Tag Archives: sweden

Landmark Piracy Trial Suspended Pending EU Ruling

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/landmark-piracy-trial-suspended-pending-eu-ruling-160630/

pirate-cardFollowing successful prosecutions of torrent site operators such as those behind The Pirate Bay, Sweden has turned to the increasing problem of online streaming.

Cases involving streaming sites are relatively rare and as a result, case law is thin on the ground. Nevertheless, last year Swedish authorities felt confident enough to close down the country’s most popular streaming site.

Founded half a decade ago, Swefilmer took advantage of increasing trends towards browser-based viewing of pirate content. In addition to convenience and a non-existent learning curve, advanced users were also attracted to the perceived security benefits of streaming platforms.

Swefilmer gained significant traction but that came to an end last summer when one of the site’s operators was arrested and detained for 90 hours.

That was followed this year by the detention of the site’s main operator in Germany, following the execution of a secret European arrest warrant.

As reported last week, the men – aged 22 and 25 – were recently prosecuted. Together they face charges of facilitating copyright infringement of more than 1,400 movies alongside penalties of $1.7m.

Swefilmer’s primary operator also stands accused of aggravated money laundering offenses related to his handling of the site’s finances.

The Swefilmer case is one of the most important prosecutions in Sweden’s piracy crackdown history and this week the trial began as planned. Entertainment giants including Disney, Sony, Warner, Universal and Fox lined up Tuesday to take down their adversaries, but things didn’t go to plan.

Rather than the relatively open-and-shut case anticipated by the prosecution, after just a few hours a decision was made to suspend the case.

“We asked the court to seek a preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice, and we got what we wanted,” says Claes Kennedy, the lawyer representing the 22-year-old.

While Kennedy’s client admits to having been involved in the operation of Swefilmer, all along he has maintained that his actions did not amount to a crime. Why that might indeed be true lies in a case currently in the hands of the ECJ.

The case deals with a dispute between Dutch blog GeenStijl.nl and Playboy. In 2011, GeenStijl published a post linking to leaked Playboy photos, which were stored on file-hosting platform FileFactory.

Although Playboy publisher Sanoma successfully requested the removal of the photos from FileFactory, GeenStijl continued to link to other public sources where the images were still available. This, Sanoma argued, amounted to infringement.

A Dutch Court subsequently asked the EU Court of Justice to rule whether those links could be seen as a ‘communication to the public’ under Article 3(1) of the Copyright Directive of the Copyright Directive, and whether they facilitated copyright infringement.

Earlier this year, Advocate General Melchior Wathelet delivered his advice to the ECJ, noting that in his opinion “linking” is not the same as “making available” – that would only apply to the original uploader. That means that GeenStijl’s acts of linking would not amount to infringement, the ECJ summarized.

“Hyperlinks which lead, even directly, to protected works are not ‘making them available’ to the public when they are already freely accessible on another website, and only serve to facilitate their discovery,” the EU Court of Justice wrote.

The Advocate General’s advice is not binding, but the ECJ often gives significant weight to this kind of expert opinion. The final verdict is expected to be released later this year and Claes Kennedy is hoping for a positive outcome for his client.

“What we know so far, is that linking to another website is not to be considered the same as making available to the public. But we are waiting for a decision from the EU Court,” Kennedy says.

So for now the Swefilmer trial is on hold, initially until September but potentially later depending on when the ECJ hands down its ruling. Whenever it arrives the decision will have implications way beyond this case and right across Europe.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Streaming Site Operators Face Jail & $1.7m Forfeiture

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/streaming-site-operators-face-jail-1-7m-forfeiture-160626/

Founded half a decade ago, Swefilmer was Sweden’s most popular unauthorized streaming site.

Offering all the latest movies and TV shows, Swefilmer (and another, Dreamfilm) captured up to 25% of all web TV viewing in Sweden according to a 2015 report.

Last summer, however, the noose began to tighten. In July local man Ola Johansson revealed that he’d been raided by the police under suspicion of being involved in running the site.

Meanwhile, police continued the hunt for the site’s primary operator and in March 2016 it was revealed that a Turkish national had been arrested in Germany on a secret European arrest warrant. The 25-year-old is said to be the person who received donations from users and set up Swefilmer’s deals with advertisers.

Both men have now been prosecuted by Swedish authorities. In an indictment filed in the Varberg District Court, both men are accused of copyright infringement connected to the unlawful distribution of more than 1,400 movies.

Additionally, the 25-year-old stands accused of aggravated money laundering offenses related to his handling of Swefilmer’s finances.

The prosecution says that the site generated more than $1.7m between November 2013 and June 2015. More than $1.5m of that amount came from advertising with user donations contributing around $110,000. The state wants the 25-year-old to forfeit the full amount. A $77,000 car and properties worth $233,000 have already been seized.

While both could be sent to prison, the 22-year-old faces less serious charges and will be expected to pay back around $3,600.

The trial, which is expected to go ahead in just over a week, will be the most significant case against a streaming portal in Sweden to date.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Pirate Bay Domain Dispute Appealed to Supreme Court

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/pirate-bay-domain-dispute-appealed-to-supreme-court-160618/

In 2013, anti-piracy prosecutor Fredrik Ingblad filed a motion targeting two of The Pirate Bay’s oldest domains, ThePirateBay.se and PirateBay.se.

Ingblad filed a complaint against Punkt SE (IIS), the organization responsible for Sweden’s top-level .SE domain, arguing that since The Pirate Bay is an illegal site the domains are tools used to infringe copyright. On this basis they should be suspended, Ingblad said.

The case was heard in April 2015 and a month later the Stockholm District Court ruled that The Pirate Bay should forfeit both ThePirateBay.se and PirateBay.se.

The case went to the Court of Appeal and last month the ruling of the District Court was upheld.

But as is so often the case with Pirate Bay legal action, the show isn’t over yet. Following the ruling, site co-founder Fredrik Neij indicated he would take an appeal to the Supreme Court. That has now been filed.

“Fredrik Neij moves that the Supreme Court, by the modification and elimination of the District Court and Court of Appeal’s decision, should reject the prosecutor’s request for Fredrik Neij’s forfeiture to the right of the domain names piratebay.se and thepiratebay.se,” Neij’s lawyer Jonas Nilsson writes in a translation sent to TF.

The situation is somewhat complex. In 2012, Neij transferred the domains to a person named Supavadee Trakunroek. However, the Court of Appeal found that transaction to be mere ‘paperwork’ and that in real terms Neij had retained control of the domains.

With that in mind the question remained – should the domains be ‘seized’ from Neij or from IIS, the organization responsible for Sweden’s top-level .SE domain?

The Court found that domain names should be considered a type of intellectual property, property that is owned by the person or organization that purchased the domain. Therefore, in this case IIS is not the owner of the Pirate Bay domains, Neij is.

It is this aspect of the ruling that Fredrik Neij is now appealing to the Supreme Court.

“Fredrik Neij argues that the District Court and the Court of Appeal wrongly concluded that a domain name is a type of intellectual property that can be confiscated in accordance with copyright law,” his appeal reads.

With the appeal now filed it is up to the Supreme Court to decide whether to take the case. Domains used for illegal activity have been seized in Sweden before, but none have been fought as actively as this one.

Meanwhile, The Pirate Bay is operating from the .org domain it began with, all those years ago.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Police: File-Sharing Cases Dominate Sweden IP Complaints

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/police-file-sharing-cases-dominate-sweden-ip-complaints-160609/

swedpoliceThe Pirate Bay might no longer be the most popular torrent site on the Internet but its story is certainly the most colorful in the history of online piracy.

That history is now inexorably intertwined with that of Sweden, a Scandinavian country that found itself slammed into the middle of the United States’ war on piracy due to the site operating from its territory.

At first Sweden took little action against TPB and its founders, but as pressure built the authorities governing the sub 10 million population decided that enough was enough. Not only would Pirate Bay be forced to its knees, but all similar services that had brought Sweden’s IP policies under the spotlight too.

The resulting crackdown, which has run for more than a decade but has intensified in the past six years, has seen countless torrent sites, Direct Connect hubs, streaming platforms and end users targeted by the authorities.

Once considered a piracy haven, Sweden is now a somewhat risky country to start a file-sharing operation or share large volumes of files. Nevertheless, the authorities report that illegal downloading continues at a pace.

According to stats just released by Sweden’s national police, the most common intellectual property crimes committed in the country relate to unauthorized file-sharing, despite physical counterfeiting being valued at billions of krona every year.

“75 percent of complaints are about copyright violations and file sharing, although we may be seeing some decline,” says Paul Pintér, police national coordinator for intellectual property crimes.

That decline is almost certainly due to the attractive legal services that have been gaining traction year on year. Platforms such as Spotify and Netflix are doing very well in Sweden, with three quarters of the population now using streaming services to consume music and video. The former has impressively tied up around 90% of the paying market.

Still, it’s apparent that Sweden still has work to do if it wants to eradicate the piracy problem. Despite the crackdown of recent years carried out by a dedicated copyright unit embedded in the police force, Pintér says that Sweden sits in third place among European Union countries when it comes to illegal downloads of music.

Quite why that’s the case is unclear, but police say they remain extremely busy when it comes to processing file-sharing complaints. According to Pintér his unit is handling around 120 such complaints every year, that’s roughly one every three days.

Not all reach the prosecution stage of course but those are big numbers for a country with a relatively small population. Still, the revelation is hardly a surprise.

Last month, local ISP Bahnhof revealed that when it comes to police requests for data, 27.5% relate to cases involving online file-sharing. This makes it the most prevalent ‘crime’ committed by users, ahead of other offenses such as fraud, forgery and grooming minors.

So for now it appears that Sweden’s quest to crush file-sharing will continue. Last month it was reported that Sweden’s Minister for Justice has called for even tougher punishments for infringers. And with even those making their own subtitles facing prison, it seems that no one is safe.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

RIAA Fails to Take Down Pirate Bay Domain, For Now

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/riaa-fails-take-pirate-bay-domain-now-160606/

thepirateEarlier today we wrote about the Copyright Alliance’s critique of the US-based Public Interest Registry (PIR), which is responsible for .ORG domains.

The group called out the registry as hypocritical, as it allows “criminal” sites such as The Pirate Bay to use its service. A few hours later it turns out that this criticism didn’t come out of nowhere.

The Pirate Bay’s registrar EasyDNS reveals that the RIAA sent PIR a letter last week, urging it to suspend the Pirate Bay’s domain.

The music group lists several European court decisions against The Pirate Bay, including the criminal convictions of its founders in Sweden. It states that the torrent site is clearly operating illegally, and hopes the registry will take its domain name out of circulation.

According to the RIAA, The Pirate Bay violates PIR’s anti-abuse policy and terms of service. As such, it hopes that a court order isn’t required for the registry to take action.

“When, as in this case, there is overwhelming evidence of infringing and abusive activity on a domain, along with court orders from several jurisdictions with well-developed copyright jurisprudence, it cannot be the ‘right thing’ or ‘in the community interest’ to hold out for those decisions to be processed before the U.S. courts before taking action,” the RIAA writes.

RIAA’s letter to the Public Interest Registry

The RIAA’s letter was sent last week and thus far PIR has not taken any steps against the domain. Instead, it forwarded the RIAA’s letter to Pirate Bay’s registrar, the Canadian-based EasyDNS.

TorrentFreak spoke with EasyDNS CEO Mark Jeftovic, who informs us that he doesn’t want to be seen as a refuge for torrent sites. However, he is committed to protecting due process, and for now he sees no reason to suspend the domain name.

EasyDNS forwarded the letter to TPB and intriguingly, the site’s operator replied that they are DMCA compliant. In addition, they waved away any concerns about malware that was distributed through third-party ads.

Infringements or not, EasyDNS says its abuse policy only covers net abuse, not copyright matters. This means that in order to get a domain suspended the RIAA would need to present a local court order, or a foreign one that’s served through the Ontario Sheriff’s Office.

“We would need some kind of legal finding here in Ontario, or a foreign legal finding that has been duly served to us via the Ontario Sheriff’s Office,” Jeftovic tells us.

Alternatively, EasyDNS says it will accept the outcome of a formal proceeding under ICANN’s rules and regulations. However, it won’t take action against a one-sided complaint.

All in all, this means that the RIAA’s letter is unlikely to achieve the result they desire. This also begs the question, what’s next?

Although the RIAA would prefer to avoid a legal case against The Pirate Bay in the United States, if only to avoid the media attention, it appears that they have few other options left than to go to court.

Court case or not, the TPB team isn’t worried. They are not tied to the .ORG domain and can easily switch to an alternative.

“TPB is more than just a domain, it’s a movement, and taking down one domain will have zero effect on our inalienable right to share culture with our peers,” TPB’s Spud17 told us earlier today.

And so the whack-a-mole game is likely to continue.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Fan-Created Movie Subtitle Site Operator Facing Prison

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/fan-created-movie-subtitle-site-operator-facing-prison-160525/

Running a site offering or even linking to pirated movies and TV shows can be a hazardous occupation. It attracts the attention of copyright holders, the police, and in some cases even governments. For those running them these perils represent an occupational hazard.

But what if a site creates its own content and distributes that online, should that be a crime? That question is about to be answered in a unique case featuring fan-populated subtitling site Undertexter.se.

For ten years Undertexter (‘subtitles’ in Swedish) provided a somewhat useful service. Faced with what they perceived as a dearth of subtitling in local language, members of the site made their own translated subtitles for movies and TV shows. These were made available to all via the site.

However, in the summer of 2013 everything came crashing down. Under pressure from powerful Hollywood-based movie companies, police raided the site and seized its servers.

“The people who work on the site don’t consider their own interpretation of dialog to be something illegal, especially when we’re handing out these interpretations for free,” site founder Eugen Archy said at the time.

The authorities firmly disagreed, Archy was arrested, and the investigation into his site continued. Now, almost three years later, the Undertexter founder has been prosecuted for distributing infringing subtitles.

“I have indicted the person I say is behind the site Undertexter.se which made the dialogue from 74 films available to the public,” says prosecutor Henrik Rasmusson.

Of particular interest is the nature of the 74 movies referenced by the prosecution. Rather than tackle all of the subtitles on the site, the prosecution appears to have hand-picked a few dozen that gives them the strongest case, i.e those that relate to movies that weren’t commercially available in Sweden at the time.

The underlying suggestion is that those who created the subtitles either managed to legally view them in other regions or more likely carried out their translation work from pirate copies available online. Also, since the majority of Undertexter’s traffic came from Sweden, it’s likely that users of the site married the subtitles up with pirate copies.

Archy does not deny that he founded and operated the site, nor does he refute claims that he made some money from his activities, largely through on-site advertising. However, he does believe that offering fan-created subtitles is not a crime.

Unsurprisingly, Rasmusson strongly disagrees and even suggests that a prison sentence could be a possible outcome of this prosecution.

“This particular type of case, with pirate subtitles for pirate movies, has not been tried before. But the scale is at such a level that the penalty does not stop at fines, but imprisonment. It could be a suspended sentence,” Rasmusson says.

Soon it will be up to the court to decide whether distributing fan-created subtitles is a crime in Sweden. Experts have already weighed in on the case with Sanna Wolk, an associate professor of civil law at Uppsala University, noting that the devil could be in the detail.

“The core issue is whether the lyrics count as independent works or pure translations. If they follow the script, it’s a copyright violation to distribute them without permission, but if they’re self-published, it is not,” Wolk noted earlier.

“It is difficult to say where the exact line is. Subtitles need to be considered on their own merits to make an assessment.”

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Hollywood Withdraws Funding for UK Anti-Piracy Group FACT

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/hollywood-withdraws-funding-for-uk-anti-piracy-group-fact-160524/

factThe Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT)is the most aggressive private anti-piracy group currently operating in the UK.

In recent years the organization has been responsible for investigating dozens of alleged pirates and has secured many convictions, largely on behalf of its movie and TV industry partners.

Now, however, FACT faces a somewhat uncertain future after the Motion Picture Association, the movie industry outfit that supplies FACT with half of its funding, decided to pull its support for the anti-piracy group.

The MPA, which represents the interests of Disney, Paramount, Sony, 20th Century Fox, Universal and Warner Bros, has recently advised FACT that it intends to terminate its 30-year long relationship by not renewing its membership when it expires in six months’ time.

Speaking with Screen Daily, MPA Europe president Stan McCoy explained that local funding for FACT had been withdrawn in favor of financing larger regional hubs with a wider remit.

The relevant regional office dealing with the UK is the MPA’s EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa) in Brussels which aims to provide “a nimble local presence and a direct relationship with local law enforcement.”

McCoy acknowledged FACT’s efforts over the last three decades but said that the changing nature of piracy, including the shift away from physical to online infringement, requires “a more flexible approach” than the one currently in place.

“We live in a world now where a piracy website can have its nexus in Sweden one day, then move in a few months to Eastern Europe, then to Thailand, or it can operate in all three of those jurisdictions at once,” McCoy said.

For FACT the withdrawal of the MPA and by extension the major studios is a massive blow. The MPA currently provides FACT with around 50% of its funding, leaving the balance to made up a range of partners including the UK Cinema Association, the Film Distributors’ Association, the Premier League, and broadcasters including ITV.

FACT confirmed that its MPA funding is being withdrawn and is said to be considering its options. In the meantime, however, it’s unlikely that the UK will become a care-free piracy zone. The MPA says it intends to continue its work protecting copyright in the UK which will include the pursuit of more site-blocking injunctions and increased cooperation with the Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit.

That being said, it will be interesting to see how this situation plays out. FACT provided “boots on the ground” for the studios in the UK and undertook investigations against pirates that in some cases the police were reluctant to take on and in others carry through to a prosecution. Abandoning that local touch could be risky strategy for the MPA, but only time will tell.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

ISP: Police Requests Most User Data for File-Sharing “Crimes”

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/bahnhof-police-requests-160521/

pirate-runningIn recent years Internet provider Bahnhof has fought hard to protect the privacy of its subscribers.

The company has been a major opponent of extensive data retention requirements, launched a free VPN to its users, and recently vowed to protect subscribers from a looming copyright troll invasion.

This week Bahnhof reiterated its pro-privacy stance by stressing that it doesn’t hand over personal details of alleged pirates, not even to the police.

For the first time in history the company published details on the nature of police data requests. Interestingly, this reveals that file-sharing ‘crime’ is the largest category by far.

Of all requests received by the ISP well over a quarter, 27.5%, were for cases related to online file-sharing. This trumps other crimes such as grooming minors, forgery and fraud.

“We want to publish these figures to show that police are violating people’s privacy and putting resources into meaningless trifles,” Bahnhof CEO Jon Karlung says, commenting on the release.

Bahnhof-small

While the total number of 40 requests is relatively modest the data shows that file-sharing is high on the agenda for the Swedish police. However, from Bahnhof they shouldn’t expect any cooperation.

Citing European privacy regulations the Internet provider says that it will only hand over data to the police if the complaint applies to a serious crime, which doesn’t apply to piracy according to the company.

The ISP’s decision goes against the recommendation of the Swedish Telecoms Authority as well as the police, and a future court ruling is expected to provide more clarity on the issue.

Until then, Bahnhof will continue to shield alleged file-sharers from police requests for their personal data.

“The IP address is your fingerprint on the web,” Karlung says, noting that it’s tied to people’s browsing habits and all sorts of private data. “It shall not be disclosed without strong reasons.”

The recent comments fall in line with the ISP’s critique on the ongoing push to criminalize file-sharing in Sweden. Just a few weeks ago Karlung dismissed calls for harsher punishments for online piracy, noting that rightsholders should concentrate on developing better legal options instead.

For their part, the police note that the high number of file-sharing related requests are the result of increased enforcement efforts from copyright holders. When these report criminal activity, police are obliged to investigate the matter.

Credit: Translated chart by Rick Falkvinge

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Court Orders Pirate Bay Domains to be Forfeited to the State

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/court-orders-pirate-bay-domains-forfeited-state-160512/

In 2013, anti-piracy prosecutor Fredrik Ingblad filed a motion targeting two of The Pirate Bay’s most recognizable names, ThePirateBay.se (the site’s main domain) and PirateBay.se (a lesser used alternative).

Rather than take on the site and its operators directly, Ingblad filed a complaint against Punkt SE (IIS), the organization responsible for Sweden’s top level .SE domain.

Ingbland argued that since The Pirate Bay is an illegal site the domains are tools used to infringe copyright and should be suspended. Furthermore, the prosecutor insisted that as the controller of those domains, IIS should also be held liable for copyright infringement.

IIS naturally took an opposing stance and said that any decision on the fate of the domains should be decided by the court. Meanwhile, IIS refused to suspend The Pirate Bay’s domains.

The case was heard in April 2015 and a month later the Stockholm District Court ruled that The Pirate Bay should forfeit both ThePirateBay.se and PirateBay.se.

But despite ordering the domain seizures the case against IIS was essentially rejected, with the District Court dismissing the prosecution’s case and awarding the registry close to $40,000 in costs. As a result the prosecution took the case to appeal.

This morning, however, the Svea Court of Appeal handed down its decision which upholds the decision of the Stockholm District Court.

“In common with the District Court ruling the Court of Appeal finds that there is a basis for confiscation since the domain names assisted crimes under the Copyright Act,” the Svea Court of Appeal said in a statement.

This means that ThePirateBay.se and PirateBay.se are now set to be forfeited to the Swedish state and The Pirate Bay will have to find alternatives.

Speaking with TorrentFreak, IIS counsel Elisabeth Ekstrand says that her organization is pleased that the decision of the District Court has been upheld.

“We are pleased that the Court of Appeal chose to uphold the decision from the District Court. We think it is good that this issue has been examined. Now we need some time to read through the verdict before we can make any further comments,” Ekstrand told TF.

Both of the domains are held in the name of Pirate Bay co-founder Fredrik Neij and the District Court previously ruled that he is the owner.

“The prosecutor’s primary claim with respect to Fredrik Neij should be upheld and domain names should be confiscated from him in accordance with the Copyright Act,” the Court said.

However, speaking with TorrentFreak a few minutes ago, Neij denied that he is the owner of the domains and will file an appeal to the Supreme Court to protest.

“I will appeal on the grounds that I do not own the domain and that I did not commit copyright infringement as I am not involved with the site anymore,” Neij explained.

All of the parties involved are allowed to appeal so this case seems far from over.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

ISP Boss Criticizes Calls to Criminalize File-Sharers

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/isp-boss-criticizes-calls-to-criminalize-file-sharers-160507/

karlungThere are very few Internet service providers around the world who could be described as file-sharer friendly. Most will steadfastly do their bare minimum when aggressive copyright holders come calling, with the majority happy to throw their customers to the wolves, guilty or not.

The same cannot be said about Swedish ISP Bahnhof. CEO Jon Karlung has been at the forefront of several arguments over file-sharers for many years, particularly when their activities intersect with a right to privacy.

In 2009, Karlung threw a wrench in the works of the Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive (IPRED) by refusing to log the IP addresses of his customers. This meant that if a court came calling for the data, none would be available.

In 2011, Karlung was pleasing the masses again, this time by hosting Wikileaks and promising to route all customer traffic through an encrypted VPN service. And in April this year the Bahnhof CEO vowed to protect his customers from copyright trolls.

Now Karlung has turned his attentions to the Swedish government following an open hearing at the end of last month on the subject of piracy in the digital marketplace.

The published purpose of the hearing was to “share knowledge and gain a greater insight into how piracy and other infringements of intellectual property affects both businesses and consumers and society in general” but it appears Karlung was not impressed.

Servers at Bahnhof

bahnoff servers

Writing in Sweden’s SVT, Karlung said that the meeting was attended by representatives from the film and music industries who sat alongside police and politicians. He says that the atmosphere was good, with everyone in agreement.

“For several hours they repeated, with rising fighting spirit, the same message again and again: ‘We need to block illegal sites! We must strengthen penalties!’,” the Bahnhof CEO reports.

Eventually Sweden’s Minister for Justice took the floor and told those assembled that “theft is theft!” while championing tougher penalties for infringers. He also noted that his first meetings after he took over as attorney general had been with the film industry. This appears to have riled Karlung.

“It is symptomatic that no Internet service provider was invited to the meeting – or anyone else with a broader understanding of digital conditions,” he explains.

The Bahnhof CEO says the exchange reminded him of 2008 when he attended a meeting in Sweden’s Parliament on the topic of file-sharing. Back then too, a politician stood up, declared that “theft is theft”, and left without discussing the issue with the ISP. For Karlung, history is repeating itself.

“In 2016, Sweden wants to criminalize hundreds of thousands of citizens for file-sharing. Now?! When large parts of the film and music industry have already adapted to the digital landscape with services such as Spotify and Netflix?” he questions.

“Consumers are apparently willing to pay. How about adding resources to develop the right services instead of taking a large sledgehammer to the free Internet?”

Karlung says that Sweden used to be at the forefront in that respect, but things have changed.

“Now we are internationally renowned as a place where courts prohibit public art from being shared online,” he explains.

Whether Karlung’s words will have any effect on government policy will remain to be seen but in any event it is extremely rare for the CEO of an ISP to make his voice heard in the way Karlung has for the past several years. Certainly, privacy conscious customers could do worse than check out this ISP.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Crooks Go Deep With ‘Deep Insert’ Skimmers

Post Syndicated from BrianKrebs original https://krebsonsecurity.com/2016/05/crooks-go-deep-with-deep-insert-skimmers/

ATM maker NCR Corp. says it is seeing a rapid rise in reports of what it calls “deep insert skimmers,” wafer-thin fraud devices made to be hidden inside of the card acceptance slot on a cash machine.

KrebsOnSecurity’s All About Skimmers series has featured several stories about insert skimmers. But the ATM manufacturer said deep insert skimmers are different from typical insert skimmers because they are placed in various positions within the card reader transport, behind the shutter of a motorized card reader and completely hidden from the consumer at the front of the ATM.

Deep insert skimmers removed from hacked ATMs.

Deep insert skimmers removed from hacked ATMs.

NCR says these deep insert skimming devices — usually made of metal or PCB plastic — are unlikely to be affected by most active anti-skimming jamming solutions, and they are unlikely to be detected by most fraudulent device detection solutions.

“Neither NCR Skimming Protection Solution, nor other anti-skimming devices can prevent skimming with these deep insert skimmers,” NCR wrote in an alert sent to banks and other customers. “This is due to the fact the skimmer sits well inside the card reader, away from the detectors or jammers of [NCR’s skimming protection solution].

The company said it has received reports of these skimming devices on all ATM manufacturers in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Bulgaria, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.

“This suggests that ‘deep insert skimming’ is becoming more viable for criminals as a tactic to avoid bezel mounted anti-skimming devices,” NCR wrote. The company said it is currently testing a firmware update for NCR machines that should help detect the insertion of deep insert skimmers and send an alert.

A DEEP DIVE ON DEEP INSERT SKIMMERS

Charlie Harrow, solutions manager for global security at NCR, said the early model insert skimmers used a rudimentary wireless transmitter to send card data. But those skimmers were all powered by tiny coin batteries like the kind found in watches, and that dramatically limits the amount of time that the skimmer can transmit card data.

Harrow said NCR suspects that the deep insert skimmer makers are using tiny pinhole cameras hidden above or beside the PIN pad to record customers entering their PINs, and that the hidden camera doubles as a receiver for the stolen card data sent by the skimmer nestled inside the ATM’s card slot. He suspects this because NCR has never actually found a hidden camera along with an insert skimmer. Also, a watch-battery run wireless transmitter wouldn’t last long if the signal had to travel very far.

According to Harrow, the early model insert skimmers weren’t really made to be retrieved. Turns out, that may have something to do with the way card readers work on ATMs.

“Usually what happens is the insert skimmer causes a card jam,” at which point the thief calls it quits and retrieves his hidden camera — which has both the card data transmitted from the skimmer and video snippets of unwitting customers entering their PINs, he said. “These skimming devices can usually cope with most cards, but it’s just a matter of time before a customer sticks an ATM card in the machine that is in less-that-perfect condition.”

The latest model deep insert skimmers, Harrow said, include a tiny memory chip that can hold account data skimmed off the cards. Presumably this is preferable to sending the data wirelessly because writing the card data to a memory chip doesn’t drain as much power from the wimpy coin battery that powers the devices.

The deep insert skimmers also are designed to be retrievable:

“The ones I’ve seen will snap into some of the features inside the card reader, which has got various nooks and crannies,” Harrow said. “The latest ones also have magnets in them which are used to hold them down against the card reader.” Harrow says the magnets are on the opposite side of the device from the card reader, so the magnets don’t interfere with the skimmer’s job of reading the data off of the card’s magnetic stripe.

Many readers have asked why the fraudsters would bother skimming cards from ATMs in Europe, which long ago were equipped to read data off the chip embedded in the cards issued by European banks. The trouble is that virtually all chip cards still have the account data encoded in plain text on the magnetic stripe on the back of the card — mainly so that the cards can be used in ATM locations that cannot yet read chip-based cards (i.e., the United States).

When thieves skim data from ATMs in Europe, they generally sell the data to fraudsters who will encode the card data onto counterfeit cards and withdraw cash at ATMs in the United States or in other countries that haven’t yet fully moved to chip-based cards. In response, some European financial institutions have taken to enacting an anti-fraud mechanism called “geo-blocking,” which prevents the cards from being used in certain areas.

“Where geo-blocking has been widely or partially implemented, the international loss profile is very different, with minimal losses reported,” wrote the European ATM Security Team (EAST) in their latest roundup of ATM skimming attacks in 2015 (for more on that, see this story). “From the perspective of European card issuers the USA and the Asia-Pacific region are where the majority of such losses are being reported.”

east-lossesbycountry

Even after most U.S. banks put in place chip-capable ATMs, the magnetic stripe will still be needed because it’s an integral part of the way ATMs work: Most ATMs in use today require a magnetic stripe for the card to be accepted into the machine. The principal reason for this is to ensure that customers are putting the card into the slot correctly, as embossed letters and numbers running across odd spots in the card reader can take their toll on the machines over time.

Swedish Police Want to Block The Pirate Bay & Seize Domains

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/swedish-police-want-to-block-the-pirate-bay-seize-domains-160502/

With infrastructure often spread around the world and multiple domains in backup, shutting down access to torrent and streaming sites can be a complex affair. Even when national legal systems provide the necessary tools, the process can be extremely drawn out, not to mention ineffective.

The case of The Pirate Bay provides a perfect example. Deemed illegal just about everywhere, the site has remained online despite the efforts of law enforcement, countless legal professionals, and courts around the globe. The world’s most notorious torrent site doesn’t play by the rules, a point certainly not lost on Paul Pintér, Sweden’s national coordinator for IP enforcement.

Pintér, previously a computer crime and forensics investigator with the Stockholm County Police, has headed up a specialist anti-piracy unit since 2010. He feels that the police need more powers to shut down sites such as The Pirate Bay.

In a memorandum submitted to the Government, Pintér says that websites that violate copyright or trademark law should be blocked by Internet service providers. Furthermore, while preliminary investigations are underway, domain names should be seized by the authorities.

“They commit crimes, they should be removed from the Internet. I see it as an additional tool to combat piracy,” Pintér told IDG.

Pintér understands the problems only too well. The process to seize The Pirate Bay’s .SE domain has dragged on since 2013 and now sits with the court of appeal. A decision was due this week but Punkt SE (IIS), the organization responsible for Sweden’s top level .SE domain, informs TorrentFreak that the decision has been delayed again.

“If we have a site selling counterfeit clothing or an illegal streaming site, and you can seize its domain during the investigation, it is gone during that time. It is a good preventive measure if nothing else,” Pintér says.

Being able to quickly seize a ‘pirate’ domain would certainly be an asset to the police but there are those who will question whether that would trample due process. Pintér suggests that wouldn’t be the case.

“I want the law to be technology neutral. We carry out seizures in many, many other cases, everything from computers to money,” Pintér says.

Nevertheless, adjustments would have to be made. In his memorandum to the government Pintér calls for changes in the law that would allow police to seize not only tangible items such as physical property, but also intangible items such as domain names.

Furthermore, rather than relying on entertainment industry companies to take their own legal action, Pintér would like amendments to the law that would allow copyright or trademark infringing sites to be blocked by ISPs.

“I’m not talking about blocking everything. I’m talking about sites that contain criminal material. I don’t see a difference between child pornography, copyright infringement or trademark infringement – for me it is a crime,” Pintér concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

ISP Vows to Prevent Users From a Piracy Witch Hunt

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Torrentfreak/~3/W92Ynf3SyIo/

trollsignIn recent years file-sharers all across Europe have been threatened with lawsuits, if they don’t pay a significant settlement fee.

The process was pioneered in Germany where it turned into an industry by itself, but copyright holders have also targeted alleged pirates in the UK, Finland and elsewhere.

Sweden is one of the latest countries where these so-called “copyright trolls” have landed. At the birth ground of The Pirate Bay, media outfit Crystalis Entertainment received permission from the court to identify several BitTorrent users, based on their IP-addresses.

The case, which could be the first of many, was filed against the local ISP TeliaSonera who handed over the requested information without putting up much of a fight.

This prompted the competing Internet provider Bahnhof to issue a warning. The company notes that the copyright holder in question doesn’t have a very strong case, and it criticizes Telia for caving in too easily.

“The Stockholm district court did not even see any evidence showing that these IP addresses were actually used for file sharing. It could basically be one of these Nigerian mail scams,” Bahnhof CEO Jon Karlung says.

“I think that Telia folded caved in too easily. Although Crystal Entertainment properly represents certain copyright holders, at Bahnhof we would choose to appeal,” he adds.

The ISP says that they will not hand over any data without urging for a proper review of the evidence.

This is no surprise for a company that’s heavily focused on user privacy. Bahnhof’s tagline is “Internet with privacy” and two years ago the ISP was one of the first to launch a free VPN, responding to a legal requirement that required it to log subscriber activities.

In a press release Bahnhof explains how these extortion-like demands from copyright holders have become commonplace in Germany. It’s exactly this type of witch hunt is something they hope to prevent in Sweden.

This means that if copyright holders demand the same info from Bahnhof, they will fight this in court.

“We have to follow the law and no one can predict the future, but one thing I can guarantee, we’re on the side if our users. We will do everything in our power to prevent the German situation from spreading,” Karlung says.

Bahnhof’s CEO also has some advice for the media companies that are affected by piracy. They should invest their time and money in offering great content, instead of taking their customers to court.

“It is better for copyright holders to put their money into developing services that people want to pay for, like Netflix and Spotify, instead of becoming entrenched in the 1900s,” he concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Poland vs the United States: crime and punishment

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-crime-and.html

This is the tenth article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

Throughout much of its history, the United States has been a comparatively violent nation. From the famed lawlessness of the western frontier, to the brawling biker gangs, to the iconic Italian Mafia and the fearsome Mexican drug cartels, the thirst for blood has left a mark on the American psyche – and profoundly influenced many of the country’s most cherished works of literary and cinematic art.

But sooner or later, a line gets drawn. And so, when a tidal wave of violent crime swept the nation in the late 80s, the legislators and the executive branch felt obliged to act. Many wanted to send a message to the criminal underworld by going after it with relentless and uncompromising zeal – kicking off the multi-decade War on Drugs and rolling out policies such as the three strikes law in California or stop-and-frisk in New York City. Others saw the root of all evil in the pervasive gun culture of the United States – successfully outlawing the possession or carry of certain classes of firearms and establishing a nation-wide system of background checks.

And then, in the midst of these policy changes, something very interesting started to unfold: the crime rate plunged like a rock, dropping almost 50% over the course of twenty years. But why? Well, the funny thing is, nobody could really tell. The proponents of tough policing and the War on Drugs tooted their own horns; but less vindictive municipalities that adopted programs of community engagement and proactive policing heralded broadly comparable results. Gun control advocates claimed that getting AR-15s and handguns off the streets made a difference; gun rights activists found little or no crime gap between the gun-friendly and the gun-hostile states. Economists pointed out that people were living better, happier, and longer lives. Epidemiologists called out the elimination of lead – an insidious developmental neurotoxin – from paints and gasoline. Some scholars have gone as far as claiming that easy access to contraception and abortion caused fewer children to be born into multi-generational poverty and to choose the life of crime.

Europe certainly provided an interesting contrast; the old continent, having emerged from two unspeakably devastating and self-inflicted wars, celebrated its newly-found pacifist streak. Its modern-day penal systems reflected the philosophy of reconciliation – abolishing the death penalty and placing greater faith in community relationships, alternative sentencing, and the rehabilitation of criminals. A person who served a sentence was seen as having paid the dues: in Poland and many other European countries, his or hers prospective employers would be barred from inquiring about the criminal record, and the right to privacy would keep the indictments and court records from public view.

It’s hard to say if the European model worked better when it comes to combating villainy; in the UK, crime trends followed the US trajectory; in Sweden, they did the opposite. But the utilitarian aspect of the correctional system aside, the US approach certainly carries a heavy humanitarian toll: the country maintains a truly astronomical prison population, disproportionately comprised of ethnic minorities and the poor; recidivism rates are high and overcrowding in some penitentiary systems borders on the inhumane.

Untangling this mess is not easy; most Americans seriously worry about crime and see it as a growing epidemic, even if their beliefs are not substantiated by government-published stats. Perhaps because of this, they favor tough policing; reports of potential prosecutorial oversight – such as the recent case of a tragic homicide in San Francisco – tend to provoke broader outrage than any comparable claims of overreach. Similarly, police brutality or prison rape are widely acknowledged and even joked about – but are seen as something that only ever happens to the bad folks.

For the next article in the series, click here.

Poland vs the United States: crime and punishment

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2015/07/poland-vs-united-states-crime-and.html

This is the tenth article in a short series about Poland, Europe, and the United States. To explore the entire series, start here.

Throughout much of its history, the United States has been a comparatively violent nation. From the famed lawlessness of the western frontier, to the brawling biker gangs, to the iconic Italian Mafia and the fearsome Mexican drug cartels, the thirst for blood has left a mark on the American psyche – and profoundly influenced many of the country’s most cherished works of literary and cinematic art.

But sooner or later, a line gets drawn. And so, when a tidal wave of violent crime swept the nation in the late 80s, the legislators and the executive branch felt obliged to act. Many wanted to send a message to the criminal underworld by going after it with relentless and uncompromising zeal – kicking off the multi-decade War on Drugs and rolling out policies such as the three strikes law in California or stop-and-frisk in New York City. Others saw the root of all evil in the pervasive gun culture of the United States – successfully outlawing the possession or carry of certain classes of firearms and establishing a nation-wide system of background checks.

And then, in the midst of these policy changes, something very interesting started to unfold: the crime rate plunged like a rock, dropping almost 50% over the course of twenty years. But why? Well, the funny thing is, nobody could really tell. The proponents of tough policing and the War on Drugs tooted their own horns; but less vindictive municipalities that adopted programs of community engagement and proactive policing heralded broadly comparable results. Gun control advocates claimed that getting AR-15s and handguns off the streets made a difference; gun rights activists found little or no crime gap between the gun-friendly and the gun-hostile states. Economists pointed out that people were living better, happier, and longer lives. Epidemiologists called out the elimination of lead – an insidious developmental neurotoxin – from paints and gasoline. Some scholars have gone as far as claiming that easy access to contraception and abortion caused fewer children to be born into multi-generational poverty and to choose the life of crime.

Europe certainly provided an interesting contrast; the old continent, having emerged from two unspeakably devastating and self-inflicted wars, celebrated its newly-found pacifist streak. Its modern-day penal systems reflected the philosophy of reconciliation – abolishing the death penalty and placing greater faith in community relationships, alternative sentencing, and the rehabilitation of criminals. A person who served a sentence was seen as having paid the dues: in Poland and many other European countries, his or hers prospective employers would be barred from inquiring about the criminal record, and the right to privacy would keep the indictments and court records from public view.

It’s hard to say if the European model worked better when it comes to combating villainy; in the UK, crime trends followed the US trajectory; in Sweden, they did the opposite. But the utilitarian aspect of the correctional system aside, the US approach certainly carries a heavy humanitarian toll: the country maintains a truly astronomical prison population, disproportionately comprised of ethnic minorities and the poor; recidivism rates are high and overcrowding in some penitentiary systems borders on the inhumane.

Untangling this mess is not easy; most Americans seriously worry about crime and see it as a growing epidemic, even if their beliefs are not substantiated by government-published stats. Perhaps because of this, they favor tough policing; reports of potential prosecutorial oversight – such as the recent case of a tragic homicide in San Francisco – tend to provoke broader outrage than any comparable claims of overreach. Similarly, police brutality or prison rape are widely acknowledged and even joked about – but are seen as something that only ever happens to the bad folks.

For the next article in the series, click here.

MariaDB Foundation achivements 2012-12 – 2013-09

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/10/mariadb-foundation-achivements-2012-12.html

I recently read some comments that we at the MariaDB Foundation have not been very open about what we are doing.We are very sorry about this. The problem is not that we are secret about what we are doing, the problem is that not many of us working at the MariaDB Foundation are very active bloggers.I will try to address this concern by starting a monthly blog about the MariaDB development that MariaDB Foundation employees are doing. This together with Simon Phipps’ state of the sea lion blog, which is published on the MariaDB Foundation blog, should hopefully give everyone a better idea of what we are doing.At the MariaDB Foundation we are now 4 people working full time on code, documentation, and spreading MariaDB. Here are the things we have done since the Foundation was formed in December 2012:Major development efforts based on code from the community: MDEV-4568 Port Percona response time distribution as audit pluginMDEV-4911 Add KILL query id, and add query id information to process listMDEV-4684 Enhancement request: –init-command support for mysqlslapMajor new development efforts: MDEV-4702 Reduce usage of LOCK_openMDEV-4011 Per thread memory usageMDEV-4902 sql_yacc.yy incompatible with bison 3MDEV-4950 mysql_upgrade fails with disabled InnoDB (a bug that is not fixed in MySQL)MDEV-21 LGPL C client libraryLGPL Java client library.Some work on a new LGPL ODBC driver for MySQL and MariaDB.Better error messages (the error code in an error message now has descriptive text)Faster connect (lots of small fixes).MDEV-3941 CREATE TABLE xxx IF NOT EXISTS should not block if table exists.The MariaDB Foundation has also done a lot of work on the merge of MySQL 5.6 to MariaDB 10.0. The most notable features done by the Foundation are: All InnoDB changesAll performance schema changesCleaned up the HANDLER interfaces (to make life easier for storage engine writers).TRANSACTION READ ONLY | READ WRITEMySQL-5.6 TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME data types with fractional secondsMySQL-5.6 temporal literalsutf16le character setTO_BASE64 and FROM_BASE64 SQL functionsMySQL-5.6 collation customization improvements (in progress)Note that the above is not a complete list of what is in MariaDB 10.0!We are working with external entities and contributors to get features into MariaDB. Some of these have required a lot of work on the MariaDB Foundation side: CONNECT storage enginePorting to various operating systems (*BSD, Linux flavors, Solaris)Porting to unixODBCFixing compiler warningsTesting and writing mtr testsChecking, reporting and fixing valgrind warningsReviewing the author’s codeAdding MySQL/MariaDB security support (FILE privilege and secure_file_priv)Adding ConnectSE support in embedded serverGlobalization: making ConnectSE support multiple MariaDB character setsDiscussing many aspects of better integration of ConnectSE into MariaDB with the author.Packaging (RPMs, DEBs, MSI)TokuDB storage engineReview of codeSome small integration changes.Parallel slaveMulti source replication Worked closely with the original author to extend the code from a working proof of concept to production level code.MDEV-4438 Spider storage engine Continuously working with KentokuMDEV-4425 REGEXP enhancements (a Google Summer of Code project, in progress) Mentoring Sudheera Palihakkara (the student)Student’s code reviews (for RLIKE and RLIKE_REPLACE)Code enhancements proposalsCMake related enhancementsWrote RLIKE_SUBSTR and RLIKE_INSTR functionsAdded support for –crash-script in mysqld_safe.A lot of basic system maintenence: Reported a lot of bugs (this is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4654 Wrong warning for CAST(TIME(’10:20:30′) AS DATE) + INTERVAL 1 DAYMDEV-4655 Difference in how GREATEST and COALESCE process argumentsMDEV-4714 Wrong TIME value from a long stringMDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4838 Wrong metadata for DATE_ADD(‘string’, INVERVAL)MDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4842 STR_TO_DATE does not work with UCS2/UTF16/UTF32MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4844 Redundant warning in SELECT TIME(’00:00:00.’)MDEV-4848 Wrong metadata or column type for LEAST(1.0,’10’)MDEV-4850 MATCH uses a wrong fulltext index with mismatching collationMDEV-4857 Wrong result of HOUR(‘1 00:00:00’)MDEV-4858 Wrong error message for a huge unsigned value inserted into a TIME columnMDEV-4859 Wrong value and data type of “SELECT MAX(time_column) + 1 FROM t1”MDEV-4861 TIME/DATETIME arithmetics does not preserve INTERVAL precisionMDEV-4862 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, 59.9)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4868 Length of CURRENT_TIME is too longMDEV-4869 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, -0.1)MDEV-4870 Wrong values of CASE, COALESCE, IFNULL on a combination of different temporal typesMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsMDEV-4872 Inserting a huge number into a TIME column produces a wrong resultMDEV-4898 Too many warnings when inserting a bad value into a TIMESTAMP columnMDEV-4900 Bad value inserted into a TIME field on truncationFixed a LOT of bugs (the following is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4512 Valgrind warnings in my_long10_to_str_8bit on INTERVAL and DATE_ADD with incorrect typesMDEV-4518 Server crashes in is_white_space when it’s run with query cache…MDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4639 my_datetime_to_str: Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialized valueMDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4804 Date comparing false resultMDEV-4819 Upgrade from MySQL 5.6 does not workMDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsFixed MySQL bug #69861 LAST_INSERT_ID is replicated incorrectly if replication filters are used.Fixed issues with partitions and create temporary table SELECTIf one declared several continue handler for the same condition on different level of stored procedures, all of them where executed. Now we only execute the innermost of them (the most relevant).Don’t abort InnoDB if one can’t allocate resources for AIOAdded some fixes that should make MyISAM & Aria REPAIR work with more than 4G records.MDEV-4352 LOAD DATA was not multi-source safeMDEV-4394 Sporadic failures in multi_source testsMDEV-4033 Unable to use slave’s temporary directory /tmp – Can’t create/write to file ‘/tmp/SQL_LOAD-‘ (Errcode: 17 “File exists”)Increase default value of max_binlog_cache_size and max_binlog_stmt_cache_size to ulonglong_max.MDEV-4319 mysqlbinlog output ambiguous escaping (patch by Ian Good)OPTION is now a valid identifier (not a reserved word)Fixed issue with LOCK TABLE + ALTER TABLE ENABLE KEYS + SHOW commands.MDEV-628 Querying myisam table metadata may corrupt the table.Replace with an auto_increment primary key and another unique key didn’t replicate correctly with REPLACE.BUG#51763 Can’t delete rows from MEMORY table with HASH key.MDEV-389 Server crash inserting record on a temporary table after truncating it.Fixed crashing bug in GROUP_CONCAT with ROLLUPMDEV-4013 Password length in replication setupMDEV-4009 main.delayed sporadically fails with “query ‘REPLACE DELAYED t1 VALUES (5)’ failed: 1317: Query execution was interrupted”Fixed CREATE TABLE IF EXIST generates warnings instead of errorsRemoved lock wait timeout warning when using CREATE TABLE IF EXISTSCode cleanups and code rewrites.Continued work to ensure that MariaDB works on many operating systems.Did lots of small fixes for Solaris.Review of code from the community.Removed valgrind and compiler warnings.Added new test cases.QA & benchmarking.Talked about MariaDB and Open Source/Free Software at a lot of conferences: Percona Live London 2012SkySQL Roadshow, StuttgartVista developer Conference, RigaPHP Conference, Pasila, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, AmsterdamPercona Live, Santa ClaraSkySQL Roadshow, LondonMySQL Meetup, NYCSuomen Arkistointi Seminaari, Mikkeli, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, BerlinAli Baba Conference, Hangzhou, ChinaOSCON, PortlandDebconf, SwitzerlandFroscon, St Augustin, GermanyHaaga-Helia Talks, FinlandIDCEE Conference, UkrainaLatinux, Brazil & PeruHighload Conference, MoscowFoscon, Gotenburg, SwedenPercona Live 2013, LondonOther things people from the MariaDB foundation have done:Created +200 and updated +3000 articles in the MariaDB Knowledge Base. Some of the notable things are:Complete documentation of all system variablesComplete documentation of all status variablesClients and utilitiesGeographic functionsPerformance schemaLog filesInternationalization, character sets, collationXtraDB and InnoDB contentGlobal Transaction ID (from Kristian’s content)TriggersStored FunctionsStored ProceduresViewsDynamic ColumnsFulltext indexesReplicationDate and timeUpdating fill_help_tables.sql so that MariaDB HELP output will point the Knowledge BaseReformatted most articles for improved readabilityReplaced many of the external links with links to newly created internal articlesVisited a lot of companies to talk about the MariaDB Foundation.Worked closely with OS distributions to get MariaDB accepted as a standard part of their distributions. Partly thanks to the MariaDB Foundation, the following distributions now have MariaDB packages: GNU/Linux KDuMageiaGentooopenSUSESlackwareArch LinuxALTLinuxMariaDB Debian Live ImagesParabola GNU/LinuxTurboLinuxThe Chakra ProjectFedoraRed Hat Enterprise LinuxFreeBSDOpenBSDDebian now has MariaDB packages in ‘unstable’.For a full list and to see which distributions are replacing MySQL with MariaDB, see this page.Updated SHOW AUTHORS and SHOW CONTRIBUTORS to give more merit to active contributors and sponsors.We are very thankfull to the MariaDB Foundation members and supporters that have made this work possible!The current members are:Booking.comSkySQLParallelsIf you want the MariaDB foundation to do even more work like the above, you should ensure that your company becomes member in the MariaDB Foundation! You can also sponsor the foundation as a private person!

MariaDB Foundation achivements 2012-12 – 2013-09

Post Syndicated from Michael "Monty" Widenius original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/10/mariadb-foundation-achivements-2012-12.html

I recently read some comments that we at the MariaDB Foundation have not been very open about what we are doing.We are very sorry about this. The problem is not that we are secret about what we are doing, the problem is that not many of us working at the MariaDB Foundation are very active bloggers.I will try to address this concern by starting a monthly blog about the MariaDB development that MariaDB Foundation employees are doing. This together with Simon Phipps’ state of the sea lion blog, which is published on the MariaDB Foundation blog, should hopefully give everyone a better idea of what we are doing.At the MariaDB Foundation we are now 4 people working full time on code, documentation, and spreading MariaDB. Here are the things we have done since the Foundation was formed in December 2012:Major development efforts based on code from the community: MDEV-4568 Port Percona response time distribution as audit pluginMDEV-4911 Add KILL query id, and add query id information to process listMDEV-4684 Enhancement request: –init-command support for mysqlslapMajor new development efforts: MDEV-4702 Reduce usage of LOCK_openMDEV-4011 Per thread memory usageMDEV-4902 sql_yacc.yy incompatible with bison 3MDEV-4950 mysql_upgrade fails with disabled InnoDB (a bug that is not fixed in MySQL)MDEV-21 LGPL C client libraryLGPL Java client library.Some work on a new LGPL ODBC driver for MySQL and MariaDB.Better error messages (the error code in an error message now has descriptive text)Faster connect (lots of small fixes).MDEV-3941 CREATE TABLE xxx IF NOT EXISTS should not block if table exists.The MariaDB Foundation has also done a lot of work on the merge of MySQL 5.6 to MariaDB 10.0. The most notable features done by the Foundation are: All InnoDB changesAll performance schema changesCleaned up the HANDLER interfaces (to make life easier for storage engine writers).TRANSACTION READ ONLY | READ WRITEMySQL-5.6 TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME data types with fractional secondsMySQL-5.6 temporal literalsutf16le character setTO_BASE64 and FROM_BASE64 SQL functionsMySQL-5.6 collation customization improvements (in progress)Note that the above is not a complete list of what is in MariaDB 10.0!We are working with external entities and contributors to get features into MariaDB. Some of these have required a lot of work on the MariaDB Foundation side: CONNECT storage enginePorting to various operating systems (*BSD, Linux flavors, Solaris)Porting to unixODBCFixing compiler warningsTesting and writing mtr testsChecking, reporting and fixing valgrind warningsReviewing the author’s codeAdding MySQL/MariaDB security support (FILE privilege and secure_file_priv)Adding ConnectSE support in embedded serverGlobalization: making ConnectSE support multiple MariaDB character setsDiscussing many aspects of better integration of ConnectSE into MariaDB with the author.Packaging (RPMs, DEBs, MSI)TokuDB storage engineReview of codeSome small integration changes.Parallel slaveMulti source replication Worked closely with the original author to extend the code from a working proof of concept to production level code.MDEV-4438 Spider storage engine Continuously working with KentokuMDEV-4425 REGEXP enhancements (a Google Summer of Code project, in progress) Mentoring Sudheera Palihakkara (the student)Student’s code reviews (for RLIKE and RLIKE_REPLACE)Code enhancements proposalsCMake related enhancementsWrote RLIKE_SUBSTR and RLIKE_INSTR functionsAdded support for –crash-script in mysqld_safe.A lot of basic system maintenence: Reported a lot of bugs (this is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4654 Wrong warning for CAST(TIME(’10:20:30′) AS DATE) + INTERVAL 1 DAYMDEV-4655 Difference in how GREATEST and COALESCE process argumentsMDEV-4714 Wrong TIME value from a long stringMDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4838 Wrong metadata for DATE_ADD(‘string’, INVERVAL)MDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4842 STR_TO_DATE does not work with UCS2/UTF16/UTF32MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4844 Redundant warning in SELECT TIME(’00:00:00.’)MDEV-4848 Wrong metadata or column type for LEAST(1.0,’10’)MDEV-4850 MATCH uses a wrong fulltext index with mismatching collationMDEV-4857 Wrong result of HOUR(‘1 00:00:00’)MDEV-4858 Wrong error message for a huge unsigned value inserted into a TIME columnMDEV-4859 Wrong value and data type of “SELECT MAX(time_column) + 1 FROM t1”MDEV-4861 TIME/DATETIME arithmetics does not preserve INTERVAL precisionMDEV-4862 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, 59.9)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4868 Length of CURRENT_TIME is too longMDEV-4869 Wrong result of MAKETIME(0, 0, -0.1)MDEV-4870 Wrong values of CASE, COALESCE, IFNULL on a combination of different temporal typesMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsMDEV-4872 Inserting a huge number into a TIME column produces a wrong resultMDEV-4898 Too many warnings when inserting a bad value into a TIMESTAMP columnMDEV-4900 Bad value inserted into a TIME field on truncationFixed a LOT of bugs (the following is not a full list): MDEV-4489 Replication of big5, cp932, gbk, sjis strings makes wrong values on slaveMDEV-4512 Valgrind warnings in my_long10_to_str_8bit on INTERVAL and DATE_ADD with incorrect typesMDEV-4518 Server crashes in is_white_space when it’s run with query cache…MDEV-4634 Crash in CONVERT_TZMDEV-4635 Crash in UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(‘2020′,’%Y’))MDEV-4639 my_datetime_to_str: Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialized valueMDEV-4651 Crash in my_decimal2decimal in a ORDER BY query MDEV-4652 Wrong result for CONCAT(GREATEST(TIME(’00:00:01′),TIME(’00:00:00′))MDEV-4653 Wrong result for CONVERT_TZ(TIME(’00:00:00′),’+00:00′,’+7:5′)MDEV-4724 MAKETIME does not preserve microsecondsMDEV-4804 Date comparing false resultMDEV-4819 Upgrade from MySQL 5.6 does not workMDEV-4841 “Wrong character set of ADDTIME() and DATE_ADD()”MDEV-4843 Wrong data type for TIMESTAMP(‘2001-01-01′,’10:10:10’)MDEV-4863 COALESCE(time) returns wrong results in numeric contextMDEV-4871 Temporal literals do not accept nanosecondsFixed MySQL bug #69861 LAST_INSERT_ID is replicated incorrectly if replication filters are used.Fixed issues with partitions and create temporary table SELECTIf one declared several continue handler for the same condition on different level of stored procedures, all of them where executed. Now we only execute the innermost of them (the most relevant).Don’t abort InnoDB if one can’t allocate resources for AIOAdded some fixes that should make MyISAM & Aria REPAIR work with more than 4G records.MDEV-4352 LOAD DATA was not multi-source safeMDEV-4394 Sporadic failures in multi_source testsMDEV-4033 Unable to use slave’s temporary directory /tmp – Can’t create/write to file ‘/tmp/SQL_LOAD-‘ (Errcode: 17 “File exists”)Increase default value of max_binlog_cache_size and max_binlog_stmt_cache_size to ulonglong_max.MDEV-4319 mysqlbinlog output ambiguous escaping (patch by Ian Good)OPTION is now a valid identifier (not a reserved word)Fixed issue with LOCK TABLE + ALTER TABLE ENABLE KEYS + SHOW commands.MDEV-628 Querying myisam table metadata may corrupt the table.Replace with an auto_increment primary key and another unique key didn’t replicate correctly with REPLACE.BUG#51763 Can’t delete rows from MEMORY table with HASH key.MDEV-389 Server crash inserting record on a temporary table after truncating it.Fixed crashing bug in GROUP_CONCAT with ROLLUPMDEV-4013 Password length in replication setupMDEV-4009 main.delayed sporadically fails with “query ‘REPLACE DELAYED t1 VALUES (5)’ failed: 1317: Query execution was interrupted”Fixed CREATE TABLE IF EXIST generates warnings instead of errorsRemoved lock wait timeout warning when using CREATE TABLE IF EXISTSCode cleanups and code rewrites.Continued work to ensure that MariaDB works on many operating systems.Did lots of small fixes for Solaris.Review of code from the community.Removed valgrind and compiler warnings.Added new test cases.QA & benchmarking.Talked about MariaDB and Open Source/Free Software at a lot of conferences: Percona Live London 2012SkySQL Roadshow, StuttgartVista developer Conference, RigaPHP Conference, Pasila, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, AmsterdamPercona Live, Santa ClaraSkySQL Roadshow, LondonMySQL Meetup, NYCSuomen Arkistointi Seminaari, Mikkeli, FinlandSkySQL Roadshow, BerlinAli Baba Conference, Hangzhou, ChinaOSCON, PortlandDebconf, SwitzerlandFroscon, St Augustin, GermanyHaaga-Helia Talks, FinlandIDCEE Conference, UkrainaLatinux, Brazil & PeruHighload Conference, MoscowFoscon, Gotenburg, SwedenPercona Live 2013, LondonOther things people from the MariaDB foundation have done:Created +200 and updated +3000 articles in the MariaDB Knowledge Base. Some of the notable things are:Complete documentation of all system variablesComplete documentation of all status variablesClients and utilitiesGeographic functionsPerformance schemaLog filesInternationalization, character sets, collationXtraDB and InnoDB contentGlobal Transaction ID (from Kristian’s content)TriggersStored FunctionsStored ProceduresViewsDynamic ColumnsFulltext indexesReplicationDate and timeUpdating fill_help_tables.sql so that MariaDB HELP output will point the Knowledge BaseReformatted most articles for improved readabilityReplaced many of the external links with links to newly created internal articlesVisited a lot of companies to talk about the MariaDB Foundation.Worked closely with OS distributions to get MariaDB accepted as a standard part of their distributions. Partly thanks to the MariaDB Foundation, the following distributions now have MariaDB packages: GNU/Linux KDuMageiaGentooopenSUSESlackwareArch LinuxALTLinuxMariaDB Debian Live ImagesParabola GNU/LinuxTurboLinuxThe Chakra ProjectFedoraRed Hat Enterprise LinuxFreeBSDOpenBSDDebian now has MariaDB packages in ‘unstable’.For a full list and to see which distributions are replacing MySQL with MariaDB, see this page.Updated SHOW AUTHORS and SHOW CONTRIBUTORS to give more merit to active contributors and sponsors.We are very thankfull to the MariaDB Foundation members and supporters that have made this work possible!The current members are:Booking.comSkySQLParallelsIf you want the MariaDB foundation to do even more work like the above, you should ensure that your company becomes member in the MariaDB Foundation! You can also sponsor the foundation as a private person!

MariaDB-Galera 5.5 released as stable

Post Syndicated from Monty original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/03/mariadb-galera-55-released-as-stable.html

It’s now about one year ago since we released MariaDB 5.5. That proved to be an important release for MariaDB as it became popular with the users and ultimately also has been adopted by several important Linux distributions. But we have not stopped working since then, and now the MariaDB project is happy to announce something new again: the immediate availability of MariaDB Galera Cluster 5.5.29 stable release (GA). As soon as we had released MariaDB 5.5 stable, we started planning with Codership Oy how to integrate their Galera replication technology with MariaDB 5.5. We have then worked together to merge their Write Set REPlication API into MariaDB, and gone through a rigorous testing program with beta and RC releases leading to today’s a stable release. Elena from Monty Program and people from the MariaDB user community have tested those releases and provided feedback if they have found any bugs. Seppo Jaakola from the Galera team is a MariaDB Captain, which means he not only has commit rights to the MariaDB trunk, he also can participate in the MariaDB decision making together with other core contributors. (Note that MariaDB Galera Cluster currently still has it’s own branch in the MariaDB project on Launchpad. But I think it is likely that in the future this will become part of the main MariaDB branch and releases.) This is one reason today’s release makes me very happy, because this is a great example of what we always wanted the MariaDB project to become. It also shows how we operate with many other companies and individuals. We want to be open and inclusive to anyone who can contribute great code, so that MariaDB can continue its MySQL heritage of being the most popular open source database. We want MariaDB to always include all the great innovation happening in the MySQL ecosystem. About synchronous multi-master clusteringIn the past weeks I have traveled in Germany, Korea and Sweden to speak about MariaDB, and it is clear to me that a lot of people have already heard of Galera and are already trying it out. But if you didn’t yet know about this technology, let me tell you why it is important. MariaDB Galera Cluster provides synchronous multi-master replication. A simple way to explain what this means is to compare it with other alternatives that we have used for MariaDB high availability until today: If you compare it to the traditional master-slave replication, it means that your data is safer in a Galera cluster because it is replicated immediately as part of the commit, without any delay. (This is why it is synchronous.) Also, in traditional master-slave replication you can do read-only scale-out, but with Galera you can read and write to any node. This makes life easier for application developers, because you don’t need to separate read-only transactions and write transactions. (This is why it is called multi-master.) You can also compare it with DRBD, which is another popular High Availability solution for MariaDB and MySQL. The reason people use DRBD is usually because it is also synchronous replication, only it happens on the disk driver level. So it is used by people who want to be 100% sure they don’t lose a single transaction if they do a failover. But DRBD doesn’t give you any scale-out, since the spare node is so called cold standby, so you cannot use it for anything else but disaster recovery. With MariaDB Galera Cluster we now provide “best of both worlds”: it is both synchronous, and you can use it for scale-out. And not just read-only scale out but multi-master scale-out. Automatic node provisioningThere are many other benefits to Galera too, and you will be able to read more about them on the MariaDB blog. One nice little feature I think is also worth mentioning is the automatic node provisioning. One reason MySQL master-slave replication has become so popular is that it is quite easy to setup and understand. But Galera takes this even further, they completely automate the node provisioning process. My philosophy when I created MySQL was always to make everything very easy to the user, and I’m happy to see Galera shares this philosophy. But it is not only nice, it is actually an important feature especially if you run MariaDB in the cloud. In the cloud you can save money by adding nodes to a cluster (scale out) when needed and then removing them (scale in) when you need less performance. You might do this every day, or every week depending on what kind of traffic your website gets. But to add and remove MariaDB nodes every day, you of course cannot do it manually every time. For example many NoSQL systems talk about automatic node provisioning in their marketing so that they will sound “cloud compatible”. But MariaDB Galera Cluster does it too, so there is no reason to abandon SQL just to have automatic node provisioning. Commercial supportWhen you have tested MariaDB Galera Cluster and decided that you like it, and want to run it in production, you of course want to make sure you have proper support in place. This is also important so that the developers can continue to work on the project and make it even better. Codership operates with a similar model like my company Monty Program, they develop the technology and do bug fixes, and they partner with SkySQL and other companies that support MariaDB in order to provide a complete and seamless support experience. You can contact SkySQL to discuss commercial support for both MariaDB and MariaDB-Galera. You can also support MariaDB Galera Cluster development directly by donating via the MariaDB Foundation. If you specifically want to support Galera development, you should target your donation to “MariaDB Galera Cluster”.

MariaDB-Galera 5.5 released as stable

Post Syndicated from Monty original http://monty-says.blogspot.com/2013/03/mariadb-galera-55-released-as-stable.html

It’s now about one year ago since we released MariaDB 5.5. That proved to be an important release for MariaDB as it became popular with the users and ultimately also has been adopted by several important Linux distributions. But we have not stopped working since then, and now the MariaDB project is happy to announce something new again: the immediate availability of MariaDB Galera Cluster 5.5.29 stable release (GA). As soon as we had released MariaDB 5.5 stable, we started planning with Codership Oy how to integrate their Galera replication technology with MariaDB 5.5. We have then worked together to merge their Write Set REPlication API into MariaDB, and gone through a rigorous testing program with beta and RC releases leading to today’s a stable release. Elena from Monty Program and people from the MariaDB user community have tested those releases and provided feedback if they have found any bugs. Seppo Jaakola from the Galera team is a MariaDB Captain, which means he not only has commit rights to the MariaDB trunk, he also can participate in the MariaDB decision making together with other core contributors. (Note that MariaDB Galera Cluster currently still has it’s own branch in the MariaDB project on Launchpad. But I think it is likely that in the future this will become part of the main MariaDB branch and releases.) This is one reason today’s release makes me very happy, because this is a great example of what we always wanted the MariaDB project to become. It also shows how we operate with many other companies and individuals. We want to be open and inclusive to anyone who can contribute great code, so that MariaDB can continue its MySQL heritage of being the most popular open source database. We want MariaDB to always include all the great innovation happening in the MySQL ecosystem. About synchronous multi-master clusteringIn the past weeks I have traveled in Germany, Korea and Sweden to speak about MariaDB, and it is clear to me that a lot of people have already heard of Galera and are already trying it out. But if you didn’t yet know about this technology, let me tell you why it is important. MariaDB Galera Cluster provides synchronous multi-master replication. A simple way to explain what this means is to compare it with other alternatives that we have used for MariaDB high availability until today: If you compare it to the traditional master-slave replication, it means that your data is safer in a Galera cluster because it is replicated immediately as part of the commit, without any delay. (This is why it is synchronous.) Also, in traditional master-slave replication you can do read-only scale-out, but with Galera you can read and write to any node. This makes life easier for application developers, because you don’t need to separate read-only transactions and write transactions. (This is why it is called multi-master.) You can also compare it with DRBD, which is another popular High Availability solution for MariaDB and MySQL. The reason people use DRBD is usually because it is also synchronous replication, only it happens on the disk driver level. So it is used by people who want to be 100% sure they don’t lose a single transaction if they do a failover. But DRBD doesn’t give you any scale-out, since the spare node is so called cold standby, so you cannot use it for anything else but disaster recovery. With MariaDB Galera Cluster we now provide “best of both worlds”: it is both synchronous, and you can use it for scale-out. And not just read-only scale out but multi-master scale-out. Automatic node provisioningThere are many other benefits to Galera too, and you will be able to read more about them on the MariaDB blog. One nice little feature I think is also worth mentioning is the automatic node provisioning. One reason MySQL master-slave replication has become so popular is that it is quite easy to setup and understand. But Galera takes this even further, they completely automate the node provisioning process. My philosophy when I created MySQL was always to make everything very easy to the user, and I’m happy to see Galera shares this philosophy. But it is not only nice, it is actually an important feature especially if you run MariaDB in the cloud. In the cloud you can save money by adding nodes to a cluster (scale out) when needed and then removing them (scale in) when you need less performance. You might do this every day, or every week depending on what kind of traffic your website gets. But to add and remove MariaDB nodes every day, you of course cannot do it manually every time. For example many NoSQL systems talk about automatic node provisioning in their marketing so that they will sound “cloud compatible”. But MariaDB Galera Cluster does it too, so there is no reason to abandon SQL just to have automatic node provisioning. Commercial supportWhen you have tested MariaDB Galera Cluster and decided that you like it, and want to run it in production, you of course want to make sure you have proper support in place. This is also important so that the developers can continue to work on the project and make it even better. Codership operates with a similar model like my company Monty Program, they develop the technology and do bug fixes, and they partner with SkySQL and other companies that support MariaDB in order to provide a complete and seamless support experience. You can contact SkySQL to discuss commercial support for both MariaDB and MariaDB-Galera. You can also support MariaDB Galera Cluster development directly by donating via the MariaDB Foundation. If you specifically want to support Galera development, you should target your donation to “MariaDB Galera Cluster”.