Tag Archives: domains

CloudFrunt – Identify Misconfigured CloudFront Domains

Post Syndicated from Darknet original https://www.darknet.org.uk/2018/05/cloudfrunt-identify-misconfigured-cloudfront-domains/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=darknetfeed

CloudFrunt – Identify Misconfigured CloudFront Domains

CloudFrunt is a Python-based tool for identifying misconfigured CloudFront domains, it uses DNS and looks for CNAMEs which may be allowed to be associated with CloudFront distributions. This effectively allows for domain hijacking.

How CloudFrunt Works For Misconfigured CloudFront

CloudFront is a Content Delivery Network (CDN) provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS). CloudFront users create “distributions” that serve content from specific sources (an S3 bucket, for example).

Each CloudFront distribution has a unique endpoint for users to point their DNS records to (ex.

Read the rest of CloudFrunt – Identify Misconfigured CloudFront Domains now! Only available at Darknet.

Enhanced Domain Protections for Amazon CloudFront Requests

Post Syndicated from Colm MacCarthaigh original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/enhanced-domain-protections-for-amazon-cloudfront-requests/

Over the coming weeks, we’ll be adding enhanced domain protections to Amazon CloudFront. The short version is this: the new measures are designed to ensure that requests handled by CloudFront are handled on behalf of legitimate domain owners.

Using CloudFront to receive traffic for a domain you aren’t authorized to use is already a violation of our AWS Terms of Service. When we become aware of this type of activity, we deal with it behind the scenes by disabling abusive accounts. Now we’re integrating checks directly into the CloudFront API and Content Distribution service, as well.

Enhanced Protection against Dangling DNS entries
To use CloudFront with your domain, you must configure your domain to point at CloudFront. You may use a traditional CNAME, or an Amazon Route 53 “ALIAS” record.

A problem can arise if you delete your CloudFront distribution, but leave your DNS still pointing at CloudFront, popularly known as a “dangling” DNS entry. Thankfully, this is very rare, as the domain will no longer work, but we occasionally see customers who leave their old domains dormant. This can also happen if you leave this kind of “dangling” DNS entry pointing at other infrastructure you no longer control. For example, if you leave a domain pointing at an IP address that you don’t control, then there is a risk that someone may come along and “claim” traffic destined for your domain.

In an even more rare set of circumstances, an abuser can exploit a subdomain of a domain that you are actively using. For example, if a customer left “images.example.com” dangling and pointing to a deleted CloudFront distribution which is no longer in use, but they still actively use the parent domain “example.com”, then an abuser could come along and register “images.example.com” as an alternative name on their own distribution and claim traffic that they aren’t entitled to. This also means that cookies may be set and intercepted for HTTP traffic potentially including the parent domain. HTTPS traffic remains protected if you’ve removed the certificate associated with the original CloudFront distribution.

Of course, the best fix for this kind of risk is not to leave dangling DNS entries in the first place. Earlier in February, 2018, we added a new warning to our systems. With this warning, if you remove an alternate domain name from a distribution, you are reminded to delete any DNS entries that may still be pointing at CloudFront.

We also have long-standing checks in the CloudFront API that ensure this kind of domain claiming can’t occur when you are using wildcard domains. If you attempt to add *.example.com to your CloudFront distribution, but another account has already registered www.example.com, then the attempt will fail.

With the new enhanced domain protection, CloudFront will now also check your DNS whenever you remove an alternate domain. If we determine that the domain is still pointing at your CloudFront distribution, the API call will fail and no other accounts will be able to claim this traffic in the future.

Enhanced Protection against Domain Fronting
CloudFront will also be soon be implementing enhanced protections against so-called “Domain Fronting”. Domain Fronting is when a non-standard client makes a TLS/SSL connection to a certain name, but then makes a HTTPS request for an unrelated name. For example, the TLS connection may connect to “www.example.com” but then issue a request for “www.example.org”.

In certain circumstances this is normal and expected. For example, browsers can re-use persistent connections for any domain that is listed in the same SSL Certificate, and these are considered related domains. But in other cases, tools including malware can use this technique between completely unrelated domains to evade restrictions and blocks that can be imposed at the TLS/SSL layer.

To be clear, this technique can’t be used to impersonate domains. The clients are non-standard and are working around the usual TLS/SSL checks that ordinary clients impose. But clearly, no customer ever wants to find that someone else is masquerading as their innocent, ordinary domain. Although these cases are also already handled as a breach of our AWS Terms of Service, in the coming weeks we will be checking that the account that owns the certificate we serve for a particular connection always matches the account that owns the request we handle on that connection. As ever, the security of our customers is our top priority, and we will continue to provide enhanced protection against misconfigurations and abuse from unrelated parties.

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How to centralize DNS management in a multi-account environment

Post Syndicated from Mahmoud Matouk original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-centralize-dns-management-in-a-multi-account-environment/

In a multi-account environment where you require connectivity between accounts, and perhaps connectivity between cloud and on-premises workloads, the demand for a robust Domain Name Service (DNS) that’s capable of name resolution across all connected environments will be high.

The most common solution is to implement local DNS in each account and use conditional forwarders for DNS resolutions outside of this account. While this solution might be efficient for a single-account environment, it becomes complex in a multi-account environment.

In this post, I will provide a solution to implement central DNS for multiple accounts. This solution reduces the number of DNS servers and forwarders needed to implement cross-account domain resolution. I will show you how to configure this solution in four steps:

  1. Set up your Central DNS account.
  2. Set up each participating account.
  3. Create Route53 associations.
  4. Configure on-premises DNS (if applicable).

Solution overview

In this solution, you use AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (AWS Managed Microsoft AD) as a DNS service in a dedicated account in a Virtual Private Cloud (DNS-VPC).

The DNS service included in AWS Managed Microsoft AD uses conditional forwarders to forward domain resolution to either Amazon Route 53 (for domains in the awscloud.com zone) or to on-premises DNS servers (for domains in the example.com zone). You’ll use AWS Managed Microsoft AD as the primary DNS server for other application accounts in the multi-account environment (participating accounts).

A participating account is any application account that hosts a VPC and uses the centralized AWS Managed Microsoft AD as the primary DNS server for that VPC. Each participating account has a private, hosted zone with a unique zone name to represent this account (for example, business_unit.awscloud.com).

You associate the DNS-VPC with the unique hosted zone in each of the participating accounts, this allows AWS Managed Microsoft AD to use Route 53 to resolve all registered domains in private, hosted zones in participating accounts.

The following diagram shows how the various services work together:
 

Diagram showing the relationship between all the various services

Figure 1: Diagram showing the relationship between all the various services

 

In this diagram, all VPCs in participating accounts use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) option sets. The option sets configure EC2 instances to use the centralized AWS Managed Microsoft AD in DNS-VPC as their default DNS Server. You also configure AWS Managed Microsoft AD to use conditional forwarders to send domain queries to Route53 or on-premises DNS servers based on query zone. For domain resolution across accounts to work, we associate DNS-VPC with each hosted zone in participating accounts.

If, for example, server.pa1.awscloud.com needs to resolve addresses in the pa3.awscloud.com domain, the sequence shown in the following diagram happens:
 

How domain resolution across accounts works

Figure 2: How domain resolution across accounts works

 

  • 1.1: server.pa1.awscloud.com sends domain name lookup to default DNS server for the name server.pa3.awscloud.com. The request is forwarded to the DNS server defined in the DHCP option set (AWS Managed Microsoft AD in DNS-VPC).
  • 1.2: AWS Managed Microsoft AD forwards name resolution to Route53 because it’s in the awscloud.com zone.
  • 1.3: Route53 resolves the name to the IP address of server.pa3.awscloud.com because DNS-VPC is associated with the private hosted zone pa3.awscloud.com.

Similarly, if server.example.com needs to resolve server.pa3.awscloud.com, the following happens:

  • 2.1: server.example.com sends domain name lookup to on-premise DNS server for the name server.pa3.awscloud.com.
  • 2.2: on-premise DNS server using conditional forwarder forwards domain lookup to AWS Managed Microsoft AD in DNS-VPC.
  • 1.2: AWS Managed Microsoft AD forwards name resolution to Route53 because it’s in the awscloud.com zone.
  • 1.3: Route53 resolves the name to the IP address of server.pa3.awscloud.com because DNS-VPC is associated with the private hosted zone pa3.awscloud.com.

Step 1: Set up a centralized DNS account

In previous AWS Security Blog posts, Drew Dennis covered a couple of options for establishing DNS resolution between on-premises networks and Amazon VPC. In this post, he showed how you can use AWS Managed Microsoft AD (provisioned with AWS Directory Service) to provide DNS resolution with forwarding capabilities.

To set up a centralized DNS account, you can follow the same steps in Drew’s post to create AWS Managed Microsoft AD and configure the forwarders to send DNS queries for awscloud.com to default, VPC-provided DNS and to forward example.com queries to the on-premise DNS server.

Here are a few considerations while setting up central DNS:

  • The VPC that hosts AWS Managed Microsoft AD (DNS-VPC) will be associated with all private hosted zones in participating accounts.
  • To be able to resolve domain names across AWS and on-premises, connectivity through Direct Connect or VPN must be in place.

Step 2: Set up participating accounts

The steps I suggest in this section should be applied individually in each application account that’s participating in central DNS resolution.

  1. Create the VPC(s) that will host your resources in participating account.
  2. Create VPC Peering between local VPC(s) in each participating account and DNS-VPC.
  3. Create a private hosted zone in Route 53. Hosted zone domain names must be unique across all accounts. In the diagram above, we used pa1.awscloud.com / pa2.awscloud.com / pa3.awscloud.com. You could also use a combination of environment and business unit: for example, you could use pa1.dev.awscloud.com to achieve uniqueness.
  4. Associate VPC(s) in each participating account with the local private hosted zone.

The next step is to change the default DNS servers on each VPC using DHCP option set:

  1. Follow these steps to create a new DHCP option set. Make sure in the DNS Servers to put the private IP addresses of the two AWS Managed Microsoft AD servers that were created in DNS-VPC:
     
    The "Create DHCP options set" dialog box

    Figure 3: The “Create DHCP options set” dialog box

     

  2. Follow these steps to assign the DHCP option set to your VPC(s) in participating account.

Step 3: Associate DNS-VPC with private hosted zones in each participating account

The next steps will associate DNS-VPC with the private, hosted zone in each participating account. This allows instances in DNS-VPC to resolve domain records created in these hosted zones. If you need them, here are more details on associating a private, hosted zone with VPC on a different account.

  1. In each participating account, create the authorization using the private hosted zone ID from the previous step, the region, and the VPC ID that you want to associate (DNS-VPC).
     
    aws route53 create-vpc-association-authorization –hosted-zone-id <hosted-zone-id> –vpc VPCRegion=<region>,VPCId=<vpc-id>
     
  2. In the centralized DNS account, associate DNS-VPC with the hosted zone in each participating account.
     
    aws route53 associate-vpc-with-hosted-zone –hosted-zone-id <hosted-zone-id> –vpc VPCRegion=<region>,VPCId=<vpc-id>
     

After completing these steps, AWS Managed Microsoft AD in the centralized DNS account should be able to resolve domain records in the private, hosted zone in each participating account.

Step 4: Setting up on-premises DNS servers

This step is necessary if you would like to resolve AWS private domains from on-premises servers and this task comes down to configuring forwarders on-premise to forward DNS queries to AWS Managed Microsoft AD in DNS-VPC for all domains in the awscloud.com zone.

The steps to implement conditional forwarders vary by DNS product. Follow your product’s documentation to complete this configuration.

Summary

I introduced a simplified solution to implement central DNS resolution in a multi-account environment that could be also extended to support DNS resolution between on-premise resources and AWS. This can help reduce operations effort and the number of resources needed to implement cross-account domain resolution.

If you have feedback about this post, submit comments in the Comments section below. If you have questions about this post, start a new thread on the AWS Directory Service forum or contact AWS Support.

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New .BOT gTLD from Amazon

Post Syndicated from Randall Hunt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-bot-gtld-from-amazon/

Today, I’m excited to announce the launch of .BOT, a new generic top-level domain (gTLD) from Amazon. Customers can use .BOT domains to provide an identity and portal for their bots. Fitness bots, slack bots, e-commerce bots, and more can all benefit from an easy-to-access .BOT domain. The phrase “bot” was the 4th most registered domain keyword within the .COM TLD in 2016 with more than 6000 domains per month. A .BOT domain allows customers to provide a definitive internet identity for their bots as well as enhancing SEO performance.

At the time of this writing .BOT domains start at $75 each and must be verified and published with a supported tool like: Amazon Lex, Botkit Studio, Dialogflow, Gupshup, Microsoft Bot Framework, or Pandorabots. You can expect support for more tools over time and if your favorite bot framework isn’t supported feel free to contact us here: [email protected].

Below, I’ll walk through the experience of registering and provisioning a domain for my bot, whereml.bot. Then we’ll look at setting up the domain as a hosted zone in Amazon Route 53. Let’s get started.

Registering a .BOT domain

First, I’ll head over to https://amazonregistry.com/bot, type in a new domain, and click magnifying class to make sure my domain is available and get taken to the registration wizard.

Next, I have the opportunity to choose how I want to verify my bot. I build all of my bots with Amazon Lex so I’ll select that in the drop down and get prompted for instructions specific to AWS. If I had my bot hosted somewhere else I would need to follow the unique verification instructions for that particular framework.

To verify my Lex bot I need to give the Amazon Registry permissions to invoke the bot and verify it’s existence. I’ll do this by creating an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) cross account role and providing the AmazonLexReadOnly permissions to that role. This is easily accomplished in the AWS Console. Be sure to provide the account number and external ID shown on the registration page.

Now I’ll add read only permissions to our Amazon Lex bots.

I’ll give my role a fancy name like DotBotCrossAccountVerifyRole and a description so it’s easy to remember why I made this then I’ll click create to create the role and be transported to the role summary page.

Finally, I’ll copy the ARN from the created role and save it for my next step.

Here I’ll add all the details of my Amazon Lex bot. If you haven’t made a bot yet you can follow the tutorial to build a basic bot. I can refer to any alias I’ve deployed but if I just want to grab the latest published bot I can pass in $LATEST as the alias. Finally I’ll click Validate and proceed to registering my domain.

Amazon Registry works with a partner EnCirca to register our domains so we’ll select them and optionally grab Site Builder. I know how to sling some HTML and Javascript together so I’ll pass on the Site Builder side of things.

 

After I click continue we’re taken to EnCirca’s website to finalize the registration and with any luck within a few minutes of purchasing and completing the registration we should receive an email with some good news:

Alright, now that we have a domain name let’s find out how to host things on it.

Using Amazon Route53 with a .BOT domain

Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable DNS with robust APIs, healthchecks, service discovery, and many other features. I definitely want to use this to host my new domain. The first thing I’ll do is navigate to the Route53 console and create a hosted zone with the same name as my domain.


Great! Now, I need to take the Name Server (NS) records that Route53 created for me and use EnCirca’s portal to add these as the authoritative nameservers on the domain.

Now I just add my records to my hosted zone and I should be able to serve traffic! Way cool, I’ve got my very own .bot domain for @WhereML.

Next Steps

  • I could and should add to the security of my site by creating TLS certificates for people who intend to access my domain over TLS. Luckily with AWS Certificate Manager (ACM) this is extremely straightforward and I’ve got my subdomains and root domain verified in just a few clicks.
  • I could create a cloudfront distrobution to front an S3 static single page application to host my entire chatbot and invoke Amazon Lex with a cognito identity right from the browser.

Randall

Real-Time Hotspot Detection in Amazon Kinesis Analytics

Post Syndicated from Randall Hunt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/real-time-hotspot-detection-in-amazon-kinesis-analytics/

Today we’re releasing a new machine learning feature in Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics for detecting “hotspots” in your streaming data. We launched Kinesis Data Analytics in August of 2016 and we’ve continued to add features since. As you may already know, Kinesis Data Analytics is a fully managed real-time processing engine for streaming data that lets you write SQL queries to derive meaning from your data and output the results to Kinesis Data Firehose, Kinesis Data Streams, or even an AWS Lambda function. The new HOTSPOT function adds to the existing machine learning capabilities in Kinesis that allow customers to leverage unsupervised streaming based machine learning algorithms. Customers don’t need to be experts in data science or machine learning to take advantage of these capabilities.

Hotspots

The HOTSPOTS function is a new Kinesis Data Analytics SQL function you can use to idenitfy relatively dense regions in your data without having to explicity build and train complicated machine learning models. You can identify subsections of your data that need immediate attention and take action programatically by streaming the hotspots out to a Kinesis Data stream, to a Firehose delivery stream, or by invoking a AWS Lambda function.

There are a ton of really cool scenarios where this could make your operations easier. Imagine a ride-share program or autonomous vehicle fleet communicating spatiotemporal data about traffic jams and congestion, or a datacenter where a number of servers start to overheat indicating an HVAC issue. HOTSPOTS is not limited to spatiotemporal data and you could apply it across many problem domains.

The function follows some simple syntax and accepts the DOUBLE, INTEGER, FLOAT, TINYINT, SMALLINT, REAL, and BIGINT data types.

The HOTSPOT function takes a cursor as input and returns a JSON string describing the hotspot. This will be easier to understand with an example.

Using Kinesis Data Analytics to Detect Hotspots

Let’s take a simple data set from NY Taxi and Limousine Commission that tracks yellow cab pickup and dropoff locations. Most of this data is already on S3 and publicly accessible at s3://nyc-tlc/. We will create a small python script to load our Kinesis Data Stream with Taxi records which will feed our Kinesis Data Analytics. Finally we’ll output all of this to a Kinesis Data Firehose connected to an Amazon Elasticsearch Service cluster for visualization with Kibana. I know from living in New York for 5 years that we’ll probably find a hotspot or two in this data.

First, we’ll create an input Kinesis stream and start sending our NYC Taxi Ride data into it. I just wrote a quick python script to read from one of the CSV files and used boto3 to push the records into Kinesis. You can put the record in whatever way works for you.

 

import csv
import json
import boto3
def chunkit(l, n):
    """Yield successive n-sized chunks from l."""
    for i in range(0, len(l), n):
        yield l[i:i + n]

kinesis = boto3.client("kinesis")
with open("taxidata2.csv") as f:
    reader = csv.DictReader(f)
    records = chunkit([{"PartitionKey": "taxis", "Data": json.dumps(row)} for row in reader], 500)
    for chunk in records:
        kinesis.put_records(StreamName="TaxiData", Records=chunk)

Next, we’ll create the Kinesis Data Analytics application and add our input stream with our taxi data as the source.

Next we’ll automatically detect the schema.

Now we’ll create a quick SQL Script to detect our hotspots and add that to the Real Time Analytics section of our application.

CREATE OR REPLACE STREAM "DESTINATION_SQL_STREAM" (
    "pickup_longitude" DOUBLE,
    "pickup_latitude" DOUBLE,
    HOTSPOTS_RESULT VARCHAR(10000)
); 
CREATE OR REPLACE PUMP "STREAM_PUMP" AS INSERT INTO "DESTINATION_SQL_STREAM" 
    SELECT "pickup_longitude", "pickup_latitude", "HOTSPOTS_RESULT" FROM
        TABLE(HOTSPOTS(
            CURSOR(SELECT STREAM * FROM "SOURCE_SQL_STREAM_001"),
            1000,
            0.013,
            20
        )
    );


Our HOTSPOTS function takes an input stream, a window size, scan radius, and a minimum number of points to count as a hotspot. The values for these are application dependent but you can tinker with them in the console easily until you get the results you want. There are more details about the parameters themselves in the documentation. The HOTSPOTS_RESULT returns some useful JSON that would let us plot bounding boxes around our hotspots:

{
  "hotspots": [
    {
      "density": "elided",
      "minValues": [40.7915039, -74.0077401],
      "maxValues": [40.7915041, -74.0078001]
    }
  ]
}

 

When we have our desired results we can save the script and connect our application to our Amazon Elastic Search Service Firehose Delivery Stream. We can run an intermediate lambda function in the firehose to transform our record into a format more suitable for geographic work. Then we can update our mapping in Elasticsearch to index the hotspot objects as Geo-Shapes.

Finally, we can connect to Kibana and visualize the results.

Looks like Manhattan is pretty busy!

Available Now
This feature is available now in all existing regions with Kinesis Data Analytics. I think this is a really interesting new feature of Kinesis Data Analytics that can bring immediate value to many applications. Let us know what you build with it on Twitter or in the comments!

Randall

Setting Up Cassandra With Priam

Post Syndicated from Bozho original https://techblog.bozho.net/setting-cassandra-priam/

I’ve previously explained how to setup Cassandra in AWS. The described setup works, but in some cases it may not be sufficient. E.g. it doesn’t give you an easy way to make and restore backups, and adding new nodes relies on a custom python script that randomly selects a seed.

So now I’m going to explain how to setup Priam, a Cassandra helper tool by Netflix.

My main reason for setting it up is the backup/restore functionality that it offers. All other ways to do backups are very tedious, and Priam happens to have implemented the important bits – the snapshotting and the incremental backups.

Priam is a bit tricky to get running, though. The setup guide is not too detailed and not easy to find (it’s the last, not immediately visible item in the wiki). First, it has one branch per Cassandra version, so you have to checkout the proper branch and build it. I immediately hit an issue there, as their naming doesn’t allow eclipse to import the gradle project. Within 24 hours I reported 3 issues, which isn’t ideal. Priam doesn’t support dynamic SimpleDB names, and doesn’t let you override bundled properties via the command line. I hope there aren’t bigger issues. The ones that I encountered, I fixed and made a pull request.

What does the setup look like?

  • Append a javaagent to the JVM options
  • Run the Priam web
  • It automatically replaces most of cassandra.yaml, including the seed provider (i.e. how does the node find other nodes in the cluster)
  • Run Cassandra
  • It fetches seed information (which is stored in AWS SimpleDB) and connects to a cluster

I decided to run the war file with a standalone jetty runner, rather than installing tomcat. In terms of shell scripts, the core bits look like that (in addition to the shell script in the original post that is run on initialization of the node):

# Get the Priam war file and jar file
aws s3 cp s3://$BUCKET_NAME/priam-web-3.12.0-SNAPSHOT.war ~/
aws s3 cp s3://$BUCKET_NAME/priam-cass-extensions-3.12.0-SNAPSHOT.jar /usr/share/cassandra/lib/priam-cass-extensions.jar
# Set the Priam agent
echo "-javaagent:/usr/share/cassandra/lib/priam-cass-extensions.jar" >> /etc/cassandra/conf/jvm.options

# Download jetty-runner to be able to run the Priam war file from the command line
wget http://central.maven.org/maven2/org/eclipse/jetty/jetty-runner/9.4.8.v20171121/jetty-runner-9.4.8.v20171121.jar
nohup java -Dpriam.clustername=LogSentinelCluster -Dpriam.sdb.instanceIdentity.region=$EC2_REGION -Dpriam.s3.bucket=$BACKUP_BUCKET \
-Dpriam.sdb.instanceidentity.domain=$INSTANCE_IDENTITY_DOMAIN -Dpriam.sdb.properties.domain=$PROPERTIES_DOMAIN \
-Dpriam.client.sslEnabled=true -Dpriam.internodeEncryption=all -Dpriam.rpc.server.type=sync \
-Dpriam.partitioner=org.apache.cassandra.dht.Murmur3Partitioner -Dpriam.backup.retention.days=7 \
-Dpriam.backup.hour=$BACKUP_HOUR -Dpriam.vnodes.numTokens=256 -Dpriam.thrift.enabled=false \
-jar jetty-runner-9.4.8.v20171121.jar --path /Priam ~/priam-web-3.12.0-SNAPSHOT.war &

while ! echo exit | nc $BIND_IP 8080; do sleep 10; done

echo "Started Priam web package"

service cassandra start
chkconfig cassandra on

while ! echo exit | nc $BIND_IP 9042; do sleep 10; done

BACKUP_BUCKET, PROPERTIES_DOMAIN and INSTANCE_DOMAIN are supplied via a CloudFormation script (as we can’t know the exact names in advance – especially for SimpleDB). Note that these properties won’t work in the main repo – I added them in my pull request.

In order for that to work, you need to have the two SimpleDB domains created (e.g. by CloudFormation). It is possible that you could replace SimpleDB with some other data storage (and not rely on AWS), but that’s out of scope for now.

The result of running Priam would be that you have your Cassandra nodes in SimpleDB (you can browse it using this chrome extension as AWS doesn’t offer any UI) and, of course, backups will be automatically created in the backup S3 Bucket.

You can then restore a backup by logging to each node and executing:

curl http://localhost:8080/Priam/REST/v1/restore?daterange=201803180000,201803191200&region=eu-west-1&keyspaces=your_keyspace

You specify the time range for the restore. Still not ideal, as one would hope to have a one-click restore, but much better than rolling out your own backup & restore infrastructure.

One very important note here – vnodes are not supported. My original cluster had a default of 256 vnodes per machine and now it has just 1, because Priam doesn’t support anything other than 1. That’s a pity, since vnodes are the recommended way to setup Cassandra. Apparently Netflix don’t use those, however. There’s a work-in-progress branch for that that was abandoned 5 years ago. Fortunately, there’s a fresh pull request with Vnode support that can be used in conjunction with my pull request from this branch.

Priam replaces some Cassandra defaults with other values so you might want to compare your current setup and the newly generated cassandra.yaml. Overall it doesn’t feel super-production ready, but apparently it is, as Netflix is using it in production.

The post Setting Up Cassandra With Priam appeared first on Bozho's tech blog.

GetAltName – Discover Sub-Domains From SSL Certificates

Post Syndicated from Darknet original https://www.darknet.org.uk/2018/03/getaltname-discover-sub-domains-from-ssl-certificates/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=darknetfeed

GetAltName – Discover Sub-Domains From SSL Certificates

GetAltName it’s a little script to discover sub-domains that can extract Subject Alt Names for SSL Certificates directly from HTTPS websites which can provide you with DNS names or virtual servers.

It’s useful in a discovery phase of a pen-testing assessment, this tool can provide you with more information about your target and scope.

Features of GetAltName to Discover Sub-Domains

  • Strips wildcards and www’s
  • Returns a unique list (no duplicates)
  • Works on verified and self-signed certs
  • Domain matching system
  • Filtering for main domains and TLDs
  • Gets additional sub-domains from crt.sh
  • Outputs to clipboard

GetAltName Subdomain Exctraction Tool Usage

You can output to a text file and also copy the output to your clipboard as a List or a Single line string, which is useful if you’re trying to make a quick scan with Nmap or other tools.

Read the rest of GetAltName – Discover Sub-Domains From SSL Certificates now! Only available at Darknet.

ACME v2 and Wildcard Certificate Support is Live

Post Syndicated from ris original https://lwn.net/Articles/749291/rss

Let’s Encrypt has announced
that ACMEv2 (Automated Certificate Management Environment) and wildcard
certificate support is live. ACMEv2 is an updated
version of the ACME protocol that has gone through the IETF standards
process. Wildcard
certificates
allow you to secure all subdomains of a domain with a
single certificate. (Thanks to Alphonse Ogulla)

How to Delegate Administration of Your AWS Managed Microsoft AD Directory to Your On-Premises Active Directory Users

Post Syndicated from Vijay Sharma original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-delegate-administration-of-your-aws-managed-microsoft-ad-directory-to-your-on-premises-active-directory-users/

You can now enable your on-premises users administer your AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also known as AWS Managed Microsoft AD. Using an Active Directory (AD) trust and the new AWS delegated AD security groups, you can grant administrative permissions to your on-premises users by managing group membership in your on-premises AD directory. This simplifies how you manage who can perform administration. It also makes it easier for your administrators because they can sign in to their existing workstation with their on-premises AD credential to administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD.

AWS created new domain local AD security groups (AWS delegated groups) in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. Each AWS delegated group has unique AD administrative permissions. Users that are members in the new AWS delegated groups get permissions to perform administrative tasks, such as add users, configure fine-grained password policies and enable Microsoft enterprise Certificate Authority. Because the AWS delegated groups are domain local in scope, you can use them through an AD Trust to your on-premises AD. This eliminates the requirement to create and use separate identities to administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD. Instead, by adding selected on-premises users to desired AWS delegated groups, you can grant your administrators some or all of the permissions. You can simplify this even further by adding on-premises AD security groups to the AWS delegated groups. This enables you to add and remove users from your on-premises AD security group so that they can manage administrative permissions in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD.

In this blog post, I will show you how to delegate permissions to your on-premises users to perform an administrative task–configuring fine-grained password policies–in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. You can follow the steps in this post to delegate other administrative permissions, such as configuring group Managed Service Accounts and Kerberos constrained delegation, to your on-premises users.

Background

Until now, AWS Managed Microsoft AD delegated administrative permissions for your directory by creating AD security groups in your Organization Unit (OU) and authorizing these AWS delegated groups for common administrative activities. The admin user in your directory created user accounts within your OU, and granted these users permissions to administer your directory by adding them to one or more of these AWS delegated groups.

However, if you used your AWS Managed Microsoft AD with a trust to an on-premises AD forest, you couldn’t add users from your on-premises directory to these AWS delegated groups. This is because AWS created the AWS delegated groups with global scope, which restricts adding users from another forest. This necessitated that you create different user accounts in AWS Managed Microsoft AD for the purpose of administration. As a result, AD administrators typically had to remember additional credentials for AWS Managed Microsoft AD.

To address this, AWS created new AWS delegated groups with domain local scope in a separate OU called AWS Delegated Groups. These new AWS delegated groups with domain local scope are more flexible and permit adding users and groups from other domains and forests. This allows your admin user to delegate your on-premises users and groups administrative permissions to your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

Note: If you already have an existing AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory containing the original AWS delegated groups with global scope, AWS preserved the original AWS delegated groups in the event you are currently using them with identities in AWS Managed Microsoft AD. AWS recommends that you transition to use the new AWS delegated groups with domain local scope. All newly created AWS Managed Microsoft AD directories have the new AWS delegated groups with domain local scope only.

Now, I will show you the steps to delegate administrative permissions to your on-premises users and groups to configure fine-grained password policies in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

Prerequisites

For this post, I assume you are familiar with AD security groups and how security group scope rules work. I also assume you are familiar with AD trusts.

The instructions in this blog post require you to have the following components running:

Solution overview

I will now show you how to manage which on-premises users have delegated permissions to administer your directory by efficiently using on-premises AD security groups to manage these permissions. I will do this by:

  1. Adding on-premises groups to an AWS delegated group. In this step, you sign in to management instance connected to AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory as admin user and add on-premises groups to AWS delegated groups.
  2. Administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory as on-premises user. In this step, you sign in to a workstation connected to your on-premises AD using your on-premises credentials and administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

For the purpose of this blog, I already have an on-premises AD directory (in this case, on-premises.com). I also created an AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory (in this case, corp.example.com) that I use with Amazon RDS for SQL Server. To enable Integrated Windows Authentication to my on-premises.com domain, I established a one-way outgoing trust from my AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory to my on-premises AD directory. To administer my AWS Managed Microsoft AD, I created an Amazon EC2 for Windows Server instance (in this case, Cloud Management). I also have an on-premises workstation (in this case, On-premises Management), that is connected to my on-premises AD directory.

The following diagram represents the relationships between the on-premises AD and the AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

The left side represents the AWS Cloud containing AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. I connected the directory to the on-premises AD directory via a 1-way forest trust relationship. When AWS created my AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory, AWS created a group called AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators that has permissions to configure fine-grained password policies in AWS Managed Microsoft AD.

The right side of the diagram represents the on-premises AD directory. I created a global AD security group called On-premises fine grained password policy admins and I configured it so all members can manage fine grained password policies in my on-premises AD. I have two administrators in my company, John and Richard, who I added as members of On-premises fine grained password policy admins. I want to enable John and Richard to also manage fine grained password policies in my AWS Managed Microsoft AD.

While I could add John and Richard to the AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators individually, I want a more efficient way to delegate and remove permissions for on-premises users to manage fine grained password policies in my AWS Managed Microsoft AD. In fact, I want to assign permissions to the same people that manage password policies in my on-premises directory.

Diagram showing delegation of administrative permissions to on-premises users

To do this, I will:

  1. As admin user, add the On-premises fine grained password policy admins as member of the AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators security group from my Cloud Management machine.
  2. Manage who can administer password policies in my AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory by adding and removing users as members of the On-premises fine grained password policy admins. Doing so enables me to perform all my delegation work in my on-premises directory without the need to use a remote desktop protocol (RDP) session to my Cloud Management instance. In this case, Richard, who is a member of On-premises fine grained password policy admins group can now administer AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory from On-premises Management workstation.

Although I’m showing a specific case using fine grained password policy delegation, you can do this with any of the new AWS delegated groups and your on-premises groups and users.

Let’s get started.

Step 1 – Add on-premises groups to AWS delegated groups

In this step, open an RDP session to the Cloud Management instance and sign in as the admin user in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. Then, add your users and groups from your on-premises AD to AWS delegated groups in AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. In this example, I do the following:

  1. Sign in to the Cloud Management instance with the user name admin and the password that you set for the admin user when you created your directory.
  2. Open the Microsoft Windows Server Manager and navigate to Tools > Active Directory Users and Computers.
  3. Switch to the tree view and navigate to corp.example.com > AWS Delegated Groups. Right-click AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators and select Properties.
  4. In the AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy window, switch to Members tab and choose Add.
  5. In the Select Users, Contacts, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups window, choose Locations.
  6. In the Locations window, select on-premises.com domain and choose OK.
  7. In the Enter the object names to select box, enter on-premises fine grained password policy admins and choose Check Names.
  8. Because I have a 1-way trust from AWS Managed Microsoft AD to my on-premises AD, Windows prompts me to enter credentials for an on-premises user account that has permissions to complete the search. If I had a 2-way trust and the admin account in my AWS Managed Microsoft AD has permissions to read my on-premises directory, Windows will not prompt me.In the Windows Security window, enter the credentials for an account with permissions for on-premises.com and choose OK.
  9. Click OK to add On-premises fine grained password policy admins group as a member of the AWS Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators group in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

At this point, any user that is a member of On-premises fine grained password policy admins group has permissions to manage password policies in your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

Step 2 – Administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD as on-premises user

Any member of the on-premises group(s) that you added to an AWS delegated group inherited the permissions of the AWS delegated group.

In this example, Richard signs in to the On-premises Management instance. Because Richard inherited permissions from Delegated Fine Grained Password Policy Administrators, he can now administer fine grained password policies in the AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory using on-premises credentials.

  1. Sign in to the On-premises Management instance as Richard.
  2. Open the Microsoft Windows Server Manager and navigate to Tools > Active Directory Users and Computers.
  3. Switch to the tree view, right-click Active Directory Users and Computers, and then select Change Domain.
  4. In the Change Domain window, enter corp.example.com, and then choose OK.
  5. You’ll be connected to your AWS Managed Microsoft AD domain:

Richard can now administer the password policies. Because John is also a member of the AWS delegated group, John can also perform password policy administration the same way.

In future, if Richard moves to another division within the company and you hire Judy as a replacement for Richard, you can simply remove Richard from On-premises fine grained password policy admins group and add Judy to this group. Richard will no longer have administrative permissions, while Judy can now administer password policies for your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory.

Summary

We’ve tried to make it easier for you to administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory by creating AWS delegated groups with domain local scope. You can add your on-premises AD groups to the AWS delegated groups. You can then control who can administer your directory by managing group membership in your on-premises AD directory. Your administrators can sign in to their existing on-premises workstations using their on-premises credentials and administer your AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory. I encourage you to explore the new AWS delegated security groups by using Active Directory Users and Computers from the management instance for your AWS Managed Microsoft AD. To learn more about AWS Directory Service, see the AWS Directory Service home page. If you have questions, please post them on the Directory Service forum. If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below.

 

Improve the Operational Efficiency of Amazon Elasticsearch Service Domains with Automated Alarms Using Amazon CloudWatch

Post Syndicated from Veronika Megler original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/improve-the-operational-efficiency-of-amazon-elasticsearch-service-domains-with-automated-alarms-using-amazon-cloudwatch/

A customer has been successfully creating and running multiple Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) domains to support their business users’ search needs across products, orders, support documentation, and a growing suite of similar needs. The service has become heavily used across the organization.  This led to some domains running at 100% capacity during peak times, while others began to run low on storage space. Because of this increased usage, the technical teams were in danger of missing their service level agreements.  They contacted me for help.

This post shows how you can set up automated alarms to warn when domains need attention.

Solution overview

Amazon ES is a fully managed service that delivers Elasticsearch’s easy-to-use APIs and real-time analytics capabilities along with the availability, scalability, and security that production workloads require.  The service offers built-in integrations with a number of other components and AWS services, enabling customers to go from raw data to actionable insights quickly and securely.

One of these other integrated services is Amazon CloudWatch. CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS Cloud resources and the applications that you run on AWS. You can use CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in your AWS resources.

CloudWatch collects metrics for Amazon ES. You can use these metrics to monitor the state of your Amazon ES domains, and set alarms to notify you about high utilization of system resources.  For more information, see Amazon Elasticsearch Service Metrics and Dimensions.

While the metrics are automatically collected, the missing piece is how to set alarms on these metrics at appropriate levels for each of your domains. This post includes sample Python code to evaluate the current state of your Amazon ES environment, and to set up alarms according to AWS recommendations and best practices.

There are two components to the sample solution:

  • es-check-cwalarms.py: This Python script checks the CloudWatch alarms that have been set, for all Amazon ES domains in a given account and region.
  • es-create-cwalarms.py: This Python script sets up a set of CloudWatch alarms for a single given domain.

The sample code can also be found in the amazon-es-check-cw-alarms GitHub repo. The scripts are easy to extend or combine, as described in the section “Extensions and Adaptations”.

Assessing the current state

The first script, es-check-cwalarms.py, is used to give an overview of the configurations and alarm settings for all the Amazon ES domains in the given region. The script takes the following parameters:

python es-checkcwalarms.py -h
usage: es-checkcwalarms.py [-h] [-e ESPREFIX] [-n NOTIFY] [-f FREE][-p PROFILE] [-r REGION]
Checks a set of recommended CloudWatch alarms for Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains (optionally, those beginning with a given prefix).
optional arguments:
  -h, --help   		show this help message and exit
  -e ESPREFIX, --esprefix ESPREFIX	Only check Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains that begin with this prefix.
  -n NOTIFY, --notify NOTIFY    List of CloudWatch alarm actions; e.g. ['arn:aws:sns:xxxx']
  -f FREE, --free FREE  Minimum free storage (MB) on which to alarm
  -p PROFILE, --profile PROFILE     IAM profile name to use
  -r REGION, --region REGION       AWS region for the domain. Default: us-east-1

The script first identifies all the domains in the given region (or, optionally, limits them to the subset that begins with a given prefix). It then starts running a set of checks against each one.

The script can be run from the command line or set up as a scheduled Lambda function. For example, for one customer, it was deemed appropriate to regularly run the script to check that alarms were correctly set for all domains. In addition, because configuration changes—cluster size increases to accommodate larger workloads being a common change—might require updates to alarms, this approach allowed the automatic identification of alarms no longer appropriately set as the domain configurations changed.

The output shown below is the output for one domain in my account.

Starting checks for Elasticsearch domain iotfleet , version is 53
Iotfleet Automated snapshot hour (UTC): 0
Iotfleet Instance configuration: 1 instances; type:m3.medium.elasticsearch
Iotfleet Instance storage definition is: 4 GB; free storage calced to: 819.2 MB
iotfleet Desired free storage set to (in MB): 819.2
iotfleet WARNING: Not using VPC Endpoint
iotfleet WARNING: Does not have Zone Awareness enabled
iotfleet WARNING: Instance count is ODD. Best practice is for an even number of data nodes and zone awareness.
iotfleet WARNING: Does not have Dedicated Masters.
iotfleet WARNING: Neither index nor search slow logs are enabled.
iotfleet WARNING: EBS not in use. Using instance storage only.
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-ClusterStatus.yellow-Alarm ClusterStatus.yellow
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-ClusterStatus.red-Alarm ClusterStatus.red
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-CPUUtilization-Alarm CPUUtilization
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-JVMMemoryPressure-Alarm JVMMemoryPressure
iotfleet WARNING: Missing alarm!! ('ClusterIndexWritesBlocked', 'Maximum', 60, 5, 'GreaterThanOrEqualToThreshold', 1.0)
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-AutomatedSnapshotFailure-Alarm AutomatedSnapshotFailure
iotfleet Alarm: Threshold does not match: Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-FreeStorageSpace-Alarm Should be:  819.2 ; is 3000.0

The output messages fall into the following categories:

  • System overview, Informational: The Amazon ES version and configuration, including instance type and number, storage, automated snapshot hour, etc.
  • Free storage: A calculation for the appropriate amount of free storage, based on the recommended 20% of total storage.
  • Warnings: best practices that are not being followed for this domain. (For more about this, read on.)
  • Alarms: An assessment of the CloudWatch alarms currently set for this domain, against a recommended set.

The script contains an array of recommended CloudWatch alarms, based on best practices for these metrics and statistics. Using the array allows alarm parameters (such as free space) to be updated within the code based on current domain statistics and configurations.

For a given domain, the script checks if each alarm has been set. If the alarm is set, it checks whether the values match those in the array esAlarms. In the output above, you can see three different situations being reported:

  • Alarm ok; definition matches. The alarm set for the domain matches the settings in the array.
  • Alarm: Threshold does not match. An alarm exists, but the threshold value at which the alarm is triggered does not match.
  • WARNING: Missing alarm!! The recommended alarm is missing.

All in all, the list above shows that this domain does not have a configuration that adheres to best practices, nor does it have all the recommended alarms.

Setting up alarms

Now that you know that the domains in their current state are missing critical alarms, you can correct the situation.

To demonstrate the script, set up a new domain named “ver”, in us-west-2. Specify 1 node, and a 10-GB EBS disk. Also, create an SNS topic in us-west-2 with a name of “sendnotification”, which sends you an email.

Run the second script, es-create-cwalarms.py, from the command line. This script creates (or updates) the desired CloudWatch alarms for the specified Amazon ES domain, “ver”.

python es-create-cwalarms.py -r us-west-2 -e test -c ver -n "['arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:xxxxxxxxxx:sendnotification']"
EBS enabled: True type: gp2 size (GB): 10 No Iops 10240  total storage (MB)
Desired free storage set to (in MB): 2048.0
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterStatus.yellow-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterStatus.red-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-CPUUtilization-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-JVMMemoryPressure-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-FreeStorageSpace-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterIndexWritesBlocked-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-AutomatedSnapshotFailure-Alarm
Successfully finished creating alarms!

As with the first script, this script contains an array of recommended CloudWatch alarms, based on best practices for these metrics and statistics. This approach allows you to add or modify alarms based on your use case (more on that below).

After running the script, navigate to Alarms on the CloudWatch console. You can see the set of alarms set up on your domain.

Because the “ver” domain has only a single node, cluster status is yellow, and that alarm is in an “ALARM” state. It’s already sent a notification that the alarm has been triggered.

What to do when an alarm triggers

After alarms are set up, you need to identify the correct action to take for each alarm, which depends on the alarm triggered. For ideas, guidance, and additional pointers to supporting documentation, see Get Started with Amazon Elasticsearch Service: Set CloudWatch Alarms on Key Metrics. For information about common errors and recovery actions to take, see Handling AWS Service Errors.

In most cases, the alarm triggers due to an increased workload. The likely action is to reconfigure the system to handle the increased workload, rather than reducing the incoming workload. Reconfiguring any backend store—a category of systems that includes Elasticsearch—is best performed when the system is quiescent or lightly loaded. Reconfigurations such as setting zone awareness or modifying the disk type cause Amazon ES to enter a “processing” state, potentially disrupting client access.

Other changes, such as increasing the number of data nodes, may cause Elasticsearch to begin moving shards, potentially impacting search performance on these shards while this is happening. These actions should be considered in the context of your production usage. For the same reason I also do not recommend running a script that resets all domains to match best practices.

Avoid the need to reconfigure during heavy workload by setting alarms at a level that allows a considered approach to making the needed changes. For example, if you identify that each weekly peak is increasing, you can reconfigure during a weekly quiet period.

While Elasticsearch can be reconfigured without being quiesced, it is not a best practice to automatically scale it up and down based on usage patterns. Unlike some other AWS services, I recommend against setting a CloudWatch action that automatically reconfigures the system when alarms are triggered.

There are other situations where the planned reconfiguration approach may not work, such as low or zero free disk space causing the domain to reject writes. If the business is dependent on the domain continuing to accept incoming writes and deleting data is not an option, the team may choose to reconfigure immediately.

Extensions and adaptations

You may wish to modify the best practices encoded in the scripts for your own environment or workloads. It’s always better to avoid situations where alerts are generated but routinely ignored. All alerts should trigger a review and one or more actions, either immediately or at a planned date. The following is a list of common situations where you may wish to set different alarms for different domains:

  • Dev/test vs. production
    You may have a different set of configuration rules and alarms for your dev environment configurations than for test. For example, you may require zone awareness and dedicated masters for your production environment, but not for your development domains. Or, you may not have any alarms set in dev. For test environments that mirror your potential peak load, test to ensure that the alarms are appropriately triggered.
  • Differing workloads or SLAs for different domains
    You may have one domain with a requirement for superfast search performance, and another domain with a heavy ingest load that tolerates slower search response. Your reaction to slow response for these two workloads is likely to be different, so perhaps the thresholds for these two domains should be set at a different level. In this case, you might add a “max CPU utilization” alarm at 100% for 1 minute for the fast search domain, while the other domain only triggers an alarm when the average has been higher than 60% for 5 minutes. You might also add a “free space” rule with a higher threshold to reflect the need for more space for the heavy ingest load if there is danger that it could fill the available disk quickly.
  • “Normal” alarms versus “emergency” alarms
    If, for example, free disk space drops to 25% of total capacity, an alarm is triggered that indicates action should be taken as soon as possible, such as cleaning up old indexes or reconfiguring at the next quiet period for this domain. However, if free space drops below a critical level (20% free space), action must be taken immediately in order to prevent Amazon ES from setting the domain to read-only. Similarly, if the “ClusterIndexWritesBlocked” alarm triggers, the domain has already stopped accepting writes, so immediate action is needed. In this case, you may wish to set “laddered” alarms, where one threshold causes an alarm to be triggered to review the current workload for a planned reconfiguration, but a different threshold raises a “DefCon 3” alarm that immediate action is required.

The sample scripts provided here are a starting point, intended for you to adapt to your own environment and needs.

Running the scripts one time can identify how far your current state is from your desired state, and create an initial set of alarms. Regularly re-running these scripts can capture changes in your environment over time and adjusting your alarms for changes in your environment and configurations. One customer has set them up to run nightly, and to automatically create and update alarms to match their preferred settings.

Removing unwanted alarms

Each CloudWatch alarm costs approximately $0.10 per month. You can remove unwanted alarms in the CloudWatch console, under Alarms. If you set up a “ver” domain above, remember to remove it to avoid continuing charges.

Conclusion

Setting CloudWatch alarms appropriately for your Amazon ES domains can help you avoid suboptimal performance and allow you to respond to workload growth or configuration issues well before they become urgent. This post gives you a starting point for doing so. The additional sleep you’ll get knowing you don’t need to be concerned about Elasticsearch domain performance will allow you to focus on building creative solutions for your business and solving problems for your customers.

Enjoy!


Additional Reading

If you found this post useful, be sure to check out Analyzing Amazon Elasticsearch Service Slow Logs Using Amazon CloudWatch Logs Streaming and Kibana and Get Started with Amazon Elasticsearch Service: How Many Shards Do I Need?

 


About the Author

Dr. Veronika Megler is a senior consultant at Amazon Web Services. She works with our customers to implement innovative big data, AI and ML projects, helping them accelerate their time-to-value when using AWS.

 

 

 

altdns – Subdomain Recon Tool With Permutation Generation

Post Syndicated from Darknet original https://www.darknet.org.uk/2018/02/altdns-subdomain-recon-tool-with-permutation-generation/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=darknetfeed

altdns – Subdomain Recon Tool With Permutation Generation

Altdns is a Subdomain Recon Tool in Python that allows for the discovery of subdomains that conform to patterns. The tool takes in words that could be present in subdomains under a domain (such as test, dev, staging) as well as takes in a list of subdomains that you know of.

From these two lists that are provided as input to altdns, the tool then generates a massive output of “altered” or “mutated” potential subdomains that could be present.

Read the rest of altdns – Subdomain Recon Tool With Permutation Generation now! Only available at Darknet.

Skygofree: New Government Malware for Android

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/01/skygofree_new_g.html

Kaspersky Labs is reporting on a new piece of sophisticated malware:

We observed many web landing pages that mimic the sites of mobile operators and which are used to spread the Android implants. These domains have been registered by the attackers since 2015. According to our telemetry, that was the year the distribution campaign was at its most active. The activities continue: the most recently observed domain was registered on October 31, 2017. Based on our KSN statistics, there are several infected individuals, exclusively in Italy.

Moreover, as we dived deeper into the investigation, we discovered several spyware tools for Windows that form an implant for exfiltrating sensitive data on a targeted machine. The version we found was built at the beginning of 2017, and at the moment we are not sure whether this implant has been used in the wild.

It seems to be Italian. Ars Technica speculates that it is related to Hacking Team:

That’s not to say the malware is perfect. The various versions examined by Kaspersky Lab contained several artifacts that provide valuable clues about the people who may have developed and maintained the code. Traces include the domain name h3g.co, which was registered by Italian IT firm Negg International. Negg officials didn’t respond to an email requesting comment for this post. The malware may be filling a void left after the epic hack in 2015 of Hacking Team, another Italy-based developer of spyware.

BoingBoing post.

[$] Active state management of power domains

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/744047/rss

The Linux kernel’s generic power domain (genpd) subsystem has been
extended to
support active state management of the power domains in the
4.15 development cycle. Power domains were
traditionally used to enable or disable power to a region of a system on
chip (SoC) but, with the recent updates, they can control the clock rate or
amount of power supplied to that region as well.
These changes improve the kernel’s ability to run the system’s hardware at
the optimal power level for the current workload.

Click below (subscribers only) for the full article contributed by Viresh
Kumar.

Sublist3r – Fast Python Subdomain Enumeration Tool

Post Syndicated from Darknet original https://www.darknet.org.uk/2017/12/sublist3r-fast-python-subdomain-enumeration-tool/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=darknetfeed

Sublist3r – Fast Python Subdomain Enumeration Tool

Sublist3r is a Python-based tool designed to enumerate subdomains of websites using OSINT. It helps penetration testers and bug hunters collect and gather subdomains for the domain they are targeting.

It also integrates with subbrute for subdomain brute-forcing with word lists.

Features of Sublist3r Subdomain Enumeration Tool

It enumerates subdomains using many search engines such as:

  • Google
  • Yahoo
  • Bing
  • Baidu
  • Ask

The tool also enumerates subdomains using:

  • Netcraft
  • Virustotal
  • ThreatCrowd
  • DNSdumpster
  • ReverseDNS

Requirements of Sublist3r Subdomain Search

It currently supports Python 2 and Python 3.

Read the rest of Sublist3r – Fast Python Subdomain Enumeration Tool now! Only available at Darknet.

AWS Training & Certification Update – Free Digital Training + Certified Cloud Practitioner Exam

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-training-certification-update-free-digital-training-certified-cloud-practitioner-exam/

We recently made some updates to AWS Training and Certification to make it easier for you to build your cloud skills and to learn about many of the new services that we launched at AWS re:Invent.

Free AWS Digital Training
You can now find over 100 new digital training classes at aws.training, all with unlimited access at no charge.

The courses were built by AWS experts and allow you to learn AWS at your own pace, helping you to build foundational knowledge for dozens of AWS services and solutions. You can also access some more advanced training on Machine Learning and Storage.

Here are some of the new digital training topics:

You can browse through the available topics, enroll in one that interests you, watch it, and track your progress by looking at your transcript:

AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner
Our newest certification exam, AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner, lets you validate your overall understanding of the AWS Cloud with an industry-recognized credential. It covers four domains: cloud concepts, security, technology, and billing and pricing. We recommend that you have at least six months of experience (or equivalent training) with the AWS Cloud in any role, including technical, managerial, sales, purchasing, or financial.

To help you prepare for this exam, take our new AWS Cloud Practitioner Essentials course , one of the new AWS digital training courses. This course will give you an overview of cloud concepts, AWS services, security, architecture, pricing, and support. In addition to helping you validate your overall understanding of the AWS Cloud, AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner also serves as a new prerequisite option for the Big Data Specialty and Advanced Networking Specialty certification exams.

Go For It!
I’d like to encourage you to check out aws.training and to enroll in our free digital training in order to learn more about AWS and our newest services. You can strengthen your skills, add to your knowledge base, and set a goal of earning your AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner certification in the new year.

Jeff;

Looking Forward to 2018

Post Syndicated from Let's Encrypt - Free SSL/TLS Certificates original https://letsencrypt.org//2017/12/07/looking-forward-to-2018.html

Let’s Encrypt had a great year in 2017. We more than doubled the number of active (unexpired) certificates we service to 46 million, we just about tripled the number of unique domains we service to 61 million, and we did it all while maintaining a stellar security and compliance track record. Most importantly though, the Web went from 46% encrypted page loads to 67% according to statistics from Mozilla – a gain of 21% in a single year – incredible. We’re proud to have contributed to that, and we’d like to thank all of the other people and organizations who also worked hard to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.

While we’re proud of what we accomplished in 2017, we are spending most of the final quarter of the year looking forward rather than back. As we wrap up our own planning process for 2018, I’d like to share some of our plans with you, including both the things we’re excited about and the challenges we’ll face. We’ll cover service growth, new features, infrastructure, and finances.

Service Growth

We are planning to double the number of active certificates and unique domains we service in 2018, to 90 million and 120 million, respectively. This anticipated growth is due to continuing high expectations for HTTPS growth in general in 2018.

Let’s Encrypt helps to drive HTTPS adoption by offering a free, easy to use, and globally available option for obtaining the certificates required to enable HTTPS. HTTPS adoption on the Web took off at an unprecedented rate from the day Let’s Encrypt launched to the public.

One of the reasons Let’s Encrypt is so easy to use is that our community has done great work making client software that works well for a wide variety of platforms. We’d like to thank everyone involved in the development of over 60 client software options for Let’s Encrypt. We’re particularly excited that support for the ACME protocol and Let’s Encrypt is being added to the Apache httpd server.

Other organizations and communities are also doing great work to promote HTTPS adoption, and thus stimulate demand for our services. For example, browsers are starting to make their users more aware of the risks associated with unencrypted HTTP (e.g. Firefox, Chrome). Many hosting providers and CDNs are making it easier than ever for all of their customers to use HTTPS. Government agencies are waking up to the need for stronger security to protect constituents. The media community is working to Secure the News.

New Features

We’ve got some exciting features planned for 2018.

First, we’re planning to introduce an ACME v2 protocol API endpoint and support for wildcard certificates along with it. Wildcard certificates will be free and available globally just like our other certificates. We are planning to have a public test API endpoint up by January 4, and we’ve set a date for the full launch: Tuesday, February 27.

Later in 2018 we plan to introduce ECDSA root and intermediate certificates. ECDSA is generally considered to be the future of digital signature algorithms on the Web due to the fact that it is more efficient than RSA. Let’s Encrypt will currently sign ECDSA keys from subscribers, but we sign with the RSA key from one of our intermediate certificates. Once we have an ECDSA root and intermediates, our subscribers will be able to deploy certificate chains which are entirely ECDSA.

Infrastructure

Our CA infrastructure is capable of issuing millions of certificates per day with multiple redundancy for stability and a wide variety of security safeguards, both physical and logical. Our infrastructure also generates and signs nearly 20 million OCSP responses daily, and serves those responses nearly 2 billion times per day. We expect issuance and OCSP numbers to double in 2018.

Our physical CA infrastructure currently occupies approximately 70 units of rack space, split between two datacenters, consisting primarily of compute servers, storage, HSMs, switches, and firewalls.

When we issue more certificates it puts the most stress on storage for our databases. We regularly invest in more and faster storage for our database servers, and that will continue in 2018.

We’ll need to add a few additional compute servers in 2018, and we’ll also start aging out hardware in 2018 for the first time since we launched. We’ll age out about ten 2u compute servers and replace them with new 1u servers, which will save space and be more energy efficient while providing better reliability and performance.

We’ll also add another infrastructure operations staff member, bringing that team to a total of six people. This is necessary in order to make sure we can keep up with demand while maintaining a high standard for security and compliance. Infrastructure operations staff are systems administrators responsible for building and maintaining all physical and logical CA infrastructure. The team also manages a 24/7/365 on-call schedule and they are primary participants in both security and compliance audits.

Finances

We pride ourselves on being an efficient organization. In 2018 Let’s Encrypt will secure a large portion of the Web with a budget of only $3.0M. For an overall increase in our budget of only 13%, we will be able to issue and service twice as many certificates as we did in 2017. We believe this represents an incredible value and that contributing to Let’s Encrypt is one of the most effective ways to help create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.

Our 2018 fundraising efforts are off to a strong start with Platinum sponsorships from Mozilla, Akamai, OVH, Cisco, Google Chrome and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Ford Foundation has renewed their grant to Let’s Encrypt as well. We are seeking additional sponsorship and grant assistance to meet our full needs for 2018.

We had originally budgeted $2.91M for 2017 but we’ll likely come in under budget for the year at around $2.65M. The difference between our 2017 expenses of $2.65M and the 2018 budget of $3.0M consists primarily of the additional infrastructure operations costs previously mentioned.

Support Let’s Encrypt

We depend on contributions from our community of users and supporters in order to provide our services. If your company or organization would like to sponsor Let’s Encrypt please email us at [email protected]. We ask that you make an individual contribution if it is within your means.

We’re grateful for the industry and community support that we receive, and we look forward to continuing to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web!

Looking Forward to 2018

Post Syndicated from Let's Encrypt - Free SSL/TLS Certificates original https://letsencrypt.org/2017/12/07/looking-forward-to-2018.html

<p>Let’s Encrypt had a great year in 2017. We more than doubled the number of active (unexpired) certificates we service to 46 million, we just about tripled the number of unique domains we service to 61 million, and we did it all while maintaining a stellar security and compliance track record. Most importantly though, <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/stats/">the Web went from 46% encrypted page loads to 67%</a> according to statistics from Mozilla – a gain of 21 percentage points in a single year – incredible. We’re proud to have contributed to that, and we’d like to thank all of the other people and organizations who also worked hard to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.</p>

<p>While we’re proud of what we accomplished in 2017, we are spending most of the final quarter of the year looking forward rather than back. As we wrap up our own planning process for 2018, I’d like to share some of our plans with you, including both the things we’re excited about and the challenges we’ll face. We’ll cover service growth, new features, infrastructure, and finances.</p>

<h1 id="service-growth">Service Growth</h1>

<p>We are planning to double the number of active certificates and unique domains we service in 2018, to 90 million and 120 million, respectively. This anticipated growth is due to continuing high expectations for HTTPS growth in general in 2018.</p>

<p>Let’s Encrypt helps to drive HTTPS adoption by offering a free, easy to use, and globally available option for obtaining the certificates required to enable HTTPS. HTTPS adoption on the Web took off at an unprecedented rate from the day Let’s Encrypt launched to the public.</p>

<p>One of the reasons Let’s Encrypt is so easy to use is that our community has done great work making client software that works well for a wide variety of platforms. We’d like to thank everyone involved in the development of over 60 <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/docs/client-options/">client software options for Let’s Encrypt</a>. We’re particularly excited that support for the ACME protocol and Let’s Encrypt is <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/2017/10/17/acme-support-in-apache-httpd.html">being added to the Apache httpd server</a>.</p>

<p>Other organizations and communities are also doing great work to promote HTTPS adoption, and thus stimulate demand for our services. For example, browsers are starting to make their users more aware of the risks associated with unencrypted HTTP (e.g. <a href="https://blog.mozilla.org/security/2017/01/20/communicating-the-dangers-of-non-secure-http/">Firefox</a>, <a href="https://security.googleblog.com/2017/04/next-steps-toward-more-connection.html">Chrome</a>). Many hosting providers and CDNs are making it easier than ever for all of their customers to use HTTPS. <a href="https://https.cio.gov/">Government</a> <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/treasury-board-secretariat/services/information-technology/strategic-plan-2017-2021.html#toc8-3-2">agencies</a> are waking up to the need for stronger security to protect constituents. The media community is working to <a href="https://securethe.news/">Secure the News</a>.</p>

<h1 id="new-features">New Features</h1>

<p>We’ve got some exciting features planned for 2018.</p>

<p>First, we’re planning to introduce an ACME v2 protocol API endpoint and <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/2017/07/06/wildcard-certificates-coming-jan-2018.html">support for wildcard certificates</a> along with it. Wildcard certificates will be free and available globally just like our other certificates. We are planning to have a public test API endpoint up by January 4, and we’ve set a date for the full launch: Tuesday, February 27.</p>

<p>Later in 2018 we plan to introduce ECDSA root and intermediate certificates. ECDSA is generally considered to be the future of digital signature algorithms on the Web due to the fact that it is more efficient than RSA. Let’s Encrypt will currently sign ECDSA keys from subscribers, but we sign with the RSA key from one of our intermediate certificates. Once we have an ECDSA root and intermediates, our subscribers will be able to deploy certificate chains which are entirely ECDSA.</p>

<h1 id="infrastructure">Infrastructure</h1>

<p>Our CA infrastructure is capable of issuing millions of certificates per day with multiple redundancy for stability and a wide variety of security safeguards, both physical and logical. Our infrastructure also generates and signs nearly 20 million OCSP responses daily, and serves those responses nearly 2 billion times per day. We expect issuance and OCSP numbers to double in 2018.</p>

<p>Our physical CA infrastructure currently occupies approximately 70 units of rack space, split between two datacenters, consisting primarily of compute servers, storage, HSMs, switches, and firewalls.</p>

<p>When we issue more certificates it puts the most stress on storage for our databases. We regularly invest in more and faster storage for our database servers, and that will continue in 2018.</p>

<p>We’ll need to add a few additional compute servers in 2018, and we’ll also start aging out hardware in 2018 for the first time since we launched. We’ll age out about ten 2u compute servers and replace them with new 1u servers, which will save space and be more energy efficient while providing better reliability and performance.</p>

<p>We’ll also add another infrastructure operations staff member, bringing that team to a total of six people. This is necessary in order to make sure we can keep up with demand while maintaining a high standard for security and compliance. Infrastructure operations staff are systems administrators responsible for building and maintaining all physical and logical CA infrastructure. The team also manages a 24/7/365 on-call schedule and they are primary participants in both security and compliance audits.</p>

<h1 id="finances">Finances</h1>

<p>We pride ourselves on being an efficient organization. In 2018 Let’s Encrypt will secure a large portion of the Web with a budget of only $3.0M. For an overall increase in our budget of only 13%, we will be able to issue and service twice as many certificates as we did in 2017. We believe this represents an incredible value and that contributing to Let’s Encrypt is one of the most effective ways to help create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web.</p>

<p>Our 2018 fundraising efforts are off to a strong start with Platinum sponsorships from Mozilla, Akamai, OVH, Cisco, Google Chrome and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The Ford Foundation has renewed their grant to Let’s Encrypt as well. We are seeking additional sponsorship and grant assistance to meet our full needs for 2018.</p>

<p>We had originally budgeted $2.91M for 2017 but we’ll likely come in under budget for the year at around $2.65M. The difference between our 2017 expenses of $2.65M and the 2018 budget of $3.0M consists primarily of the additional infrastructure operations costs previously mentioned.</p>

<h1 id="support-let-s-encrypt">Support Let’s Encrypt</h1>

<p>We depend on contributions from our community of users and supporters in order to provide our services. If your company or organization would like to <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/become-a-sponsor/">sponsor</a> Let’s Encrypt please email us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>. We ask that you make an <a href="https://letsencrypt.org/donate/">individual contribution</a> if it is within your means.</p>

<p>We’re grateful for the industry and community support that we receive, and we look forward to continuing to create a more secure and privacy-respecting Web!</p>