engineering CTF” — blogpost (2011), “Questioning 42: Where’s the Engineering in Social Engineering of Namespace Compromises” — BSidesLV talk (2016)

Blue-boxes (historical) [*]

Telephones historically used what we call “in-band signaling”. That’s why when you dial on an old phone, it makes sounds — those sounds are sent no differently than the way your voice is sent. Thus, it was possible to make tone generators to do things other than simply dial calls. Early hackers (in the 1970s) would make tone-generators called “blue-boxes” and “black-boxes” to make free long distance calls, for example.

These days, “signaling” and “voice” are digitized, then sent as separate channels or “bands”. This is call “out-of-band signaling”. You can’t trick the phone system by generating tones. When your iPhone makes sounds when you dial, it’s entirely for you benefit and has nothing to do with how it signals the cell tower to make a call.

Early hackers, like the founders of Apple, are famous for having started their careers making such “boxes” for tricking the phone system. The problem was obvious back in the day, which is why as the phone system moves from analog to digital, the problem was fixed.

More: Wikipedia on blue box, Wikipedia article on Steve Wozniak.

Thumb drives in parking lots [*]

A simple trick is to put a virus on a USB flash drive, and drop it in a parking lot. Somebody is bound to notice it, stick it in their computer, and open the file.

This can be extended with tricks. For example, you can put a file labeled “third-quarter-salaries.xlsx” on the drive that required macros to be run in order to open. It’s irresistible to other employees who want to know what their peers are being paid, so they’ll bypass any warning prompts in order to see the data.

Another example is to go online and get custom USB sticks made printed with the logo of the target company, making them seem more trustworthy.

We also did a trick of taking an Adobe Flash game “Punch the Monkey” and replaced the monkey with a logo of a competitor of our target. They now only played the game (infecting themselves with our virus), but gave to others inside the company to play, infecting others, including the CEO.

Thumb drives like this have been used in many incidents, such as Russians hacking military headquarters in Afghanistan. It’s really hard to defend against.

More: “Computer Virus Hits U.S. Military Base in Afghanistan” — USNews (2008), “The Return of the Worm That Ate The Pentagon” — Wired (2011), DoD Bans Flash Drives — Stripes (2008)

Googling [*]

Search engines like Google will index your website — your entire website. Frequently companies put things on their website without much protection because they are nearly impossible for users to find. But Google finds them, then indexes them, causing them to pop up with innocent searches.
There are books written on “Google hacking” explaining what search terms to look for, like “not for public release”, in order to find such documents.

More: Wikipedia entry on Google Hacking, “Google Hacking” book.

URL editing [*]

At the top of every browser is what’s called the “URL”. You can change it. Thus, if you see a URL that looks like this:

http://www.example.com/documents?id=138493

Then you can edit it to see the next document on the server:

http://www.example.com/documents?id=138494

The owner of the website may think they are secure, because nothing points to this document, so the Google search won’t find it. But that doesn’t stop a user from manually editing the URL.
An example of this is a big Fortune 500 company that posts the quarterly results to the website an hour before the official announcement. Simply editing the URL from previous financial announcements allows hackers to find the document, then buy/sell the stock as appropriate in order to make a lot of money.
Another example is the classic case of Andrew “Weev” Auernheimer who did this trick in order to download the account email addresses of early owners of the iPad, including movie stars and members of the Obama administration. It’s an interesting legal case because on one hand, techies consider this so obvious as to not be “hacking”. On the other hand, non-techies, especially judges and prosecutors, believe this to be obviously “hacking”.

DDoS, spoofing, and amplification [*]

For decades now, online gamers have figured out an easy way to win: just flood the opponent with Internet traffic, slowing their network connection. This is called a DoS, which stands for “Denial of Service”. DoSing game competitors is often a teenager’s first foray into hacking.
A variant of this is when you hack a bunch of other machines on the Internet, then command them to flood your target. (The hacked machines are often called a “botnet”, a network of robot computers). This is called DDoS, or “Distributed DoS”. At this point, it gets quite serious, as instead of competitive gamers hackers can take down entire businesses. Extortion scams, DDoSing websites then demanding payment to stop, is a common way hackers earn money.
Another form of DDoS is “amplification”. Sometimes when you send a packet to a machine on the Internet it’ll respond with a much larger response, either a very large packet or many packets. The hacker can then send a packet to many of these sites, “spoofing” or forging the IP address of the victim. This causes all those sites to then flood the victim with traffic. Thus, with a small amount of outbound traffic, the hacker can flood the inbound traffic of the victim.
This is one of those things that has worked for 20 years, because it’s so obvious teenagers can do it, yet there is no obvious solution. President Trump’s executive order of cyberspace specifically demanded that his government come up with a report on how to address this, but it’s unlikely that they’ll come up with any useful strategy.

More: Wikipedia on DDoS, Wikipedia on Spoofing

Conclusion

Tweet me (@ErrataRob) your obvious hacks, so I can add them to the list.

Is DefCon Wifi safe?

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/07/is-defcon-wifi-safe.html

DEF CON is the largest U.S. hacker conference that takes place every summer in Las Vegas. It offers WiFi service. Is it safe?

Probably.

The trick is that you need to download the certificate from https://wifireg.defcon.org and import it into your computer. They have instructions for all your various operating systems. For macOS, it was as simple as downloading “dc25.mobileconfig” and importing it.

I haven’t validated the DefCon team did the right thing for all platforms, but I know that safety is possible. If a hacker could easily hack into arbitrary WiFi, then equipment vendors would fix it. Corporations widely use WiFi — they couldn’t do this if it weren’t safe.

The first step in safety is encryption, obviously. WPA does encryption well, you you are good there.

The second step is authentication — proving that the access-point is who it says it is. Otherwise, somebody could setup their own access-point claiming to be “DefCon”, and you’d happily connect to it. Encrypted connect to the evil access-point doesn’t help you. This is what the certificate you download does — you import it into your system, so that you’ll trust only the “DefCon” access-point that has the private key.

That’s not to say you are completely safe. There’s a known vulnerability for the Broadcom WiFi chip imbedded in many devices, including iPhone and Android phones. If you have one of these devices, you should either upgrade your software with a fix or disable WiFi.

There may also be unknown vulnerabilities in WiFi stacks. the Broadcom bug shows that after a couple decades, we still haven’t solved the problem of simple buffer overflows in WiFi stacks/drivers. Thus, some hacker may have an unknown 0day vulnerability they are using to hack you.

Of course, this can apply to any WiFi usage anywhere. Frankly, if I had such an 0day, I wouldn’t use it at DefCon. Along with black-hat hackers DefCon is full of white-hat researchers monitoring the WiFi — looking for hackers using exploits. They are likely to discover the 0day and report it. Thus, I’d rather use such 0-days in international airpots, catching business types, getting into their company secrets. Or, targeting government types.

So it’s impossible to guarantee any security. But what the DefCon network team bas done looks right, the same sort of thing corporations do to secure themselves, so you are probably secure.

On the other hand, don’t use “DefCon-Open” — not only is it insecure, there are explicitly a ton of hackers spying on it at the “Wall of Sheep” to point out the “sheep” who don’t secure their passwords.

IoT Sleepbuddy, the robotic babysitter

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/sleepbuddy-robotic-babysitter/

You’re watching the new episode of Game of Thrones, and suddenly you hear your children, up and about after their bedtime! Now you’ll probably miss a crucial moment of the show because you have to put them to bed again. Or you’re out to dinner with friends and longing for the sight of your sleeping small humans. What do you do? Text the babysitter to check on them? Well, luckily for you these issues could soon be things of the past, thanks to Bert Vuylsteke and his Pi-powered Sleepbuddy. This IoT-controlled social robot could fulfil all your remote babysitting needs!

IoT Sleepbuddy – babyphone – Design concept

This is the actual concept of my robot and in what context it can be used.

A social robot?

A social robot fulfils a role normally played by a person, and interacts with humans via human language, gestures, and facial expressions. This is what Bert says about the role of the Sleepbuddy:

[For children, it] is a friend or safeguard from nightmares, but it is so much more for the babysitters or parents. The babysitters or parents connect their smartphone/tablet/PC to the Sleepbuddy. This will give them access to control all his emotions, gestures, microphone, speaker and camera. In the eye is a hidden camera to see the kids sleeping. The speaker and microphone allow communication with the kids through WiFi.

The roots of the Sleepbuddy

As a student at Ghent University, Bert had to build a social robot using OPSORO, the university’s open-source robotics platform. The developers of this platform create social robots for research purposes. They are also making all software, as well as hardware design plans, available on GitHub. In addition, you will soon be able to purchase their robot kits via a Kickstarter. OPSORO robots are designed around the Raspberry Pi, and controlled via a web interface. The interface allows you to customise your robot’s behaviour, using visual or text-based programming languages.

Sleepbuddy Bert Vuylsteke components

The Sleepbuddy’s components

Building the Sleepbuddy

Bert has provided a detailed Instructable describing the process of putting the Sleepbuddy together, complete with video walk-throughs. However, the making techniques he has used include thermoforming, laser cutting, and 3D printing. If you want to recreate this build, you may need to contact your local makerspace to find out whether they have the necessary equipment.

Sleepbuddy Bert Vuylsteke assembly

Assembling the Sleepbuddy

Finally, Bert added an especially cute touch to this project by covering the Sleepbuddy in blackboard paint. Therefore, kids can draw on the robot to really make it their own!

So many robots!

At Pi Towers we are partial to all kinds of robots, be they ones that test medical devices, play chess or Connect 4, or fight other robots. If they twerk, or are cute, tiny, or shoddy, we maybe even like them a tiny bit more.

Do you share our love of robots? Would you like to make your own? Then check out our resource for building a simple robot buggy. Maybe it will kick-start your career as the general of a robot army. A robot army that does good, of course! Let us know your benevolent robot overlord plans in the comments.

The post IoT Sleepbuddy, the robotic babysitter appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

How To Get Your First 1,000 Customers

Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-to-get-your-first-1000-customers/

PR for getting your first 1000 customers

If you launch your startup and no one knows, did you actually launch? As mentioned in my last post, our initial launch target was to get a 1,000 people to use our service. But how do you get even 1,000 people to sign up for your service when no one knows who you are?

There are a variety of methods to attract your first 1,000 customers, but launching with the press is my favorite. I’ll explain why and how to do it below.

Paths to Attract Your First 1,000 Customers

Social following: If you have a massive social following, those people are a reasonable target for what you’re offering. In particular if your relationship with them is one where they would buy something you recommend, this can be one of the easiest ways to get your initial customers. However, building this type of following is non-trivial and often is done over several years.

Press not only provides awareness and customers, but credibility and SEO benefits as well

Paid advertising: The advantage of paid ads is you have control over when they are presented and what they say. The primary disadvantage is they tend to be expensive, especially before you have your positioning, messaging, and funnel nailed.

Viral: There are certainly examples of companies that launched with a hugely viral video, blog post, or promotion. While fantastic if it happens, even if you do everything right, the likelihood of massive virality is miniscule and the conversion rate is often low.

Press: As I said, this is my favorite. You don’t need to pay a PR agency and can go from nothing to launched in a couple weeks. Press not only provides awareness and customers, but credibility and SEO benefits as well.

How to Pitch the Press

It’s easy: Have a compelling story, find the right journalists, make their life easy, pitch and follow-up. Of course, each one of those has some nuance, so let’s dig in.

Have a compelling story

How to Get Attention When you’ve been working for months on your startup, it’s easy to get lost in the minutiae when talking to others. Stories that a journalist will write about need to be something their readers will care about. Knowing what story to tell and how to tell it is part science and part art. Here’s how you can get there:

The basics of your story

Ask yourself the following questions, and write down the answers:

  • What are we doing? What product service are we offering?
  • Why? What problem are we solving?
  • What is interesting or unique? Either about what we’re doing, how we’re doing it, or for who we’re doing it.

“But my story isn’t that exciting”

Neither was announcing a data backup company, believe me. Look for angles that make it compelling. Here are some:

  • Did someone on your team do something major before? (build a successful company/product, create some innovation, market something we all know, etc.)
  • Do you have an interesting investor or board member?
  • Is there a personal story that drove you to start this company?
  • Are you starting it in a unique place?
  • Did you come upon the idea in a unique way?
  • Can you share something people want to know that’s not usually shared?
  • Are you partnered with a well-known company?
  • …is there something interesting/entertaining/odd/shocking/touching/etc.?

It doesn’t get much less exciting than, “We’re launching a company that will backup your data.” But there were still a lot of compelling stories:

  • Founded by serial entrepreneurs, bootstrapped a capital-intensive company, committed to each other for a year without salary.
  • Challenging the way that every backup company before was set up by not asking customers to pick and choose files to backup.
  • Designing our own storage system.
  • Etc. etc.

For the initial launch, we focused on “unlimited for $5/month” and statistics from a survey we ran with Harris Interactive that said that 94% of people did not regularly backup their data.

It’s an old adage that “Everyone has a story.” Regardless of what you’re doing, there is always something interesting to share. Dig for that.

The headline

Once you’ve captured what you think the interesting story is, you’ve got to boil it down. Yes, you need the elevator pitch, but this is shorter…it’s the headline pitch. Write the headline that you would love to see a journalist write.

Regardless of what you’re doing, there is always something interesting to share. Dig for that.

Now comes the part where you have to be really honest with yourself: if you weren’t involved, would you care?

The “Techmeme Test”

One way I try to ground myself is what I call the “Techmeme Test”. Techmeme lists the top tech articles. Read the headlines. Imagine the headline you wrote in the middle of the page. If you weren’t involved, would you click on it? Is it more or less compelling than the others. Much of tech news is dominated by the largest companies. If you want to get written about, your story should be more compelling. If not, go back above and explore your story some more.

Embargoes, exclusives and calls-to-action

Journalists write about news. Thus, if you’ve already announced something and are then pitching a journalist to cover it, unless you’re giving her something significant that hasn’t been said, it’s no longer news. As a result, there are ‘embargoes’ and ‘exclusives’.

Embargoes

    • : An embargo simply means that you are sharing news with a journalist that they need to keep private until a certain date and time.

If you’re Apple, this may be a formal and legal document. In our case, it’s as simple as saying, “Please keep embargoed until 4/13/17 at 8am California time.” in the pitch. Some sites explicitly will not keep embargoes; for example The Information will only break news. If you want to launch something later, do not share information with journalists at these sites. If you are only working with a single journalist for a story, and your announcement time is flexible, you can jointly work out a date and time to announce. However, if you have a fixed launch time or are working with a few journalists, embargoes are key.

Exclusives: An exclusive means you’re giving something specifically to that journalist. Most journalists love an exclusive as it means readers have to come to them for the story. One option is to give a journalist an exclusive on the entire story. If it is your dream journalist, this may make sense. Another option, however, is to give exclusivity on certain pieces. For example, for your launch you could give an exclusive on funding detail & a VC interview to a more finance-focused journalist and insight into the tech & a CTO interview to a more tech-focused journalist.

Call-to-Action: With our launch we gave TechCrunch, Ars Technica, and SimplyHelp URLs that gave the first few hundred of their readers access to the private beta. Once those first few hundred users from each site downloaded, the beta would be turned off.

Thus, we used a combination of embargoes, exclusives, and a call-to-action during our initial launch to be able to brief journalists on the news before it went live, give them something they could announce as exclusive, and provide a time-sensitive call-to-action to the readers so that they would actually sign up and not just read and go away.

How to Find the Most Authoritative Sites / Authors

“If a press release is published and no one sees it, was it published?” Perhaps the time existed when sending a press release out over the wire meant journalists would read it and write about it. That time has long been forgotten. Over 1,000 unread press releases are published every day. If you want your compelling story to be covered, you need to find the handful of journalists that will care.

Determine the publications

Find the publications that cover the type of story you want to share. If you’re in tech, Techmeme has a leaderboard of publications ranked by leadership and presence. This list will tell you which publications are likely to have influence. Visit the sites and see if your type of story appears on their site. But, once you’ve determined the publication do NOT send a pitch their “[email protected]” or “[email protected]” email addresses. In all the times I’ve done that, I have never had a single response. Those email addresses are likely on every PR, press release, and spam list and unlikely to get read. Instead…

Determine the journalists

Once you’ve determined which publications cover your area, check which journalists are doing the writing. Skim the articles and search for keywords and competitor names.

Over 1,000 unread press releases are published every day.

Identify one primary journalist at the publication that you would love to have cover you, and secondary ones if there are a few good options. If you’re not sure which one should be the primary, consider a few tests:

  • Do they truly seem to care about the space?
  • Do they write interesting/compelling stories that ‘get it’?
  • Do they appear on the Techmeme leaderboard?
  • Do their articles get liked/tweeted/shared and commented on?
  • Do they have a significant social presence?

Leveraging Google

Google author search by date

In addition to Techmeme or if you aren’t in the tech space Google will become a must have tool for finding the right journalists to pitch. Below the search box you will find a number of tabs. Click on Tools and change the Any time setting to Custom range. I like to use the past six months to ensure I find authors that are actively writing about my market. I start with the All results. This will return a combination of product sites and articles depending upon your search term.

Scan for articles and click on the link to see if the article is on topic. If it is find the author’s name. Often if you click on the author name it will take you to a bio page that includes their Twitter, LinkedIn, and/or Facebook profile. Many times you will find their email address in the bio. You should collect all the information and add it to your outreach spreadsheet. Click here to get a copy. It’s always a good idea to comment on the article to start building awareness of your name. Another good idea is to Tweet or Like the article.

Next click on the News tab and set the same search parameters. You will get a different set of results. Repeat the same steps. Between the two searches you will have a list of authors that actively write for the websites that Google considers the most authoritative on your market.

How to find the most socially shared authors

Buzzsumo search for most shared by date

Your next step is to find the writers whose articles get shared the most socially. Go to Buzzsumo and click on the Most Shared tab. Enter search terms for your market as well as competitor names. Again I like to use the past 6 months as the time range. You will get a list of articles that have been shared the most across Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, and Google+. In addition to finding the most shared articles and their authors you can also see some of the Twitter users that shared the article. Many of those Twitter users are big influencers in your market so it’s smart to start following and interacting with them as well as the authors.

How to Find Author Email Addresses

Some journalists publish their contact info right on the stories. For those that don’t, a bit of googling will often get you the email. For example, TechCrunch wrote a story a few years ago where they published all of their email addresses, which was in response to this new service that charges a small fee to provide journalist email addresses. Sometimes visiting their twitter pages will link to a personal site, upon which they will share an email address.

Of course all is not lost if you don’t find an email in the bio. There are two good services for finding emails, https://app.voilanorbert.com/ and https://hunter.io/. For Voila Norbert enter the author name and the website you found their article on. The majority of the time you search for an author on a major publication Norbert will return an accurate email address. If it doesn’t try Hunter.io.

On Hunter.io enter the domain name and click on Personal Only. Then scroll through the results to find the author’s email. I’ve found Norbert to be more accurate overall but between the two you will find most major author’s email addresses.

Email, by the way, is not necessarily the best way to engage a journalist. Many are avid Twitter users. Follow them and engage – that means read/retweet/favorite their tweets; reply to their questions, and generally be helpful BEFORE you pitch them. Later when you email them, you won’t be just a random email address.

Don’t spam

Now that you have all these email addresses (possibly thousands if you purchased a list) – do NOT spam. It is incredibly tempting to think “I could try to figure out which of these folks would be interested, but if I just email all of them, I’ll save myself time and be more likely to get some of them to respond.” Don’t do it.

Follow them and engage – that means read/retweet/favorite their tweets; reply to their questions, and generally be helpful BEFORE you pitch them.

First, you’ll want to tailor your pitch to the individual. Second, it’s a small world and you’ll be known as someone who spams – reputation is golden. Also, don’t call journalists. Unless you know them or they’ve said they’re open to calls, you’re most likely to just annoy them.

Build a relationship

Build Trust with reporters Play the long game. You may be focusing just on the launch and hoping to get this one story covered, but if you don’t quickly flame-out, you will have many more opportunities to tell interesting stories that you’ll want the press to cover. Be honest and don’t exaggerate.
When you have 500 users it’s tempting to say, “We’ve got thousands!” Don’t. The good journalists will see through it and it’ll likely come back to bite you later. If you don’t know something, say “I don’t know but let me find out for you.” Most journalists want to write interesting stories that their readers will appreciate. Help them do that. Build deeper relationships with 5 – 10 journalists, rather than spamming thousands.

Stay organized

It doesn’t need to be complicated, but keep a spreadsheet that includes the name, publication, and contact info of the journalists you care about. Then, use it to keep track of who you’ve pitched, who’s responded, whether you’ve sent them the materials they need, and whether they intend to write/have written.

Make their life easy

Journalists have a million PR people emailing them, are actively engaging with readers on Twitter and in the comments, are tracking their metrics, are working their sources…and all the while needing to publish new articles. They’re busy. Make their life easy and they’re more likely to engage with yours.

Get to know them

Before sending them a pitch, know what they’ve written in the space. If you tell them how your story relates to ones they’ve written, it’ll help them put the story in context, and enable them to possibly link back to a story they wrote before.

Prepare your materials

Journalists will need somewhere to get more info (prepare a fact sheet), a URL to link to, and at least one image (ideally a few to choose from.) A fact sheet gives bite-sized snippets of information they may need about your startup or product: what it is, how big the market is, what’s the pricing, who’s on the team, etc. The URL is where their reader will get the product or more information from you. It doesn’t have to be live when you’re pitching, but you should be able to tell what the URL will be. The images are ones that they could embed in the article: a product screenshot, a CEO or team photo, an infographic. Scan the types of images included in their articles. Don’t send any of these in your pitch, but have them ready. Studies, stats, customer/partner/investor quotes are also good to have.

Pitch

A pitch has to be short and compelling.

Subject Line

Think back to the headline you want. Is it really compelling? Can you shorten it to a subject line? Include what’s happening and when. For Mike Arrington at Techcrunch, our first subject line was “Startup doing an ‘online time machine’”. Later I would include, “launching June 6th”.

For John Timmer at ArsTechnica, it was “Demographics data re: your 4/17 article”. Why? Because he wrote an article titled “WiFi popular with the young people; backups, not so much”. Since we had run a demographics survey on backups, I figured as a science editor he’d be interested in this additional data.

Body

A few key things about the body of the email. It should be short and to the point, no more than a few sentences. Here was my actual, original pitch email to John:

Hey John,

We’re launching Backblaze next week which provides a Time Machine-online type of service. As part of doing some research I read your article about backups not being popular with young people and that you had wished Accenture would have given you demographics. In prep for our invite-only launch I sponsored Harris Interactive to get demographic data on who’s doing backups and if all goes well, I should have that data on Friday.

Next week starts Backup Awareness Month (and yes, probably Clean Your House Month and Brush Your Teeth Month)…but nonetheless…good time to remind readers to backup with a bit of data?

Would you be interested in seeing/talking about the data when I get it?

Would you be interested in getting a sneak peak at Backblaze? (I could give you some invite codes for your readers as well.)

Gleb Budman        

CEO and Co-Founder

Backblaze, Inc.

Automatic, Secure, High-Performance Online Backup

Cell: XXX-XXX-XXXX

The Good: It said what we’re doing, why this relates to him and his readers, provides him information he had asked for in an article, ties to something timely, is clearly tailored for him, is pitched by the CEO and Co-Founder, and provides my cell.

The Bad: It’s too long.

I got better later. Here’s an example:

Subject: Does temperature affect hard drive life?

Hi Peter, there has been much debate about whether temperature affects how long a hard drive lasts. Following up on the Backblaze analyses of how long do drives last & which drives last the longest (that you wrote about) we’ve now analyzed the impact of heat on the nearly 40,000 hard drives we have and found that…

We’re going to publish the results this Monday, 5/12 at 5am California-time. Want a sneak peak of the analysis?

Timing

A common question is “When should I launch?” What day, what time? I prefer to launch on Tuesday at 8am California-time. Launching earlier in the week gives breathing room for the news to live longer. While your launch may be a single article posted and that’s that, if it ends up a larger success, earlier in the week allows other journalists (including ones who are in other countries) to build on the story. Monday announcements can be tough because the journalists generally need to have their stories finished by Friday, and while ideally everything is buttoned up beforehand, startups sometimes use the weekend as overflow before a launch.

The 8am California-time is because it allows articles to be published at the beginning of the day West Coast and around lunch-time East Coast. Later and you risk it being past publishing time for the day. We used to launch at 5am in order to be morning for the East Coast, but it did not seem to have a significant benefit in coverage or impact, but did mean that the entire internal team needed to be up at 3am or 4am. Sometimes that’s critical, but I prefer to not burn the team out when it’s not.

Finally, try to stay clear of holidays, major announcements and large conferences. If Apple is coming out with their next iPhone, many of the tech journalists will be busy at least a couple days prior and possibly a week after. Not always obvious, but if you can, find times that are otherwise going to be slow for news.

Follow-up

There is a fine line between persistence and annoyance. I once had a journalist write me after we had an announcement that was covered by the press, “Why didn’t you let me know?! I would have written about that!” I had sent him three emails about the upcoming announcement to which he never responded.

My general rule is 3 emails.

Ugh. However, my takeaway from this isn’t that I should send 10 emails to every journalist. It’s that sometimes these things happen.

My general rule is 3 emails. If I’ve identified a specific journalist that I think would be interested and have a pitch crafted for her, I’ll send her the email ideally 2 weeks prior to the announcement. I’ll follow-up a week later, and one more time 2 days prior. If she ever says, “I’m not interested in this topic,” I note it and don’t email her on that topic again.

If a journalist wrote, I read the article and engage in the comments (or someone on our team, such as our social guy, @YevP does). We’ll often promote the story through our social channels and email our employees who may choose to share the story as well. This helps us, but also helps the journalist get their story broader reach. Again, the goal is to build a relationship with the journalists your space. If there’s something relevant to your customers that the journalist wrote, you’re providing a service to your customers AND helping the journalist get the word out about the article.

At times the stories also end up shared on sites such as Hacker News, Reddit, Slashdot, or become active conversations on Twitter. Again, we try to engage there and respond to questions (when we do, we are always clear that we’re from Backblaze.)

And finally, I’ll often send a short thank you to the journalist.

Getting Your First 1,000 Customers With Press

As I mentioned at the beginning, there is more than one way to get your first 1,000 customers. My favorite is working with the press to share your story. If you figure out your compelling story, find the right journalists, make their life easy, pitch and follow-up, you stand a high likelyhood of getting coverage and customers. Better yet, that coverage will provide credibility for your company, and if done right, will establish you as a resource for the press for the future.

Like any muscle, this process takes working out. The first time may feel a bit daunting, but just take the steps one at a time. As you do this a few times, the process will be easier and you’ll know who to reach out and quickly determine what stories will be compelling.

The post How To Get Your First 1,000 Customers appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

The Heart of Maker Faire

Post Syndicated from Janina Ander original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/heart-maker-faire/

We at the Raspberry Pi Foundation find it incredibly rewarding to help people make and share things they love. It’s amazing to be part of an incredibly creative community of makers. And we’re not the only ones who feel this way: for this year’s Maker Faire UK, the team over at NUSTEM created the Heart of Maker Faire, a Pi-powered art installation that is a symbol of this unique community. And to be perfectly frank, it’s bloody gorgeous.

The Heart of Maker Faire

NUSTEM’s new installation for Maker Faire UK 2017, held on 1st & 2nd April at the Centre for Life, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Visitors wrote notes about things they love, and sealed them in jars. They then read their heart rates, and used the control boxes to associate their jar and heart rate with a space on the shelves.

A heart for the community

NUSTEM is a STEM outreach organisation from Northumbria University, and the makers there are always keen to build interactive projects that get people excited about technology. So at this year’s Faire, attendees passing their installation were invited to write down something close to their heart, put that note in a jar, and measure their heart rate. Then they could connect their heart rate, via a QR code, to a space on a shelf lined with LEDs. Once they placed the jar in their space, the LEDs started blinking to imitate their heart beat. With this art piece, the NUSTEM team wants to say something about “how we’re all individuals, but about our similarities too”.

NUSTEM on Twitter

Still beating. Heart of #MakerFaireUK

Making the heart beat

This is no small build – it uses more than 2,000 NeoPixel LEDs, as well as five Raspberry Pis, among other components. Two Pi 3s are in charge of registering people’s contributions and keeping track of their jars. A Pi Zero W acts as a central hub, connecting its bigger siblings via WiFi, and storing a MySQL database of the jars’ data. Finally, two more Pi 3s control the LEDs of the Heart via a script written in Processing. The NUSTEM team has made the code available here for you “to laugh at” (their words, not mine!)

Heart of Maker Faire shelf

The heart, ready to be filled with love

A heart for art

Processing is an open-source programming language used to create images, graphs, and animations. It can respond to keyboard and mouse input, so you can write games with it as well. Moreover, it runs on the Pi, and you can use it to talk to the Pi’s GPIO pins, as the Heart of Maker Faire team did. Hook up buttons, sensors, and LEDs, and get ready to create amazing interactive pieces of art! If you’d like to learn more, read Matt’s blog post, or watch the talk he gave about Processing at our fifth birthday party earlier this year.

Matt Richardson: Art with Processing on the Raspberry Pi – Raspberry Pi Birthday Event 2017 – Talks

Matt Richardson: Art with Processing on the Raspberry Pi Sunday 5th March 2017 Raspberry Pi Birthday Event 2017 Filmed and edited by David and Andrew Ferguson. This video is not an official video published by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. No copyright infringement intended.

To help you get started, we’re providing a free learning resource introducing you to the basics of Processing. We’d love to see what you create, so do share a link to your masterworks in the comments!

World Maker Faire

We’ll be attending World Maker Faire in New York on the 23rd and 24th of September. Will you be there?

The post The Heart of Maker Faire appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Burner laptops for DEF CON

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/07/burner-laptops-for-def-con.html

Hacker summer camp (Defcon, Blackhat, BSidesLV) is upon us, so I thought I’d write up some quick notes about bringing a “burner” laptop. Chrome is your best choice in terms of security, but I need Windows/Linux tools, so I got a Windows laptop.

I chose the Asus e200ha for $199 from Amazon with free (and fast) shipping. There are similar notebooks with roughly the same hardware and price from other manufacturers (HP, Dell, etc.), so I’m not sure how this compares against those other ones. However, it fits my needs as a “burner” laptop, namely:

  • cheap
  • lasts 10 hours easily on battery
  • weighs 2.2 pounds (1 kilogram)
  • 11.6 inch and thin

Some other specs are:

  • 4 gigs of RAM
  • 32 gigs of eMMC flash memory
  • quad core 1.44 GHz Intel Atom CPU
  • Windows 10
  • free Microsoft Office 365 for one year
  • good, large keyboard
  • good, large touchpad
  • USB 3.0
  • microSD
  • WiFi ac
  • no fans, completely silent

There are compromises, of course.

  • The Atom CPU is slow, thought it’s only noticeable when churning through heavy webpages. Adblocking addons or Brave are a necessity. Most things are usably fast, such as using Microsoft Word.
  • Crappy sound and video, though VLC does a fine job playing movies with headphones on the airplane. Using in bright sunlight will be difficult.
  • micro-HDMI, keep in mind if intending to do presos from it, you’ll need an HDMI adapter
  • It has limited storage, 32gigs in theory, about half that usable.
  • Does special Windows 10 compressed install that you can’t actually upgrade without a completely new install. It doesn’t have the latest Windows 10 Creators update. I lost a gig thinking I could compress system files.

Copying files across the 802.11ac WiFi to the disk was quite fast, several hundred megabits-per-second. The eMMC isn’t as fast as an SSD, but its a lot faster than typical SD card speeds.

The first thing I did once I got the notebook was to install the free VeraCrypt full disk encryption. The CPU has AES acceleration, so it’s fast. There is a problem with the keyboard driver during boot that makes it really hard to enter long passwords — you have to carefully type one key at a time to prevent extra keystrokes from being entered.

You can’t really install Linux on this computer, but you can use virtual machines. I installed VirtualBox and downloaded the Kali VM. I had some problems attaching USB devices to the VM. First of all, VirtualBox requires a separate downloaded extension to get USB working. Second, it conflicts with USBpcap that I installed for Wireshark.

It comes with one year of free Office 365. Obviously, Microsoft is hoping to hook the user into a longer term commitment, but in practice next year at this time I’d get another burner $200 laptop rather than spend $99 on extending the Office 365 license.

Let’s talk about the CPU. It’s Intel’s “Atom” processor, not their mainstream (Core i3 etc.) processor. Even though it has roughly the same GHz as the processor in a 11inch MacBook Air and twice the cores, it’s noticeably and painfully slower. This is especially noticeable on ad-heavy web pages, while other things seem to work just fine. It has hardware acceleration for most video formats, though I had trouble getting Netflix to work.

The tradeoff for a slow CPU is phenomenal battery life. It seems to last forever on battery. It’s really pretty cool.

Conclusion

A Chromebook is likely more secure, but for my needs, this $200 is perfect.

Amazon Patents Measures to Prevent In-Store Comparison Shopping

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/06/amazon_patents_.html

Amazon has been issued a patent on security measures that prevents people from comparison shopping while in the store. It’s not a particularly sophisticated patent — it basically detects when you’re using the in-store Wi-Fi to visit a competitor’s site and then blocks access — but it is an indication of how retail has changed in recent years.

What’s interesting is that Amazon is on the other side of this arms race. As an on-line retailer, it wants people to walk into stores and then comparison shop on its site. Yes, I know it’s buying Whole Foods, but it’s still predominantly an online retailer. Maybe it patented this to prevent stores from implementing the technology.

It’s probably not nearly that strategic. It’s hard to build a business strategy around a security measure that can be defeated with cellular access.

Estefannie’s GPS-Controlled GoPro Photo Taker

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/estefannie-gopro-selfie/

Are you tired of having to take selfies physically? Do you only use your GoPro for the occasional beach vacation? Are you maybe even wondering what to do with the load of velcro you bought on a whim? Then we have good news for you: Estefannie‘s back to help you out with her Personal Automated GPS-Controlled Portable Photo Taker…PAGCPPT for short…or pagsssspt, if you like.

RASPBERRY PI + GPS CONTROLLED PHOTO TAKER

Hey World! Do you like vacation pictures but don’t like taking them? Make your own Personal Automated GPS Controlled Portable Photo Taker! The code, components, and instructions are in my Hackster.io account: https://www.hackster.io/estefanniegg/automated-gps-controlled-photo-taker-3fc84c For this build, I decided to put together a backpack to take pictures of me when I am close to places that like.

The Personal Automated GPS-Controlled Portable Photo Taker

Try saying that five times in a row.

Go on. I’ll wait.

Using a Raspberry Pi 3, a GPS module, a power pack, and a GoPro plus GoPro Stick, Estefannie created the PAGCPPT as a means of automatically taking selfies at pre-specified tourist attractions across London.

Estefannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi GPS GoPro Camera

There’s pie in my backpack too…but it’s a bit messy

With velcro and hot glue, she secured the tech in place on (and inside) a backpack. Then it was simply a case of programming her set up to take pictures while she walked around the city.

Estefannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi GPS GoPro Camera

Making the GoPro…go

Estefannie made use of a GoPro API library to connect her GoPro to the Raspberry Pi via WiFi. With the help of this library, she wrote a Python script that made the GoPro take a photograph whenever her GPS module placed her within a ten-metre radius of a pre-selected landmark such as Tower Bridge, Abbey Road, or Platform 9 3/4.

Estefannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi GPS GoPro Camera

“Accio selfie.”

The full script, as well as details regarding the components she used for the project, can be found on her hackster.io page here.

Estefannie Explains it All

You’ll have noticed that we’ve covered Estefannie once or twice before on the Raspberry Pi blog. We love project videos that convey a sense of ‘Oh hey, I can totally build one of those!’, and hers always tick that box. They are imaginative, interesting, quirky, and to be totally honest with you, I’ve been waiting for this particular video since she hinted at it on her visit to Pi Towers in May. I got the inside scoop, yo!

What’s better than taking pictures? Not taking pictures. But STILL having pictures. I made a personal automated GPS controlled Portable Photo Taker ⚡ NEW VIDEO ALERT⚡ Link in bio.

1,351 Likes, 70 Comments – Estefannie Explains It All (@estefanniegg) on Instagram: “What’s better than taking pictures? Not taking pictures. But STILL having pictures. I made a…”

Make sure to follow her on YouTube and Instagram for more maker content and random shenanigans. And if you have your own maker social media channel, YouTube account, blog, etc, this is your chance to share it for the world to see in the comments below!

The post Estefannie’s GPS-Controlled GoPro Photo Taker appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

AWS Greengrass – Run AWS Lambda Functions on Connected Devices

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-greengrass-run-aws-lambda-functions-on-connected-devices/

I first told you about AWS Greengrass in the post that I published during re:Invent (AWS Greengrass – Ubiquitous Real-World Computing). We launched a limited preview of Greengrass at that time and invited you to sign up if you were interested.

As I noted at the time, many AWS customers want to collect and process data out in the field, where connectivity is often slow and sometimes either intermittent or unreliable. Greengrass allows them to extend the AWS programming model to small, simple, field-based devices. It builds on AWS IoT and AWS Lambda, and supports access to the ever-increasing variety of services that are available in the AWS Cloud.

Greengrass gives you access to compute, messaging, data caching, and syncing services that run in the field, and that do not depend on constant, high-bandwidth connectivity to an AWS Region. You can write Lambda functions in Python 2.7 and deploy them to your Greengrass devices from the cloud while using device shadows to maintain state. Your devices and peripherals can talk to each other using local messaging that does not pass through the cloud.

Now Generally Available
Today we are making Greengrass generally available in the US East (Northern Virginia) and US West (Oregon) Regions. During the preview, AWS customers were able to get hands-on experience with Greengrass and to start building applications and businesses around it. I’ll share a few of these early successes later in this post.

The Greengrass Core code runs on each device. It allows you to deploy and run Lambda applications on the device, supports local MQTT messaging across a secure network, and also ensures that conversations between devices and the cloud are made across secure connections. The Greengrass Core also supports secure, over-the-air software updates, including Lambda functions. It includes a message broker, a Lambda runtime, a Thing Shadows implementation, and a deployment agent. Greengrass Core and (optionally) other devices make up a Greengrass Group. The group includes configuration data, the list of devices and the identity of the Greengrass Core, a list of Lambda functions, and a set of subscriptions that define where the messages should go. All of this information is copied to the Greengrass core devices during the deployment process.

Your Lambda functions can use APIs in three distinct SDKs:

AWS SDK for Python – This SDK allows your code to interact with Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS), and other AWS services.

AWS IoT Device SDK – This SDK (available for Node.js, Python, Java, and C++) helps you to connect your hardware devices to AWS IoT. The C++ SDK has a few extra features including access to the Greengrass Discovery Service and support for root CA downloads.

AWS Greengrass Core SDK – This SDK provides APIs that allow local invocation of other Lambda functions, publish messages, and work with thing shadows.

You can run the Greengrass Core on x86 and ARM devices that have version 4.4.11 (or newer) of the Linux kernel, with the OverlayFS and user namespace features enabled. While most deployments of Greengrass will be targeted at specialized, industrial-grade hardware, you can also run the Greengrass Core on a Raspberry Pi or an EC2 instance for development and test purposes.

For this post, I used a Raspberry Pi attached to a BrickPi, connected to my home network via WiFi:

The Raspberry Pi, the BrickPi, the case, and all of the other parts are available in the BrickPi 3 Starter Kit. You will need some Linux command-line expertise and a decent amount of manual dexterity to put all of this together, but if I did it then you surely can.

Greengrass in Action
I can access Greengrass from the Console, API, or CLI. I’ll use the Console. The intro page of the Greengrass Console lets me define groups, add Greengrass Cores, and add devices to my groups:

I click on Get Started and then on Use easy creation:

Then I name my group:

And name my first Greengrass Core:

I’m ready to go, so I click on Create Group and Core:

This runs for a few seconds and then offers up my security resources (two keys and a certificate) for downloading, along with the Greengrass Core:

I download the security resources and put them in a safe place, and select and download the desired version of the Greengrass Core software (ARMv7l for my Raspberry Pi), and click on Finish.

Now I power up my Pi, and copy the security resources and the software to it (I put them in an S3 bucket and pulled them down with wget). Here’s my shell history at that point:

Following the directions in the user guide, I create a new user and group, run the rpi-update script, and install several packages including sqlite3 and openssl. After a couple of reboots, I am ready to proceed!

Next, still following the directions, I untar the Greengrass Core software and move the security resources to their final destination (/greengrass/configuration/certs), giving them generic names along the way. Here’s what the directory looks like:

The next step is to associate the core with an AWS IoT thing. I return to the Console, click through the group and the Greengrass Core, and find the Thing ARN:

I insert the names of the certificates and the Thing ARN into the config.json file, and also fill in the missing sections of the iotHost and ggHost:

I start the Greengrass demon (this was my second attempt; I had a typo in one of my path names the first time around):

After all of this pleasant time at the command line (taking me back to my Unix v7 and BSD 4.2 days), it is time to go visual once again! I visit my AWS IoT dashboard and see that my Greengrass Core is making connections to IoT:

I go to the Lambda Console and create a Lambda function using the Python 2.7 runtime (the IAM role does not matter here):

I publish the function in the usual way and, hop over to the Greengrass Console, click on my group, and choose to add a Lambda function:

Then I choose the version to deploy:

I also configure the function to be long-lived instead of on-demand:

My code will publish messages to AWS IoT, so I create a subscription by specifying the source and destination:

I set up a topic filter (hello/world) on the subscription as well:

I confirm my settings and save my subscription and I am just about ready to deploy my code. I revisit my group, click on Deployments, and choose Deploy from the Actions menu:

I choose Automatic detection to move forward:

Since this is my first deployment, I need to create a service-level role that gives Greengrass permission to access other AWS services. I simply click on Grant permission:

I can see the status of each deployment:

The code is now running on my Pi! It publishes messages to topic hello/world; I can see them by going to the IoT Console, clicking on Test, and subscribing to the topic:

And here are the messages:

With all of the setup work taken care of, I can do iterative development by uploading, publishing, and deploying new versions of my code. I plan to use the BrickPi to control some LEGO Technic motors and to publish data collected from some sensors. Stay tuned for that post!

Greengrass Pricing
You can run the Greengrass Core on three devices free for one year as part of the AWS Free Tier. At the next level (3 to 10,000 devices) two options are available:

  • Pay as You Go – $0.16 per month per device.
  • Annual Commitment – $1.49 per year per device, a 17.5% savings.

If you want to run the Greengrass Core on more than 10,000 devices or make a longer commitment, please get in touch with us; details on all pricing models are on the Greengrass Pricing page.

Jeff;

Girl Busted For Pirating ‘Chicken Run’ Provides Food For Thought

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/girl-busted-for-pirating-chicken-run-provides-food-for-thought-170521/

This past Thursday the BBC published an article about Gianna Mulville-Zanetta, a first year Social Policy student at Bristol University in the UK.

After getting caught downloading the stop-motion comedy-drama film Chicken Run using BitTorrent, the 18-year-old reportedly felt the wrath of the university’s IT department.

“I completely forgot I had downloaded it,” Gianna told the BBC.

“I got an email the day after I watched it on Netflix with my friend saying I had been removed from Eduroam – which is our wifi. It took about a day or more to download and that’s why I forgot I had it, it took forever.”

For her sins, Gianna was blocked from using the university’s wifi for 20 days, a period that coincided with her exams. With access to a 4G connection she says the ban didn’t affect her studies but of course, the potential for chaos was certainly there.

There appears to be no doubt that Gianna committed an infringement. However, that someone who prefers to watch something legally on Netflix gets caught up in something like this is pretty disappointing. But not a complete surprise.

Chicken Run was released in 2000 but only 12 years later did it appear on UK Netflix. According to New on Netflix, it was withdrawn from Netflix during November 2013, put back on two years later in 2015, removed a year later in 2016, and was only re-added on May 1 this year.

Considering the BBC states that the Chicken Run affair “has ruined much of May for Gianna”, the ban must’ve kicked in early this month. That means that Chicken Run was either not on UK Netflix when Gianna decided on her download, or had only been there for a day or two. Either way, if there had been less yo-yo’ing of its availability on Netflix, it’s possible this whole affair could’ve been completely avoided.

Moving on, the BBC article states that Gianna was “caught out by the university’s IT department.” Student newspaper The Tab makes a similar assumption, claiming that Gianna was “busted by an elite team of University IT technicians.”

However, those familiar with these issues will know that the ‘blame’ should be placed elsewhere, i.e., on rightsholders who are filing complaints directly with the university. The tactic is certainly an interesting one.

Despite there being dozens of residential ISPs the copyright holders could focus on, they choose not to do so outside the limited scope of the Get it Right campaign instead. Knowing that universities come down hard on students seems like a motivating factor here, one that students should be aware of.

The Tab went on to publish a screenshot of the complaint received by Gianna. It’s incomplete, but it contains information that allows us to investigate further.

The note that Gianna’s connection had been suspended to prevent the IT department from “receiving further complaints” is a dead giveaway of rightsholder involvement. But, further down is an even clearer clue that the complaint was made by someone outside the university.

The format used in the complaint is identical to that used by US and Australia-based anti-piracy outfit IP-Echelon. The company is known to work with Paramount Pictures who own the rights to Chicken Run.

In fact, if one searches the filesize referenced in the infringement notice (572,221,548), it’s possible to find an identical complaint processed by VPN service Proxy.sh.

Another Chicken Run complaint

Given the file size, we can further deduce that Gianna downloaded a 720p BrRip of Chicken Run that was placed online by now defunct release team/torrent site YIFY, which has also been referenced in a number of complaints sent to Google.

So what can we conclude from these series of events?

First of all, with less messing around by Paramount and/or Netflix, Gianna might have gone to Netflix first, having seen it previously in the listings on the platform. As it goes, it had been absent for months, having been pulled from the service at least twice before.

Second, we know that at least one person who chose to pirate Chicken Run avoided Gianna’s predicament by using a VPN service. While Gianna found herself disconnected, the VPN user walked away completely unscathed, with Paramount and IP-Echelon complaining to the VPN service and that being the end of the matter.

Third, allowing your real name and a copy of a copyright infringement complaint to be published alongside a confession is a risky business. While IP-Echelon isn’t known for pressuring people to pay settlements in the UK, the situation could have been very different if a copyright troll was involved.

Fourth, we can also conclude that while it’s believed that older content is safer to download, this story suggests otherwise. Chicken Run was released 17 years ago and is still being monitored by rightsholders.

Finally, stories of students getting banned from university Internet access are relatively commonplace in the United States, but the same out of the UK is extremely rare.

In fact, we’re not aware of such exclusions happening on a regular basis anywhere in the region, although Gianna told the BBC that she knows another person who is still being denied access to the Internet for downloading Shrek, another relatively ancient film.

That raises the possibility that some copyright holders have seriously begun targeting universities in the UK. If that’s the case, one has to question what has more value – uninterrupted Internet access while on campus or a movie download.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Using Wi-Fi to Get 3D Images of Surrounding Location

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/05/using_wi-fi_to_1.html

Interesting research:

The radio signals emitted by a commercial Wi-Fi router can act as a kind of radar, providing images of the transmitter’s environment, according to new experiments. Two researchers in Germany borrowed techniques from the field of holography to demonstrate Wi-Fi imaging. They found that the technique could potentially allow users to peer through walls and could provide images 10 times per second.

News article.

Intel AMT on wireless networks

Post Syndicated from Matthew Garrett original http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/48837.html

More details about Intel’s AMT vulnerablity have been released – it’s about the worst case scenario, in that it’s a total authentication bypass that appears to exist independent of whether the AMT is being used in Small Business or Enterprise modes (more background in my previous post here). One thing I claimed was that even though this was pretty bad it probably wasn’t super bad, since Shodan indicated that there were only a small number of thousand machines on the public internet and accessible via AMT. Most deployments were probably behind corporate firewalls, which meant that it was plausibly a vector for spreading within a company but probably wasn’t a likely initial vector.

I’ve since done some more playing and come to the conclusion that it’s rather worse than that. AMT actually supports being accessed over wireless networks. Enabling this is a separate option – if you simply provision AMT it won’t be accessible over wireless by default, you need to perform additional configuration (although this is as simple as logging into the web UI and turning on the option). Once enabled, there are two cases:

  1. The system is not running an operating system, or the operating system has not taken control of the wireless hardware. In this case AMT will attempt to join any network that it’s been explicitly told about. Note that in default configuration, joining a wireless network from the OS is not sufficient for AMT to know about it – there needs to be explicit synchronisation of the network credentials to AMT. Intel provide a wireless manager that does this, but the stock behaviour in Windows (even after you’ve installed the AMT support drivers) is not to do this.
  2. The system is running an operating system that has taken control of the wireless hardware. In this state, AMT is no longer able to drive the wireless hardware directly and counts on OS support to pass packets on. Under Linux, Intel’s wireless drivers do not appear to implement this feature. Under Windows, they do. This does not require any application level support, and uninstalling LMS will not disable this functionality. This also appears to happen at the driver level, which means it bypasses the Windows firewall.

Case 2 is the scary one. If you have a laptop that supports AMT, and if AMT has been provisioned, and if AMT has had wireless support turned on, and if you’re running Windows, then connecting your laptop to a public wireless network means that AMT is accessible to anyone else on that network[1]. If it hasn’t received a firmware update, they’ll be able to do so without needing any valid credentials.

If you’re a corporate IT department, and if you have AMT enabled over wifi, turn it off. Now.

[1] Assuming that the network doesn’t block client to client traffic, of course

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Community Profile: Jillian Ogle

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/community-profile-jillian-ogle/

This column is from The MagPi issue 53. You can download a PDF of the full issue for free, or subscribe to receive the print edition in your mailbox or the digital edition on your tablet. All proceeds from the print and digital editions help the Raspberry Pi Foundation achieve its charitable goals.

Let’s Robot streams twice a week, Tuesdays and Thursdays, and allows the general public to control a team of robots within an interactive set, often consisting of mazes, clues, challenges, and even the occasional foe. Users work together via the Twitch.tv platform, sending instructions to the robots in order to navigate their terrain and complete the set objectives.

Let's Robot Raspberry Pi Jillian Ogle

Let’s Robot aims to change the way we interact with television, putting the viewer in the driving seat.

Aylobot, the first robot of the project, boasts a LEGO body, while Ninabot, the somewhat 2.0 upgrade of the two, has a gripper, allowing more interaction from users. Both robots have their own cameras that stream to Twitch, so that those in control can see what they’re up to on a more personal level; several new additions have joined the robot team since then, each with their own unique skill.

Let's Robot Raspberry Pi Jillian Ogle

Twice a week, the robots are controlled by the viewers, allowing them the chance to complete tasks such as force-feeding the intern, attempting to write party invitations, and battling in boss fights.

Jillian Ogle

Let’s Robot is the brainchild of Jillian Ogle, who originally set out to make “the world’s first interactive live show using telepresence robots collaboratively controlled by the audience”. However, Jill discovered quite quickly that the robots needed to complete the project simply didn’t exist to the standard required… and so Let’s Robot was born.

After researching various components for the task, Jill decided upon the Raspberry Pi, and it’s this small SBC that now exists within the bodies of Aylobot, Ninabot, and the rest of the Let’s Robot family.

Let's Robot Jillian Ogle Raspberry Pi

“Post-Its I drew for our #LetsRobot subscribers. We put these in the physical sets made for the robots. I still have a lot more to draw…”

In her previous life, Jill worked in art and game design, including a role as art director for Playdom, a subsidiary of Disney Interactive; she moved on to found Aylo Games in 2013 and Let’s Robot in 2015. The hardware side of the builds has been something of a recently discovered skill, with Jill admitting, “Anything I know about hardware I’ve picked up in the last two years while developing this project.”

This was my first ever drone flight, live on #twitch. I think it went well. #letsrobot #robot #robotics #robots #drone #drones #twitchtv #twitchcreative #twitchplays #fail #livestream #raspberrypi #arduino #hardware #mechatronics #mechanicalengineering #makersgonnamake #nailedit #make #electronics

73 Likes, 3 Comments – Jillian Ogle (@letsjill) on Instagram: “This was my first ever drone flight, live on #twitch. I think it went well. #letsrobot #robot…”

Social media funtimes

More recently, as Let’s Robot continues to grow, Jill can be found sharing the antics of the robots across social media, documenting their quests – such as the hilarious attempt to create party invites and the more recent Hillarybot vs Trumpbot balloon head battle, where robots with extendable pin-mounted arms fight to pop each other’s head.

Last night was the robot presidential debate, and here is an early version of candidate #Trump bot. #letsrobot #robotics #robot #raspberrypi #twitch #twitchtv #twitchplays #3dprinting #mechatronics #arduino #iot #robots #crafting #make #battlebots #hardware #twitchcreative #presidentialdebate2016 #donaldtrump #electronics #omgrobots #adafruit #silly

400 Likes, 2 Comments – Jillian Ogle (@letsjill) on Instagram: “Last night was the robot presidential debate, and here is an early version of candidate #Trump bot….”

Gotta catch ’em all

Alongside the robots, Jill has created several other projects that both add to the interactive experience of Let’s Robot and comment on other elements of social trends out in the world. Most notably, there is the Pokémon Go Robot, originally a robot arm that would simulate the throw of an on-screen Poké Ball. It later grew wheels and took to the outside world, hunting down its pocket monster prey.

Let's Robot Pokemon Go Raspberry Pi

Originally sitting on a desk, the Pokémon Go Robot earned itself a new upgrade, gaining the body of a rover to allow it to handle the terrain of the outside world. Paired with the Livestream Goggles, viewers can join in the fun.

It’s also worth noting other builds, such as the WiFi Livestream Goggles that Jill can be seen sporting across several social media posts. The goggles, with a Pi camera fitted between the wearer’s eyes, allow viewers to witness Jill’s work from her perspective. It’s a great build, especially given how open the Let’s Robot team are about their continued work and progression.

Let's Robot Pokemon Go Raspberry Pi

The WiFi-enabled helmet allows viewers the ability to see what Jill sees, offering a new perspective alongside the Let’s Robot bots. The Raspberry Pi camera fits perfectly between the eyes, bringing a true eye level to the viewer. She also created internet-controlled LED eyebrows… see the video!

And finally, one project we are eager to see completed is the ‘in production’ Pi-powered transparent HUD. By incorporating refractive acrylic, Jill aims to create a see-through display that allows her to read user comments via the Twitch live-stream chat, without having to turn her eyes to a separate monitor

Since the publication of this article in The MagPi magazine, Jill and the Let’s Robot team have continued to grow their project. There are some interesting and exciting developments ahead – we’ll cover their progress in a future blog.

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"Fast and Furious 8: Fate of the Furious"

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/04/fast-and-furious-8-fate-of-furious.html

So “Fast and Furious 8” opened this weekend to world-wide box office totals of $500,000,000. I thought I’d write up some notes on the “hacking” in it. The tl;dr version is this: yes, while the hacking is a bit far fetched, it’s actually more realistic than the car chase scenes, such as winning a race with the engine on fire while in reverse.

[SPOILERS]


Car hacking


The most innovative cyber-thing in the movie is the car hacking. In one scene, the hacker takes control of the cars in a parking structure, and makes them rain on to the street. In another scene, the hacker takes control away from drivers, with some jumping out of their moving cars in fear.

How real is this?

Well, today, few cars have a mechanical link between the computer and the steering wheel. No amount of hacking will fix the fact that this component is missing.

With that said, most new cars have features that make hacking possible. I’m not sure, but I’d guess more than half of new cars have internet connections (via the mobile phone network), cameras (for backing up, but also looking forward for lane departure warnings), braking (for emergencies), and acceleration.

In other words, we are getting really close.

As this Wikipedia article describes, there are levels for autonomous cars. At level 2 or 3, cars get automated steering, either for parking or for staying in the lane. Level 3 autonomy is especially useful, as it means you can sit back and relax while your car is sitting in a traffic jam. Higher levels of autonomy are still decades away, but most new cars, even the cheapest low end cars, will be level 3 within 5 years. That they make traffic jams bearable makes this an incredibly attractive feature.

Thus, while this scene is laughable today, it’ll be taken seriously in 10 years. People will look back on how smart this movie was at predicting the future.

Car hacking, part 2

Quite apart from the abilities of cars, let’s talk about the abilities of hackers.

The recent ShadowBrokers dump of NSA hacking tools show that hackers simply don’t have a lot of range. Hacking one car is easy — hacking all different models, makes, and years of cars is far beyond the ability of any hacking group, even the NSA.

I mean, a single hack may span more than one car model, and even across more than one manufacturer, because they buy such components from third-party manufacturers. Most cars that have cameras buy them from MobileEye, which was recently acquired by Intel.  As I blogged before, both my Parrot drone and Tesla car have the same WiFi stack, and both could be potential hacked with the same vulnerability. So hacking many cars at once isn’t totally out of the question.

It’s just that hacking all the different cars in a garage is completely implausible.

God’s Eye

The plot of the last two movies as been about the “God’s Eye”, a device that hacks into every camera and satellite to view everything going on in the world.

First of all, all hacking is software. The idea of stealing a hardware device in order enable hacking is therefore (almost) always fiction. There’s one corner case where a quantum chip factoring RSA would enable some previously impossible hacking, but it still can’t reach out and hack a camera behind a firewall.

Hacking security cameras around the world is indeed possible, though. The Mirai botnet of last year demonstrated this. It wormed its way form camera to camera, hacking hundreds of thousands of cameras that weren’t protected by firewalls. It used these devices as simply computers, to flood major websites, taking them offline. But it could’ve also used the camera features, to upload pictures and video’s to the hacker controlling these cameras.

However, most security cameras are behind firewalls, and can’t be reached. Building a “Gody’s Eye” view of the world, to catch a target every time they passed in front of a camera, would therefore be unrealistic.

Moreover, they don’t have either the processing power nor the bandwidth to work like that. It takes heavy number crunching in order to detect faces, or even simple things like license plates, within videos. The cameras don’t have that. Instead, cameras could upload the videos/pictures to supercomputers controlled by the hypothetical hacker, but the bandwidth doesn’t exist. The Internet is being rapidly upgraded, but still, Internet links are built for low-bandwidth webpages, not high-bandwidth streaming from millions of sources.

This rapidly changing. Cameras are rapidly being upgraded with “neural network” chips that will have some rudimentary capabilities to recognize things like license plates, or the outline of a face that could then be uploaded for more powerful number crunching elsewhere. Your car’s cameras already have this, for backup warnings and lane departure warnings, soon all security cameras will have something like this. Likewise, the Internet is steadily being upgraded to replace TV broadcast, where everyone can stream from Netflix all the time, so high-bandwidth streams from cameras will become more of the norm.

Even getting behind a firewall to the camera will change in the future, as owners will simply store surveillance video in the cloud instead of locally. Thus, the hypothetical hacker would only need to hack a small number of surveillance camera companies instead of a billion security cameras.

Evil villain lair: ghost airplane

The evil villain in the movie (named “Cipher”, or course) has her secret headquarters on an airplane that flies along satellite “blind spots” so that it can’t be tracked.

This is nonsense. Low resolution satellites, like NOAA satellites tracking the weather, cover the entire planet (well, as far as such airplanes are concerned, unless you are landing in Antartica). While such satellites might not see the plane, they can track the contrail (I mean, chemtrail). Conversely high resolution satellites miss most of the planet. If they haven’t been tasked to aim at something, they won’t see it. And they can’t be aimed at you unless they already know where you are. Sure, there are moving blind spots where even tasked satellites can’t find you, but it’s unlikely they’d be tracking you anyway.

Since the supervillain was a hacker, the airplane was full of computers. This is nonsense. Any compute power I need as a hacker is better left on the Earth’s surface, either by hacking cloud providers (like Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, or Rackspace), or by hiding data centers in Siberia and Tibet. All I need is satellite communication to the Internet from my laptop to be a supervillain. Indeed, I’m unlikely to get the bandwidth I need to process things on the plane. Instead, I’ll need to process everything on the Earth anyway, and send the low-bandwidth results to the plane.

In any case, if I were writing fiction, I’d have nuclear-powered airplanes that stayed aloft for months, operating out of remote bases in the Himalayas or Antartica.

EMP pulses

Small EMP pulse weapons exist, that’s not wholly fictional.

However, an EMP with the features, power, and effects in the movie is, of course, fictional. EMPs, even non-nuclear ones, are abused in films/TV so much that the Wikipedia pages on them spend a lot of time debunking them.

It would be cool if, one day, they used EMP realistically. In this movie, real missile-tipped with non-nuclear explosively-pumped flux compression generators could’ve been used for the same effect. Of course, simple explosives that blow up electronics also work.

Since hacking is the goto deus ex machina these days, they could’ve just had the hackers disable the power instead of using the EMP to do it.

Conclusion

In the movie, the hero uses his extraordinary driving skills to blow up a submarine. Given this level of willing disbelief, the exaggerated hacking is actually the least implausible bits of the movie. Indeed, as technology changes, making some of this more possible, the movie might be seen as predicting the future.

Estefannie’s Automated French Press

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/estefannie-automated-french-press/

Why press a french press when the french press can press itself? Here’s Estefannie to explain it all…

Internet Button Controlled Automated French Press

Hey World! What’s better than making coffee? Not making coffee. But still drinking coffee. I decided to make my own automated French Press machine. To automate it, I used a Raspberry Pi, a Photon (Internet Button), two stepper motors, wood, glue, and a lot of imagination.

Okay, okay. I’m sure you get it by now. Here at Pi Towers, we love a good coffee hack. In truth, we love any coffee hack. And we also love Estefannie … so you can see where today’s blog is going.

Building an automated french press

For the build, Estefannie uses the Particle Internet Button to tell a wooden castle when it’s ready to press her coffee. Wooden castle? We’ll get there – hold on.

Estefannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi French Press

Wait, I said hold on … never mind.

The Internet Button houses a Photon, a small programmable WiFi development board for Internet of Things (IoT) prototyping. Alongside RGB LEDs, tactile buttons, and an accelerometer, the Internet Button allows wireless control, via the cloud, to the Raspberry Pi. Perfect for the self-pressing french press.

Esteffannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi French Press

Like so…

So, wooden castles? Two wooden castles act as housings for servo-powered screws that raise and lower the french press pressing bar. When the coffee is ready to be pressed, they turn in one direction, lowering the bar. When the press is complete, they turn the other way to raise it, giving access to the perfectly brewed coffee. Everything is controlled using Python code on the Raspberry Pi, triggered by the press of the Internet Button.

Esteffannie Explains it All Raspberry Pi French Press

The button has three states. Green indicates that everything is ready to press. Magenta indicates the four-minute brew time, and a rainbow tells you that your coffee is ready for consumption. Beautiful.

Automate your own

Once you have perfected the basic build, the same rig could be used to automate no end of household chores. How about setting a timer to slowly press tofu? Turning the rig on its side to open and close a door? Or how about raising and lowing the bar much more quickly to plunger the toilet? Too much? Yeah, I thought the same as I typed it.

You can find the code for the build on Estefannie’s Github. I also suggest subscribing to her YouTube channel for more fun tech hacks and Raspberry Pi builds.

Afterthought

If Simone Giertz is the Queen of Sh!tty Robots, is it fair to say that Estefannie is rightly claiming her spot at the Queen of un-Sh!tty ones?

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Over The Air: Exploiting Broadcom’s Wi-Fi Stack (Part 2) (Project Zero)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/719774/rss

Here’s the
second part
in the detailed Google Project Zero series on using the Broadcom
WiFi stack to compromise the host system. “In this post, we’ll
explore two distinct avenues for attacking the host operating system. In
the first part, we’ll discover and exploit vulnerabilities in the
communication protocols between the Wi-Fi firmware and the host, resulting
in code execution within the kernel. Along the way, we’ll also observe a
curious vulnerability which persisted until quite recently, using which
attackers were able to directly attack the internal communication protocols
without having to exploit the Wi-Fi SoC in the first place! In the second
part, we’ll explore hardware design choices allowing the Wi-Fi SoC in its
current configuration to fully control the host without requiring a
vulnerability in the first place.