Tag Archives: cloud services

What’s the Best Solution for Managing Digital Photos and Videos?

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/discovering-best-solution-for-photo-video-backup/

Digital Asset Management (DAM)

If you have spent any time, as we have, talking to photographers and videographers about how they back up and archive their digital photos and videos, then you know that there’s no one answer or solution that users have discovered to meet their needs.

Based on what we’ve heard, visual media artists are still searching for the best combination of software, hardware, and cloud storage to preserve their media, and to be able to search, retrieve, and reuse that media as easily as possible.

Yes, there are a number of solutions out there, and some users have created combinations of hardware, software, and services to meet their needs, but we have met few who claim to be satisfied with their solution for digital asset management (DAM), or expect that they will be using the same solution in just a year or two.

We’d like to open a dialog with professionals and serious amateurs to learn more about what you’re doing, what you’d like to do, and how Backblaze might fit into that solution.

We have a bit of cred in this field, as we currently have hundreds of petabytes of digital media files in our data centers from users of Backblaze Backup and Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage. We want to make our cloud services as useful as possible for photographers and videographers.

Tell Us Both Your Current Solution and Your Dream Solution

To get started, we’d love to hear from you about how you’re managing your photos and videos. Whether you’re an amateur or a professional, your experiences are valuable and will help us understand how to provide the best cloud component of a digital asset management solution.

Here are some questions to consider:

  • Are you using direct-attached drives, NAS (Network-Attached Storage), or offline storage for your media?
  • Do you use the cloud for media you’re actively working on?
  • Do you back up or archive to the cloud?
  • Did you have a catalog or record of the media that you’ve archived that you use to search and retrieve media?
  • What’s different about how you work in the field (or traveling) versus how you work in a studio (or at home)?
  • What software and/or hardware currently works for you?
  • What’s the biggest impediment to working in the way you’d really like to?
  • How could the cloud work better for you?

Please Contribute Your Ideas

To contribute, please answer the following two questions in the comments below or send an email to [email protected]. Please comment or email your response by December 22, 2017.

  1. How are you currently backing up your digital photos, video files, and/or file libraries/catalogs? Do you have a backup system that uses attached drives, a local network, the cloud, or offline storage media? Does it work well for you?
  2. Imagine your ideal digital asset backup setup. What would it look like? Don’t be constrained by current products, technologies, brands, or solutions. Invent a technology or product if you wish. Describe an ideal system that would work the way you want it to.

We know you have opinions about managing photos and videos. Bring them on!

We’re soliciting answers far and wide from amateurs and experts, weekend video makers and well-known professional photographers. We have a few amateur and professional photographers and videographers here at Backblaze, and they are contributing their comments, as well.

Once we have gathered all the responses, we’ll write a post on what we learned about how people are currently working and what they would do if anything were possible. Look for that post after the beginning of the year.

Don’t Miss Future Posts on Media Management

We don’t want you to miss our future posts on photography, videography, and digital asset management. To receive email notices of blog updates (and no spam, we promise), enter your email address above using the Join button at the top of the page.

Come Back on Thursday for our Photography Post (and a Special Giveaway, too)

This coming Thursday we’ll have a blog post about the different ways that photographers and videographers are currently managing their digital media assets.

Plus, you’ll have the chance to win a valuable hardware/software combination for digital media management that I am sure you will appreciate. (You’ll have to wait until Thursday to find out what the prize is, but it has a total value of over $700.)

Past Posts on Photography, Videography, and Digital Asset Management

We’ve written a number of blog posts about photos, videos, and managing digital assets. We’ve posted links to some of them below.

Four Tips To Help Photographers and Videographers Get The Most From B2

Four Tips To Help Photographers and Videographers Get The Most From B2

How to Back Up Your Mac’s Photos Library

How to Back Up Your Mac’s Photos Library

How To Back Up Your Flickr Library

How To Back Up Your Flickr Library

Getting Video Archives Out of Your Closet

Getting Video Archives Out of Your Closet

B2 Cloud Storage Roundup

B2 Cloud Storage Roundup

Backing Up Photos While Traveling

Backing up photos while traveling – feedback

Should I Use an External Drive for Backup?

Should I use an external drive for backup?

How to Connect your Synology NAS to B2

How to Connect your Synology NAS to B2

The post What’s the Best Solution for Managing Digital Photos and Videos? appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Say Hello To Our Newest AWS Community Heroes (Fall 2017 Edition)

Post Syndicated from Sara Rodas original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/say-hello-to-our-newest-aws-community-heroes-fall-2017-edition/

The AWS Community Heroes program helps shine a spotlight on some of the innovative work being done by rockstar AWS developers around the globe. Marrying cloud expertise with a passion for community building and education, these heroes share their time and knowledge across social media and through in-person events. Heroes also actively help drive community-led tracks at conferences. At this year’s re:Invent, many Heroes will be speaking during the Monday Community Day track.

This November, we are thrilled to have four Heroes joining our network of cloud innovators. Without further ado, meet to our newest AWS Community Heroes!

 

Anh Ho Viet

Anh Ho Viet is the founder of AWS Vietnam User Group, Co-founder & CEO of OSAM, an AWS Consulting Partner in Vietnam, an AWS Certified Solutions Architect, and a cloud lover.

At OSAM, Anh and his enthusiastic team have helped many companies, from SMBs to Enterprises, move to the cloud with AWS. They offer a wide range of services, including migration, consultation, architecture, and solution design on AWS. Anh’s vision for OSAM is beyond a cloud service provider; the company will take part in building a complete AWS ecosystem in Vietnam, where other companies are encouraged to become AWS partners through training and collaboration activities.

In 2016, Anh founded the AWS Vietnam User Group as a channel to share knowledge and hands-on experience among cloud practitioners. Since then, the community has reached more than 4,800 members and is still expanding. The group holds monthly meetups, connects many SMEs to AWS experts, and provides real-time, free-of-charge consultancy to startups. In August 2017, Anh joined as lead content creator of a program called “Cloud Computing Lectures for Universities” which includes translating AWS documentation & news into Vietnamese, providing students with fundamental, up-to-date knowledge of AWS cloud computing, and supporting students’ career paths.

 

Thorsten Höger

Thorsten Höger is CEO and Cloud consultant at Taimos, where he is advising customers on how to use AWS. Being a developer, he focuses on improving development processes and automating everything to build efficient deployment pipelines for customers of all sizes.

Before being self-employed, Thorsten worked as a developer and CTO of Germany’s first private bank running on AWS. With his colleagues, he migrated the core banking system to the AWS platform in 2013. Since then he organizes the AWS user group in Stuttgart and is a frequent speaker at Meetups, BarCamps, and other community events.

As a supporter of open source software, Thorsten is maintaining or contributing to several projects on Github, like test frameworks for AWS Lambda, Amazon Alexa, or developer tools for CloudFormation. He is also the maintainer of the Jenkins AWS Pipeline plugin.

In his spare time, he enjoys indoor climbing and cooking.

 

Becky Zhang

Yu Zhang (Becky Zhang) is COO of BootDev, which focuses on Big Data solutions on AWS and high concurrency web architecture. Before she helped run BootDev, she was working at Yubis IT Solutions as an operations manager.

Becky plays a key role in the AWS User Group Shanghai (AWSUGSH), regularly organizing AWS UG events including AWS Tech Meetups and happy hours, gathering AWS talent together to communicate the latest technology and AWS services. As a female in technology industry, Becky is keen on promoting Women in Tech and encourages more woman to get involved in the community.

Becky also connects the China AWS User Group with user groups in other regions, including Korea, Japan, and Thailand. She was invited as a panelist at AWS re:Invent 2016 and spoke at the Seoul AWS Summit this April to introduce AWS User Group Shanghai and communicate with other AWS User Groups around the world.

Besides events, Becky also promotes the Shanghai AWS User Group by posting AWS-related tech articles, event forecasts, and event reports to Weibo, Twitter, Meetup.com, and WeChat (which now has over 2000 official account followers).

 

Nilesh Vaghela

Nilesh Vaghela is the founder of ElectroMech Corporation, an AWS Cloud and open source focused company (the company started as an open source motto). Nilesh has been very active in the Linux community since 1998. He started working with AWS Cloud technologies in 2013 and in 2014 he trained a dedicated cloud team and started full support of AWS cloud services as an AWS Standard Consulting Partner. He always works to establish and encourage cloud and open source communities.

He started the AWS Meetup community in Ahmedabad in 2014 and as of now 12 Meetups have been conducted, focusing on various AWS technologies. The Meetup has quickly grown to include over 2000 members. Nilesh also created a Facebook group for AWS enthusiasts in Ahmedabad, with over 1500 members.

Apart from the AWS Meetup, Nilesh has delivered a number of seminars, workshops, and talks around AWS introduction and awareness, at various organizations, as well as at colleges and universities. He has also been active in working with startups, presenting AWS services overviews and discussing how startups can benefit the most from using AWS services.

Nilesh is Red Hat Linux Technologies and AWS Cloud Technologies trainer as well.

 

To learn more about the AWS Community Heroes Program and how to get involved with your local AWS community, click here.

Backing Up WordPress

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backing-up-wordpress/

WordPress cloud backup
WordPress logo

WordPress is the most popular CMS (Content Management System) for websites, with almost 30% of all websites in the world using WordPress. That’s a lot of sites — over 350 million!

In this post we’ll talk about the different approaches to keeping the data on your WordPress website safe.


Stop the Presses! (Or the Internet!)

As we were getting ready to publish this post, we received news from UpdraftPlus, one of the biggest WordPress plugin developers, that they are supporting Backblaze B2 as a storage solution for their backup plugin. They shipped the update (1.13.9) this week. This is great news for Backblaze customers! UpdraftPlus is also offering a 20% discount to Backblaze customers wishing to purchase or upgrade to UpdraftPlus Premium. The complete information is below.

UpdraftPlus joins backup plugin developer XCloner — Backup and Restore in supporting Backblaze B2. A third developer, BlogVault, also announced their intent to support Backblaze B2. Contact your favorite WordPress backup plugin developer and urge them to support Backblaze B2, as well.

Now, back to our post…


Your WordPress website data is on a web server that’s most likely located in a large data center. You might wonder why it is necessary to have a backup of your website if it’s in a data center. Website data can be lost in a number of ways, including mistakes by the website owner (been there), hacking, or even domain ownership dispute (I’ve seen it happen more than once). A website backup also can provide a history of changes you’ve made to the website, which can be useful. As an overall strategy, it’s best to have a backup of any data that you can’t afford to lose for personal or business reasons.

Your web hosting company might provide backup services as part of your hosting plan. If you are using their service, you should know where and how often your data is being backed up. You don’t want to find out too late that your backup plan was not adequate.

Sites on WordPress.com are automatically backed up by VaultPress (Automattic), which also is available for self-hosted WordPress installations. If you don’t want the work or decisions involved in managing the hosting for your WordPress site, WordPress.com will handle it for you. You do, however, give up some customization abilities, such as the option to add plugins of your own choice.

Very large and active websites might consider WordPress VIP by Automattic, or another premium WordPress hosting service such as Pagely.com.

This post is about backing up self-hosted WordPress sites, so we’ll focus on those options.

WordPress Backup

Backup strategies for WordPress can be divided into broad categories depending on 1) what you back up, 2) when you back up, and 3) where the data is backed up.

With server data, such as with a WordPress installation, you should plan to have three copies of the data (the 3-2-1 backup strategy). The first is the active data on the WordPress web server, the second is a backup stored on the web server or downloaded to your local computer, and the third should be in another location, such as the cloud.

We’ll talk about the different approaches to backing up WordPress, but we recommend using a WordPress plugin to handle your backups. A backup plugin can automate the task, optimize your backup storage space, and alert you of problems with your backups or WordPress itself. We’ll cover plugins in more detail, below.

What to Back Up?

The main components of your WordPress installation are:

You should decide which of these elements you wish to back up. The database is the top priority, as it contains all your website posts and pages (exclusive of media). Your current theme is important, as it likely contains customizations you’ve made. Following those in priority are any other files you’ve customized or made changes to.

You can choose to back up the WordPress core installation and plugins, if you wish, but these files can be downloaded again if necessary from the source, so you might not wish to include them. You likely have all the media files you use on your website on your local computer (which should be backed up), so it is your choice whether to back these up from the server as well.

If you wish to be able to recreate your entire website easily in case of data loss or disaster, you might choose to back up everything, though on a large website this could be a lot of data.

Generally, you should 1) prioritize any file that you’ve customized that you can’t afford to lose, and 2) decide whether you need a copy of everything in order to get your site back up quickly. These choices will determine your backup method and the amount of storage you need.

A good backup plugin for WordPress enables you to specify which files you wish to back up, and even to create separate backups and schedules for different backup contents. That’s another good reason to use a plugin for backing up WordPress.

When to Back Up?

You can back up manually at any time by using the Export tool in WordPress. This is handy if you wish to do a quick backup of your site or parts of it. Since it is manual, however, it is not a part of a dependable backup plan that should be done regularly. If you wish to use this tool, go to Tools, Export, and select what you wish to back up. The output will be an XML file that uses the WordPress Extended RSS format, also known as WXR. You can create a WXR file that contains all of the information on your site or just portions of the site, such as posts or pages by selecting: All content, Posts, Pages, or Media.
Note: You can use WordPress’s Export tool for sites hosted on WordPress.com, as well.

Export instruction for WordPress

Many of the backup plugins we’ll be discussing later also let you do a manual backup on demand in addition to regularly scheduled or continuous backups.

Note:  Another use of the WordPress Export tool and the WXR file is to transfer or clone your website to another server. Once you have exported the WXR file from the website you wish to transfer from, you can import the WXR file from the Tools, Import menu on the new WordPress destination site. Be aware that there are file size limits depending on the settings on your web server. See the WordPress Codex entry for more information. To make this job easier, you may wish to use one of a number of WordPress plugins designed specifically for this task.

You also can manually back up the WordPress MySQL database using a number of tools or a plugin. The WordPress Codex has good information on this. All WordPress plugins will handle this for you and do it automatically. They also typically include tools for optimizing the database tables, which is just good housekeeping.

A dependable backup strategy doesn’t rely on manual backups, which means you should consider using one of the many backup plugins available either free or for purchase. We’ll talk more about them below.

Which Format To Back Up In?

In addition to the WordPress WXR format, plugins and server tools will use various file formats and compression algorithms to store and compress your backup. You may get to choose between zip, tar, tar.gz, tar.gz2, and others. See The Most Common Archive File Formats for more information on these formats.

Select a format that you know you can access and unarchive should you need access to your backup. All of these formats are standard and supported across operating systems, though you might need to download a utility to access the file.

Where To Back Up?

Once you have your data in a suitable format for backup, where do you back it up to?

We want to have multiple copies of our active website data, so we’ll choose more than one destination for our backup data. The backup plugins we’ll discuss below enable you to specify one or more possible destinations for your backup. The possible destinations for your backup include:

A backup folder on your web server
A backup folder on your web server is an OK solution if you also have a copy elsewhere. Depending on your hosting plan, the size of your site, and what you include in the backup, you may or may not have sufficient disk space on the web server. Some backup plugins allow you to configure the plugin to keep only a certain number of recent backups and delete older ones, saving you disk space on the server.
Email to you
Because email servers have size limitations, the email option is not the best one to use unless you use it to specifically back up just the database or your main theme files.
FTP, SFTP, SCP, WebDAV
FTP, SFTP, SCP, and WebDAV are all widely-supported protocols for transferring files over the internet and can be used if you have access credentials to another server or supported storage device that is suitable for storing a backup.
Sync service (Dropbox, SugarSync, Google Drive, OneDrive)
A sync service is another possible server storage location though it can be a pricier choice depending on the plan you have and how much you wish to store.
Cloud storage (Backblaze B2, Amazon S3, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure, Rackspace)
A cloud storage service can be an inexpensive and flexible option with pay-as-you go pricing for storing backups and other data.

A good website backup strategy would be to have multiple backups of your website data: one in a backup folder on your web hosting server, one downloaded to your local computer, and one in the cloud, such as with Backblaze B2.

If I had to choose just one of these, I would choose backing up to the cloud because it is geographically separated from both your local computer and your web host, it uses fault-tolerant and redundant data storage technologies to protect your data, and it is available from anywhere if you need to restore your site.

Backup Plugins for WordPress

Probably the easiest and most common way to implement a solid backup strategy for WordPress is to use one of the many backup plugins available for WordPress. Fortunately, there are a number of good ones and are available free or in “freemium” plans in which you can use the free version and pay for more features and capabilities only if you need them. The premium options can give you more flexibility in configuring backups or have additional options for where you can store the backups.

How to Choose a WordPress Backup Plugin

screenshot of WordPress plugins search

When considering which plugin to use, you should take into account a number of factors in making your choice.

Is the plugin actively maintained and up-to-date? You can determine this from the listing in the WordPress Plugin Repository. You also can look at reviews and support comments to get an idea of user satisfaction and how well issues are resolved.

Does the plugin work with your web hosting provider? Generally, well-supported plugins do, but you might want to check to make sure there are no issues with your hosting provider.

Does it support the cloud service or protocol you wish to use? This can be determined from looking at the listing in the WordPress Plugin Repository or on the developer’s website. Developers often will add support for cloud services or other backup destinations based on user demand, so let the developer know if there is a feature or backup destination you’d like them to add to their plugin.

Other features and options to consider in choosing a backup plugin are:

  • Whether encryption of your backup data is available
  • What are the options for automatically deleting backups from the storage destination?
  • Can you globally exclude files, folders, and specific types of files from the backup?
  • Do the options for scheduling automatic backups meet your needs for frequency?
  • Can you exclude/include specific database tables (a good way to save space in your backup)?

WordPress Backup Plugins Review

Let’s review a few of the top choices for WordPress backup plugins.

UpdraftPlus

UpdraftPlus is one of the most popular backup plugins for WordPress with over one million active installations. It is available in both free and Premium versions.

UpdraftPlus just released support for Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage in their 1.13.9 update on September 25. According to the developer, support for Backblaze B2 was the most frequent request for a new storage option for their plugin. B2 support is available in their Premium plugin and as a stand-alone update to their standard product.

Note: The developers of UpdraftPlus are offering a special 20% discount to Backblaze customers on the purchase of UpdraftPlus Premium by using the coupon code backblaze20. The discount is valid until the end of Friday, October 6th, 2017.

screenshot of Backblaze B2 cloud backup for WordPress in UpdraftPlus

XCloner — Backup and Restore

XCloner — Backup and Restore is a useful open-source plugin with many options for backing up WordPress.

XCloner supports B2 Cloud Storage in their free plugin.

screenshot of XCloner WordPress Backblaze B2 backup settings

BlogVault

BlogVault describes themselves as a “complete WordPress backup solution.” They offer a free trial of their paid WordPress backup subscription service that features real-time backups of changes to your WordPress site, as well as many other features.

BlogVault has announced their intent to support Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage in a future update.

screenshot of BlogValut WordPress Backup settings

BackWPup

BackWPup is a popular and free option for backing up WordPress. It supports a number of options for storing your backup, including the cloud, FTP, email, or on your local computer.

screenshot of BackWPup WordPress backup settings

WPBackItUp

WPBackItUp has been around since 2012 and is highly rated. It has both free and paid versions.

screenshot of WPBackItUp WordPress backup settings

VaultPress

VaultPress is part of Automattic’s well-known WordPress product, JetPack. You will need a JetPack subscription plan to use VaultPress. There are different pricing plans with different sets of features.

screenshot of VaultPress backup settings

Backup by Supsystic

Backup by Supsystic supports a number of options for backup destinations, encryption, and scheduling.

screenshot of Backup by Supsystic backup settings

BackupWordPress

BackUpWordPress is an open-source project on Github that has a popular and active following and many positive reviews.

screenshot of BackupWordPress WordPress backup settings

BackupBuddy

BackupBuddy, from iThemes, is the old-timer of backup plugins, having been around since 2010. iThemes knows a lot about WordPress, as they develop plugins, themes, utilities, and provide training in WordPress.

BackupBuddy’s backup includes all WordPress files, all files in the WordPress Media library, WordPress themes, and plugins. BackupBuddy generates a downloadable zip file of the entire WordPress website. Remote storage destinations also are supported.

screenshot of BackupBuddy settings

WordPress and the Cloud

Do you use WordPress and back up to the cloud? We’d like to hear about it. We’d also like to hear whether you are interested in using B2 Cloud Storage for storing media files served by WordPress. If you are, we’ll write about it in a future post.

In the meantime, keep your eye out for new plugins supporting Backblaze B2, or better yet, urge them to support B2 if they’re not already.

The Best Backup Strategy is the One You Use

There are other approaches and tools for backing up WordPress that you might use. If you have an approach that works for you, we’d love to hear about it in the comments.

The post Backing Up WordPress appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Surviving Your First Year

Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/startup-stages-surviving-your-first-year/

Surviving Your First Year

This post by Backblaze’s CEO and co-founder Gleb Budman is the fifth in a series about entrepreneurship. You can choose posts in the series from the list below:

  1. How Backblaze got Started: The Problem, The Solution, and the Stuff In-Between
  2. Building a Competitive Moat: Turning Challenges Into Advantages
  3. From Idea to Launch: Getting Your First Customers
  4. How to Get Your First 1,000 Customers
  5. Surviving Your First Year

Use the Join button above to receive notification of new posts in this series.

In my previous posts, I talked about coming up with an idea, determining the solution, and getting your first customers. But you’re building a company, not a product. Let’s talk about what the first year should look like.

The primary goals for that first year are to: 1) set up the company; 2) build, launch, and learn; and 3) survive.

Setting Up the Company

The company you’re building is more than the product itself, and you’re not going to do it alone. You don’t want to spend too much time on this since getting customers is key, but if you don’t set up the basics, there are all sorts of issues down the line.

startup idea board

Find Your Co-Founders & Determine Roles

You may already have the idea, but who do you need to execute it? At Backblaze, we needed people to build the web experience, the client backup application, and the server/storage side. We also needed someone to handle the business/marketing aspects, and we felt that the design and user experience were critical. As a result, we started with five co-founders: three engineers, a designer, and me for the business and marketing.

Of course not every role needs to be filled by a co-founder. You can hire employees for positions as well. But think through the strategic skills you’ll need to launch and consider co-founders with those skill sets.

Too many people think they can just “work together” on everything. Don’t. Determine roles as quickly as possible so that it’s clear who is responsible for what work and which decisions. We were lucky in that we had worked together and thus knew what each person would do, but even so we assigned titles early on to clarify roles.

Takeaway:   Fill critical roles and explicitly split roles and responsibilities.

Get Your Legal Basics In Place

When we’re excited about building a product, legal basics are often the last thing we want to deal with. You don’t need to go overboard, but it’s critical to get certain things done.

  1. Determine ownership split. What is the percentage breakdown of the company that each of the founders will own? It can be a tough discussion, but it only becomes more difficult later when there is more value and people have put more time into it. At Backblaze we split the equity equally five ways. This is uncommon. The benefit of this is that all the founders feel valued and “in it together.” The benefit of the more common split where someone has a dominant share is that person is typically empowered to be the ultimate decision-maker. Slicing Pie provides some guidance on how to think about splitting equity. Regardless of which way you want you go, don’t put it off.
  2. Incorporate. Hard to be a company if you’re not. There are various formats, but if you plan to raise angel/venture funding, a Delaware-based C-corp is standard.
  3. Deal With Stock. At a minimum, issue stock to the founders, have each one buy their shares, and file an 83(b). Buying your shares at this stage might be $100. Filing the 83(b) election marks the date at which you purchased your shares, and shows that you bought them for what they were worth. This one piece of paper paper can make the difference between paying long-term capital gains rates (~20%) or income tax rates (~40%).
  4. Assign Intellectual Property. Ask everyone to sign a Proprietary Information and Inventions Assignment (“PIIA”). This document says that what they do at the company is owned by the company. Early on we had a friend who came by and brainstormed ideas. We thought of it as interesting banter. He later said he owned part of our storage design. While we worked it out together, a PIIA makes ownership clear.

The ownership split can be worked out by the founders directly. For the other items, I would involve lawyers. Some law firms will set up the basics and defer payment until you raise money or the business can pay for services out of operations. Gunderson Dettmer did that for us (ask for Bennett Yee). Cooley will do this on a casey-by-case basis as well.

Takeaway:  Don’t let the excitement of building a company distract you from filing the basic legal documents required to protect and grow your company.

Get Health Insurance

This item may seem out of place, but not having health insurance can easily bankrupt you personally, and that certainly won’t bode well for your company. While you can buy individual health insurance, it will often be less expensive to buy it as a company. Also, it will make recruiting employees more difficult if you do not offer healthcare. When we contacted brokers they asked us to send the W-2 of each employee that wanted coverage, but the founders weren’t taking a salary at first. To work around this, make the founders ‘officers’ of the company, and the healthcare brokers can then insure them. (Of course, you need to be ok with your co-founders being officers, but hopefully, that is logical anyway.)

Takeaway:  Don’t take your co-founders’ physical and financial health for granted. Health insurance can serve as both individual protection and a recruiting tool for future employees.

Building, Launching & Learning

Getting the company set up gives you the foundation, but ultimately a company with no product and no customers isn’t very interesting.

Build

Ideally, you have one person on the team focusing on all of the items above and everyone else can be heads-down building product. There is a lot to say about building product, but for this post, I’ll just say that your goal is to get something out the door that is good enough to start collecting feedback. It doesn’t have to have every feature you dream of and doesn’t have to support 1 billion users on day one.

Launch

If you’re building a car or rocket, that may take some time. But with the availability of open-source software and cloud services, most startups should launch inside of a year.

Launching forces a scoping of the feature set to what’s critical, rallies the company around a goal, starts building awareness of your company and solution, and pushes forward the learning process. Backblaze launched in public beta on June 2, 2008, eight months after the founders all started working on it full-time.

Takeaway:  Focus on the most important features and launch.

Learn & Iterate

As much as we think we know about the customers and their needs, the launch process and beyond opens up all sorts of insights. This early period is critical to collect feedback and iterate, especially while both the product and company are still quite malleable. We initially planned on building peer-to-peer and local backup immediately on the heels of our online offering, but after launching found minimal demand for those features. On the other hand, there was tremendous demand from companies and resellers.

Takeaway:  Use the critical post-launch period to collect feedback and iterate.

Surviving

“Live to fight another day.” If the company doesn’t survive, it’s hard to change the world. Let’s talk about some of the survival components.

Consider What You As A Founding Team Want & How You Work

Are you doing this because you hope to get rich? See yourself on the cover of Fortune? Make your own decisions? Work from home all the time? Founder fighting is the number one reason companies fail; the founders need to be on the same page as much as possible.

At Backblaze we agreed very early on that we wanted three things:

  1. Build products we were proud of
  2. Have fun
  3. Make money

This has driven various decisions over the years and has evolved into being part of the culture. For example, while Backblaze is absolutely a company with a profit motive, we do not compromise the product to make more money. Other directions are not bad; they’re just different.

Do you want a lifestyle business? Or want to build a billion dollar business? Want to run it forever or build it for a couple years and do something else?

Pretend you’re getting married to each other. Do some introspection and talk about your vision of the future a lot. Do you expect everyone to work 20 or 100 hours every week? In the office or remote? How do you like to work? What pet peeves do you have?

When getting married each person brings the “life they’ve known,” often influenced by the life their parents lived. Together they need to decide which aspects of their previous lives they want to keep, toss, or change. As founders coming together, you have the same opportunity for your new company.

Takeaway:  In order for a company to survive, the founders must agree on what they want the company to be. Have the discussions early.

Determine How You Will Fund Your Business

Raising venture capital is often seen as the only path, and considered the most important thing to start doing on day one. However, there are a variety of options for funding your business, including using money from savings, part-time work, friends & family money, loans, angels, and customers. Consider the right option for you, your founding team, and your business.

Conserve Cash

Whichever option you choose for funding your business, chances are high that you will not be flush with cash on day one. In certain situations, you actually don’t want to conserve cash because you’ve raised $100m and now you want to run as fast as you can to capture a market — cash is plentiful and time is not. However, with the exception of founder struggles, running out of cash is the most common way companies go under. There are many ways to conserve cash — limit hiring of employees and consultants, use lawyers and accountants sparingly, don’t spend on advertising, work from a home office, etc. The most important way is to simply ensure that you and your team are cash conscious, challenging decisions that commit you to spending cash.

Backblaze spent a total of $94,122 to get to public beta launch. That included building the backup application, our own server infrastructure, the website with account/billing/restore functionality, the marketing involved in getting to launch, and all the steps above in setting up the company, paying for healthcare, etc. The five founders took no salary during this time (which, of course, would have cost dramatically more), so most of this money went to computers, servers, hard drives, and other infrastructure.

Takeaway:  Minimize cash burn — it extends your runway and gives you options.

Slowly Flesh Out Your Team

We started with five co-founders, and thus a fairly fleshed-out team. A year in, we only added one person, a Mac architect. Three months later we shipped a beta of our Mac version, which has resulted in more than 50% of our revenue.

Minimizing hiring is key to cash conservation, and hiring ahead of getting market feedback is risky since you may realize that the talent you need will change. However, once you start getting feedback, think about the key people that you need to move your company forward. But be rigorous in determining whether they’re critical. We didn’t hire our first customer support person until all five founders were spending 20% of their time on it.

Takeaway:  Don’t hire in anticipation of market growth; hire to fuel the growth.

Keep Your Spirits Up

Startups are roller coasters of emotion. There have been some serious articles about founders suffering from depression and worse. The idea phase is exhilarating, then there is the slog of building. The launch is a blast, but the week after there are crickets.

On June 2, 2008, we launched in public beta with great press and hordes of customers. But a few months later we were signing up only about 10 new customers per month. That’s $50 new monthly recurring revenue (MRR) after a year of work and no salary.

On August 25, 2008, we brought on our Mac architect. Two months later, on October 26, 2008, Apple launched Time Machine — completely free and built-in backup for all Macs.

There were plenty of times when our prospects looked bleak. In the rearview mirror it’s easy to say, “well sure, but now you have lots of customers,” or “yes, but Time Machine doesn’t do cloud backup.” But at the time neither of these were a given.

Takeaway:  Getting up each day and believing that as a team you’ll figure it out will let you get to the point where you can look in the rearview mirror and say, “It looked bleak back then.”

Succeeding in Your First Year

I titled the post “Surviving Your First Year,” but if you manage to, 1) set up the company; 2) build, launch, and learn; and 3) survive, you will have done more than survive: you’ll have truly succeeded in your first year.

The post Surviving Your First Year appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

The Things Pirates Do To Hinder Anti-Piracy Investigations

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/the-things-pirates-do-to-hinder-anti-piracy-outfits-170909/

Dedicated Internet pirates dealing in fresh content or operating at any significant scale can be pretty sure that rightsholders and their anti-piracy colleagues are interested in their activities at some level.

With this in mind, most pirates these days are aware of things they can do to enhance their security, with products like VPNs often get discussed on the consumer side.

This week, in a report detailing the challenges social media poses to intellectual property rights, UK anti-piracy outfit Federation Against Copyright Theft published a list of techniques deployed by pirates that hinder their investigations.

Fake/hidden website registration details

“Website registration details are often fake or hidden, which provides no further links to the person controlling the domain and its illegal activities,” the group reveals.

Protected WHOIS records are nothing new and can sometimes be uncloaked by a determined adversary via court procedures. However, in the early stages of an investigation, open records provide leads that can be extremely useful in building an early picture about who might be involved in the operation of a website.

Having them hidden is a definite plus for pirate site operators, especially when the underlying details are also fake, which is particularly common practice. And, with companies like Peter Sunde’s Njalla entering the market, hiding registrations is easier than ever.

Overseas servers

“Investigating servers located offshore cause some specific problems for FACT’s law-enforcement partners. In order to complete a full investigation into an offshore server, a law-enforcement agency must liaise with its counterpart in the country where the server is located. The difficulties of obtaining evidence from other countries are well known,” FACT notes.

While FACT no doubt corresponds with entities overseas, the anti-piracy outfit has a history of targeting UK citizens who are reportedly infringing copyright. It regularly involves UK police in its investigations (FACT itself employs former police officers) but jurisdiction is necessarily limited to the UK.

It is possible to get overseas law enforcement entities involved to seize a server, for example, but they have to be convinced of the need to do so by the police, which isn’t easy and is usually reserved for more serious cases. The bottom line is that by placing a server a long way away from a pirate’s home territory, things can be made much more difficult for local investigators.

Torrent websites and DMCA compliance

“Some torrent website operators who maintain a high DMCA compliance rate will often use this to try to appease the law, while continuing to provide infringing links,” FACT says.

This is an interesting one. Under law in both the United States and Europe, service providers are required to remove infringing content from their systems when they are notified of its existence by a rightsholder or its agent. Not doing so can render them liable, if the content is indeed infringing.

What FACT appears to be saying is that sites that comply with the law, by removing infringing content when asked to, become more difficult targets for legal action. It sounds very obvious but the underlying suggestion is that compliance on the surface is used as a protective mechanism. No example sites are mentioned but the strategy has clearly hindered FACT.

Current legislation too vague to remove infringing live sports streams

“Current legislation is insufficient to effectively tackle the issue of websites illegally offering coverage of live sports events. Section 512 (c) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) states that: upon notification of claimed infringement, the service provider should ‘respond expeditiously’ to remove or disable access to the copyright-infringing material. Most live sports events are under two hours long, so such non-specific timeframes for required action are inadequate,” FACT complains.

Since government reports like these can take a long time to prepare, it appears that FACT and its partners may have already found a solution to this particular problem. Major FACT client the Premier League now has a High Court injunction in place which allows it to block infringing streams on a real-time basis. It doesn’t remove the content at its source, but it still renders it largely inaccessible in the UK.

Nevertheless, FACT calls for takedowns to be actioned more swiftly, noting that “the law needs to reflect this narrow timeframe with a specified required response period for websites offering such live feeds.”

Camming content directly from cinema screen to the cloud

“Recent advancements in technology have made this a viable option to ‘cammers’ to avoid detection. Attempts to curtail and delete illicitly recorded film footage may become increasingly difficult with the emergence of streaming apps that automatically upload recorded video to cloud services,” FACT reports.

Over the years, FACT has been involved in numerous operations to hinder those who record movies with cameras in theaters and then upload them to the Internet. Once the perpetrator has exited the theater, FACT has effectively lost the battle, but the possibility that a live upload can now take place is certainly an interesting proposition.

“While enforcing officers may delete the footage held on the device, the footage has potentially already been stored remotely on a cloud system,” FACT warns.

Equally, this could also prove a problem for those seeking to secure evidence. With a cloud upload, the person doing the recording could safely delete the footage from the local device. That could be an obstacle to proving that an offense had even been committed when a suspect is confronted in situ.

Virtual currencies

“There is great potential in virtual currencies for money launderers and illicit traders. Government and law enforcement have raised concerns on how virtual currencies can be sent anonymously, leaving little or no trail for regulators or law-enforcement agencies,” FACT writes.

For many years, pirates of all kinds have relied on systems like PayPal, Mastercard, and Visa, to shift money around. However, these payment systems are now more difficult to deploy on pirate services and are more easily traced, even when operators manage to squeeze them through the gaps.

The same cannot be said of bitcoin and similar currencies that are gaining in popularity all the time. They are harder to use, of course, but there’s little doubt accessibility issues will be innovated out of the equation at some point. Once that happens, these currencies will be a force to be reckoned with.

The UK government’s Share and Share Alike report, which examines the challenges social media poses to intellectual property rights, can be downloaded here (pdf)

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

The First AWS Regional Financial Services Guide Focuses on Singapore

Post Syndicated from Jodi Scrofani original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/the-first-aws-regional-financial-services-guide-focuses-on-singapore/

Financial Services image

To help Financial Services clients address Singapore’s regulations on financial institutions in a shared responsibility environment, AWS has published the AWS User Guide to Financial Services Regulations and Guidelines in Singapore. This first-ever AWS Financial Services guide is the culmination of the work AWS has done in the last year to help customers navigate the Monetary Authority of Singapore’s 2016 updated guidelines about cloud services.

This new guide examines Singaporean requirements and guidelines, providing information that will help you conduct due diligence on AWS with regard to IT security and risk management. The guide also shares leading practices to empower you to develop your own governance programs by using AWS.

The guide focuses on three top considerations for financial institutions operating in Singapore:

  • Outsourcing guidelines – Conduct a self-assessment of AWS services and align your governance requirements within a shared responsibility model.
  • Technology risk management – Take a deeper look at where shared responsibility exists for technology implementation and perform a self-assessment of AWS service responsibilities.
  • Cloud computing implementation – Assess additional responsibilities to ensure security and compliance with local guidelines.

We will release additional AWS Financial Services resource guides this year to help you understand the requirements in other markets around the globe. These guides will be posted on the AWS Compliance Resources page.

If you have questions or comments about this new guide, submit them in the “Comments” section below.

– Jodi

CockroachDB 1.0 released

Post Syndicated from ris original https://lwn.net/Articles/722382/rss

CockroachDB 1.0 has been released. “CockroachDB is a cloud-native SQL database for building global, scalable cloud services that survive disasters. But what does “cloud-native” actually mean? We believe the term implies horizontal scalability, no single points of failure, survivability, automatable operations, and no platform-specific encumbrances.

To realize these product goals, development over the past year has focused on three critical areas: distributed SQL to support small and large use cases alike and scale seamlessly between them; multi-active availability for always-consistent high availability; and flexible deployment for automatable operations in virtually any environment.”

Open Sourcing Athenz: Fine-Grained, Role-Based Access Control

Post Syndicated from mikesefanov original https://yahooeng.tumblr.com/post/160481899076

yahoocs:

By Lee Boynton, Henry Avetisyan, Ken Fox, Itsik Figenblat, Mujib Wahab, Gurpreet Kaur, Usha Parsa, and Preeti Somal

Today, we are pleased to offer Athenz, an open-source platform for fine-grained access control, to the community. Athenz is a role-based access control (RBAC) solution, providing trusted relationships between applications and services deployed within an organization requiring authorized access.

If you need to grant access to a set of resources that your applications or services manage, Athenz provides both a centralized and a decentralized authorization model to do so. Whether you are using container or VM technology independently or on bare metal, you may need a dynamic and scalable authorization solution. Athenz supports moving workloads from one node to another and gives new compute resources authorization to connect to other services within minutes, as opposed to relying on IP and network ACL solutions that take time to propagate within a large system. Moreover, in very high-scale situations, you may run out of the limited number of network ACL rules that your hardware can support.

Prior to creating Athenz, we had multiple ways of managing permissions and access control across all services within Yahoo. To simplify, we built a fine-grained, role-based authorization solution that would satisfy the feature and performance requirements our products demand. Athenz was built with open source in mind so as to share it with the community and further its development.

At Yahoo, Athenz authorizes the dynamic creation of compute instances and containerized workloads, secures builds and deployment of their artifacts to our Docker registry, and among other uses, manages the data access from our centralized key management system to an authorized application or service.

Athenz provides a REST-based set of APIs modeled in Resource Description Language (RDL) to manage all aspects of the authorization system, and includes Java and Go client libraries to quickly and easily integrate your application with Athenz. It allows product administrators to manage what roles are allowed or denied to their applications or services in a centralized management system through a self-serve UI.

Access Control Models

Athenz provides two authorization access control models based on your applications’ or services’ performance needs. More commonly used, the centralized access control model is ideal for provisioning and configuration needs. In instances where performance is absolutely critical for your applications or services, we provide a unique decentralized access control model that provides on-box enforcement of authorization.  

Athenz’s authorization system utilizes two types of tokens: principal tokens (N-Tokens) and role tokens (Z-Tokens). The principal token is an identity token that identifies either a user or a service. A service generates its principal token using that service’s private key. Role tokens authorize a given principal to assume some number of roles in a domain for a limited period of time. Like principal tokens, they are signed to prevent tampering. The name “Athenz” is derived from “Auth” and the ‘N’ and ‘Z’ tokens.

Centralized Access Control: The centralized access control model requires any Athenz-enabled application to contact the Athenz Management Service directly to determine if a specific authenticated principal (user and/or service) has been authorized to carry out the given action on the requested resource. At Yahoo, our internal continuous delivery solution uses this model. A service receives a simple Boolean answer whether or not the request should be processed or rejected. In this model, the Athenz Management Service is the only component that needs to be deployed and managed within your environment. Therefore, it is suitable for provisioning and configuration use cases where the number of requests processed by the server is small and the latency for authorization checks is not important.

The diagram below shows a typical control plane-provisioning request handled by an Athenz-protected service.

image

Athenz Centralized Access Control Model

Decentralized Access Control: This approach is ideal where the application is required to handle large number of requests per second and latency is a concern. It’s far more efficient to check authorization on the host itself and avoid the synchronous network call to a centralized Athenz Management Service. Athenz provides a way to do this with its decentralized service using a local policy engine library on the local box. At Yahoo, this is an approach we use for our centralized key management system. The authorization policies defining which roles have been authorized to carry out specific actions on resources, are asynchronously updated on application hosts and used by the Athenz local policy engine to evaluate the authorization check. In this model, a principal needs to contact the Athenz Token Service first to retrieve an authorization role token for the request and submit that token as part of its request to the Athenz protected service. The same role token can then be re-used for its lifetime.

The diagram below shows a typical decentralized authorization request handled by an Athenz-protected service.

image

Athenz Decentralized Access Control Model

With the power of an RBAC system in which you can choose a model to deploy according your performance latency needs, and the flexibility to choose either or both of the models in a complex environment of hosting platforms or products, it gives you the ability to run your business with agility and scale.

Looking to the Future

We are actively engaged in pushing the scale and reliability boundaries of Athenz. As we enhance Athenz, we look forward to working with the community on the following features:

  • Using local CA signed TLS certificates
  • Extending Athenz with a generalized model for service providers to launch instances with bootstrapped Athenz service identity TLS certificates
  • Integration with public cloud services like AWS. For example, launching an EC2 instance with a configured Athenz service identity or obtaining AWS temporary credentials based on authorization policies defined in ZMS.

Our goal is to integrate Athenz with other open source projects that require authorization support and we welcome contributions from the community to make that happen. It is available under Apache License Version 2.0. To evaluate Athenz, we provide both AWS AMI and Docker images so that you can quickly have a test development environment up and running with ZMS (Athenz Management Service), ZTS (Athenz Token Service), and UI services. Please join us on the path to making application authorization easy. Visit http://www.athenz.io to get started!

More Than One Dozen AWS Cloud Services Receive Department of Defense Impact Level 4 Provisional Authorizations in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region

Post Syndicated from Chad Woolf original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/more-than-one-dozen-aws-cloud-services-receive-department-of-defense-impact-level-4-provisional-authorizations-in-the-aws-govcloud-us-region/

AWS GovCloud (US) Region logo

Today, I am pleased to announce that the AWS GovCloud (US) Region has received Defense Information Systems Agency Impact Level 4 (IL4) Provisional Authorization (PA) for more than one dozen new services. The IL4 PA enables Department of Defense (DoD) customers to operate their mission-critical and regulated workloads in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region, with data up to the DoD Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide IL4.

The new AWS services added to the authorization include advanced database, low-cost storage, data warehouse, security, and configuration automation solutions that will help organizations with IL4 workloads increase the productivity and security of their data in the AWS Cloud. For example, with AWS CloudFormation you can deploy AWS resources by automating configuration processes. AWS Key Management Service enables you to create and control the encryption keys that you use to encrypt your data. With Amazon Redshift, you can analyze all your data by using your existing business intelligence tools and automate common administrative tasks to manage, monitor, and scale your data warehouse.

For a list of frequently asked questions, see AWS DoD Compliance page. For more information about AWS security and compliance, see the AWS Security Center and the AWS Compliance Center.

– Chad

Operating OpenStack at Scale

Post Syndicated from mikesefanov original https://yahooeng.tumblr.com/post/159795571841

By James Penick, Cloud Architect & Gurpreet Kaur, Product Manager

A version of this byline was originally written for and appears in CIO Review.

A successful private cloud presents a consistent and reliable facade over the complexities of hyperscale infrastructure. It must simultaneously handle constant organic traffic growth, unanticipated spikes, a multitude of hardware vendors, and discordant customer demands. The depth of this complexity only increases with the age of the business, leaving a private cloud operator saddled with legacy hardware, old network infrastructure, customers dependent on legacy operating systems, and the list goes on. These are the foundations of the horror stories told by grizzled operators around the campfire.

Providing a plethora of services globally for over a billion active users requires a hyperscale infrastructure. Yahoo’s on-premises infrastructure is comprised of datacenters housing hundreds of thousands of physical and virtual compute resources globally, connected via a multi-terabit network backbone. As one of the very first hyperscale internet companies in the world, Yahoo’s infrastructure had grown organically – things were built, and rebuilt, as the company learned and grew. The resulting web of modern and legacy infrastructure became progressively more difficult to manage. Initial attempts to manage this via IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) taught some hard lessons. However, those lessons served us well when OpenStack was selected to manage Yahoo’s datacenters, some of which are shared below.

Centralized team offering Infrastructure-as-a-Service

Chief amongst the lessons learned prior to OpenStack was that IaaS must be presented as a core service to the whole organization by a dedicated team. An a-la-carte-IaaS, where each user is expected to manage their own control plane and inventory, just isn’t sustainable at scale. Multiple teams tackling the same challenges involved in the curation of software, deployment, upkeep, and security within an organization is not just a duplication of effort; it removes the opportunity for improved synergy with all levels of the business. The first OpenStack cluster, with a centralized dedicated developer and service engineering team, went live in June 2012.  This model has served us well and has been a crucial piece of making OpenStack succeed at Yahoo. One of the biggest advantages to a centralized, core team is the ability to collaborate with the foundational teams upon which any business is built: Supply chain, Datacenter Site-Operations, Finance, and finally our customers, the engineering teams. Building a close relationship with these vital parts of the business provides the ability to streamline the process of scaling inventory and presenting on-demand infrastructure to the company.

Developers love instant access to compute resources

Our developer productivity clusters, named “OpenHouse,” were a huge hit. Ideation and experimentation are core to developers’ DNA at Yahoo. It empowers our engineers to innovate, prototype, develop, and quickly iterate on ideas. No longer is a developer reliant on a static and costly development machine under their desk. OpenHouse enables developer agility and cost savings by obviating the desktop.

Dynamic infrastructure empowers agile products

From a humble beginning of a single, small OpenStack cluster, Yahoo’s OpenStack footprint is growing beyond 100,000 VM instances globally, with our single largest virtual machine cluster running over a thousand compute nodes, without using Nova Cells.

Until this point, Yahoo’s production footprint was nearly 100% focused on baremetal – a part of the business that one cannot simply ignore. In 2013, Yahoo OpenStack Baremetal began to manage all new compute deployments. Interestingly, after moving to a common API to provision baremetal and virtual machines, there was a marked increase in demand for virtual machines.

Developers across all major business units ranging from Yahoo Mail, Video, News, Finance, Sports and many more, were thrilled with getting instant access to compute resources to hit the ground running on their projects. Today, the OpenStack team is continuing to fully migrate the business to OpenStack-managed. Our baremetal footprint is well beyond that of our VMs, with over 100,000 baremetal instances provisioned by OpenStack Nova via Ironic.

How did Yahoo hit this scale?  

Scaling OpenStack begins with understanding how its various components work and how they communicate with one another. This topic can be very deep and for the sake of brevity, we’ll hit the high points.

1. Start at the bottom and think about the underlying hardware

Do not overlook the unique resource constraints for the services which power your cloud, nor the fashion in which those services are to be used. Leverage that understanding to drive hardware selection. For example, when one examines the role of the database server in an OpenStack cluster, and considers the multitudinous calls to the database: compute node heartbeats, instance state changes, normal user operations, and so on; they would conclude this core component is extremely busy in even a modest-sized Nova cluster, and in need of adequate computational resources to perform. Yet many deployers skimp on the hardware. The performance of the whole cluster is bottlenecked by the DB I/O. By thinking ahead you can save yourself a lot of heartburn later on.

2. Think about how things communicate

Our cluster databases are configured to be multi-master single-writer with automated failover. Control plane services have been modified to split DB reads directly to the read slaves and only write to the write-master. This distributes load across the database servers.

3. Scale wide

OpenStack has many small horizontally-scalable components which can peacefully cohabitate on the same machines: the Nova, Keystone, and Glance APIs, for example. Stripe these across several small or modest hardware. Some services, such as the Nova scheduler, run the risk of race conditions when running multi-active. If the risk of race conditions is unacceptable, use ZooKeeper to manage leader election.

4. Remove dependencies

In a Yahoo datacenter, DHCP is only used to provision baremetal servers. By statically declaring IPs in our instances via cloud-init, our infrastructure is less prone to outage from a failure in the DHCP infrastructure.

5. Don’t be afraid to replace things

Neutron used Dnsmasq to provide DHCP services, however it was not designed to address the complexity or scale of a dynamic environment. For example, Dnsmasq must be restarted for any config change, such as when a new host is being provisioned.  In the Yahoo OpenStack clusters this has been replaced by ISC-DHCPD, which scales far better than Dnsmasq and allows dynamic configuration updates via an API.

6. Or split them apart

Some of the core imaging services provided by Ironic, such as DHCP, TFTP, and HTTPS communicate with a host during the provisioning process. These services are normally  part of the Ironic Conductor (IC) service. In our environment we split these services into a new and physically-distinct service called the Ironic Transport Service (ITS). This brings value by:

  • Adding security: Splitting the ITS from the IC allows us to block all network traffic from production compute nodes to the IC, and other parts of our control plane. If a malicious entity attacks a node serving production traffic, they cannot escalate from it  to our control plane.
  • Scale: The ITS hosts allow us to horizontally scale the core provisioning services with which nodes communicate.
  • Flexibility: ITS allows Yahoo to manage remote sites, such as peering points, without building a new cluster in that site. Resources in those sites can now be managed by the nearest Yahoo owned & operated (O&O) datacenter, without needing to build a whole cluster in each site.

Be prepared for faulty hardware!

Running IaaS reliably at hyperscale is more than just scaling the control plane. One must take a holistic look at the system and consider everything. In fact, when examining provisioning failures, our engineers determined the majority root cause was faulty hardware. For example, there are a number of machines from varying vendors whose IPMI firmware fails from time to time, leaving the host inaccessible to remote power management. Some fail within minutes or weeks of installation. These failures occur on many different models, across many generations, and across many hardware vendors. Exposing these failures to users would create a very negative experience, and the cloud must be built to tolerate this complexity.

Focus on the end state

Yahoo’s experience shows that one can run OpenStack at hyperscale, leveraging it to wrap infrastructure and remove perceived complexity. Correctly leveraged, OpenStack presents an easy, consistent, and error-free interface. Delivering this interface is core to our design philosophy as Yahoo continues to double down on our OpenStack investment. The Yahoo OpenStack team looks forward to continue collaborating with the OpenStack community to share feedback and code.

A History of Removable Computer Storage

Post Syndicated from Peter Cohen original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/history-removable-computer-storage/

A History of Removable Storage

Almost from the start we’ve had a problem with computers: They create and consume more data than we can economically store. Hundreds of companies have been created around the need for more computer storage. These days if we need space we can turn to cloud services like our own B2 Cloud Storage, but it hasn’t always been that way. The history of removable computer storage is like the history of hard drives: A fascinating look into the ever-evolving technology of data storage.

The Birth of Removable Storage

Punch Cards

punch card

Before electronic computers existed, there were electrical, mechanical computing devices. Herman Hollerith, a U.S. census worker interested in simplifying the laborious process of tabulating census data, made a device that read information from rectangular cards with holes punched in particular locations to indicate information like marital status and age.

Hollerith’s cards long outlasted him and his machine. With the advent of electronic computers in the 1950s, punch cards became the de facto method of data input. The conventions introduced with punch cards, such as an 80 column width, affected everything from the way we’d make computer monitors to the format of text files for decades.

Open-Reel Tapes and Magnetic Cartridges

IBM 100 tape drive

Magnetic tape drives were standard issue for the mainframes and minicomputers used by businesses and other organizations from the advent of the computer industry in the 1950s up until the 1980s.

Tape drives started out on 10 1/2-inch reels. A thin metal strip recorded data magnetically. Watch any television program of this era and the scene with a computer will show you a device like this. The nine-track tapes developed by IBM for its computers could store up to 175 MB per tape. At the time, that was a tremendous amount of data, suitable for archiving days or weeks’ worth of data. These days 175 MBs might be enough to store a few dozen photos from your smartphone. Times have changed!

Eventually the big reel to reel systems would be replaced with much more portable, easier-to-use, and higher density magnetic tape cartridges. Mag tapes for data backup found their way into PCs in the 80s and 90s, though they, too, would be replaced by other removable media systems like CD-R burners.

Linear Tape-Open (LTO) made its debut in the late 1990s. These digital tape cartridges could store 100 GB each, making them ideal for backing up servers and archiving big projects. Since then capacity has improved to 6.0 TB per tape. There’s still a demand for LTO data archival systems today. However, tape drives are nearing their end of usefulness as better cloud options takeover the backup and archival markets. Our own B2 Cloud Storage is rapidly making LTO a thing of the past.

Burning LTO

Winchester Drives

IBM 3340 Winchester drive

Spinning hard disk drives started out as huge refrigerator-sized boxes attached to mainframe computers. As more businesses found uses for computers, the need for storage increased, but allowable floor space did not. IBM’s solution for this problem came in the early 1970s: the IBM 3340, popular known as a Winchester.

The 3340 sported removable data modules that contained hard drive platters which could store up to 70 MB. Instead of having to buy a whole new cabinet, companies leasing equipment from IBM could buy additional data modules to increase their storage capabilities.

From the start, the 3340 was a smashing success (okay, maybe smashing isn’t the best adjective to use when describing a hard drive, but you get the point). You could find these and their descendants connected to mainframes and minicomputers in corporate data centers throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s.

The Birth of the PC Brings New Storage Solutions

Cassette Recorder

TRS-80 w cassette drive

The 1970s saw another massive evolution of computers with the introduction of first generation personal computers. The first PCs lacked any built-in permanent storage. Hard disk drives were still very expensive. Even floppy disk drives were rare at the time. When you turned the computer off, you’d lose your data, unless you had something to store it on.

The solution that the first PC makers came up was to use a cassette recorder. Microcassettes exploded in the consumer electronic market as a convenient and inexpensive way for people to record and listen to music and use for voice dictation. At a time that long-distance phone calls were an expensive luxury, it was the original FaceTime for some of us, too: I remember as a preschooler, recording and playing cassettes to stay in touch with my grandparents on the other side of the country.

So using a cassette recorder to store computer data made sense. The devices were already commonplace and relatively inexpensive. Type in a save command, and the computer played tones through a cable connected to the tape drive to differentiate binary 0s and 1s. Type in a load command, and you could play back the tape to read the program into memory. It was very slow. But it was better than nothing.

Floppy Disk

Commodore 1541

The 1970s saw the rise of the floppy disk, the portable storage format that ultimately reigned supreme for decades. The earliest models of floppy disks were eight inches in diameter and could hold about 80 KB. Eight-inch drives were more common in corporate computing, but when floppies came to personal computers, the smaller 5 1/4-inch design caught on like wildfire.

Floppy disks became commonplace alongside the Apples and Commodores of the day. You could squeeze about 120 KB onto one of those puppies. Doesn’t sound like a lot, but it was plenty of space for Apple DOS and Lode Runner.

Apple popularized the 3 1/2-inch size when it introduced the Macintosh in 1984. By the late 1980s the smaller floppy disk size – which would ultimately store 1.44 MB per disk – was the dominant removable storage medium of the day. And so it would remain for decades.

The Bernoulli Box

Bernoulli Box

In the early 1980s, a new product called the Bernoulli Box would offer the convenience of removable cartridges like Winchester drives but in a much smaller, more portable format. It was called the Bernoulli Box. The Bernoulli box was an important removable storage device for businesses who had transitioned from expensive mainframes and minicomputers to desktops.

Bernoulli cartridges worked on the same principle as floppies but were larger and in a much more shielded enclosure. The cartridges sported larger capacities than floppy disks, too. You could store 10 MB or 20 MB instead of the 1.44 MB limit on a floppy disk. Capacities would increase over time to 230 MB. Bernoulli Boxes and the cartridges were expensive, which kept them in the realm of business storage. Iomega, the Bernoulli Box’s creator, turned its attention to an enormously popular removable storage system you’ll read about later: the Zip drive.

SyQuest Disks

SyQuest drive

In the 1990s another removable storage device made its mark in the computer industry. SyQuest developed a removable storage system that used 44 MB (and later 88 MB) hard disk platters. SyQuest drives were mainstays of creative digital markets – I saw them on almost any I could find a Mac doing graphic design work, desktop publishing, music, or video work.

SyQuest would be a footnote by the late 90s as Zip disks, recordable CDs and other storage media overtook them. Speaking of Zip disks…

The Click of Death

Zip Drive

The 1990s were a transitionary period for personal computing (well, when isn’t, it really). Information density was increasing rapidly. We were still years away from USB thumb drives and ubiquitous high-speed Wi-Fi, so “sneakernet” – physically transporting information from one computer to another – was still the preferred way to get big projects back and forth. Floppy drives were too small, hard disks weren’t portable, and rewritable CDs were expensive.

Iomega came along with the Zip Drive, a removable storage system that used disks shaped like heavier-duty floppies, each capable of storing up to 100 MB on them. A high-density floppy could store 1.4 MB or so, so it was orders of magnitude more of portable storage. Zip Disks quickly became popular, but Iomega eventually redesigned them to lower the cost of manufacturing. The redesign came with a price: The drives failed more frequently and could damage the disk in the process.

The phenomenon became known as the Click of Death: The sound the actuator (the part with the read/write head) would make as it reset after hitting a damaged sector on the disk. Iomega would eventually settle a class-action lawsuit over the issue, but consumers were already moving away from the format.

Iomega developed a successor to the Zip drive: The Jaz drive. When it first came out, it could store 1 GB on a removable cartridge. Inside the cartridge was a spinning hard disk mechanism; it wasn’t unlike the SyQuest drives that had been popular a few years before, but in a smaller size you could easily fit into a jacket pocket. Unfortunately, the Jaz drive developed reliability problems of its own – disks would get jammed in the drives, drives overheated, and some had vibration problems.

Recordable CDs and DVDs

Apple SuperDrive

As a storage medium, Compact Discs had been around since the 1980s, mainly popular as a music listening format. CD burners connected from the beginning, but they were ridiculously huge and expensive: The size of a washing machine and tens of thousands of dollars. By the late 1990s technology improved, prices lowered and recordable CD burners – CD-Rs – became commonplace.

With our ever-increasing need for more storage, we moved on to DVD-R and DVD-RW systems within a few years, upping the total you could store per disc to 4.3 GB (eventually up to 8 GB per disc once dual-layer media and burners were introduced).

Blu-Ray Disc offers even greater storage capacity and is popular for its use in the home entertainment market, so some PCs have added recordable Blu-Ray drives. Blu-ray sports capacities from 25 to 128 GB per disc depending on format. Increasingly, even optical drives have become optional accessories as we’ve slimmed down our laptop computers to improve portability.

Magneto-Optical

Magneto-optical disk

Another optical format, Magneto-Optical (MO), was used on some computer systems in the 80s and 90s. It would also find its way into consumer products. The cartridges could store 650 MB. Initial systems were only able to write once to a disc, but later ones were rewriteable.

NeXT, the other computer maker founded by Steve Jobs besides Apple, was the earliest desktop system to feature a MO drive as standard issue. Magneto-optical drives were available in 5 1/4-inch and 3-inch physical sizes with capacities up to 9 GB per disc. The most popular consumer incarnation of magneto-optical is Sony’s MiniDisc.

Removeable Storage Moves Beyond Computers

SD Cards

SD Cards

The most recent removable media format to see widespread adoption on personal computers is the Secure Digital (SD) Card. SD cards have become the industry standard most popular with many smartphones, still cameras, and video cameras. They can serve up data securely thanks to password protection, smartSD protocol and Near Field Communication (NFC) support available in some variations.

With no moving parts and non-volatile flash memory inside, SD cards are reliable, quiet and relatively fast methods of transporting and archiving data. What’s more, they come in different physical sizes to suit different device applications – everything from postage stamp-sized cards found in digital cameras to fingernail-sized micro cards found in phones.

Even compared to 5 1/4-inch media like Blu-ray Discs, SD card capacities are remarkable. 128 GB and 256 GB cards are commonplace now. What’s more, the SDXC spec maxes out at 2 TB, with support for 8K video transfer speeds possible. So there’s some headroom both for performance and capacity.

The More Things Change

As computer hardware continues to improve and as we continue to demand higher performance and greater portability and convenience, portable media will change. But as we’ve found ourselves with ubiquitous, high-speed Internet connectivity, the very need for removable local storage has diminished. Now instead of archiving data on an external cartridge, disc or card, we can just upload it to the cloud and access it anywhere.

That doesn’t obviate the need for a good backup strategy, of course. It’s vital to keep your important files safe with a local archive or backup. For that, removable media like SD cards and rewritable DVDs and even external hard drives can continue to fill an important role. Remember to store your info offsite too, preferably with a continuous, secure and reliable backup method like Backblaze Cloud Backup: Unlimited, unthrottled and easy to use.

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Back Up Your Tax Data Before It’s Too Late

Post Syndicated from Peter Cohen original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backup-tax-data/

Backup Your Tax Data

Just filing taxes can be stressful enough. The last thing you need is a hassle with the IRS or your state’s Department of Revenue because you’ve lost or misplaced necessary paperwork.

So how long should you keep your tax records? The IRS recommends you keep records for up to 7 years. Don’t let data insecurity add to your tax season stress: Make sure your digital tax files and any supporting documentation are well-protected with these tips.

Prepare backups from your tax prep software

If you’re using TurboTax or another app to prepare this year’s taxes, make sure to save a copy of your tax data file on your device. And to be extra safe, export it to a universal format. A read-only format like PDF will do the job. The important thing is that you can look at the information you’ve submitted without needing proprietary software.

Intuit offers instructions on its web site to perform a TurboTax file backup. TaxAct also offers instructions for TaxAct file backup. If you’re using another tax prep software package, make sure to check the Help files or online support documentation for instructions on saving and exporting your tax data files.

The same goes for any accompanying files you’ve used as supporting documentation: Scanned receipts, bank statements, 1099s, real estate tax, mortgage statements, insurance receipts, and any other records you’ve accounted for on your tax forms. Digital copies – file formats like JPG, GIF or PDF – are fine with the IRS, as long as they’re legible.

Put them all of your records in a “2017 Taxes” folder that’s stored prominently in your Documents folder, or wherever you keep the digital records that are most important to you.

Back Up Your Tax Returns Locally and Offsite

Once you’ve got all your tax return files in a single location, back them up. Start by archiving your data locally using Time Machine, Windows Backup, cloning software or whatever method you prefer. Don’t rest on your laurels with that, though: You need offsite backup too, to make sure that your data is safe no matter what happens.

Backblaze customer? Rest assured that Backblaze backs up that folder you created safely and securely. Backblaze backs up all your important files.

You can (and should) verify your files are being backed up from time to time. You should also test your backup periodically to make sure everything’s working as you expect.

Encrypt your tax records when transmitting and storing them in the cloud. Encryption is built-in to Backblaze. The same can’t be said for all cloud services, so check with other services to make they protect your data. Password-protecting individual files and folders adds another layer of protection.

If you’re not ready to come up with a complete backup strategy and are just looking for a quick fix, start with Backblaze and a USB thumbstick. Copy your files to the thumbstick and store it somewhere safe. If you’re not already backing up your computer, we can help. We’ve published guidelines for you in our Computer Backup Guide.

Don’t Depend On Just “Any” Cloud

Intuit offered a Backup to Cloud service as a pilot program for Turbotax customers. I used it to store my 2014 returns, but then I got an email cancelling the service the following year. Intuit gave only a short period to save the data before deleting it. That was a critical reminder for me not to trust any cloud services alone – I should have kept that data local.

It may sound odd coming from us (as a cloud storage company), but we wouldn’t depend alone on iCloud or any other cloud storage or sync solution. Keep a local backup and a cloud backup – that way you’ll be able to restore no matter what happens.

Some people like to add an extra layer of redundancy by printing out paper records of their tax returns too. A truly universal file format. If you have the space to do it and can store them safely, it couldn’t hurt. Mark them for deletion no less than 3-7 years from your filing date.

Give Copies To Someone (or Something) You Trust

For an extra layer of redundancy, pass along copies of your tax documents to someone you trust for safekeeping. A spouse or close family member, accountant, attorney – whoever you think can be trusted to keep the documents safe. It’s the real-life equivalent to our 3-2-1 Backup Strategy because the goal here is to keep a copy offsite for safekeeping with a trusted third party (like Backblaze).

Don’t Let Backup Be Taxing

It has been said that it’s impossible to be sure of anything but death and taxes. We can’t help you with the former, but hopefully, we’ve given you some good ideas on how to make the latter less stressful by making sure all your tax data is available, secure, and safely archived. That way, if and when you eventually need it, it’ll be no more than a few taps or clicks away. If you have other ideas for good tax backup solutions, sound off in the comments – we want to hear from you.

The post Back Up Your Tax Data Before It’s Too Late appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

The Cloud’s Software: A Look Inside Backblaze

Post Syndicated from Peter Cohen original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/the-clouds-software-a-look-inside-backblaze/

When most of us think about “the cloud,” we have an abstract idea that it’s computers in a data center somewhere – racks of blinking lights and lots of loud fans. There’s truth to that. Have a look inside our datacenter to get an idea. But besides the impressive hardware – and the skilled techs needed to keep it running – there’s software involved. Let’s take a look at a few of the software tools that keep our operation working.

Our data center is populated with Storage Pods, the servers that hold the data you entrust to us if you’re a Backblaze customer or you use B2 Cloud Storage. Inside each Storage Pod are dozens of 3.5-inch spinning hard disk drives – the same kind you’ll find inside a desktop PC. Storage Pods are mounted on racks inside the data center. Those Storage Pods work together in Vaults.

Vault Software

The Vault software that keeps those Storage Pods humming is one the backbones of our operation. It’s what makes it possible for us to scale our services to meet your needs and with durability, scalability and fast performance.

The Vault software distributes data across 20 different Storage Pods, with the data spread evenly across all 20 pods. Drives in the same position inside each Storage Pod are grouped together in software in what we call a “tome.” When a file gets uploaded to Backblaze, it’s split into pieces we call “shards” and distributed across all 20 drives.

Each file is stored as 20 shards: 17 data shards and three parity shards. As the name implies, the data shards comprise the information in the files you upload to Backblaze. Parity shards add redundancy so that a file can be completely restored from a Vault even if some of the pieces are not available.

Because those shards are distributed across 20 Storage Pods in 20 cabinets, a Storage Pod can go down and the Vault will still operate unimpeded. An entire cabinet can lose power and the Vault will still work fine.

Files can be written to the Vault even if a Storage Pod is down with two parity shards to protect the data. Even in the extreme — and unlikely — case where three Storage Pods in a Vault are offline, the files in the vault are still available because they can be reconstructed from the 17 available pieces.

Reed-Solomon Erasure Coding

Erasure coding makes it possible to rebuild a data file even if parts of the original are lost. Having effective erasure coding is vital in a distributed environment like a Backblaze Vault. It helps us keep your data safe even when the hardware that the data is stored on needs to be serviced.

We use Reed-Solomon erasure encoding. It’s a proven technique used in Linux RAID systems, by Microsoft in its Azure cloud storage, and by Facebook too. The Backblaze Vault Architecture is capable of delivering 99.99999% annual durability thanks in part to our Reed-Solomon erasure coding implementation.

Here’s our own Brian Beach with an explanation of how Reed-Solomon encoding works:

We threw out the Linux RAID software we had been using prior to the implementation of the Vaults and wrote our own Reed-Solomon implementation from scratch. We’re very proud of it. So much so that we’ve released it as open source that you can use in your own projects, if you wish.

We developed our Reed-Solomon implementation as a Java library. Why? When we first started this project, we assumed that we would need to write it in C to make it run as fast as we needed. It turns out that modern Java virtual machines working on our servers are great, and just-in-time compilers produces code that runs pretty quick.

All the work we’ve done to build a reliable, scalable, affordable solution for storing data in a “cloud” led to the creation of B2 Cloud Storage. B2 lets you store your data in the cloud for a fraction of what you’d spend elsewhere – 1/4 the price of Amazon S3, for example.

Using Our Storage

Having over 300 Petabytes of data storage available isn’t very useful unless we can store data and reliably restore it too. We offer two ways to store data with Backblaze: via a client application or via direct access. Our client application, Backblaze Computer Backup, is installed on your Mac or Windows system and basically does everything related to automatically backing up your computer. We locate the files that are new or changed and back them up. We manage versions, deduplicate files, and more. The Backblaze app does all the work behind the scenes.

The other way to use our storage is via direct access. You can use a Web GUI, a Command Line Interface (CLI) or an Application Programming Interface (API). With any of these methods, you are in charge of what gets stored in the Backblaze cloud. This is what Backblaze B2 is all about. You can log into B2 and use the Web GUI to drag and drop files that are stored in the Backblaze cloud. You decide what gets added and deleted, and how many versions of a file you want to keep. Think of B2 as your very own bucket in the cloud where you can store your files.

We also have mobile apps for iOS and Android devices to help you view and share any backed up files you have on the go. You can download them, play back or view media files, and share them as you need.

We focused on creating a native, integrated experience for you when you use our software. We didn’t take a shortcut to create a Java app for the desktop. On the Mac our app is built using Xcode and on the PC it was built using C. The app is designed for lightweight, unobtrusive performance. If you do need to adjust its performance, we give you that ability. You have control over throttling the backup rate. You can even adjust the number of CPU threads dedicated to Backblaze, if you choose.

When we first released the software almost a decade ago we had no idea that we’d iterate it more than 1,000 times. That’s the threshold we reached late last year, however! We released version 4.3.0 in December. We’re still plugging away at it and have plans for the future, too.

Our Philosophy: Keep It Simple

“Keep It Simple” is the philosophy that underlies all of the technology that powers our hardware. It makes it possible for you to affordably, reliably back up your computers and store data in the cloud.

We’re not interested in creating elaborate, difficult-to-implement solutions or pricing schemes that confuse and confound you. Our backup service is unlimited and unthrottled for one low price. We offer cloud storage for 1/4th the competition. And we make it easy to access with desktop, mobile and web interfaces, command line tools and APIs.

Hopefully we’ve shed some light on the software that lets our cloud services operate. Have questions? Join the discussion and let us know.

The post The Cloud’s Software: A Look Inside Backblaze appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

What’s the Diff: Hot and Cold Data Storage

Post Syndicated from Peter Cohen original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/whats-the-diff-hot-and-cold-data-storage/

Hot And Cold Storage

Differentiating cloud data storage by “temperature” is common practice when it comes to describing the tiered storage setups offered by various cloud storage providers. “Hot” and “cold” describes how often that data is accessed. What’s the actual difference, and how does each temperature fit your cloud storage strategy? Let’s take a look.

First of all, let’s get this out of the way: There’s no set industry definition of what hot and cold actually mean. So some of this may need to be adapted to your specific circumstances. You’re bound to see some variance or disagreement if you research the topic.

Hot Storage

“Hot” storage is data you need to access right away, where performance is at a premium. Hot storage often goes hand in hand with cloud computing. If you’re depending on cloud services not only to store your data but also to process it, you’re looking at hot storage.

Business-critical information that needs to be accessed frequently and quickly is hot storage. If performance is of the essence – if you need the data stored on SSDs instead of hard drives, because speed is that much of a factor – then that’s hot storagae.

High-performance primary storage comes at a price, though. Cloud data storage providers charge a premium for hot data storage, because it’s resource-intensive. Microsoft’s Azure Hot Blobs and Amazon AWS services don’t come cheap.

Read on for how our B2 Cloud Storage fits the hot storage model. But first, let’s talk about cold storage.

Cold Storage

“Cold” storage is information that you don’t need to access very often. Inactive data that doesn’t need to be accessed for months, years, decades, potentially ever. That’s the sort of content that cold storage is ideal for. Practical examples of data suitable for cold storage include old projects, records you might need for auditing or bookkeeping purposes at some point in the future, or other content you only need to access infrequently.

Data retrieval and response time for cold cloud storage systems are typically slower than services designed for active data manipulation. Practical examples of cold cloud storage include services like Amazon Glacier and Google Coldline.

Storage prices for cold cloud storage systems are typically lower than warm or hot storage. But cold storage often incur higher per-operation costs than other kinds of cloud storage. Access to the data typically requires patience and planning.

Apocryphally, “cold” storage meant just that: Data physically stored away from the hot machines running the media. Today, cold storage is still sometimes used to describe purely offline storage – that is, data that’s not stored in the cloud at all. Sometimes this is data that you might want to quarantine from from the Internet altogether – for example, cryptocurrency like BitCoin. Sometimes this is that old definition of cold storage: data that is archived on some sort of durable medium and stored in a secure offsite facility.

How B2 Cloud Storage Fits the Cold and Hot Model

We’ve designed B2 Cloud Storage to be instantly available. With B2, you won’t have delays accessing your information like you might have with offline or some nearline systems. Your data is available when you need it.

B2 is built on the physical architecture and advanced software framework we’ve been developing for the past decade to power our signature backup services. B2 Cloud Storage sports multiple layers of redundancy to make sure that your data is stored safely and is available when you need it.

We’ve taken the concept of hot storage a step further by offering reliable, affordable, and scalable storage in the cloud for a mere fraction of what others charge. We’re one-quarter the price of Amazon.

B2 Cloud Storage changes the pricing model for cloud storage. B2 changes the pricing model so much that our customers have found it economical to migrate away altogether from slow, inconvenient and frustrating cold storage and offline archival systems. Our media and entertainment customers are using B2 instead of LTO tape systems, for example.

What Temperature Is Your Cloud Storage?

Different organizations have different needs, so there’s no right answer about what temperature your cloud data should be. It’s imperative to your bottom line that you don’t pay for more than what you need. That’s why we’ve designed B2 to be an affordable and reliable cloud storage solution. Get started today and you’ll get the first 10GB for free!

Have a different idea of what hot and cold storage are? Have questions that aren’t answered here? Join the discussion!

The post What’s the Diff: Hot and Cold Data Storage appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

AWS Announces CISPE Membership and Compliance with First-Ever Code of Conduct for Data Protection in the Cloud

Post Syndicated from Stephen Schmidt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/aws-announces-cispe-membership-and-compliance-with-first-ever-code-of-conduct-for-data-protection-in-the-cloud/

CISPE logo

I have two exciting announcements today, both showing AWS’s continued commitment to ensuring that customers can comply with EU Data Protection requirements when using our services.

AWS and CISPE

First, I’m pleased to announce AWS’s membership in the Association of Cloud Infrastructure Services Providers in Europe (CISPE).

CISPE is a coalition of about twenty cloud infrastructure (also known as Infrastructure as a Service) providers who offer cloud services to customers in Europe. CISPE was created to promote data security and compliance within the context of cloud infrastructure services. This is a vital undertaking: both customers and providers now understand that cloud infrastructure services are very different from traditional IT services (and even from other cloud services such as Software as a Service). Many entities were treating all cloud services as the same in the context of data protection, which led to confusion on both the part of the customer and providers with regard to their individual obligations.

One of CISPE’s key priorities is to ensure customers get what they need from their cloud infrastructure service providers in order to comply with the new EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). With the publication of its Data Protection Code of Conduct for Cloud Infrastructure Services Providers, CISPE has already made significant progress in this space.

AWS and the Code of Conduct

My second announcement is in regard to the CISPE Code of Conduct itself. I’m excited to inform you that today, AWS has declared that Amazon EC2, Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS), AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) are now fully compliant with the aforementioned CISPE Code of Conduct. This provides our customers with additional assurances that they fully control their data in a safe, secure, and compliant environment when they use AWS. Our compliance with the Code of Conduct adds to the long list of internationally recognized certifications and accreditations AWS already has, including ISO 27001, ISO 27018, ISO 9001, SOC 1, SOC 2, SOC 3, PCI DSS Level 1, and many more.

Additionally, the Code of Conduct is a powerful tool to help our customers who must comply with the EU GDPR.

A few key benefits of the Code of Conduct include:

  • Clarifying who is responsible for what when it comes to data protection: The Code of Conduct explains the role of both the provider and the customer under the GDPR, specifically within the context of cloud infrastructure services.
  • The Code of Conduct sets out what principles providers should adhere to: The Code of Conduct develops key principles within the GDPR about clear actions and commitments that providers should undertake to help customers comply. Customers can rely on these concrete benefits in their own compliance and data protection strategies.
  • The Code of Conduct gives customers the security information they need to make decisions about compliance: The Code of Conduct requires providers to be transparent about the steps they are taking to deliver on their security commitments. To name but a few, these steps involve notification around data breaches, data deletion, and third-party sub-processing, as well as law enforcement and governmental requests. Customers can use this information to fully understand the high levels of security provided.

I’m proud that AWS is now a member of CISPE and that we’ve played a part in the development of the Code of Conduct. Due to the very specific considerations that apply to cloud infrastructure services, and given the general lack of understanding of how cloud infrastructure services actually work, there is a clear need for an association such as CISPE. It’s important for AWS to play an active role in CISPE in order to represent the best interests of our customers, particularly when it comes to the EU Data Protection requirements.

AWS has always been committed to enabling our customers to meet their data protection needs. Whether it’s allowing our customers to choose where in the world they wish to store their content, obtaining approval from the EU Data Protection authorities (known as the Article 29 Working Party) of the AWS Data Processing Addendum and Model Clauses to enable transfers of personal data outside Europe, or simply being transparent about the way our services operate, we work hard to be market leaders in the area of security, compliance, and data protection.

Our decision to participate in CISPE and its Code of Conduct sends a clear a message to our customers that we continue to take data protection very seriously.

– Steve

AWS discount vouchers? We can do better than that!

Post Syndicated from Bart Thomas original https://www.anchor.com.au/blog/2016/07/aws-discount-voucher/

If you’re looking to reduce your AWS spend, read on.

It’s no secret that the range of cloud services offered by providers such as Amazon Web Services brings many benefits to your business. Despite this, complex usage pricing and a huge range of services (around 60 at this stage!) means that it can be challenging controlling your costs.

While many organisations move to the cloud expecting to save money, depending on how you’ve set things up you may find you’re spending more than you expected to. And while AWS discount vouchers sadly aren’t really a thing – Anchor has a few simple ways to reduce your AWS costs.

You can get a quick fix with the “AWS Caretaker” service – simply link Anchor as your billing provider and you’ll immediately benefit from our volume discounts. We should be able to reduce your AWS spend by 5-10% almost overnight, plus you’ll enjoy the benefits of vastly improved monitoring and reporting and you’ll have Anchor’s AWS certified technical support teams at your beck and call 24×7. With friendly month-to-month contracts, it’s a no brainer.

Alternatively, Anchor’s AWS Cost Savings Reporting Engine (available to our AWS Cloud Ops customers) provides deep visibility into your AWS environment usage, unearthing further opportunities to save money – up to 40% on your AWS bills. Our optimisation engine can recommend RI purchases for each instance type, OS and availability zone, the upfront cost of those purchases, and the estimated savings that will result from those purchases if you maintain your usage patterns.

aws cost modesl

Under normal circumstances, Amazon Web Services’ complex, usage-based pricing system makes it hard to control your costs. A read through “How AWS Pricing Works“, a quick scroll down Amazon’s EC2 pricing page or a minute or two with the “AWS Simple Monthly Calculator” tells the story.

You need to immerse yourself in the world of Reserved Instances (RIs); carefully considering your EC2 instance families and commit to a 1 or 3 year term while deciding whether you want to pay everything upfront, make a partial upfront payment or continue to pay as you go on a monthly basis.

Comparing breakeven points and exploring the differences between All-Upfront and Partial-Upfront Reservations while taking into account existing Reservations you’ve purchased in the context of your current deployment is a huge challenge – especially from a spreadsheet.

It can take hours (days!) to calculate how many reservations you need – and if you buy the wrong quantity or types of Reserved Instances, you could end up spending more money than you save.

While there is quite clearly some work to do and risks to consider, the savings you make can be significant:

AWS RIs

Get in touch with our team if you’d like to understand how Anchor can help reduce your costs. A quick review of your AWS account and we’ll be able to give you an estimate of the savings we can deliver (and added value we can provide!) in no time.

Get in touch and reduce your next AWS invoice!

The post AWS discount vouchers? We can do better than that! appeared first on AWS Managed Services by Anchor.