Tag Archives: Daily

За светлото бъдеще и съдебната система

Post Syndicated from Григор original http://www.gatchev.info/blog/?p=2115

Подкрепям напълно позицията в ето тази статия. И, за да не изчезне изневиделица из Нета, я копи-пействам тук. С надеждата авторите ѝ да не ме съдят за права…

Нова светлинка в бездруго светлата ни съдебно демократична действителност изгрява на хоризонта. На 20 февруари СГС ще се сдобие с нов шеф. Кандидатите за поста са двама. А единият от тях, по-светлият, е протеже на най-широко скроения в талията и ханша представител на статуквото, коментират запознати със ситуацията. Очевидно кандидатът на олигархията е човек с много подвизи.

Дали той вече не е оглавявал СГС, оставяйки трайни и незаличими дири след себе си?

Дали това не е човекът, името на когото нашумя след като през 2005 година стана ясно, че кара откраднат от Германия джип BMW X5. В последствие автомобилът е бил конфискуван у нас, а Министерството на финансите го предоставило на СГС. Немската преса и в частност „Шпигел“ обаче разкри, че откраднатият джип се ползва от нашия „голям“ съдия и той го върна.

Топло.

Дали това не е човекът, отказал преди време скандално да впише ръководството на СДС през 2009 г.? Да припомним, според ръководствата на СДС и ДСБ тогава съдът е използван за политически цели, за да не се стигне до десноцентристко управление след изборите. По важно е дали това беше законно или става дума за политическа поръчка.

Топло, топло.

Дали пък това не е човекът, по време на чието управление на СГС не се разигра опитът за кражба на дялове от „Радио Вива“, когато неговото протеже – съдия Костадинка Наумова, без наличие на съответните документи извърши прехвърляне на дяловете, вписа промяната в Търговския регистър и бе спасена от дисциплинарно производство от своя шеф, предложил я за член на ВСС?

Възможно ли е това да е човекът, за когото все по време на мандата му от партия РЗС обявиха, че директно се е намесвал в дела за – обърнете внимание! – банкови фалити и големи кредити, като директно е разпореждал на съдиите да вземат определена страна.

Още по-топло.

Ще има ли изненадани, ако това се окаже същият човек, по действия и бездействия на когото юристът Димитър Абаджиев се изказа така: „Този случай е станал емблематичен как чрез протакане и пренасочване на делото за по-ранни дати, както и отхвърляне на процедурни искания, са удовлетворени правата на небезизвестната групировка(за „Мултигруп“ иде реч – б. а.). Отхвърлени са искания за изслушване на вещи лица. Претенциите са освен към конкретния съдия и към административния ръководител на съда“.

А дали това не е човекът, чийто период в СГС ще се запомни главно с множеството скандали и с изключително лошата организация, както припомня юристът Даниел Божилов от НПО „Ние, гражданите”?

Горещо.

И в крайна сметка, не е ли именно този човекът, за когото тогавашният председател на ВАС казва: „Първият мандат на Светлин Михайлов беше провал за самия съд, а вторият би бил катастрофа за цялата съдебна система“.

Точно така, няма грешка. Всичко това е Светлин Михайлов, който понастоящем е кандидатът на статуквото за председател на Софийския градски съд, говори се в съдебните среди. Говори се също, че Михайлов залага изключително много на традициите и приемствеността. Очевидно има за пример своя богат личен опит.

Светлото бъдеще в съдебната система става все по-светло.

—- * * *

Ако на 20 февруари бившият шеф на СГС бъде избран отново на този пост, ще се случат със сигурност следните неща:

Ще избухнат поредица от скандали, свързани с грехове на „стария – нов“ кандидат за шеф на СГС
Ще се докаже, че новата съдийска колегия на ВСС не гледа напред, а се връща към онова минало на политически и олигархични зависимости
Ще бъде даден много лош знак на нашите европейски съюзници за това, че съдебната ни система не се обновява и реформира
Уважаеми членове на съдийската колегия на ВСС,

Прочетете внимателно мотивите, с които е бил освободен от поста председател на СГС Светлин Михайлов през 2009 г. Консултирайте се с тези съдии, които помнят скандалите с изпълнението на политически и бизнес поръчки през 2007 – 2008 г. Не позволявайте досегашните срамни практики в това отношение да продължат.

Залогът не е само престижът на съдебната система. Залогът е международният авторитет на България.

Meet India’s women Open Source warriors (Factor Daily)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/746546/rss

The Factor Daily site has a
look at work to increase the diversity
of open-source contributors in
India. “Over past two months, we interviewed at least two dozen
people from within and outside the open source community to identify a set
of women open source contributors from India. While the list is not
conclusive by any measure, it’s a good starting point in identifying the
women who are quietly shaping the future of open source from this part of
the world and how they dealt with gender biases.

Backblaze Hard Drive Stats for 2017

Post Syndicated from Andy Klein original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-stats-for-2017/

Backbalze Drive Stats 2017 Review

Beginning in April 2013, Backblaze has recorded and saved daily hard drive statistics from the drives in our data centers. Each entry consists of the date, manufacturer, model, serial number, status (operational or failed), and all of the SMART attributes reported by that drive. As of the end of 2017, there are about 88 million entries totaling 23 GB of data. You can download this data from our website if you want to do your own research, but for starters here’s what we found.

Overview

At the end of 2017 we had 93,240 spinning hard drives. Of that number, there were 1,935 boot drives and 91,305 data drives. This post looks at the hard drive statistics of the data drives we monitor. We’ll review the stats for Q4 2017, all of 2017, and the lifetime statistics for all of the drives Backblaze has used in our cloud storage data centers since we started keeping track. Along the way we’ll share observations and insights on the data presented and we look forward to you doing the same in the comments.

Hard Drive Reliability Statistics for Q4 2017

At the end of Q4 2017 Backblaze was monitoring 91,305 hard drives used to store data. For our evaluation we remove from consideration those drives which were used for testing purposes and those drive models for which we did not have at least 45 drives (read why after the chart). This leaves us with 91,243 hard drives. The table below is for the period of Q4 2017.

Hard Drive Annualized Failure Rates for Q4 2017

A few things to remember when viewing this chart:

  • The failure rate listed is for just Q4 2017. If a drive model has a failure rate of 0%, it means there were no drive failures of that model during Q4 2017.
  • There were 62 drives (91,305 minus 91,243) that were not included in the list above because we did not have at least 45 of a given drive model. The most common reason we would have fewer than 45 drives of one model is that we needed to replace a failed drive and we had to purchase a different model as a replacement because the original model was no longer available. We use 45 drives of the same model as the minimum number to qualify for reporting quarterly, yearly, and lifetime drive statistics.
  • Quarterly failure rates can be volatile, especially for models that have a small number of drives and/or a small number of drive days. For example, the Seagate 4 TB drive, model ST4000DM005, has a annualized failure rate of 29.08%, but that is based on only 1,255 drive days and 1 (one) drive failure.
  • AFR stands for Annualized Failure Rate, which is the projected failure rate for a year based on the data from this quarter only.

Bulking Up and Adding On Storage

Looking back over 2017, we not only added new drives, we “bulked up” by swapping out functional and smaller 2, 3, and 4TB drives with larger 8, 10, and 12TB drives. The changes in drive quantity by quarter are shown in the chart below:

Backblaze Drive Population by Drive Size

For 2017 we added 25,746 new drives, and lost 6,442 drives to retirement for a net of 19,304 drives. When you look at storage space, we added 230 petabytes and retired 19 petabytes, netting us an additional 211 petabytes of storage in our data center in 2017.

2017 Hard Drive Failure Stats

Below are the lifetime hard drive failure statistics for the hard drive models that were operational at the end of Q4 2017. As with the quarterly results above, we have removed any non-production drives and any models that had fewer than 45 drives.

Hard Drive Annualized Failure Rates

The chart above gives us the lifetime view of the various drive models in our data center. The Q4 2017 chart at the beginning of the post gives us a snapshot of the most recent quarter of the same models.

Let’s take a look at the same models over time, in our case over the past 3 years (2015 through 2017), by looking at the annual failure rates for each of those years.

Annual Hard Drive Failure Rates by Year

The failure rate for each year is calculated for just that year. In looking at the results the following observations can be made:

  • The failure rates for both of the 6 TB models, Seagate and WDC, have decreased over the years while the number of drives has stayed fairly consistent from year to year.
  • While it looks like the failure rates for the 3 TB WDC drives have also decreased, you’ll notice that we migrated out nearly 1,000 of these WDC drives in 2017. While the remaining 180 WDC 3 TB drives are performing very well, decreasing the data set that dramatically makes trend analysis suspect.
  • The Toshiba 5 TB model and the HGST 8 TB model had zero failures over the last year. That’s impressive, but with only 45 drives in use for each model, not statistically useful.
  • The HGST/Hitachi 4 TB models delivered sub 1.0% failure rates for each of the three years. Amazing.

A Few More Numbers

To save you countless hours of looking, we’ve culled through the data to uncover the following tidbits regarding our ever changing hard drive farm.

  • 116,833 — The number of hard drives for which we have data from April 2013 through the end of December 2017. Currently there are 91,305 drives (data drives) in operation. This means 25,528 drives have either failed or been removed from service due for some other reason — typically migration.
  • 29,844 — The number of hard drives that were installed in 2017. This includes new drives, migrations, and failure replacements.
  • 81.76 — The number of hard drives that were installed each day in 2017. This includes new drives, migrations, and failure replacements.
  • 95,638 — The number of drives installed since we started keeping records in April 2013 through the end of December 2017.
  • 55.41 — The average number of hard drives installed per day from April 2013 to the end of December 2017. The installations can be new drives, migration replacements, or failure replacements.
  • 1,508 — The number of hard drives that were replaced as failed in 2017.
  • 4.13 — The average number of hard drives that have failed each day in 2017.
  • 6,795 — The number of hard drives that have failed from April 2013 until the end of December 2017.
  • 3.94 — The average number of hard drives that have failed each day from April 2013 until the end of December 2017.

Can’t Get Enough Hard Drive Stats?

We’ll be presenting the webinar “Backblaze Hard Drive Stats for 2017” on Thursday February 9, 2017 at 10:00 Pacific time. The webinar will dig deeper into the quarterly, yearly, and lifetime hard drive stats and include the annual and lifetime stats by drive size and manufacturer. You will need to subscribe to the Backblaze BrightTALK channel to view the webinar. Sign up today.

As a reminder, the complete data set used to create the information used in this review is available on our Hard Drive Test Data page. You can download and use this data for free for your own purpose. All we ask are three things: 1) you cite Backblaze as the source if you use the data, 2) you accept that you are solely responsible for how you use the data, and 3) you do not sell this data to anyone — it is free.

Good luck and let us know if you find anything interesting.

The post Backblaze Hard Drive Stats for 2017 appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Udemy Targets ‘Pirate’ Site Giving Away its Paid Courses For Free

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/udemy-targets-pirate-site-giving-away-its-paid-courses-for-free-180129/

While there’s no shortage of people who advocate free sharing of movies and music, passions are often raised when it comes to the availability of educational information.

Significant numbers of people believe that learning should be open to all and that texts and associated materials shouldn’t be locked away by copyright holders trying to monetize knowledge. Of course, people who make a living creating learning materials see the position rather differently.

A clash of these ideals is brewing in the United States where online learning platform Udemy has been trying to have some of its courses taken down from FreeTutorials.us, a site that makes available premium tutorials and other learning materials for free.

Early December 2017, counsel acting for Udemy and a number of its individual and corporate instructors (Maximilian Schwarzmüller, Academind GmbH, Peter Dalmaris, Futureshock Enterprises, Jose Marcial Portilla, and Pierian Data) wrote to FreeTutorials.us with DMCA takedown notice.

“Pursuant to 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(3)(A) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (‘DMCA’), this communication serves as a notice of infringement and request for removal of certain web content available on freetutorials.us,” the letter reads.

“I hereby request that you remove or disable access to the material listed in Exhibit A in as expedient a fashion as possible. This communication does not constitute a waiver of any right to recover damages incurred by virtue of any such unauthorized activities, and such rights as well as claims for other relief are expressly retained.”

A small sample of Exhibit A

On January 10, 2018, the same law firm wrote to Cloudflare, which provides services to FreeTutorials. The DMCA notice asked Cloudflare to disable access to the same set of infringing content listed above.

It seems likely that whatever happened next wasn’t to Udemy’s satisfaction. On January 16, an attorney from the same law firm filed a DMCA subpoena at a district court in California. A DMCA subpoena can enable a copyright holder to obtain the identity of an alleged infringer without having to file a lawsuit and without needing a signature from a judge.

The subpoena was directed at Cloudflare, which provides services to FreeTutorials. The company was ordered to hand over “all identifying information identifying the owner, operator and/or contact person(s) associated with the domain www.freetutorials.us, including but not limited to name(s), address(es), telephone number(s), email address(es), Internet protocol connection records, administrative records and billing records from the time the account was established to the present.”

On January 26, the date by which Cloudflare was ordered to hand over the information, Cloudflare wrote to FreeTutorials with a somewhat late-in-the-day notification.

“We received the attached subpoena regarding freetutorials.us, a domain managed through your Cloudflare account. The subpoena requires us to provide information in our systems related to this website,” the company wrote.

“We have determined that this is a valid subpoena, and we are required to provide the requested information. In accordance with our Privacy Policy, we are informing you before we provide any of the requested subscriber information. We plan to turn over documents in response to the subpoena on January 26th, 2018, unless you intervene in the case.”

With that deadline passing last Friday, it’s safe to say that Cloudflare has complied with the subpoena as the law requires. However, TorrentFreak spoke with FreeTutorials who told us that the company doesn’t hold anything useful on them.

“No, they have nothing,” the team explained.

Noting that they’ll soon dispense with the services of Cloudflare, the team confirmed that they had received emails from Udemy and its instructors but hadn’t done a lot in response.

“How about a ‘NO’? was our answer to all the DMCA takedown requests from Udemy and its Instructors,” they added.

FreeTutorials (FTU) are affiliated with FreeCoursesOnline (FCO) and seem passionate about what they do. In common with others who distribute learning materials online, they express a belief in free education for all, irrespective of financial resources.

“We, FTU and FCO, are a group of seven members assorted as a team from different countries and cities. We are JN, SRZ aka SunRiseZone, Letap, Lihua Google Drive, Kaya, Zinnia, Faiz MeemBazooka,” a spokesperson revealed.

“We’re all members and colleagues and we also have our own daily work and business stuff to do. We have been through that phase of life when we didn’t have enough money to buy books and get tuition or even apply for a good course that we always wanted to have, so FTU & FCO are just our vision to provide Free Education For Everyone.

“We would love to change our priorities towards our current and future projects, only if we manage to get some faithful FTU’ers to join in and help us to grow together and make FTU a place it should be.”

TorrentFreak requested comment from Udemy but at the time of publication, we were yet to hear back. However, we did manage to get in touch with Jonathan Levi, an Udemy instructor who sent this takedown notice to the site in October 2017:

“I’m writing to you on behalf of SuperHuman Enterprises, LLC. You are in violation of our copyright, using our images, and linking to pirated copies of our courses. Remove them IMMEDIATELY or face severe legal action….You have 48 hours to comply,” he wrote, adding:

“And in case you’re going to say I don’t have evidence that I own the files, it’s my fucking face in the videos.”

Levi says that the site had been non-responsive so now things are being taken to the next level.

“They don’t reply to takedowns, so we’ve joined a class action lawsuit against FTU lead by Udemy and a law firm specializing in this type of thing,” Levi concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

2017 Weather Station round-up

Post Syndicated from Richard Hayler original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/2017-weather-station/

As we head into 2018 and start looking forward to longer days in the Northern hemisphere, I thought I’d take a look back at last year’s weather using data from Raspberry Pi Oracle Weather Stations. One of the great things about the kit is that as well as uploading all its readings to the shared online Oracle database, it stores them locally on the Pi in a MySQL or MariaDB database. This means you can use the power of SQL queries coupled with Python code to do automatic data analysis.

Soggy Surrey

My Weather Station has only been installed since May, so I didn’t have a full 52 weeks of my own data to investigate. Still, my station recorded more than 70000 measurements. Living in England, the first thing I wanted to know was: which was the wettest month? Unsurprisingly, both in terms of average daily rainfall and total rainfall, the start of the summer period — exactly when I went on a staycation — was the soggiest:

What about the global Weather Station community?

Even soggier Bavaria

Here things get slightly trickier. Although we have a shiny Oracle database full of all participating schools’ sensor readings, some of the data needs careful interpretation. Many kits are used as part of the school curriculum and do not always record genuine outdoor conditions. Nevertheless, it appears that Adalbert Stifter Gymnasium in Bavaria, Germany, had an even wetter 2017 than my home did:


View larger map

Where the wind blows

The records Robert-Dannemann Schule in Westerstede, Germany, is a good example of data which was most likely collected while testing and investigating the weather station sensors, rather than in genuine external conditions. Unless this school’s Weather Station was transported to a planet which suffers from extreme hurricanes, it wasn’t actually subjected to wind speeds above 1000km/h in November. Dismissing these and all similarly suspect records, I decided to award the ‘Windiest location of the year’ prize to CEIP Noalla-Telleiro, Spain.


View larger map

This school is right on the coast, and is subject to some strong and squally weather systems.

Weather Station at CEIP Noalla - Telleiro

Weather Station at CEIP Noalla-Telleiro

They’ve mounted their wind vane and anemometer nice and high, so I can see how they were able to record such high wind velocities.

A couple of Weather Stations have recently been commissioned in equally exposed places — it will be interesting to see whether they will record even higher speeds during 2018.

Highs and lows

After careful analysis and a few disqualifications (a couple of Weather Stations in contention for this category were housed indoors), the ‘Hottest location’ award went to High School of Chalastra in Thessaloniki, Greece. There were a couple of Weather Stations (the one at The Marwadi Education Foundation in India, for example) that reported higher average temperatures than Chalastra’s 24.54 ºC. However, they had uploaded far fewer readings and their data coverage of 2017 was only partial.


View larger map

At the other end of the thermometer, the location with the coldest average temperature is École de la Rose Sauvage in Calgary, Canada, with a very chilly 9.9 ºC.

Ecole de la Rose sauvage Weather Station

Weather Station at École de la Rose Sauvage

I suspect this school has a good chance of retaining the title: their lowest 2017 temperature of -24 ºC is likely to be beaten in 2018 due to extreme weather currently bringing a freezing start to the year in that part of the world.


View larger map

Analyse your own Weather Station data

If you have an Oracle Raspberry Pi Weather Station and would like to perform an annual review of your local data, you can use this Python script as a starting point. It will display a monthly summary of the temperature and rainfall for 2017, and you should be able to customise the code to focus on other sensor data or on a particular time of year. We’d love to see your results, so please share your findings with [email protected], and we’ll send you some limited-edition Weather Station stickers.

The post 2017 Weather Station round-up appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Playboy Brands Boing Boing a “Clickbait” Site With No Fair Use Defense

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/playboy-brands-boing-boing-a-clickbait-site-with-no-fair-use-defense-180126/

Late 2017, Boing Boing co-editor Xena Jardin posted an article in which he linked to an archive containing every Playboy centerfold image to date.

“Kind of amazing to see how our standards of hotness, and the art of commercial erotic photography, have changed over time,” Jardin noted.

While Boing Boing had nothing to do with the compilation, uploading, or storing of the Imgur-based archive, Playboy took exception to the popular blog linking to the album.

Noting that Jardin had referred to the archive uploader as a “wonderful person”, the adult publication responded with a lawsuit (pdf), claiming that Boing Boing had commercially exploited its copyrighted images.

Last week, with assistance from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Boing Boing parent company Happy Mutants filed a motion to dismiss in which it defended its right to comment on and link to copyrighted content without that constituting infringement.

“This lawsuit is frankly mystifying. Playboy’s theory of liability seems to be that it is illegal to link to material posted by others on the web — an act performed daily by hundreds of millions of users of Facebook and Twitter, and by journalists like the ones in Playboy’s crosshairs here,” the company wrote.

EFF Senior Staff Attorney Daniel Nazer weighed in too, arguing that since Boing Boing’s reporting and commenting is protected by copyright’s fair use doctrine, the “deeply flawed” lawsuit should be dismissed.

Now, just a week later, Playboy has fired back. Opposing Happy Mutants’ request for the Court to dismiss the case, the company cites the now-famous Perfect 10 v. Amazon/Google case from 2007, which tried to prevent Google from facilitating access to infringing images.

Playboy highlights the court’s finding that Google could have been held contributorily liable – if it had knowledge that Perfect 10 images were available using its search engine, could have taken simple measures to prevent further damage, but failed to do so.

Turning to Boing Boing’s conduct, Playboy says that the company knew it was linking to infringing content, could have taken steps to prevent that, but failed to do so. It then launches an attack on the site itself, offering disparaging comments concerning its activities and business model.

“This is an important case. At issue is whether clickbait sites like Happy Mutants’ Boing Boing weblog — a site designed to attract viewers and encourage them to click on links in order to generate advertising revenue — can knowingly find, promote, and profit from infringing content with impunity,” Playboy writes.

“Clickbait sites like Boing Boing are not known for creating original content. Rather, their business model is based on ‘collecting’ interesting content created by others. As such, they effectively profit off the work of others without actually creating anything original themselves.”

Playboy notes that while sites like Boing Boing are within their rights to leverage works created by others, courts in the US and overseas have ruled that knowingly linking to infringing content is unacceptable.

Even given these conditions, Playboy argues, Happy Mutants and the EFF now want the Court to dismiss the case so that sites are free to “not only encourage, facilitate, and induce infringement, but to profit from those harmful activities.”

Claiming that Boing Boing’s only reason for linking to the infringing album was to “monetize the web traffic that over fifty years of Playboy photographs would generate”, Playboy insists that the site and parent company Happy Mutants was properly charged with copyright infringement.

Playboy also dismisses Boing Boing’s argument that a link to infringing content cannot result in liability due to the link having both infringing and substantial non-infringing uses.

First citing the Betamax case, which found that maker Sony could not be held liable for infringement because its video recorders had substantial non-infringing uses, Playboy counters with the Grokster decision, which held that a distributor of a product could be liable for infringement, if there was an intent to encourage or support infringement.

“In this case, Happy Mutants’ offending link — which does nothing more than support infringing content — is good for nothing but promoting infringement and there is no legitimate public interest in its unlicensed availability,” Playboy notes.

In its motion to dismiss, Happy Mutants also argued that unless Playboy could identify users who “in fact downloaded — rather than simply viewing — the material in question,” the case should be dismissed. However, Playboy rejects the argument, claiming it is based on an erroneous interpretation of the law.

Citing the Grokster decision once more, the adult publisher notes that the Supreme Court found that someone infringes contributorily when they intentionally induce or encourage direct infringement.

“The argument that contributory infringement only lies where the defendant’s actions result in further infringement ignores the ‘or’ and collapses ‘inducing’ and ‘encouraging’ into one thing when they are two distinct things,” Playboy writes.

As for Boing Boing’s four classic fair use arguments, the publisher describes these as “extremely weak” and proceeds to hit them one by one.

In respect of the purpose and character of the use, Playboy discounts Boing Boing’s position that the aim of its post was to show “how our standards of hotness, and the art of commercial erotic photography, have changed over time.” The publisher argues that is the exact same purpose of Playboy magazine, while highliting its publication Playboy: The Compete Centerfolds, 1953-2016.

Moving on to the second factor of fair use – the nature of the copyrighted work – Playboy notes that an entire album of artwork is involved, rather than just a single image.

On the third factor, concerning the amount and substantiality of the original work used, Playboy argues that in order to publish an opinion on how “standards of hotness” had developed over time, there was no need to link to all of the pictures in the archive.

“Had only representative images from each decade, or perhaps even each year, been taken, this would be a very different case — but Happy Mutants cannot dispute that it knew it was linking to an illegal library of ‘Every Playboy Playmate Centerfold Ever’ since that is what it titled its blog post,” Playboy notes.

Finally, when considering the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work, Playbody says its archive of images continues to be monetized and Boing Boing’s use of infringing images jeopardizes that.

“Given that people are generally not going to pay for what is freely available, it is disingenuous of Happy Mutants to claim that promoting the free availability of infringing archives of Playboy’s work for viewing and downloading is not going to have an adverse effect on the value or market of that work,” the publisher adds.

While it appears the parties agree on very little, there is agreement on one key aspect of the case – its wider importance.

On the one hand, Playboy insists that a finding in its favor will ensure that people can’t commercially exploit infringing content with impunity. On the other, Boing Boing believes that the health of the entire Internet is at stake.

“The world can’t afford a judgment against us in this case — it would end the web as we know it, threatening everyone who publishes online, from us five weirdos in our basements to multimillion-dollar, globe-spanning publishing empires like Playboy,” the company concludes.

Playboy’s opposition to Happy Mutants’ motion to dismiss can be found here (pdf)

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

Top 8 Best Practices for High-Performance ETL Processing Using Amazon Redshift

Post Syndicated from Thiyagarajan Arumugam original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/top-8-best-practices-for-high-performance-etl-processing-using-amazon-redshift/

An ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) process enables you to load data from source systems into your data warehouse. This is typically executed as a batch or near-real-time ingest process to keep the data warehouse current and provide up-to-date analytical data to end users.

Amazon Redshift is a fast, petabyte-scale data warehouse that enables you easily to make data-driven decisions. With Amazon Redshift, you can get insights into your big data in a cost-effective fashion using standard SQL. You can set up any type of data model, from star and snowflake schemas, to simple de-normalized tables for running any analytical queries.

To operate a robust ETL platform and deliver data to Amazon Redshift in a timely manner, design your ETL processes to take account of Amazon Redshift’s architecture. When migrating from a legacy data warehouse to Amazon Redshift, it is tempting to adopt a lift-and-shift approach, but this can result in performance and scale issues long term. This post guides you through the following best practices for ensuring optimal, consistent runtimes for your ETL processes:

  • COPY data from multiple, evenly sized files.
  • Use workload management to improve ETL runtimes.
  • Perform table maintenance regularly.
  • Perform multiple steps in a single transaction.
  • Loading data in bulk.
  • Use UNLOAD to extract large result sets.
  • Use Amazon Redshift Spectrum for ad hoc ETL processing.
  • Monitor daily ETL health using diagnostic queries.

1. COPY data from multiple, evenly sized files

Amazon Redshift is an MPP (massively parallel processing) database, where all the compute nodes divide and parallelize the work of ingesting data. Each node is further subdivided into slices, with each slice having one or more dedicated cores, equally dividing the processing capacity. The number of slices per node depends on the node type of the cluster. For example, each DS2.XLARGE compute node has two slices, whereas each DS2.8XLARGE compute node has 16 slices.

When you load data into Amazon Redshift, you should aim to have each slice do an equal amount of work. When you load the data from a single large file or from files split into uneven sizes, some slices do more work than others. As a result, the process runs only as fast as the slowest, or most heavily loaded, slice. In the example shown below, a single large file is loaded into a two-node cluster, resulting in only one of the nodes, “Compute-0”, performing all the data ingestion:

When splitting your data files, ensure that they are of approximately equal size – between 1 MB and 1 GB after compression. The number of files should be a multiple of the number of slices in your cluster. Also, I strongly recommend that you individually compress the load files using gzip, lzop, or bzip2 to efficiently load large datasets.

When loading multiple files into a single table, use a single COPY command for the table, rather than multiple COPY commands. Amazon Redshift automatically parallelizes the data ingestion. Using a single COPY command to bulk load data into a table ensures optimal use of cluster resources, and quickest possible throughput.

2. Use workload management to improve ETL runtimes

Use Amazon Redshift’s workload management (WLM) to define multiple queues dedicated to different workloads (for example, ETL versus reporting) and to manage the runtimes of queries. As you migrate more workloads into Amazon Redshift, your ETL runtimes can become inconsistent if WLM is not appropriately set up.

I recommend limiting the overall concurrency of WLM across all queues to around 15 or less. This WLM guide helps you organize and monitor the different queues for your Amazon Redshift cluster.

When managing different workloads on your Amazon Redshift cluster, consider the following for the queue setup:

  • Create a queue dedicated to your ETL processes. Configure this queue with a small number of slots (5 or fewer). Amazon Redshift is designed for analytics queries, rather than transaction processing. The cost of COMMIT is relatively high, and excessive use of COMMIT can result in queries waiting for access to the commit queue. Because ETL is a commit-intensive process, having a separate queue with a small number of slots helps mitigate this issue.
  • Claim extra memory available in a queue. When executing an ETL query, you can take advantage of the wlm_query_slot_count to claim the extra memory available in a particular queue. For example, a typical ETL process might involve COPYing raw data into a staging table so that downstream ETL jobs can run transformations that calculate daily, weekly, and monthly aggregates. To speed up the COPY process (so that the downstream tasks can start in parallel sooner), the wlm_query_slot_count can be increased for this step.
  • Create a separate queue for reporting queries. Configure query monitoring rules on this queue to further manage long-running and expensive queries.
  • Take advantage of the dynamic memory parameters. They swap the memory from your ETL to your reporting queue after the ETL job has completed.

3. Perform table maintenance regularly

Amazon Redshift is a columnar database, which enables fast transformations for aggregating data. Performing regular table maintenance ensures that transformation ETLs are predictable and performant. To get the best performance from your Amazon Redshift database, you must ensure that database tables regularly are VACUUMed and ANALYZEd. The Analyze & Vacuum schema utility helps you automate the table maintenance task and have VACUUM & ANALYZE executed in a regular fashion.

  • Use VACUUM to sort tables and remove deleted blocks

During a typical ETL refresh process, tables receive new incoming records using COPY, and unneeded data (cold data) is removed using DELETE. New rows are added to the unsorted region in a table. Deleted rows are simply marked for deletion.

DELETE does not automatically reclaim the space occupied by the deleted rows. Adding and removing large numbers of rows can therefore cause the unsorted region and the number of deleted blocks to grow. This can degrade the performance of queries executed against these tables.

After an ETL process completes, perform VACUUM to ensure that user queries execute in a consistent manner. The complete list of tables that need VACUUMing can be found using the Amazon Redshift Util’s table_info script.

Use the following approaches to ensure that VACCUM is completed in a timely manner:

  • Use wlm_query_slot_count to claim all the memory allocated in the ETL WLM queue during the VACUUM process.
  • DROP or TRUNCATE intermediate or staging tables, thereby eliminating the need to VACUUM them.
  • If your table has a compound sort key with only one sort column, try to load your data in sort key order. This helps reduce or eliminate the need to VACUUM the table.
  • Consider using time series This helps reduce the amount of data you need to VACUUM.
  • Use ANALYZE to update database statistics

Amazon Redshift uses a cost-based query planner and optimizer using statistics about tables to make good decisions about the query plan for the SQL statements. Regular statistics collection after the ETL completion ensures that user queries run fast, and that daily ETL processes are performant. The Amazon Redshift utility table_info script provides insights into the freshness of the statistics. Keeping the statistics off (pct_stats_off) less than 20% ensures effective query plans for the SQL queries.

4. Perform multiple steps in a single transaction

ETL transformation logic often spans multiple steps. Because commits in Amazon Redshift are expensive, if each ETL step performs a commit, multiple concurrent ETL processes can take a long time to execute.

To minimize the number of commits in a process, the steps in an ETL script should be surrounded by a BEGIN…END statement so that a single commit is performed only after all the transformation logic has been executed. For example, here is an example multi-step ETL script that performs one commit at the end:

Begin
CREATE temporary staging_table;
INSERT INTO staging_table SELECT .. FROM source (transformation logic);
DELETE FROM daily_table WHERE dataset_date =?;
INSERT INTO daily_table SELECT .. FROM staging_table (daily aggregate);
DELETE FROM weekly_table WHERE weekending_date=?;
INSERT INTO weekly_table SELECT .. FROM staging_table(weekly aggregate);
Commit

5. Loading data in bulk

Amazon Redshift is designed to store and query petabyte-scale datasets. Using Amazon S3 you can stage and accumulate data from multiple source systems before executing a bulk COPY operation. The following methods allow efficient and fast transfer of these bulk datasets into Amazon Redshift:

  • Use a manifest file to ingest large datasets that span multiple files. The manifest file is a JSON file that lists all the files to be loaded into Amazon Redshift. Using a manifest file ensures that Amazon Redshift has a consistent view of the data to be loaded from S3, while also ensuring that duplicate files do not result in the same data being loaded more than one time.
  • Use temporary staging tables to hold the data for transformation. These tables are automatically dropped after the ETL session is complete. Temporary tables can be created using the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE syntax, or by issuing a SELECT … INTO #TEMP_TABLE query. Explicitly specifying the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statement allows you to control the DISTRIBUTION KEY, SORT KEY, and compression settings to further improve performance.
  • User ALTER table APPEND to swap data from the staging tables to the target table. Data in the source table is moved to matching columns in the target table. Column order doesn’t matter. After data is successfully appended to the target table, the source table is empty. ALTER TABLE APPEND is much faster than a similar CREATE TABLE AS or INSERT INTO operation because it doesn’t involve copying or moving data.

6. Use UNLOAD to extract large result sets

Fetching a large number of rows using SELECT is expensive and takes a long time. When a large amount of data is fetched from the Amazon Redshift cluster, the leader node has to hold the data temporarily until the fetches are complete. Further, data is streamed out sequentially, which results in longer elapsed time. As a result, the leader node can become hot, which not only affects the SELECT that is being executed, but also throttles resources for creating execution plans and managing the overall cluster resources. Here is an example of a large SELECT statement. Notice that the leader node is doing most of the work to stream out the rows:

Use UNLOAD to extract large results sets directly to S3. After it’s in S3, the data can be shared with multiple downstream systems. By default, UNLOAD writes data in parallel to multiple files according to the number of slices in the cluster. All the compute nodes participate to quickly offload the data into S3.

If you are extracting data for use with Amazon Redshift Spectrum, you should make use of the MAXFILESIZE parameter to and keep files are 150 MB. Similar to item 1 above, having many evenly sized files ensures that Redshift Spectrum can do the maximum amount of work in parallel.

7. Use Redshift Spectrum for ad hoc ETL processing

Events such as data backfill, promotional activity, and special calendar days can trigger additional data volumes that affect the data refresh times in your Amazon Redshift cluster. To help address these spikes in data volumes and throughput, I recommend staging data in S3. After data is organized in S3, Redshift Spectrum enables you to query it directly using standard SQL. In this way, you gain the benefits of additional capacity without having to resize your cluster.

For tips on getting started with and optimizing the use of Redshift Spectrum, see the previous post, 10 Best Practices for Amazon Redshift Spectrum.

8. Monitor daily ETL health using diagnostic queries

Monitoring the health of your ETL processes on a regular basis helps identify the early onset of performance issues before they have a significant impact on your cluster. The following monitoring scripts can be used to provide insights into the health of your ETL processes:

Script Use when… Solution
commit_stats.sql – Commit queue statistics from past days, showing largest queue length and queue time first DML statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/COPY/DELETE operations take several times longer to execute when multiple of these operations are in progress Set up separate WLM queues for the ETL process and limit the concurrency to < 5.
copy_performance.sql –  Copy command statistics for the past days Daily COPY operations take longer to execute • Follow the best practices for the COPY command.
• Analyze data growth with the incoming datasets and consider cluster resize to meet the expected SLA.
table_info.sql – Table skew and unsorted statistics along with storage and key information Transformation steps take longer to execute • Set up regular VACCUM jobs to address unsorted rows and claim the deleted blocks so that transformation SQL execute optimally.
• Consider a table redesign to avoid data skewness.
v_check_transaction_locks.sql – Monitor transaction locks INSERT/UPDATE/COPY/DELETE operations on particular tables do not respond back in timely manner, compared to when run after the ETL Multiple DML statements are operating on the same target table at the same moment from different transactions. Set up ETL job dependency so that they execute serially for the same target table.
v_get_schema_priv_by_user.sql – Get the schema that the user has access to Reporting users can view intermediate tables Set up separate database groups for reporting and ETL users, and grants access to objects using GRANT.
v_generate_tbl_ddl.sql – Get the table DDL You need to create an empty table with same structure as target table for data backfill Generate DDL using this script for data backfill.
v_space_used_per_tbl.sql – monitor space used by individual tables Amazon Redshift data warehouse space growth is trending upwards more than normal

Analyze the individual tables that are growing at higher rate than normal. Consider data archival using UNLOAD to S3 and Redshift Spectrum for later analysis.

Use unscanned_table_summary.sql to find unused table and archive or drop them.

top_queries.sql – Return the top 50 time consuming statements aggregated by its text ETL transformations are taking longer to execute Analyze the top transformation SQL and use EXPLAIN to find opportunities for tuning the query plan.

There are several other useful scripts available in the amazon-redshift-utils repository. The AWS Lambda Utility Runner runs a subset of these scripts on a scheduled basis, allowing you to automate much of monitoring of your ETL processes.

Example ETL process

The following ETL process reinforces some of the best practices discussed in this post. Consider the following four-step daily ETL workflow where data from an RDBMS source system is staged in S3 and then loaded into Amazon Redshift. Amazon Redshift is used to calculate daily, weekly, and monthly aggregations, which are then unloaded to S3, where they can be further processed and made available for end-user reporting using a number of different tools, including Redshift Spectrum and Amazon Athena.

Step 1:  Extract from the RDBMS source to a S3 bucket

In this ETL process, the data extract job fetches change data every 1 hour and it is staged into multiple hourly files. For example, the staged S3 folder looks like the following:

 [[email protected] ~]$ aws s3 ls s3://<<S3 Bucket>>/batch/2017/07/02/
2017-07-02 01:59:58   81900220 20170702T01.export.gz
2017-07-02 02:59:56   84926844 20170702T02.export.gz
2017-07-02 03:59:54   78990356 20170702T03.export.gz
…
2017-07-02 22:00:03   75966745 20170702T21.export.gz
2017-07-02 23:00:02   89199874 20170702T22.export.gz
2017-07-02 00:59:59   71161715 20170702T23.export.gz

Organizing the data into multiple, evenly sized files enables the COPY command to ingest this data using all available resources in the Amazon Redshift cluster. Further, the files are compressed (gzipped) to further reduce COPY times.

Step 2: Stage data to the Amazon Redshift table for cleansing

Ingesting the data can be accomplished using a JSON-based manifest file. Using the manifest file ensures that S3 eventual consistency issues can be eliminated and also provides an opportunity to dedupe any files if needed. A sample manifest20170702.json file looks like the following:

{
  "entries": [
    {"url":" s3://<<S3 Bucket>>/batch/2017/07/02/20170702T01.export.gz", "mandatory":true},
    {"url":" s3://<<S3 Bucket>>/batch/2017/07/02/20170702T02.export.gz", "mandatory":true},
    …
    {"url":" s3://<<S3 Bucket>>/batch/2017/07/02/20170702T23.export.gz", "mandatory":true}
  ]
}

The data can be ingested using the following command:

SET wlm_query_slot_count TO <<max available concurrency in the ETL queue>>;
COPY stage_tbl FROM 's3:// <<S3 Bucket>>/batch/manifest20170702.json' iam_role 'arn:aws:iam::0123456789012:role/MyRedshiftRole' manifest;

Because the downstream ETL processes depend on this COPY command to complete, the wlm_query_slot_count is used to claim all the memory available to the queue. This helps the COPY command complete as quickly as possible.

Step 3: Transform data to create daily, weekly, and monthly datasets and load into target tables

Data is staged in the “stage_tbl” from where it can be transformed into the daily, weekly, and monthly aggregates and loaded into target tables. The following job illustrates a typical weekly process:

Begin
INSERT into ETL_LOG (..) values (..);
DELETE from weekly_tbl where dataset_week = <<current week>>;
INSERT into weekly_tbl (..)
  SELECT date_trunc('week', dataset_day) AS week_begin_dataset_date, SUM(C1) AS C1, SUM(C2) AS C2
	FROM   stage_tbl
GROUP BY date_trunc('week', dataset_day);
INSERT into AUDIT_LOG values (..);
COMMIT;
End;

As shown above, multiple steps are combined into one transaction to perform a single commit, reducing contention on the commit queue.

Step 4: Unload the daily dataset to populate the S3 data lake bucket

The transformed results are now unloaded into another S3 bucket, where they can be further processed and made available for end-user reporting using a number of different tools, including Redshift Spectrum and Amazon Athena.

unload ('SELECT * FROM weekly_tbl WHERE dataset_week = <<current week>>’) TO 's3:// <<S3 Bucket>>/datalake/weekly/20170526/' iam_role 'arn:aws:iam::0123456789012:role/MyRedshiftRole';

Summary

Amazon Redshift lets you easily operate petabyte-scale data warehouses on the cloud. This post summarized the best practices for operating scalable ETL natively within Amazon Redshift. I demonstrated efficient ways to ingest and transform data, along with close monitoring. I also demonstrated the best practices being used in a typical sample ETL workload to transform the data into Amazon Redshift.

If you have questions or suggestions, please comment below.

 


About the Author

Thiyagarajan Arumugam is a Big Data Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services and designs customer architectures to process data at scale. Prior to AWS, he built data warehouse solutions at Amazon.com. In his free time, he enjoys all outdoor sports and practices the Indian classical drum mridangam.

 

Linking Is Not Copyright Infringement, Boing Boing Tells Court

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/linking-is-not-copyright-infringement-boing-boing-tells-court-180119/

Late last year Playboy sued the popular blog Boing Boing for publishing an article that linked to an archive of every playmate centerfold till then.

“Kind of amazing to see how our standards of hotness, and the art of commercial erotic photography, have changed over time,” Boing Boing’s Xena Jardin commented.

Playboy, instead, was amazed that infringing copies of their work were being shared in public. While Boing Boing didn’t upload or store the images in question, the publisher took the case to court.

The blog’s parent company Happy Mutants was accused of various counts of copyright infringement, with Playboy claiming that it exploited their playmates’ images for commercial purposes.

Boing Boing sees things differently. With help from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, it has filed a motion to dismiss the case, arguing that hyperlinking is not copyright infringement.

“This lawsuit is frankly mystifying. Playboy’s theory of liability seems to be that it is illegal to link to material posted by others on the web — an act performed daily by hundreds of millions of users of Facebook and Twitter, and by journalists like the ones in Playboy’s crosshairs here,” they write.

The article in question

The defense points out that Playboy’s complaint fails to state a claim for direct or contributory copyright infringement. In addition, it argues that this type of reporting should be seen as fair use.

“Boing Boing’s reporting and commenting on the Playboy photos is protected by copyright’s fair use doctrine,” EFF Senior Staff Attorney Daniel Nazer says, commenting on the case.

“We’re asking the court to dismiss this deeply flawed lawsuit. Journalists, scientists, researchers, and everyday people on the web have the right to link to material, even copyrighted material, without having to worry about getting sued.”

The lawsuit shares a lot of similarities with the case between Dutch blog GeenStijl and local Playboy publisher Sanoma. That high-profile case went all the way to the European Court of Justice.

The highest European court eventually decided that hyperlinks to infringing works are to be considered a ‘communication to the public,’ and that a commercial publication can indeed be held liable for copyright infringement.

Boing Boing hopes that US Courts will see things differently, or it might be “the end of the web as we know it.”

“The world can’t afford a judgment against us in this case — it would end the web as we know it, threatening everyone who publishes online, from us five weirdos in our basements to multimillion-dollar, globe-spanning publishing empires like Playboy,” Boing Boing writes.

A copy of Boing Boing’s memorandum in support of the motion to dismiss is available here (pdf). The original Playboy complaint can be found here (pdf).

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

Hollywood Asks New UK Culture Secretary To Fight Online Piracy

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/hollywood-asks-new-uk-culture-secretary-to-fight-online-piracy-180119/

Following Prime Minister Theresa May’s cabinet reshuffle earlier this month, Matt Hancock replaced Karen Bradley as Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

Hancock, the 39-year-old MP for West Suffolk, was promoted from his role as Minister for Digital and Culture, a position he’d held since July 2016.

“Thrilled to become DCMS Secretary. Such an exciting agenda, so much to do, and great people. Can’t wait to get stuck in,” he tweeted.

Of course, the influence held by the Culture Secretary means that the entertainment industries will soon come calling, seeking help and support in a number of vital areas. No surprise then that Stan McCoy, president and managing director at the ‎Motion Picture Association’s EMEA division, has just jumped in with some advice for Hancock.

In an open letter published on Screen Daily, McCoy begins by reminding Hancock that the movie industry contributes considerable sums to the UK economy.

“We are one of the country’s most valuable economic and cultural assets – worth almost £92bn, growing at twice the rate of the economy, and making a positive contribution to the UK’s balance of payments,” McCoy writes.

“Britain’s status as a center of excellence for the audiovisual sector in particular is no accident: It results from the hard work and genius of our creative workforce, complemented by the support of governments that have guided their policies toward enabling continued excellence and growth.”

McCoy goes on to put anti-piracy initiatives at the very top of his wishlist – and Hancock’s to-do list.

“A joined-up strategy to curb proliferation of illegal, often age-inappropriate and malware-laden content online must include addressing the websites, environments and apps that host and facilitate piracy,” McCoy says.

“In addition to hurting one of Britain’s most important industries, they are overwhelmingly likely to harm children and adult consumers through nasty ads, links to adult content with no age verification, scams, fraud and other unpleasantness.”

That McCoy begins with the “piracy is dangerous” approach is definitely not a surprise. This Hollywood and wider video industry strategy is now an open secret. However, it feels a little off that the UK is being asked to further tackle pirate sites.

Through earlier actions, facilitated by the UK legal system and largely sympathetic judges, many thousands of URLs and domains linking to pirate sites, mirrors and proxies, are impossible to access directly through the UK’s major ISPs. Although a few slip through the net, directly accessing the majority of pirate sites in the UK is now impossible.

That’s already a considerable overseas anti-piracy position for the MPA who, as the “international voice” of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), represents American corporations including Disney, Paramount, Sony Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Universal, and Warner Bros.

There’s no comparable blocking system for these companies to use in the United States and rightsholders in the UK can even have extra sites blocked without going back to court for permission. In summary, these US companies arguably get a better anti-piracy deal in the UK than they do at home in the United States.

In his next point, McCoy references last year’s deal – which was reached following considerable pressure from the UK government – between rightsholders and search engines including Google and Bing to demote ‘pirate’ results.

“Building on last year’s voluntary deal with search engines, the Government should stay at the cutting edge of ensuring that everyone in the ecosystem – including search engines, platforms and social media companies – takes a fair share of responsibility,” McCoy says.

While this progress is clearly appreciated by the MPA/MPAA, it’s difficult to ignore that the voluntary arrangement to demote infringing content is somewhat special if not entirely unique. There is definitely nothing comparable in the United States so keeping up the pressure on the UK Government feels a little like getting the good kid in class to behave, while his rowdy peers nearer the chalkboard get ignored.

The same is true for McCoy’s call for the UK to “banish dodgy streaming devices”.

“Illegal streaming devices loaded with piracy apps and malware – not to mention the occasional electrical failure – are proliferating across the UK, to the detriment of consumers and industry,” he writes.

“The sector is still waiting for the Intellectual Property Office to publish the report on its Call for Views on this subject. This will be one of several opportunities, along with the promised Digital Charter, to make clear that these devices and the apps and content they supply are unacceptable, dangerous to consumers, and harmful to the creative industry.”

Again, prompting the UK to stay on top of this game doesn’t feel entirely warranted.

With dozens of actions over the past few years, the Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit and the Federation Against Copyright Theft (which Hollywood ironically dumped in 2016) have done more to tackle the pirate set-top box problem than any group on the other side of the Atlantic.

Admittedly the MPAA is now trying to catch up, with recent prosecutions of two ‘pirate’ box vendors (1,2), but largely the work by the studios on their home turf has been outpaced by that of their counterparts in the UK.

Maybe Hancock will mention that to Hollywood at some point in the future.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

facepunch: the facial recognition punch clock

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/facepunch-facial-recognition/

Get on board with facial recognition and clock your screen time with facepunch, the facial recognition punch clock from dekuNukem.

dekuNukem facepunch raspberry pi facial recognition

image c/o dekuNukem

How it works

dekuNukem uses a Raspberry Pi 3, the Raspberry Pi camera module, and an OLED screen for the build. You don’t strictly need to include the OLED board, but it definitely adds to the overall effect, letting you view your daily and weekly screen time at a glance without having to access your Raspberry Pi for data.

As dekuNukem explains in the GitHub repo for the build, they used a perf board to mount the screen and attached it to the Raspberry Pi. This is a nice, simple means of pulling the whole project together without loose wires or the need for a modified case.

dekuNukem facepunch raspberry pi facial recognition

image c/o dekuNukem

This face_recognition library lets the Pi + camera register your face. You’ll also need a well lit 400×400 photograph of yourself to act as a reference for the library. From there, a few commands should get you started.

Uses for facial recognition

You could simply use facepunch for its intended purpose, but here at Pi Towers we’ve been discussing further uses for the build. We’re all guilty of sitting for too long at our desks, so why not incorporate a “get up and walk around” notification? How about a flashing LED that tells you to “drink some water”? You could even go a little deeper (though possibly a little Big Brother) and set up an “I’m back at my desk” notification on Slack, to let your colleagues know you’re available.

You could also take this foray into facial recognition and incorporate it into home automation projects: a user-identifying Magic Mirror, perhaps, or a doorbell that recognises friends and family.

What would you do with facial recognition on a Raspberry Pi?

The post facepunch: the facial recognition punch clock appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Wanted: Datacenter Technician

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/wanted-datacenter-technician/

As we shoot way past 400 Petabytes of data under management we need some help scaling up our datacenters! We’re on the lookout for some datacenter technicians that can help us. This role is located near the Sacramento, California area. If you want to join a dynamic team that helps keep our almost 90,000+ hard drives spinning, this might be the job for you!

Responsibilities

  • Work as Backblaze’s physical presence in Sacramento area datacenter(s).
  • Help maintain physical infrastructure including racking equipment, replacing hard drives and other system components.
  • Repair and troubleshoot defective equipment with minimal supervision.
  • Support datacenter’s 24×7 staff to install new equipment, handle after hours emergencies and other tasks.
  • Help manage onsite inventory of hard drives, cables, rails and other spare parts.
  • RMA defective components.
  • Setup, test and activate new equipment via the Linux command line.
  • Help train new Datacenter Technicians as needed.
  • Help with projects to install new systems and services as time allows.
  • Follow and improve Datacenter best practices and documentation.
  • Maintain a clean and well organized work environment.
  • On-call responsibilities require being within an hour of the SunGard’s Rancho Cordova/Roseville facility and occasional trips onsite 24×7 to resolve issues that can’t be handled remotely.
  • Work days may include Saturday and/or Sunday (e.g. working Tuesday – Saturday).

Requirements

  • Excellent communication, time management, problem solving and organizational skills.
  • Ability to learn quickly.
  • Ability to lift/move 50-75 lbs and work down near the floor on a daily basis.
  • Position based near Sacramento, California and may require periodic visits to the corporate office in San Mateo.
  • May require travel to other Datacenters to provide coverage and/or to assist
    with new site set-up.

Backblaze Employees Have:

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Strong desire to work for a small, fast-paced company.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Comfortable with well-behaved pets in the office.
  • This position is located near Sacramento, California.

Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

If This Sounds Like You:
Send an email to [email protected] with:

  1. Datacenter Tech in the subject line
  2. Your resume attached
  3. An overview of your relevant experience

The post Wanted: Datacenter Technician appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Media Giant Can Keep Seized Ad Revenue From Pirate Sites

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/media-giant-can-keep-seized-ad-revenue-from-pirate-sites-180109/

For several decades the MPAA and RIAA have been the prime anti-piracy groups in the United States.

While that may be true, there’s another player making a massive impact, while getting barely any press.

ABS-CBN, the largest media and entertainment company in the Philippines, has filed a series of lawsuits against pirate sites in the US, with the popular streaming portal Fmovies as the biggest target.

The company has already won several cases with damages ranging from a few hundred thousand to millions of dollars. However, the associated injunctions in these cases are perhaps even more significant.

We previously covered how ABS-CBN managed to get court orders to seize domain names, without the defendants getting actively involved. This is also the case in a recent lawsuit where a Florida federal court signed a broad injunction targeting more than two dozen sites that offered the company’s content.

The websites, including abscbn-teleserye.com, dramascools.com, tvnijuan.org, pinoydailyshows.com and weeklywarning.org, may not be known to a broad audience but their domain names have all been suspended, linking to a takedown message instead.

What’s most interesting, however, is that the advertising revenues of these sites were previously frozen. This was done to ensure that ABS-CBN would at least get some money if the defendants failed to respond, a strategy that seems to have paid off.

After the targeted site owners failed to respond, ABS-CBN requested a default judgment with damages for trademark and copyright infringement.

U.S. District Court Judge Cecilia Altonaga has now signed the order, awarding the media company over a million dollars in statutory trademark infringement damages. In addition, several of the sites must also pay copyright infringement damages.

Damages

The default judgment also orders associated registrars and registries to hand over the domain names to ABS-CBN. Thus far several domains have been seized already, but some foreign companies have not complied, most likely because they fall outside the US jurisdiction.

The most interesting part of the order, however, is that Judge Altonaga grants ABS-CBN the previously seized advertising revenues.

“All funds currently restrained by the advertising services, networks, and/or platforms […], pursuant to the temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction in this action are to be immediately (within five business days) transferred to Plaintiffs in partial satisfaction of the monetary judgment entered herein against each Defendant,” the Judge writes.

List of sites and their ad-networks

The sites in question used advertising services from a variety of well-known networks, including Google Adsense, MGID, Popads, AdsKeeper, and Bidvertiser. None of these companies responded in court after the initial seizure order, suggesting that they did not object.

This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a copyright holder has been granted advertising revenue from pirate sites in this manner. While it’s not known how much revenue the sites were making, there is bound to be some.

This could be a common legal tactic going forward because, generally speaking, it is very hard to get money from defaulting defendants who are relatively anonymous, or living in a foreign jurisdiction. By going after the advertisers, copyright holders have a good chance of securing some money, at least.

A copy of the default judgment is available here (pdf) and all affected websites are listed below.

– abscbn-teleserye.com
– astigvideos.com
– cinepinoy.lol
– cinepinoy.ag
– pinoyflix.ag
– pinoyflix.lol
– cinezen.me
– dramascools.com
– dramasget.com
– frugalpinoytv.org
– lambingan.cn
– pinoylambingan.ph
– lambingan.io
– lambingans.net
– latestpinoymovies.com
– pinasnews.net
– pinastvreplay.com
– pinoybay.ch
– pinoychannel.me
– pinoydailyshows.com
– pinoyplayback.net
– pinoytvshows.net
– pinoytv-shows.net
– rondownload.net
– sarapmanood.com
– tambayanshow.net
– thelambingan.com
– tvnijuan.org
– tvtambayan.org
– vianowpe.com
– weeklywarning.org
– weeklywarning.com

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

За левкойна и етиката

Post Syndicated from Григор original http://www.gatchev.info/blog/?p=2108

Наскоро ми попадна новината за създаването на нова криптовалута – левкойн.

Посмях се. Неведнъж съм мислил да направя и аз една криптовалута – не повече от ден работа е. Винаги ме е спирал въпросът с какво тя ще бъде полезна, нова и необходима, което да я различава от наличните вече. Не съм успял да измисля разлика, която да си струва труда.

Дали това криптовалутата да е българска си го струва? Съмнявам се – българите чудесно могат да ползват съществуващите наднационални криптовалути. Но пък и не пречи. Все пак има хора, които се определят първо като българи, пък после като всичко останало (ако има какво). Така че защо не? Браво на Добри Божилов, ще е от полза за някого.

След това обаче метнах поглед на кода ѝ. И на блокчейна ѝ. И се почесах по главата.

Знаете, че Биткойн ще стигне до максимум 21 милиона монети, нали? По същия начин, левкойнът ще стигне до максимум 9 милиона монети. Дотук – добре, това не е толкова важно.

Важното и интересно за мен се оказа, че 1 милион от тези монети са „предварително изкопани“. От създателя на валутата, за лично ползване.

И това не е задъжително престъпление. Сатоши Накамото също се е оказал с почти 1 милион биткойна. Създателите на Етереум и много други валути също са заделили някакъв дял за себе си.

Скандален според мен е запазеният процент монети – към 11% от всички възможни. Директно и по начало. Сатоши Накамото е натрупал биткойните си, докато сам е копаел да поддържа блокчейна, чакайки други хора да се убедят и присъединят. Девелоперите на Етереум запазиха за себе си несравнимо по-малък процент, а създадоха умни договори и какви ли не още възможности. Да запазиш за себе си над 10% от цялото възможно количество криптовалута, понеже си си дал 1 ден лесен за всеки програмист труд, е най-безогледната лакомия и липса на етика, която съм виждал. (Може би с изключение на екипа на Рипъл – те са запазили за себе си даже повече. Което обуславя мнението ми за тази валута.)

Ако впрегна да копаят тази валута сървърите, които контролирам, най-вероятно ще отхапя солидно парче от баницата на левкойна. Но етиката около него ме погнусява до степен да ми приседне това парче. Нямам нищо против да съм богат – но не на такава цена.

(А мога и много повече. Мога за буквално ден да направя криптовалута за примерно еколози. За любители на фантастика. За подкрепа на развитието на изкуствения интелект. Хомеопатична, с благотворни биоенергийни ултрачервени излъчвания, от сто процента рециклирани електрони… Тогава най-вероятно ще се окажа с много повече пари, ако запазя за себе си дори по-малък процент.)

Мислете за мен каквото щете. Луд ли съм? Лудите, лудите – те да са живи.

VPN Provider Jailed For Five Years After Helping Thousands Breach China’s Firewall

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/vpn-provider-jailed-for-five-years-after-helping-thousands-breach-chinas-firewall-171222/

The Chinese government’s grip on power is matched by its determination to control access to information. To that end, it seeks to control what people in China can see on the Internet, thereby limiting the effect of outside influences on society.

The government tries to reach these goals by use of the so-called Great Firewall, a complex system that grants access to some foreign resources while denying access to others. However, technologically advanced citizens are able to bypass this state censorship by using circumvention techniques including Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

While large numbers of people use such services, in January 2017 the government gave its clearest indication yet that it would begin to crack down on people offering Great Firewall-evading tools.

Operating such a service without a corresponding telecommunications business license constitutes an offense, the government said. Now we have a taste of how serious the government is on this matter.

According to an announcement from China’s Procuratorate Daily, Wu Xiangyang, a resident of the Guangxi autonomous region, has just been jailed for five-and-a-half years and fined 500,000 yuan ($75,920) for building and selling access to VPNs without an appropriate license.

It’s alleged that between 2013 and June 2017, Wu Xiangyang sold VPN server access to the public via his own website, FangouVPN / Where Dog VPN, and Taobao, a Chinese online shopping site similar to eBay and Amazon.

The member accounts provided by the man allowed customers to browse foreign websites, without being trapped behind China’s Great Firewall. He also sold custom hardware routers that came read-configured to use the VPN service, granting access to the wider Internet, contrary to the wishes of Chinese authorities.

Prosecutors say that the illegal VPN business had revenues of 792,638 yuan (US$120,377) and profits of around 500,000 yuan ($75,935). SCMP reports that the company previously boasted on Twitter at having 8,000 foreigners and 5,000 businesses using its services to browse blocked websites.

This is at least the second big sentence handed down to a Chinese citizen for providing access to VPNs. Back in September, it was revealed that Deng Jiewei, a 26-year-old from the city of Dongguan in the Guangdong province, had been jailed for nine months after offering a similar service to the public for around a year.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

Students and Youths Offered $10 to Pirate Latest Movies in Cinemas

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/students-and-youths-offered-10-to-pirate-latest-movies-in-cinemas-171219/

In common with most other countries, demand for movies is absolutely huge in India. According to a 2015 report, the country produces between 1,500 and 2,000 movies each year, more than any other country in the world.

But India also has a huge piracy problem. If a movie is worth watching, it’s pirated extremely quickly, mostly within a couple of days of release, often much sooner. These early copies ordinarily come from “cams” – recordings made in cinemas – which are sold on the streets for next to nothing and eagerly snapped up citizens. Who, incidentally, are served by ten times fewer cinema screens than their US counterparts.

These cam copies have to come from somewhere and according to representatives from the local Anti-Video Piracy Committee, piracy groups have begun to divert “camming” duties to outsiders, effectively decentralizing their operations.

Their targets are said to be young people with decent mobile phones, students in particular. Along with China, India now has more than a billion phone users, so there’s no shortage of candidates.

“The offer to youngsters is that they would get 10 US dollars into their bank accounts, if they videographed and sent it on the first day of release of the film,” says Raj Kumar, Telugu Film Chamber of Commerce representative and Anti-Video Piracy Committee chairman.

“The minors and youngsters are getting attracted to the money, not knowing that piracy is a crime,” he adds.

Although US$10 sounds like a meager amount, for many locals the offer is significant. According to figures from 2014, the average daily wage in India is just 272 Indian Rupees (US$4.24) so, for an hour or two’s ‘work’ sitting in a cinema with a phone, a student can, in theory, earn more than he can in two days employment.

The issue of youth “camming” came up yesterday during a meeting of film producers, Internet service providers and cybercrime officials convened by IT and Industries Secretary Jayesh Ranjan.

The meeting heard that the Telangana State government will soon have its own special police officers and cybercrime experts to tackle the growing problem of pirate sites, who will take them down if necessary.

“The State government has adopted a no-tolerance policy towards online piracy of films and will soon have a plan in place to tackle and effectively curb piracy. We need to adopt strong measures and countermeasures to weed out all kinds of piracy,” Ranjan said.

The State already has its own Intellectual Property Crimes Unit (IPCU) but local officials have complained that not enough is being done to curb huge losses faced by the industry. There have been successes, however.

Cybercrime officials previously tracked down individuals said to have been involved in the piracy of the spectacular movie Baahubali 2 – The Conclusion which became the highest grossing Indian film ever just six days after its release earlier this year. But despite the efforts and successes, the basics appear to elude Indian anti-piracy forces.

During October 2017, a 4K copy of Baahubali 2 was uploaded to YouTube and has since racked up an astonishing 54.7m views to the delight of a worldwide audience, many of them enjoying the best of Indian cinema for the first time – for free.

Still, the meeting Monday found that sites offering pirated Indian movies should be targeted and brought to their knees.

“In the meeting, the ISPs too were asked to designate a nodal officer who can keep a watch over websites which upload such data onto their websites and bring them down,” a cybercrime police officer said.

Next stop, YouTube?

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

What is HAMR and How Does It Enable the High-Capacity Needs of the Future?

Post Syndicated from Andy Klein original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hamr-hard-drives/

HAMR drive illustration

During Q4, Backblaze deployed 100 petabytes worth of Seagate hard drives to our data centers. The newly deployed Seagate 10 and 12 TB drives are doing well and will help us meet our near term storage needs, but we know we’re going to need more drives — with higher capacities. That’s why the success of new hard drive technologies like Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) from Seagate are very relevant to us here at Backblaze and to the storage industry in general. In today’s guest post we are pleased to have Mark Re, CTO at Seagate, give us an insider’s look behind the hard drive curtain to tell us how Seagate engineers are developing the HAMR technology and making it market ready starting in late 2018.

What is HAMR and How Does It Enable the High-Capacity Needs of the Future?

Guest Blog Post by Mark Re, Seagate Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer

Earlier this year Seagate announced plans to make the first hard drives using Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording, or HAMR, available by the end of 2018 in pilot volumes. Even as today’s market has embraced 10TB+ drives, the need for 20TB+ drives remains imperative in the relative near term. HAMR is the Seagate research team’s next major advance in hard drive technology.

HAMR is a technology that over time will enable a big increase in the amount of data that can be stored on a disk. A small laser is attached to a recording head, designed to heat a tiny spot on the disk where the data will be written. This allows a smaller bit cell to be written as either a 0 or a 1. The smaller bit cell size enables more bits to be crammed into a given surface area — increasing the areal density of data, and increasing drive capacity.

It sounds almost simple, but the science and engineering expertise required, the research, experimentation, lab development and product development to perfect this technology has been enormous. Below is an overview of the HAMR technology and you can dig into the details in our technical brief that provides a point-by-point rundown describing several key advances enabling the HAMR design.

As much time and resources as have been committed to developing HAMR, the need for its increased data density is indisputable. Demand for data storage keeps increasing. Businesses’ ability to manage and leverage more capacity is a competitive necessity, and IT spending on capacity continues to increase.

History of Increasing Storage Capacity

For the last 50 years areal density in the hard disk drive has been growing faster than Moore’s law, which is a very good thing. After all, customers from data centers and cloud service providers to creative professionals and game enthusiasts rarely go shopping looking for a hard drive just like the one they bought two years ago. The demands of increasing data on storage capacities inevitably increase, thus the technology constantly evolves.

According to the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium, HAMR will be the next significant storage technology innovation to increase the amount of storage in the area available to store data, also called the disk’s “areal density.” We believe this boost in areal density will help fuel hard drive product development and growth through the next decade.

Why do we Need to Develop Higher-Capacity Hard Drives? Can’t Current Technologies do the Job?

Why is HAMR’s increased data density so important?

Data has become critical to all aspects of human life, changing how we’re educated and entertained. It affects and informs the ways we experience each other and interact with businesses and the wider world. IDC research shows the datasphere — all the data generated by the world’s businesses and billions of consumer endpoints — will continue to double in size every two years. IDC forecasts that by 2025 the global datasphere will grow to 163 zettabytes (that is a trillion gigabytes). That’s ten times the 16.1 ZB of data generated in 2016. IDC cites five key trends intensifying the role of data in changing our world: embedded systems and the Internet of Things (IoT), instantly available mobile and real-time data, cognitive artificial intelligence (AI) systems, increased security data requirements, and critically, the evolution of data from playing a business background to playing a life-critical role.

Consumers use the cloud to manage everything from family photos and videos to data about their health and exercise routines. Real-time data created by connected devices — everything from Fitbit, Alexa and smart phones to home security systems, solar systems and autonomous cars — are fueling the emerging Data Age. On top of the obvious business and consumer data growth, our critical infrastructure like power grids, water systems, hospitals, road infrastructure and public transportation all demand and add to the growth of real-time data. Data is now a vital element in the smooth operation of all aspects of daily life.

All of this entails a significant infrastructure cost behind the scenes with the insatiable, global appetite for data storage. While a variety of storage technologies will continue to advance in data density (Seagate announced the first 60TB 3.5-inch SSD unit for example), high-capacity hard drives serve as the primary foundational core of our interconnected, cloud and IoT-based dependence on data.

HAMR Hard Drive Technology

Seagate has been working on heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) in one form or another since the late 1990s. During this time we’ve made many breakthroughs in making reliable near field transducers, special high capacity HAMR media, and figuring out a way to put a laser on each and every head that is no larger than a grain of salt.

The development of HAMR has required Seagate to consider and overcome a myriad of scientific and technical challenges including new kinds of magnetic media, nano-plasmonic device design and fabrication, laser integration, high-temperature head-disk interactions, and thermal regulation.

A typical hard drive inside any computer or server contains one or more rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive film consisting of tiny magnetic grains. Data is recorded when a magnetic write-head flies just above the spinning disk; the write head rapidly flips the magnetization of one magnetic region of grains so that its magnetic pole points up or down, to encode a 1 or a 0 in binary code.

Increasing the amount of data you can store on a disk requires cramming magnetic regions closer together, which means the grains need to be smaller so they won’t interfere with each other.

Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) is the next step to enable us to increase the density of grains — or bit density. Current projections are that HAMR can achieve 5 Tbpsi (Terabits per square inch) on conventional HAMR media, and in the future will be able to achieve 10 Tbpsi or higher with bit patterned media (in which discrete dots are predefined on the media in regular, efficient, very dense patterns). These technologies will enable hard drives with capacities higher than 100 TB before 2030.

The major problem with packing bits so closely together is that if you do that on conventional magnetic media, the bits (and the data they represent) become thermally unstable, and may flip. So, to make the grains maintain their stability — their ability to store bits over a long period of time — we need to develop a recording media that has higher coercivity. That means it’s magnetically more stable during storage, but it is more difficult to change the magnetic characteristics of the media when writing (harder to flip a grain from a 0 to a 1 or vice versa).

That’s why HAMR’s first key hardware advance required developing a new recording media that keeps bits stable — using high anisotropy (or “hard”) magnetic materials such as iron-platinum alloy (FePt), which resist magnetic change at normal temperatures. Over years of HAMR development, Seagate researchers have tested and proven out a variety of FePt granular media films, with varying alloy composition and chemical ordering.

In fact the new media is so “hard” that conventional recording heads won’t be able to flip the bits, or write new data, under normal temperatures. If you add heat to the tiny spot on which you want to write data, you can make the media’s coercive field lower than the magnetic field provided by the recording head — in other words, enable the write head to flip that bit.

So, a challenge with HAMR has been to replace conventional perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR), in which the write head operates at room temperature, with a write technology that heats the thin film recording medium on the disk platter to temperatures above 400 °C. The basic principle is to heat a tiny region of several magnetic grains for a very short time (~1 nanoseconds) to a temperature high enough to make the media’s coercive field lower than the write head’s magnetic field. Immediately after the heat pulse, the region quickly cools down and the bit’s magnetic orientation is frozen in place.

Applying this dynamic nano-heating is where HAMR’s famous “laser” comes in. A plasmonic near-field transducer (NFT) has been integrated into the recording head, to heat the media and enable magnetic change at a specific point. Plasmonic NFTs are used to focus and confine light energy to regions smaller than the wavelength of light. This enables us to heat an extremely small region, measured in nanometers, on the disk media to reduce its magnetic coercivity,

Moving HAMR Forward

HAMR write head

As always in advanced engineering, the devil — or many devils — is in the details. As noted earlier, our technical brief provides a point-by-point short illustrated summary of HAMR’s key changes.

Although hard work remains, we believe this technology is nearly ready for commercialization. Seagate has the best engineers in the world working towards a goal of a 20 Terabyte drive by 2019. We hope we’ve given you a glimpse into the amount of engineering that goes into a hard drive. Keeping up with the world’s insatiable appetite to create, capture, store, secure, manage, analyze, rapidly access and share data is a challenge we work on every day.

With thousands of HAMR drives already being made in our manufacturing facilities, our internal and external supply chain is solidly in place, and volume manufacturing tools are online. This year we began shipping initial units for customer tests, and production units will ship to key customers by the end of 2018. Prepare for breakthrough capacities.

The post What is HAMR and How Does It Enable the High-Capacity Needs of the Future? appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Looking Forward to 2018

Post Syndicated from Let's Encrypt - Free SSL/TLS Certificates original https://letsencrypt.org//2017/12/07/looking-forward-to-2018.html

Let’s Encrypt had a great year in 2017. We more than doubled the number of active (unexpired) certificates we service to 46 million, we just about tripled the number of unique domains we service to 61 million, and we did it all while maintaining a stellar security and compliance track record. Most importantly though, the Web went from 46% encrypted page loads to 67% according to statistics from Mozilla – a gain of 21% in a single year – incredible. We’re proud to have contributed to that, and we’d like to thank all of the other people and organizations who also worked hard to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.

While we’re proud of what we accomplished in 2017, we are spending most of the final quarter of the year looking forward rather than back. As we wrap up our own planning process for 2018, I’d like to share some of our plans with you, including both the things we’re excited about and the challenges we’ll face. We’ll cover service growth, new features, infrastructure, and finances.

Service Growth

We are planning to double the number of active certificates and unique domains we service in 2018, to 90 million and 120 million, respectively. This anticipated growth is due to continuing high expectations for HTTPS growth in general in 2018.

Let’s Encrypt helps to drive HTTPS adoption by offering a free, easy to use, and globally available option for obtaining the certificates required to enable HTTPS. HTTPS adoption on the Web took off at an unprecedented rate from the day Let’s Encrypt launched to the public.

One of the reasons Let’s Encrypt is so easy to use is that our community has done great work making client software that works well for a wide variety of platforms. We’d like to thank everyone involved in the development of over 60 client software options for Let’s Encrypt. We’re particularly excited that support for the ACME protocol and Let’s Encrypt is being added to the Apache httpd server.

Other organizations and communities are also doing great work to promote HTTPS adoption, and thus stimulate demand for our services. For example, browsers are starting to make their users more aware of the risks associated with unencrypted HTTP (e.g. Firefox, Chrome). Many hosting providers and CDNs are making it easier than ever for all of their customers to use HTTPS. Government agencies are waking up to the need for stronger security to protect constituents. The media community is working to Secure the News.

New Features

We’ve got some exciting features planned for 2018.

First, we’re planning to introduce an ACME v2 protocol API endpoint and support for wildcard certificates along with it. Wildcard certificates will be free and available globally just like our other certificates. We are planning to have a public test API endpoint up by January 4, and we’ve set a date for the full launch: Tuesday, February 27.

Later in 2018 we plan to introduce ECDSA root and intermediate certificates. ECDSA is generally considered to be the future of digital signature algorithms on the Web due to the fact that it is more efficient than RSA. Let’s Encrypt will currently sign ECDSA keys from subscribers, but we sign with the RSA key from one of our intermediate certificates. Once we have an ECDSA root and intermediates, our subscribers will be able to deploy certificate chains which are entirely ECDSA.

Infrastructure

Our CA infrastructure is capable of issuing millions of certificates per day with multiple redundancy for stability and a wide variety of security safeguards, both physical and logical. Our infrastructure also generates and signs nearly 20 million OCSP responses daily, and serves those responses nearly 2 billion times per day. We expect issuance and OCSP numbers to double in 2018.

Our physical CA infrastructure currently occupies approximately 70 units of rack space, split between two datacenters, consisting primarily of compute servers, storage, HSMs, switches, and firewalls.

When we issue more certificates it puts the most stress on storage for our databases. We regularly invest in more and faster storage for our database servers, and that will continue in 2018.

We’ll need to add a few additional compute servers in 2018, and we’ll also start aging out hardware in 2018 for the first time since we launched. We’ll age out about ten 2u compute servers and replace them with new 1u servers, which will save space and be more energy efficient while providing better reliability and performance.

We’ll also add another infrastructure operations staff member, bringing that team to a total of six people. This is necessary in order to make sure we can keep up with demand while maintaining a high standard for security and compliance. Infrastructure operations staff are systems administrators responsible for building and maintaining all physical and logical CA infrastructure. The team also manages a 24/7/365 on-call schedule and they are primary participants in both security and compliance audits.

Finances

We pride ourselves on being an efficient organization. In 2018 Let’s Encrypt will secure a large portion of the Web with a budget of only $3.0M. For an overall increase in our budget of only 13%, we will be able to issue and service twice as many certificates as we did in 2017. We believe this represents an incredible value and that contributing to Let’s Encrypt is one of the most effective ways to help create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.

Our 2018 fundraising efforts are off to a strong start with Platinum sponsorships from Mozilla, Akamai, OVH, Cisco, Google Chrome and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Ford Foundation has renewed their grant to Let’s Encrypt as well. We are seeking additional sponsorship and grant assistance to meet our full needs for 2018.

We had originally budgeted $2.91M for 2017 but we’ll likely come in under budget for the year at around $2.65M. The difference between our 2017 expenses of $2.65M and the 2018 budget of $3.0M consists primarily of the additional infrastructure operations costs previously mentioned.

Support Let’s Encrypt

We depend on contributions from our community of users and supporters in order to provide our services. If your company or organization would like to sponsor Let’s Encrypt please email us at [email protected]. We ask that you make an individual contribution if it is within your means.

We’re grateful for the industry and community support that we receive, and we look forward to continuing to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web!

Looking Forward to 2018

Post Syndicated from Let's Encrypt - Free SSL/TLS Certificates original https://letsencrypt.org/2017/12/07/looking-forward-to-2018.html

<p>Let’s Encrypt had a great year in 2017. We more than doubled the number of active (unexpired) certificates we service to 46 million, we just about tripled the number of unique domains we service to 61 million, and we did it all while maintaining a stellar security and compliance track record. Most importantly though, <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/stats/">the Web went from 46% encrypted page loads to 67%</a> according to statistics from Mozilla – a gain of 21 percentage points in a single year – incredible. We’re proud to have contributed to that, and we’d like to thank all of the other people and organizations who also worked hard to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.</p>

<p>While we’re proud of what we accomplished in 2017, we are spending most of the final quarter of the year looking forward rather than back. As we wrap up our own planning process for 2018, I’d like to share some of our plans with you, including both the things we’re excited about and the challenges we’ll face. We’ll cover service growth, new features, infrastructure, and finances.</p>

<h1 id="service-growth">Service Growth</h1>

<p>We are planning to double the number of active certificates and unique domains we service in 2018, to 90 million and 120 million, respectively. This anticipated growth is due to continuing high expectations for HTTPS growth in general in 2018.</p>

<p>Let’s Encrypt helps to drive HTTPS adoption by offering a free, easy to use, and globally available option for obtaining the certificates required to enable HTTPS. HTTPS adoption on the Web took off at an unprecedented rate from the day Let’s Encrypt launched to the public.</p>

<p>One of the reasons Let’s Encrypt is so easy to use is that our community has done great work making client software that works well for a wide variety of platforms. We’d like to thank everyone involved in the development of over 60 <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/docs/client-options/">client software options for Let’s Encrypt</a>. We’re particularly excited that support for the ACME protocol and Let’s Encrypt is <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/2017/10/17/acme-support-in-apache-httpd.html">being added to the Apache httpd server</a>.</p>

<p>Other organizations and communities are also doing great work to promote HTTPS adoption, and thus stimulate demand for our services. For example, browsers are starting to make their users more aware of the risks associated with unencrypted HTTP (e.g. <a href="https://blog.mozilla.org/security/2017/01/20/communicating-the-dangers-of-non-secure-http/">Firefox</a>, <a href="https://security.googleblog.com/2017/04/next-steps-toward-more-connection.html">Chrome</a>). Many hosting providers and CDNs are making it easier than ever for all of their customers to use HTTPS. <a href="https://https.cio.gov/">Government</a> <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/treasury-board-secretariat/services/information-technology/strategic-plan-2017-2021.html#toc8-3-2">agencies</a> are waking up to the need for stronger security to protect constituents. The media community is working to <a href="https://securethe.news/">Secure the News</a>.</p>

<h1 id="new-features">New Features</h1>

<p>We’ve got some exciting features planned for 2018.</p>

<p>First, we’re planning to introduce an ACME v2 protocol API endpoint and <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/2017/07/06/wildcard-certificates-coming-jan-2018.html">support for wildcard certificates</a> along with it. Wildcard certificates will be free and available globally just like our other certificates. We are planning to have a public test API endpoint up by January 4, and we’ve set a date for the full launch: Tuesday, February 27.</p>

<p>Later in 2018 we plan to introduce ECDSA root and intermediate certificates. ECDSA is generally considered to be the future of digital signature algorithms on the Web due to the fact that it is more efficient than RSA. Let’s Encrypt will currently sign ECDSA keys from subscribers, but we sign with the RSA key from one of our intermediate certificates. Once we have an ECDSA root and intermediates, our subscribers will be able to deploy certificate chains which are entirely ECDSA.</p>

<h1 id="infrastructure">Infrastructure</h1>

<p>Our CA infrastructure is capable of issuing millions of certificates per day with multiple redundancy for stability and a wide variety of security safeguards, both physical and logical. Our infrastructure also generates and signs nearly 20 million OCSP responses daily, and serves those responses nearly 2 billion times per day. We expect issuance and OCSP numbers to double in 2018.</p>

<p>Our physical CA infrastructure currently occupies approximately 70 units of rack space, split between two datacenters, consisting primarily of compute servers, storage, HSMs, switches, and firewalls.</p>

<p>When we issue more certificates it puts the most stress on storage for our databases. We regularly invest in more and faster storage for our database servers, and that will continue in 2018.</p>

<p>We’ll need to add a few additional compute servers in 2018, and we’ll also start aging out hardware in 2018 for the first time since we launched. We’ll age out about ten 2u compute servers and replace them with new 1u servers, which will save space and be more energy efficient while providing better reliability and performance.</p>

<p>We’ll also add another infrastructure operations staff member, bringing that team to a total of six people. This is necessary in order to make sure we can keep up with demand while maintaining a high standard for security and compliance. Infrastructure operations staff are systems administrators responsible for building and maintaining all physical and logical CA infrastructure. The team also manages a 24/7/365 on-call schedule and they are primary participants in both security and compliance audits.</p>

<h1 id="finances">Finances</h1>

<p>We pride ourselves on being an efficient organization. In 2018 Let’s Encrypt will secure a large portion of the Web with a budget of only $3.0M. For an overall increase in our budget of only 13%, we will be able to issue and service twice as many certificates as we did in 2017. We believe this represents an incredible value and that contributing to Let’s Encrypt is one of the most effective ways to help create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.</p>

<p>Our 2018 fundraising efforts are off to a strong start with Platinum sponsorships from Mozilla, Akamai, OVH, Cisco, Google Chrome and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Ford Foundation has renewed their grant to Let’s Encrypt as well. We are seeking additional sponsorship and grant assistance to meet our full needs for 2018.</p>

<p>We had originally budgeted $2.91M for 2017 but we’ll likely come in under budget for the year at around $2.65M. The difference between our 2017 expenses of $2.65M and the 2018 budget of $3.0M consists primarily of the additional infrastructure operations costs previously mentioned.</p>

<h1 id="support-let-s-encrypt">Support Let’s Encrypt</h1>

<p>We depend on contributions from our community of users and supporters in order to provide our services. If your company or organization would like to <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/become-a-sponsor/">sponsor</a> Let’s Encrypt please email us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>. We ask that you make an <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/donate/">individual contribution</a> if it is within your means.</p>

<p>We’re grateful for the industry and community support that we receive, and we look forward to continuing to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web!</p>

Glenn’s Take on re:Invent 2017 – Part 3

Post Syndicated from Glenn Gore original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/glenns-take-on-reinvent-2017-part-3/

Glenn Gore here, Chief Architect for AWS. I was in Las Vegas last week — with 43K others — for re:Invent 2017. I checked in to the Architecture blog here and here with my take on what was interesting about some of the bigger announcements from a cloud-architecture perspective.

In the excitement of so many new services being launched, we sometimes overlook feature updates that, while perhaps not as exciting as Amazon DeepLens, have significant impact on how you architect and develop solutions on AWS.

Amazon DynamoDB is used by more than 100,000 customers around the world, handling over a trillion requests every day. From the start, DynamoDB has offered high availability by natively spanning multiple Availability Zones within an AWS Region. As more customers started building and deploying truly-global applications, there was a need to replicate a DynamoDB table to multiple AWS Regions, allowing for read/write operations to occur in any region where the table was replicated. This update is important for providing a globally-consistent view of information — as users may transition from one region to another — or for providing additional levels of availability, allowing for failover between AWS Regions without loss of information.

There are some interesting concurrency-design aspects you need to be aware of and ensure you can handle correctly. For example, we support the “last writer wins” reconciliation where eventual consistency is being used and an application updates the same item in different AWS Regions at the same time. If you require strongly-consistent read/writes then you must perform all of your read/writes in the same AWS Region. The details behind this can be found in the DynamoDB documentation. Providing a globally-distributed, replicated DynamoDB table simplifies many different use cases and allows for the logic of replication, which may have been pushed up into the application layers to be simplified back down into the data layer.

The other big update for DynamoDB is that you can now back up your DynamoDB table on demand with no impact to performance. One of the features I really like is that when you trigger a backup, it is available instantly, regardless of the size of the table. Behind the scenes, we use snapshots and change logs to ensure a consistent backup. While backup is instant, restoring the table could take some time depending on its size and ranges — from minutes to hours for very large tables.

This feature is super important for those of you who work in regulated industries that often have strict requirements around data retention and backups of data, which sometimes limited the use of DynamoDB or required complex workarounds to implement some sort of backup feature in the past. This often incurred significant, additional costs due to increased read transactions on their DynamoDB tables.

Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) was our first-released AWS service over 11 years ago, and it proved the simplicity and scalability of true API-driven architectures in the cloud. Today, Amazon S3 stores trillions of objects, with transactional requests per second reaching into the millions! Dealing with data as objects opened up an incredibly diverse array of use cases ranging from libraries of static images, game binary downloads, and application log data, to massive data lakes used for big data analytics and business intelligence. With Amazon S3, when you accessed your data in an object, you effectively had to write/read the object as a whole or use the range feature to retrieve a part of the object — if possible — in your individual use case.

Now, with Amazon S3 Select, an SQL-like query language is used that can work with delimited text and JSON files, as well as work with GZIP compressed files. We don’t support encryption during the preview of Amazon S3 Select.

Amazon S3 Select provides two major benefits:

  • Faster access
  • Lower running costs

Serverless Lambda functions, where every millisecond matters when you are being charged, will benefit greatly from Amazon S3 Select as data retrieval and processing of your Lambda function will experience significant speedups and cost reductions. For example, we have seen 2x speed improvement and 80% cost reduction with the Serverless MapReduce code.

Other AWS services such as Amazon Athena, Amazon Redshift, and Amazon EMR will support Amazon S3 Select as well as partner offerings including Cloudera and Hortonworks. If you are using Amazon Glacier for longer-term data archival, you will be able to use Amazon Glacier Select to retrieve a subset of your content from within Amazon Glacier.

As the volume of data that can be stored within Amazon S3 and Amazon Glacier continues to scale on a daily basis, we will continue to innovate and develop improved and optimized services that will allow you to work with these magnificently-large data sets while reducing your costs (retrieval and processing). I believe this will also allow you to simplify the transformation and storage of incoming data into Amazon S3 in basic, semi-structured formats as a single copy vs. some of the duplication and reformatting of data sometimes required to do upfront optimizations for downstream processing. Amazon S3 Select largely removes the need for this upfront optimization and instead allows you to store data once and process it based on your individual Amazon S3 Select query per application or transaction need.

Thanks for reading!

Glenn contemplating why CSV format is still relevant in 2017 (Italy).