Tag Archives: rest

Managing AWS Lambda Function Concurrency

Post Syndicated from Chris Munns original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/managing-aws-lambda-function-concurrency/

One of the key benefits of serverless applications is the ease in which they can scale to meet traffic demands or requests, with little to no need for capacity planning. In AWS Lambda, which is the core of the serverless platform at AWS, the unit of scale is a concurrent execution. This refers to the number of executions of your function code that are happening at any given time.

Thinking about concurrent executions as a unit of scale is a fairly unique concept. In this post, I dive deeper into this and talk about how you can make use of per function concurrency limits in Lambda.

Understanding concurrency in Lambda

Instead of diving right into the guts of how Lambda works, here’s an appetizing analogy: a magical pizza.
Yes, a magical pizza!

This magical pizza has some unique properties:

  • It has a fixed maximum number of slices, such as 8.
  • Slices automatically re-appear after they are consumed.
  • When you take a slice from the pizza, it does not re-appear until it has been completely consumed.
  • One person can take multiple slices at a time.
  • You can easily ask to have the number of slices increased, but they remain fixed at any point in time otherwise.

Now that the magical pizza’s properties are defined, here’s a hypothetical situation of some friends sharing this pizza.

Shawn, Kate, Daniela, Chuck, Ian and Avleen get together every Friday to share a pizza and catch up on their week. As there is just six of them, they can easily all enjoy a slice of pizza at a time. As they finish each slice, it re-appears in the pizza pan and they can take another slice again. Given the magical properties of their pizza, they can continue to eat all they want, but with two very important constraints:

  • If any of them take too many slices at once, the others may not get as much as they want.
  • If they take too many slices, they might also eat too much and get sick.

One particular week, some of the friends are hungrier than the rest, taking two slices at a time instead of just one. If more than two of them try to take two pieces at a time, this can cause contention for pizza slices. Some of them would wait hungry for the slices to re-appear. They could ask for a pizza with more slices, but then run the same risk again later if more hungry friends join than planned for.

What can they do?

If the friends agreed to accept a limit for the maximum number of slices they each eat concurrently, both of these issues are avoided. Some could have a maximum of 2 of the 8 slices, or other concurrency limits that were more or less. Just so long as they kept it at or under eight total slices to be eaten at one time. This would keep any from going hungry or eating too much. The six friends can happily enjoy their magical pizza without worry!

Concurrency in Lambda

Concurrency in Lambda actually works similarly to the magical pizza model. Each AWS Account has an overall AccountLimit value that is fixed at any point in time, but can be easily increased as needed, just like the count of slices in the pizza. As of May 2017, the default limit is 1000 “slices” of concurrency per AWS Region.

Also like the magical pizza, each concurrency “slice” can only be consumed individually one at a time. After consumption, it becomes available to be consumed again. Services invoking Lambda functions can consume multiple slices of concurrency at the same time, just like the group of friends can take multiple slices of the pizza.

Let’s take our example of the six friends and bring it back to AWS services that commonly invoke Lambda:

  • Amazon S3
  • Amazon Kinesis
  • Amazon DynamoDB
  • Amazon Cognito

In a single account with the default concurrency limit of 1000 concurrent executions, any of these four services could invoke enough functions to consume the entire limit or some part of it. Just like with the pizza example, there is the possibility for two issues to pop up:

  • One or more of these services could invoke enough functions to consume a majority of the available concurrency capacity. This could cause others to be starved for it, causing failed invocations.
  • A service could consume too much concurrent capacity and cause a downstream service or database to be overwhelmed, which could cause failed executions.

For Lambda functions that are launched in a VPC, you have the potential to consume the available IP addresses in a subnet or the maximum number of elastic network interfaces to which your account has access. For more information, see Configuring a Lambda Function to Access Resources in an Amazon VPC. For information about elastic network interface limits, see Network Interfaces section in the Amazon VPC Limits topic.

One way to solve both of these problems is applying a concurrency limit to the Lambda functions in an account.

Configuring per function concurrency limits

You can now set a concurrency limit on individual Lambda functions in an account. The concurrency limit that you set reserves a portion of your account level concurrency for a given function. All of your functions’ concurrent executions count against this account-level limit by default.

If you set a concurrency limit for a specific function, then that function’s concurrency limit allocation is deducted from the shared pool and assigned to that specific function. AWS also reserves 100 units of concurrency for all functions that don’t have a specified concurrency limit set. This helps to make sure that future functions have capacity to be consumed.

Going back to the example of the consuming services, you could set throttles for the functions as follows:

Amazon S3 function = 350
Amazon Kinesis function = 200
Amazon DynamoDB function = 200
Amazon Cognito function = 150
Total = 900

With the 100 reserved for all non-concurrency reserved functions, this totals the account limit of 1000.

Here’s how this works. To start, create a basic Lambda function that is invoked via Amazon API Gateway. This Lambda function returns a single “Hello World” statement with an added sleep time between 2 and 5 seconds. The sleep time simulates an API providing some sort of capability that can take a varied amount of time. The goal here is to show how an API that is underloaded can reach its concurrency limit, and what happens when it does.
To create the example function

  1. Open the Lambda console.
  2. Choose Create Function.
  3. For Author from scratch, enter the following values:
    1. For Name, enter a value (such as concurrencyBlog01).
    2. For Runtime, choose Python 3.6.
    3. For Role, choose Create new role from template and enter a name aligned with this function, such as concurrencyBlogRole.
  4. Choose Create function.
  5. The function is created with some basic example code. Replace that code with the following:

import time
from random import randint
seconds = randint(2, 5)

def lambda_handler(event, context):
time.sleep(seconds)
return {"statusCode": 200,
"body": ("Hello world, slept " + str(seconds) + " seconds"),
"headers":
{
"Access-Control-Allow-Headers": "Content-Type,X-Amz-Date,Authorization,X-Api-Key,X-Amz-Security-Token",
"Access-Control-Allow-Methods": "GET,OPTIONS",
}}

  1. Under Basic settings, set Timeout to 10 seconds. While this function should only ever take up to 5-6 seconds (with the 5-second max sleep), this gives you a little bit of room if it takes longer.

  1. Choose Save at the top right.

At this point, your function is configured for this example. Test it and confirm this in the console:

  1. Choose Test.
  2. Enter a name (it doesn’t matter for this example).
  3. Choose Create.
  4. In the console, choose Test again.
  5. You should see output similar to the following:

Now configure API Gateway so that you have an HTTPS endpoint to test against.

  1. In the Lambda console, choose Configuration.
  2. Under Triggers, choose API Gateway.
  3. Open the API Gateway icon now shown as attached to your Lambda function:

  1. Under Configure triggers, leave the default values for API Name and Deployment stage. For Security, choose Open.
  2. Choose Add, Save.

API Gateway is now configured to invoke Lambda at the Invoke URL shown under its configuration. You can take this URL and test it in any browser or command line, using tools such as “curl”:


$ curl https://ofixul557l.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/concurrencyBlog01
Hello world, slept 2 seconds

Throwing load at the function

Now start throwing some load against your API Gateway + Lambda function combo. Right now, your function is only limited by the total amount of concurrency available in an account. For this example account, you might have 850 unreserved concurrency out of a full account limit of 1000 due to having configured a few concurrency limits already (also the 100 concurrency saved for all functions without configured limits). You can find all of this information on the main Dashboard page of the Lambda console:

For generating load in this example, use an open source tool called “hey” (https://github.com/rakyll/hey), which works similarly to ApacheBench (ab). You test from an Amazon EC2 instance running the default Amazon Linux AMI from the EC2 console. For more help with configuring an EC2 instance, follow the steps in the Launch Instance Wizard.

After the EC2 instance is running, SSH into the host and run the following:


sudo yum install go
go get -u github.com/rakyll/hey

“hey” is easy to use. For these tests, specify a total number of tests (5,000) and a concurrency of 50 against the API Gateway URL as follows(replace the URL here with your own):


$ ./go/bin/hey -n 5000 -c 50 https://ofixul557l.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/concurrencyBlog01

The output from “hey” tells you interesting bits of information:


$ ./go/bin/hey -n 5000 -c 50 https://ofixul557l.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/concurrencyBlog01

Summary:
Total: 381.9978 secs
Slowest: 9.4765 secs
Fastest: 0.0438 secs
Average: 3.2153 secs
Requests/sec: 13.0891
Total data: 140024 bytes
Size/request: 28 bytes

Response time histogram:
0.044 [1] |
0.987 [2] |
1.930 [0] |
2.874 [1803] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
3.817 [1518] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
4.760 [719] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
5.703 [917] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
6.647 [13] |
7.590 [14] |
8.533 [9] |
9.477 [4] |

Latency distribution:
10% in 2.0224 secs
25% in 2.0267 secs
50% in 3.0251 secs
75% in 4.0269 secs
90% in 5.0279 secs
95% in 5.0414 secs
99% in 5.1871 secs

Details (average, fastest, slowest):
DNS+dialup: 0.0003 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0332 secs
DNS-lookup: 0.0000 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0046 secs
req write: 0.0000 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0005 secs
resp wait: 3.2149 secs, 0.0438 secs, 9.4472 secs
resp read: 0.0000 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0004 secs

Status code distribution:
[200] 4997 responses
[502] 3 responses

You can see a helpful histogram and latency distribution. Remember that this Lambda function has a random sleep period in it and so isn’t entirely representational of a real-life workload. Those three 502s warrant digging deeper, but could be due to Lambda cold-start timing and the “second” variable being the maximum of 5, causing the Lambda functions to time out. AWS X-Ray and the Amazon CloudWatch logs generated by both API Gateway and Lambda could help you troubleshoot this.

Configuring a concurrency reservation

Now that you’ve established that you can generate this load against the function, I show you how to limit it and protect a backend resource from being overloaded by all of these requests.

  1. In the console, choose Configure.
  2. Under Concurrency, for Reserve concurrency, enter 25.

  1. Click on Save in the top right corner.

You could also set this with the AWS CLI using the Lambda put-function-concurrency command or see your current concurrency configuration via Lambda get-function. Here’s an example command:


$ aws lambda get-function --function-name concurrencyBlog01 --output json --query Concurrency
{
"ReservedConcurrentExecutions": 25
}

Either way, you’ve set the Concurrency Reservation to 25 for this function. This acts as both a limit and a reservation in terms of making sure that you can execute 25 concurrent functions at all times. Going above this results in the throttling of the Lambda function. Depending on the invoking service, throttling can result in a number of different outcomes, as shown in the documentation on Throttling Behavior. This change has also reduced your unreserved account concurrency for other functions by 25.

Rerun the same load generation as before and see what happens. Previously, you tested at 50 concurrency, which worked just fine. By limiting the Lambda functions to 25 concurrency, you should see rate limiting kick in. Run the same test again:


$ ./go/bin/hey -n 5000 -c 50 https://ofixul557l.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/concurrencyBlog01

While this test runs, refresh the Monitoring tab on your function detail page. You see the following warning message:

This is great! It means that your throttle is working as configured and you are now protecting your downstream resources from too much load from your Lambda function.

Here is the output from a new “hey” command:


$ ./go/bin/hey -n 5000 -c 50 https://ofixul557l.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/concurrencyBlog01
Summary:
Total: 379.9922 secs
Slowest: 7.1486 secs
Fastest: 0.0102 secs
Average: 1.1897 secs
Requests/sec: 13.1582
Total data: 164608 bytes
Size/request: 32 bytes

Response time histogram:
0.010 [1] |
0.724 [3075] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
1.438 [0] |
2.152 [811] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
2.866 [11] |
3.579 [566] |∎∎∎∎∎∎∎
4.293 [214] |∎∎∎
5.007 [1] |
5.721 [315] |∎∎∎∎
6.435 [4] |
7.149 [2] |

Latency distribution:
10% in 0.0130 secs
25% in 0.0147 secs
50% in 0.0205 secs
75% in 2.0344 secs
90% in 4.0229 secs
95% in 5.0248 secs
99% in 5.0629 secs

Details (average, fastest, slowest):
DNS+dialup: 0.0004 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0537 secs
DNS-lookup: 0.0002 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0184 secs
req write: 0.0000 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0016 secs
resp wait: 1.1892 secs, 0.0101 secs, 7.1038 secs
resp read: 0.0000 secs, 0.0000 secs, 0.0005 secs

Status code distribution:
[502] 3076 responses
[200] 1924 responses

This looks fairly different from the last load test run. A large percentage of these requests failed fast due to the concurrency throttle failing them (those with the 0.724 seconds line). The timing shown here in the histogram represents the entire time it took to get a response between the EC2 instance and API Gateway calling Lambda and being rejected. It’s also important to note that this example was configured with an edge-optimized endpoint in API Gateway. You see under Status code distribution that 3076 of the 5000 requests failed with a 502, showing that the backend service from API Gateway and Lambda failed the request.

Other uses

Managing function concurrency can be useful in a few other ways beyond just limiting the impact on downstream services and providing a reservation of concurrency capacity. Here are two other uses:

  • Emergency kill switch
  • Cost controls

Emergency kill switch

On occasion, due to issues with applications I’ve managed in the past, I’ve had a need to disable a certain function or capability of an application. By setting the concurrency reservation and limit of a Lambda function to zero, you can do just that.

With the reservation set to zero every invocation of a Lambda function results in being throttled. You could then work on the related parts of the infrastructure or application that aren’t working, and then reconfigure the concurrency limit to allow invocations again.

Cost controls

While I mentioned how you might want to use concurrency limits to control the downstream impact to services or databases that your Lambda function might call, another resource that you might be cautious about is money. Setting the concurrency throttle is another way to help control costs during development and testing of your application.

You might want to prevent against a function performing a recursive action too quickly or a development workload generating too high of a concurrency. You might also want to protect development resources connected to this function from generating too much cost, such as APIs that your Lambda function calls.

Conclusion

Concurrent executions as a unit of scale are a fairly unique characteristic about Lambda functions. Placing limits on how many concurrency “slices” that your function can consume can prevent a single function from consuming all of the available concurrency in an account. Limits can also prevent a function from overwhelming a backend resource that isn’t as scalable.

Unlike monolithic applications or even microservices where there are mixed capabilities in a single service, Lambda functions encourage a sort of “nano-service” of small business logic directly related to the integration model connected to the function. I hope you’ve enjoyed this post and configure your concurrency limits today!

16-Year-Old Boy Arrested for Running Pirate TV Service

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/16-year-old-boy-arrested-for-running-pirate-tv-service-171211/

After more than a decade and a half in existence, public pirate sites, services, and apps remain a thorn in the side of entertainment industry groups who are determined to close them down.

That trend continued last week when French anti-piracy group ALPA teamed up with police in the Bordeaux region to raid and arrest the founder and administrator of piracy service ARTV.

According to the anti-piracy group, the ARTV.watch website first appeared during April 2017 but quickly grew to become a significant source of streaming TV piracy. Every month the site had around 150,000 visitors and in less than eight months amassed 800,000 registered users.

“Artv.watch was a public site offering live access to 176 free and paid French TV channels that are members of ALPA: Canal + Group, M6 Group, TF1 Group, France Télévision Group, Paramount, Disney, and FOX. Other thematic and sports channels were broadcast,” an ALPA statement reads.

This significant offering was reportedly lucrative for the site’s operator. While probably best taken with a grain of salt, ALPA estimates the site generated around 3,000 euros per month from advertising revenue. That’s a decent amount for anyone but even more so when one learns that ARTV’s former operator is just 16 years old.

“ARTV.WATCH it’s over. ARTV is now closed for legal reasons. Thank you for your understanding! The site was indeed illegal,” a notice on the site now reads.

“Thank you all for this experience that I have acquired in this project. And thanks to you who have believed in me.”

Closure formalities aside, ARTV’s founder also has a message for anyone else considering launching a similar platform.

“Notice to anyone wanting to do a site of the same kind, I strongly advise against it. On the criminal side, the punishment can go up to three years of imprisonment and a 300,000 euro fine. If [individual] complaints of channels (or productions) are filed against you, it will be more complicated to determine,” ARTV’s owner warns.

ALPA says that in addition to closing down the site, ARTV’s owner also deactivated the site’s Android app, which had been available for download on Google Play. The anti-piracy group adds that this action against IPTV and live streaming was a first in France.

For anyone who speaks French, the 16-year-old has published a video on YouTube talking about his predicament.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

MQTT 5: Introduction to MQTT 5

Post Syndicated from The HiveMQ Team original https://www.hivemq.com/blog/mqtt-5-introduction-to-mqtt-5/

MQTT 5 Introduction

Introduction to MQTT 5

Welcome to our brand new blog post series MQTT 5 – Features and Hidden Gems. Without doubt, the MQTT protocol is the most popular and best received Internet of Things protocol as of today (see the Google Trends Chart below), supporting large scale use cases ranging from Connected Cars, Manufacturing Systems, Logistics, Military Use Cases to Enterprise Chat Applications, Mobile Apps and connecting constrained IoT devices. Of course, with huge amounts of production deployments, the wish list for future versions of the MQTT protocol grew bigger and bigger.

MQTT 5 is by far the most extensive and most feature-rich update to the MQTT protocol specification ever. We are going to explore all hidden gems and protocol features with use case discussion and useful background information – one blog post at a time.

Be sure to read the MQTT Essentials Blog Post series first before diving into our new MQTT 5 series. To get the most out of the new blog posts, it’s important to have a basic understanding of the MQTT 3.1.1 protocol as we are going to highlight key changes as well as all improvements.

CoderDojo: 2000 Dojos ever

Post Syndicated from Giustina Mizzoni original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/2000-dojos-ever/

Every day of the week, we verify new Dojos all around the world, and each Dojo is championed by passionate volunteers. Last week, a huge milestone for the CoderDojo community went by relatively unnoticed: in the history of the movement, more than 2000 Dojos have now been verified!

CoderDojo banner — 2000 Dojos

2000 Dojos

This is a phenomenal achievement for a movement that’s just six years old and powered by volunteers. Presently, there are more than 1650 active Dojos running weekly, fortnightly, or monthly, and all of them are free for participants — for example, the Dojos run by Joel Bayubasire in Kampala, Uganda:

Joel Bayubasire with Ninjas at his Ugandan Dojo — 2000 Dojos

Empowering refugee children

This week, Joel set up his second Dojo and verified it on our global map. Joel is a Congolese refugee living in Kampala, Uganda, where he is currently completing his PhD in Economics at Madison International Institute and Business School.

Joel understands first-hand the challenges faced by refugees who were forced to leave their country due to war or conflict. Uganda is currently hosting more than 1.2 million refugees, 60% of which are children (World Bank, 2017). As refugees, children are only allowed to attend local schools until the age of 12. This results in lower educational attainment, which will likely affect their future employment prospects.

Two girls at a laptop. Joel Bayubasire CoderDojo — 2000 Dojos

Joel has the motivation to overcome these challenges, because he understands the power of education. Therefore, he initiated a number of community-based activities to provide educational opportunities for refugee children. As part of this, he founded his first Dojo earlier in the year, with the aim of giving these children a chance to compete in today’s global knowledge-based economy.

Two boys at a laptop. Joel Bayubasire CoderDojo — 2000 Dojos

Aware that securing volunteer mentors would be a challenge, Joel trained eight young people from the community to become youth mentors to their peers. He explains:

I believe that the mastery of computer coding allows talented young people to thrive professionally and enables them to not only be consumers but creators of the interconnected world of today!

Based on the success of Joel’s first Dojo, he has now expanded the CoderDojo initiative in his community; his plan is to provide computer science training for more than 300 refugee youths in Kampala by 2019. If you’d like to learn more about Joel’s efforts, head to this website.

Join the movement

If you are interested in creating opportunities for the young people in your community, then join the growing CoderDojo movement — you can volunteer to start a Dojo or to support an existing one today!

The post CoderDojo: 2000 Dojos ever appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

ETTV: How an Upload Bot Became a Pirate Hero

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/ettv-how-an-upload-bot-became-a-pirate-hero-171210/

Earlier this year, the torrent community was hit hard when another major torrent site suddenly shut its doors.

Just a few months after celebrating its tenth anniversary, ExtraTorrent’s operator threw in the towel. While an official explanation was never provided, it’s likely that he was pressed to make this decision.

The ExtraTorrent site was a safe harbor for millions of regular users, who became homeless overnight. But it was more than that. It was also the birth ground of several popular releasers and distribution groups.

ETTV and ETHD turned into well-known brands themselves. While the ET is derived from ExtraTorrent, the groups have shared TV and movie torrents on several other large torrent sites, and they still do. They even have their own site now.

With millions of people sharing their uploads every week, they’ve become icons and heroes to many. But how did this all come to be? We sat down with the team, virtually, to find out more.

“The idea for ettv/ethd was brought up by ExtraTorrent users,” the ETTV team says.

There was demand for a new group that would upload scene releases faster than the original EZTV, which was the dominant TV-torrent distribution group around 2011, when it all started.

“At the time the real EZTV was still active. They released stuff hours after it was released from the scene, leaving sites to wait very long for shows to arrive in public. In no way was ettv intended for competitive purposes. We had a lot of respect for Nova and the original EZTV operators.”

While ETTV is regularly referred to as a “group,” it was a one-person operation initially. Just a guy with a seedbox, grabbing scene releases and posting them on torrent sites.

It didn’t take long before people got wind of the new distribution ‘group,’ and interest for the torrents quickly exploded. This meant that a single seedbox was no longer sufficient, but help was not far away.

“It started off with one operator and a seedbox, but it became popular too fast. That’s when former ExtraTorrent owners stepped in to give ETTV the support and funding it needed to keep the story going.”

One of the earliest ETTV uploads on ExtraTorrent

In addition to the available disk space and bandwidth, the team itself expanded as well. At its height, a handful of people were working on the group. However, when things became more and more automated this number reduced again.

What many people don’t realize is that ETTV and ETHD are mostly run by lines of code. The entire distribution process is automated and requires minimal intervention from the people behind it.

“Ettv/Ethd is a bot, it doesn’t require human attention. It grabs what you tell the script to,” the team tells us.

The bot is set up to grab the latest copies of predefined shows from private servers where the latest scene release are posted. These are transferred to the seedbox and the torrents are then pushed out to the public – on ETTV.tv, but also on The Pirate Bay and elsewhere. Everything is automated.

Even most of the maintenance is taken care of by the ‘bot’ itself. When disk space is running out older content is purged, allowing fresh releases to come through.

“The only persons involve with the bots are the bill payers of our new home ettv.tv. All they do check bot logs to see if it has any errors and correct them,” the team explains.

One problem that couldn’t be easily solved with some code was the shutdown of ExtraTorrent. While the bills for the seedboxes were paid in advance until the end of 2017, the groups had to find a new home.

“The shutdown of ExtraTorrent didn’t affect the bots from running, it just left ettv/ethd homeless and caused fans to lose their way trying to find us. Not many knew where else we uploaded or didn’t like the other sites we uploaded to.”

After a few months had passed it became clear that they were not going anywhere. Quite the contrary, they started their very own site, ETTV.tv, where all the latest releases are published.

ETTV.tv

In the near future, the team will focus on turning the site into a new home for its followers. Just a few weeks ago it launched a new release “tag,” ETMovies, which specializes in lower resolution films with a smaller file size, for example.

“We recently introduced ETMovies which is basically for SD Movies, other than that the only plan ettv/ethd has is to give a home to the members that suffered from the sudden shut down of ExtraTorrent.”

Just this week, the site also expanded its reach by adding new categories such as music, games, software, and Books, where approved uploaders will publish content.

While they are doing their best to keep the site up and running, it’s not a given that ETTV will be around forever. As long as there are plenty of funds and no concrete legal pressure they might. But if recent history has shown us anything, it’s that there are no guarantees.

“No one is here seeking to be a millionaire, if the traffic pays the bills we keep going, if not then all we can say is (sorry we tried) we will not be the heroes that saved the day.

“Again and again, the troublesome history of torrent sites is clear. It’s a war no site owner can win. If we are ever in danger, we will choose freedom. It’s not like followers can bail you out if the worst were to happen,” the ETTV team concludes.

For now, however, the bot keeps on running.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

CrimeStoppers Campaign Targets Pirate Set-Top Boxes & Their Users

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/crimestoppers-campaign-targets-pirate-set-top-boxes-their-users-171209/

While many people might believe CrimeStoppers to be an official extension of the police in the UK, the truth is a little more subtle.

CrimeStoppers is a charity that operates a service through which members of the public can report crime anonymously, either using a dedicated phone line or via a website. Callers are not required to give their name, meaning that for those concerned about reprisals or becoming involved in a case for other sensitive reasons, it’s the perfect buffer between them and the authorities.

The people at CrimeStoppers deal with all kinds of crime but perhaps a little surprisingly, they’ve just got involved in the set-top box controversy in the UK.

“Advances in technology have allowed us to enjoy on-screen entertainment in more ways than ever before, with ever increasing amounts of exciting and original content,” the CrimeStoppers campaign begins.

“However, some people are avoiding paying for this content by using modified streaming hardware devices, like a set-top box or stick, in conjunction with software such as illegal apps or add-ons, or illegal mobile apps which allow them to watch new movie releases, TV that hasn’t yet aired, and subscription sports channels for free.”

The campaign has been launched in partnership with the Intellectual Property Office and unnamed “industry partners”. Who these companies are isn’t revealed but given the standard messages being portrayed by the likes of ACE, Premier League and Federation Against Copyright Theft lately, it wouldn’t be a surprise if some or all of them were involved.

Those messages are revealed in a series of four video ads, each taking a different approach towards discouraging the public from using devices loaded with pirate software.

The first video clearly targets the consumer, dispelling the myth that watching pirate video isn’t against the law. It is, that’s not in any doubt, but from the constant tone of the video, one could be forgiven that it’s an extremely serious crime rather than something which is likely to be a civil matter, if anything at all.

It also warns people who are configuring and selling pirate devices that they are breaking the law. Again, this is absolutely true but this activity is clearly several magnitudes more serious than simply viewing. The video blurs the boundaries for what appears to be dramatic effect, however.

Selling and watching is illegal

The second video is all about demonizing the people and groups who may offer set-top boxes to the public.

Instead of portraying the hundreds of “cottage industry” suppliers behind many set-top box sales in the UK, the CrimeStoppers video paints a picture of dark organized crime being the main driver. By buying from these people, the charity warns, criminals are being welcomed in.

“It is illegal. You could also be helping to fund organized crime and bringing it into your community,” the video warns.

Are you funding organized crime?

The third video takes another approach, warning that set-top boxes have few if any parental controls. This could lead to children being exposed to inappropriate content, the charity warns.

“What are your children watching. Does it worry you?” the video asks.

Of course, the same can be said about the Internet, period. Web browsers don’t filter what content children have access to unless parents take pro-active steps to configure special services or software for the purpose.

There’s always the option to supervise children, of course, but Netflix is probably a safer option for those with a preference to stand off. It’s also considerably more expensive, a fact that won’t have escaped users of these devices.

Got kids? Take care….

Finally, video four picks up a theme that’s becoming increasingly common in anti-piracy campaigns – malware and identity theft.

“Why risk having your identity stolen or your bank account or home network hacked. If you access entertainment or sports using dodgy streaming devices or apps, or illegal addons for Kodi, you are increasing the risks,” the ad warns.

Danger….Danger….

Perhaps of most interest is that this entire campaign, which almost certainly has Big Media behind the scenes in advisory and financial capacities, barely mentions the entertainment industries at all.

Indeed, the success of the whole campaign hinges on people worrying about the supposed ill effects of illicit streaming on them personally and then feeling persuaded to inform on suppliers and others involved in the chain.

“Know of someone supplying or promoting these dodgy devices or software? It is illegal. Call us now and help stop crime in your community,” the videos warn.

That CrimeStoppers has taken on this campaign at all is a bit of a head-scratcher, given the bigger crime picture. Struggling with severe budget cuts, police in the UK are already de-prioritizing a number of crimes, leading to something called “screening out”, a process through which victims are given a crime number but no investigation is carried out.

This means that in 2016, 45% of all reported crimes in Greater Manchester weren’t investigated and a staggering 57% of all recorded domestic burglaries weren’t followed up by the police. But it gets worse.

“More than 62pc of criminal damage and arson offenses were not investigated, along with one in three reported shoplifting incidents,” MEN reports.

Given this backdrop, how will police suddenly find the resources to follow up lots of leads from the public and then subsequently prosecute people who sell pirate boxes? Even if they do, will that be at the expense of yet more “screening out” of other public-focused offenses?

No one is saying that selling pirate devices isn’t a crime or at least worthy of being followed up, but is this niche likely to be important to the public when they’re being told that nothing will be done when their homes are emptied by intruders? “NO” says a comment on one of the CrimeStoppers videos on YouTube.

“This crime affects multi-million dollar corporations, I’d rather see tax payers money invested on videos raising awareness of crimes committed against the people rather than the 0.001%,” it concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

Movie Company Has No Right to Sue, Accused Pirate Argues

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/movie-company-has-no-right-to-sue-accused-pirate-argues-171208/

In recent years, a group of select companies have pressured hundreds of thousands of alleged pirates to pay significant settlement fees, or face legal repercussions.

These so-called “copyright trolling” efforts have also been a common occurrence in the United States for more than half a decade, and still are today.

While copyright holders should be able to take legitimate piracy claims to court, not all cases are as strong as they first appear. Many defendants have brought up flaws, often in relation to the IP-address evidence, but an accused pirate in Oregon takes things up a notch.

Lingfu Zhang, represented by attorney David Madden, has turned the tables on the makers of the film Fathers & Daughters. The man denies having downloaded the movie but also points out that the filmmakers have signed away their online distribution rights.

The issue was brought up in previous months, but the relevant findings were only unsealed this week. They show that the movie company (F&D), through a sales agent, sold the online distribution rights to a third party.

While this is not uncommon in the movie business, it means that they no longer have the right to distribute the movie online, a right Zhang was accused of violating. This is also what his attorney pointed out to the court, asking for a judgment in favor of his client.

“ZHANG denies downloading the movie but Defendant’s current motion for summary judgment challenges a different portion of F&D’s case: Defendant argues that F&D has alienated all of the relevant rights necessary to sue for infringement under the Copyright Act,” Madden writes.

The filmmakers opposed the request and pointed out that they still had some rights. However, this is irrelevant according to the defense, since the distribution rights are not owned by them, but by a company that’s not part of the lawsuit.

“Plaintiff claims, for example, that it still owns the right to exploit the movie on airlines and oceangoing vessels. That may or may not be true – Plaintiff has not submitted any evidence on the question – but ZHANG is not accused of showing the movie on an airplane or a cruise ship.

“He is accused of downloading it over the Internet, which is an infringement that affects only an exclusive right owned by non-party DISTRIBUTOR 2,” Madden adds.

Interestingly, an undated addendum to the licensing agreement, allegedly created after the lawsuit was started, states that the filmmakers would keep their “anti-piracy” rights, as can be seen below.

Anti-Piracy rights?

This doesn’t save the filmmaker, according to the defense. The “licensor” who keeps these anti-piracy and enforcement rights refers to the sales agent, not the filmmaker, Madden writes. In addition, the case is about copyright infringement, and despite the addendum, the filmmakers don’t have the exclusive rights that apply here.

“Plaintiff represented to this Court that it was the ‘proprietor of all copyrights and interests need to bring suit’ […] notwithstanding that it had – years earlier – transferred away all its exclusive rights under Section 106 of the Copyright Act,” the defense lawyer concludes.

“Even viewing all Plaintiff’s agreements in the light most favorable to it, Plaintiff holds nothing more than a bare right to sue, which is not a cognizable right that may be exercised in the courts of this Circuit.”

While the court has yet to decide on the motion, this case could turn into a disaster for the makers of Fathers & Daughters.

If the court agrees that they don’t have the proper rights, defendants in other cases may argue the same. It’s easy to see how their entire trolling scheme would then collapse.

The original memorandum in support of the motion for summary judgment is available here (pdf) and a copy of the reply brief can be found here (pdf).

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

DAST vs SAST – Dynamic Application Security Testing vs Static

Post Syndicated from Darknet original https://www.darknet.org.uk/2017/12/dast-vs-sast-dynamic-application-security-testing-vs-static/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=darknetfeed

DAST vs SAST – Dynamic Application Security Testing vs Static

In security testing, much like most things technical there are two very contrary methods, Dynamic Application Security Testing or DAST and Static Application Security Testing or SAST.

Dynamic testing relying on a black-box external approach, attacking the application in it’s running state as a regular malicious attacker would.

Static testing is more white-box looking at the source-code of the application for potential flaws.

Personally, I don’t see them as ‘vs’ each other, but more like they compliment each other – it’s easy to have SAST tests as part of your CI/CD pipeline with tools like Code Climate.

Read the rest of DAST vs SAST – Dynamic Application Security Testing vs Static now! Only available at Darknet.

Sean Hodgins’ video-playing Christmas ornament

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/sean-hodgins-ornament/

Standard Christmas tree ornaments are just so boring, always hanging there doing nothing. Yawn! Lucky for us, Sean Hodgins has created an ornament that plays classic nineties Christmas adverts, because of nostalgia.

YouTube Christmas Ornament! – Raspberry Pi Project

This Christmas ornament will really take you back…

Ingredients

Sean first 3D printed a small CRT-shaped ornament resembling the family television set in The Simpsons. He then got to work on the rest of the components.

Pi Zero and electronic components — Sean Hodgins Raspberry Pi Christmas ornament

All images featured in this blog post are c/o Sean Hodgins. Thanks, Sean!

The ornament uses a Raspberry Pi Zero W, 2.2″ TFT LCD screen, Mono Amp, LiPo battery, and speaker, plus the usual peripherals. Sean purposely assembled it with jumper wires and tape, so that he can reuse the components for another project after the festive season.

Clip of PowerBoost 1000 LiPo charger — Sean Hodgins Raspberry Pi Christmas ornament

By adding header pins to a PowerBoost 1000 LiPo charger, Sean was able to connect a switch to control the Pi’s power usage. This method is handy if you want to seal your Pi in a casing that blocks access to the power leads. From there, jumper wires connect the audio amplifier, LCD screen, and PowerBoost to the Zero W.

Code

Then, with Raspbian installed to an SD card and SSH enabled on the Zero W, Sean got the screen to work. The type of screen he used has both SPI and FBTFT enabled. And his next step was to set up the audio functionality with the help of an Adafruit tutorial.

Clip demoing Sean Hodgins Raspberry Pi Christmas ornament

For video playback, Sean installed mplayer before writing a program to extract video content from YouTube*. Once extracted, the video files are saved to the Raspberry Pi, allowing for seamless playback on the screen.

Construct

When fully assembled, the entire build fit snugly within the 3D-printed television set. And as a final touch, Sean added the cut-out lens of a rectangular magnifying glass to give the display the look of a curved CRT screen.

Clip of completed Sean Hodgins Raspberry Pi Christmas ornament in a tree

Then finally, the ornament hangs perfectly on the Christmas tree, up and running and spreading nostalgic warmth.

For more information on the build, check out the Instructables tutorial. And to see all of Sean’s builds, subscribe to his YouTube channel.

Make

If you’re looking for similar projects, have a look at this tutorial by Cabe Atwell for building a Pi-powered ornament that receives and displays text messages.

Have you created Raspberry Pi tree ornaments? Maybe you’ve 3D printed some of our own? We’d love to see what you’re doing with a Raspberry Pi this festive season, so make sure to share your projects with us, either in the comments below or via our social media channels.

 

*At this point, I should note that we don’t support the extraction of  video content from YouTube for your own use if you do not have the right permissions. However, since Sean’s device can play back any video, we think it would look great on your tree showing your own family videos from previous years. So, y’know, be good, be legal, and be festive.

The post Sean Hodgins’ video-playing Christmas ornament appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Dutch Film Distributor Wins Right To Chase Pirates, Store Data For 5 Years

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/dutch-film-distributor-wins-right-to-chase-pirates-store-data-for-5-years-171208/

For many years, Dutch Internet users were allowed to download copyrighted content without reprisals, provided it was for their own personal use.

In 2014, however, the European Court of Justice ruled that the country’s “piracy levy” to compensate rightsholders was unlawful. Almost immediately, the government announced a downloading ban.

In March 2016, anti-piracy outfit BREIN followed up by obtaining permission from the Dutch Data Protection Authority to track and store the personal data of alleged BitTorrent pirates. This year, movie distributor Dutch FilmWorks (DFW) made a similar application.

The company said that it would be pursuing alleged pirates to deter future infringement but many suspected that securing cash settlements was its main aim. That was confirmed in August.

“[The letter to alleged pirates] will propose a fee. If someone does not agree [to pay], the organization can start a lawsuit,” said DFW CEO Willem Pruijsserts

“In Germany, this costs between €800 and €1,000, although we find this a bit excessive. But of course it has to be a deterrent, so it will be more than a tenner or two,” he added.

But despite the grand plans, nothing would be possible without first obtaining the necessary permission from the Data Protection Authority. This Wednesday, however, that arrived.

“DFW has given sufficient guarantees for the proper and careful processing of personal data. This means that DFW has been given a green light from the Data Protection Authority to collect personal data, such as IP addresses, from people downloading from illegal sources,” the Authority announced.

Noting that it received feedback from four entities during the six-week consultation process following the publication of its draft decision during the summer, the Data Protection Authority said that further investigations were duly carried out. All input was considered before handing down the final decision.

The Authority said it was satisfied that personal data would be handled correctly and that the information collected and stored would be encrypted and hashed to ensure integrity. Furthermore, data will not be retained for longer than is necessary.

“DFW has stated…that data from users with Dutch IP addresses who were involved in the exchange of a title owned by DFW, but in respect of which there is no intention to follow up on that within three months after receipt, will be destroyed,” the decision reads.

For any cases that are active and haven’t been discarded in the initial three-month period, DFW will be allowed to hold alleged pirates’ data for a maximum of five years, a period that matches the time a company has to file a claim under the Dutch Civil Code.

“When DFW does follow up on a file, DFW carries out further research into the identity of the users of the IP addresses. For this, it is necessary to contact the Internet service providers of the subscribers who used the IP addresses found in the BitTorrent network,” the Authority notes.

According to the decision, once DFW has a person’s details it can take any of several actions, starting with a simple warning or moving up to an amicable cash settlement. Failing that, it might choose to file a full-on court case in which the distributor seeks an injunction against the alleged pirate plus compensation and costs.

Only time will tell what strategy DFW will deploy against alleged pirates but since these schemes aren’t cheap to run, it’s likely that simple warning letters will be seriously outnumbered by demands for cash settlement.

While it seems unlikely that the Data Protection Authority will change its mind at this late stage, it’s decision remains open to appeal. Interested parties have just under six weeks to make their voices heard. Failing that, copyright trolling will hit the Netherlands in the weeks and months to come.

The full decision can be found here (Dutch, pdf) via Tweakers

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

timeShift(GrafanaBuzz, 1w) Issue 25

Post Syndicated from Blogs on Grafana Labs Blog original https://grafana.com/blog/2017/12/08/timeshiftgrafanabuzz-1w-issue-25/

Welcome to TimeShift

This week, a few of us from Grafana Labs, along with 4,000 of our closest friends, headed down to chilly Austin, TX for KubeCon + CloudNativeCon North America 2017. We got to see a number of great talks and were thrilled to see Grafana make appearances in some of the presentations. We were also a sponsor of the conference and handed out a ton of swag (we overnighted some of our custom Grafana scarves, which came in handy for Thursday’s snow).

We also announced Grafana Labs has joined the Cloud Native Computing Foundation as a Silver member! We’re excited to share our expertise in time series data visualization and open source software with the CNCF community.


Latest Release

Grafana 4.6.2 is available and includes some bug fixes:

  • Prometheus: Fixes bug with new Prometheus alerts in Grafana. Make sure to download this version if you’re using Prometheus for alerting. More details in the issue. #9777
  • Color picker: Bug after using textbox input field to change/paste color string #9769
  • Cloudwatch: build using golang 1.9.2 #9667, thanks @mtanda
  • Heatmap: Fixed tooltip for “time series buckets” mode #9332
  • InfluxDB: Fixed query editor issue when using > or < operators in WHERE clause #9871

Download Grafana 4.6.2 Now


From the Blogosphere

Grafana Labs Joins the CNCF: Grafana Labs has officially joined the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF). We look forward to working with the CNCF community to democratize metrics and help unify traditionally disparate information.

Automating Web Performance Regression Alerts: Peter and his team needed a faster and easier way to find web performance regressions at the Wikimedia Foundation. Grafana 4’s alerting features were exactly what they needed. This post covers their journey on setting up alerts for both RUM and synthetic testing and shares the alerts they’ve set up on their dashboards.

How To Install Grafana on Ubuntu 17.10: As you probably guessed from the title, this article walks you through installing and configuring Grafana in the latest version of Ubuntu (or earlier releases). It also covers installing plugins using the Grafana CLI tool.

Prometheus: Starting the Server with Alertmanager, cAdvisor and Grafana: Learn how to monitor Docker from scratch using cAdvisor, Prometheus and Grafana in this detailed, step-by-step walkthrough.

Monitoring Java EE Servers with Prometheus and Payara: In this screencast, Adam uses firehose; a Java EE 7+ metrics gateway for Prometheus, to convert the JSON output into Prometheus statistics and visualizes the data in Grafana.

Monitoring Spark Streaming with InfluxDB and Grafana: This article focuses on how to monitor Apache Spark Streaming applications with InfluxDB and Grafana at scale.


GrafanaCon EU, March 1-2, 2018

We are currently reaching out to everyone who submitted a talk to GrafanaCon and will soon publish the final schedule at grafanacon.org.

Join us March 1-2, 2018 in Amsterdam for 2 days of talks centered around Grafana and the surrounding monitoring ecosystem including Graphite, Prometheus, InfluxData, Elasticsearch, Kubernetes, and more.

Get Your Ticket Now


Grafana Plugins

Lots of plugin updates and a new OpenNMS Helm App plugin to announce! To install or update any plugin in an on-prem Grafana instance, use the Grafana-cli tool, or install and update with 1 click on Hosted Grafana.

NEW PLUGIN

OpenNMS Helm App – The new OpenNMS Helm App plugin replaces the old OpenNMS data source. Helm allows users to create flexible dashboards using both fault management (FM) and performance management (PM) data from OpenNMS® Horizon™ and/or OpenNMS® Meridian™. The old data source is now deprecated.


Install Now

UPDATED PLUGIN

PNP Data Source – This data source plugin (that uses PNP4Nagios to access RRD files) received a small, but important update that fixes template query parsing.


Update

UPDATED PLUGIN

Vonage Status Panel – The latest version of the Status Panel comes with a number of small fixes and changes. Below are a few of the enhancements:

  • Threshold settings – removed Show Always option, and replaced it with 2 options:
    • Display Alias – Select when to show the metric alias.
    • Display Value – Select when to show the metric value.
  • Text format configuration (bold / italic) for warning / critical / disabled states.
  • Option to change the corner radius of the panel. Now you can change the panel’s shape to have rounded corners.

Update

UPDATED PLUGIN

Google Calendar Plugin – This plugin received a small update, so be sure to install version 1.0.4.


Update

UPDATED PLUGIN

Carpet Plot Panel – The Carpet Plot Panel received a fix for IE 11, and also added the ability to choose custom colors.


Update


Upcoming Events:

In between code pushes we like to speak at, sponsor and attend all kinds of conferences and meetups. We also like to make sure we mention other Grafana-related events happening all over the world. If you’re putting on just such an event, let us know and we’ll list it here.

Docker Meetup @ Tuenti | Madrid, Spain – Dec 12, 2017: Javier Provecho: Intro to Metrics with Swarm, Prometheus and Grafana

Learn how to gain visibility in real time for your micro services. We’ll cover how to deploy a Prometheus server with persistence and Grafana, how to enable metrics endpoints for various service types (docker daemon, traefik proxy and postgres) and how to scrape, visualize and set up alarms based on those metrics.

RSVP

Grafana Lyon Meetup n ° 2 | Lyon, France – Dec 14, 2017: This meetup will cover some of the latest innovations in Grafana and discussion about automation. Also, free beer and chips, so – of course you’re going!

RSVP

FOSDEM | Brussels, Belgium – Feb 3-4, 2018: FOSDEM is a free developer conference where thousands of developers of free and open source software gather to share ideas and technology. Carl Bergquist is managing the Cloud and Monitoring Devroom, and we’ve heard there were some great talks submitted. There is no need to register; all are welcome.


Tweet of the Week

We scour Twitter each week to find an interesting/beautiful dashboard and show it off! #monitoringLove

We were thrilled to see our dashboards bigger than life at KubeCon + CloudNativeCon this week. Thanks for snapping a photo and sharing!


Grafana Labs is Hiring!

We are passionate about open source software and thrive on tackling complex challenges to build the future. We ship code from every corner of the globe and love working with the community. If this sounds exciting, you’re in luck – WE’RE HIRING!

Check out our Open Positions


How are we doing?

Hard to believe this is the 25th issue of Timeshift! I have a blast writing these roundups, but Let me know what you think. Submit a comment on this article below, or post something at our community forum. Find an article I haven’t included? Send it my way. Help us make timeShift better!

Follow us on Twitter, like us on Facebook, and join the Grafana Labs community.

Is blockchain a security topic? (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/740929/rss

At Opensource.com, Mike Bursell looks at blockchain security from the angle of trust. Unlike cryptocurrencies, which are pseudonymous typically, other kinds of blockchains will require mapping users to real-life identities; that raises the trust issue.

What’s really interesting is that, if you’re thinking about moving to a permissioned blockchain or distributed ledger with permissioned actors, then you’re going to have to spend some time thinking about trust. You’re unlikely to be using a proof-of-work system for making blocks—there’s little point in a permissioned system—so who decides what comprises a “valid” block that the rest of the system should agree on? Well, you can rotate around some (or all) of the entities, or you can have a random choice, or you can elect a small number of über-trusted entities. Combinations of these schemes may also work.

If these entities all exist within one trust domain, which you control, then fine, but what if they’re distributors, or customers, or partners, or other banks, or manufacturers, or semi-autonomous drones, or vehicles in a commercial fleet? You really need to ensure that the trust relationships that you’re encoding into your implementation/deployment truly reflect the legal and IRL [in real life] trust relationships that you have with the entities that are being represented in your system.

And the problem is that, once you’ve deployed that system, it’s likely to be very difficult to backtrack, adjust, or reset the trust relationships that you’ve designed.”

Resilient TVAddons Plans to Ditch Proactive ‘Piracy’ Screening

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/resilient-tvaddons-plans-to-ditch-proactive-piracy-screening-171207/

After years of smooth sailing, this year TVAddons became a poster child for the entertainment industry’s war on illicit streaming devices.

The leading repository for unofficial Kodi addons was sued for copyright infringement in the US by satellite and broadcast provider Dish Network. Around the same time, a similar case was filed by Bell, TVA, Videotron, and Rogers in Canada.

The latter case has done the most damage thus far, as it caused the addon repository to lose its domain names and social media accounts. As a result, the site went dead and while many believed it would never return, it made a blazing comeback after a few weeks.

Since the original TVAddons.ag domain was seized, the site returned on TVaddons.co. And that was not the only difference. A lot of the old add-ons, for which it was unclear if they linked to licensed content, were no longer listed in the repository either.

TVAddons previously relied on the DMCA to shield it from liability but apparently, that wasn’t enough. As a result, they took the drastic decision to check all submitted add-ons carefully.

“Since complying with the law is clearly not enough to prevent frivolous legal action from being taken against you, we have been forced to implement a more drastic code vetting process,” a TVAddons representative told us previously.

Despite the absence of several of the most used add-ons, the repository has managed to regain many of its former users. Over the past month, TVAddons had over 12 million unique users. These all manually installed the new repository on their devices.

“We’re not like one of those pirate sites that are shut down and opens on a new domain the next day, getting users to actually manually install a new repo isn’t an easy feat,” a TVAddons representative informs TorrentFreak.

While it’s still far away from the 40 million unique users it had earlier this year, before the trouble began, it’s still a force to be reckoned with.

Interestingly, the vast majority of all TVAddons traffic comes from the United States. The UK is second at a respectable distance, followed by Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands.

While many former users have returned, the submission policy changes didn’t go unnoticed. The relatively small selection of add-ons is a major drawback for some, but that’s about to change as well, we are informed.

TVAddons plans to return to the old submission model where developers can upload their code more freely. Instead of proactive screening, TVAddons will rely on a standard DMCA takedown policy, relying on copyright holders to flag potentially infringing content.

“We intend on returning to a standard DMCA compliant add-on submission policy shortly, there’s no reason why we should be held to a higher standard than Facebook, Twitter, YouTube or Reddit given the fact that we don’t even host any form of streaming content in the first place.

“Our interim policy isn’t pragmatic, it’s nearly impossible for us to verify the global licensing of all forms of protected content. When you visit a website, there’s no way of verifying licensing beyond trusting them based on reputation.”

The upcoming change doesn’t mean that TVAddons will ignore its legal requirements. If they receive a legitimate takedown notice, proper action will be taken, as always. As such, they would operate in the same fashion as other user-generated sites.

“Right now our interim addon submission policy is akin to North Korea. We always followed the law and will always continue to do so. Anytime we’ve received a legitimate complaint we’ve acted upon it in an expedited manner.

“Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and other online communities would have never existed if they were required to approve the contents of each user’s submissions prior to public posting.”

The change takes place while the two court cases are still pending. TVAddons is determined to keep up this fight. Meanwhile, they are also asking the public to support the project financially.

While some copyright holders, including those who are fighting the service in court, might not like the change, TVAddons believes that this is well within their rights. And with support from groups such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, they don’t stand alone in this.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

The Raspberry Pi Christmas shopping list 2017

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/christmas-shopping-list-2017/

Looking for the perfect Christmas gift for a beloved maker in your life? Maybe you’d like to give a relative or friend a taste of the world of coding and Raspberry Pi? Whatever you’re looking for, the Raspberry Pi Christmas shopping list will point you in the right direction.

An ice-skating Raspberry Pi - The Raspberry Pi Christmas Shopping List 2017

For those getting started

Thinking about introducing someone special to the wonders of Raspberry Pi during the holidays? Although you can set up your Pi with peripherals from around your home, such as a mobile phone charger, your PC’s keyboard, and the old mouse dwelling in an office drawer, a starter kit is a nice all-in-one package for the budding coder.



Check out the starter kits from Raspberry Pi Approved Resellers such as Pimoroni, The Pi Hut, ModMyPi, Adafruit, CanaKit…the list is pretty long. Our products page will direct you to your closest reseller, or you can head to element14 to pick up the official Raspberry Pi Starter Kit.



You can also buy the Raspberry Pi Press’s brand-new Raspberry Pi Beginners Book, which includes a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a case, a ready-made SD card, and adapter cables.

Once you’ve presented a lucky person with their first Raspberry Pi, it’s time for them to spread their maker wings and learn some new skills.

MagPi Essentials books - The Raspberry Pi Christmas Shopping List 2017

To help them along, you could pick your favourite from among the Official Projects Book volume 3, The MagPi Essentials guides, and the brand-new third edition of Carrie Anne Philbin’s Adventures in Raspberry Pi. (She is super excited about this new edition!)

And you can always add a link to our free resources on the gift tag.

For the maker in your life

If you’re looking for something for a confident digital maker, you can’t go wrong with adding to their arsenal of electric and electronic bits and bobs that are no doubt cluttering drawers and boxes throughout their house.



Components such as servomotors, displays, and sensors are staples of the maker world. And when it comes to jumper wires, buttons, and LEDs, one can never have enough.



You could also consider getting your person a soldering iron, some helpings hands, or small tools such as a Dremel or screwdriver set.

And to make their life a little less messy, pop it all inside a Really Useful Box…because they’re really useful.



For kit makers

While some people like to dive into making head-first and to build whatever comes to mind, others enjoy working with kits.



The Naturebytes kit allows you to record the animal visitors of your garden with the help of a camera and a motion sensor. Footage of your local badgers, birds, deer, and more will be saved to an SD card, or tweeted or emailed to you if it’s in range of WiFi.

Cortec Tiny 4WD - The Raspberry Pi Christmas Shopping List 2017

Coretec’s Tiny 4WD is a kit for assembling a Pi Zero–powered remote-controlled robot at home. Not only is the robot adorable, building it also a great introduction to motors and wireless control.



Bare Conductive’s Touch Board Pro Kit offers everything you need to create interactive electronics projects using conductive paint.

Pi Hut Arcade Kit - The Raspberry Pi Christmas Shopping List 2017

Finally, why not help your favourite maker create their own gaming arcade using the Arcade Building Kit from The Pi Hut?

For the reader

For those who like to curl up with a good read, or spend too much of their day on public transport, a book or magazine subscription is the perfect treat.

For makers, hackers, and those interested in new technologies, our brand-new HackSpace magazine and the ever popular community magazine The MagPi are ideal. Both are available via a physical or digital subscription, and new subscribers to The MagPi also receive a free Raspberry Pi Zero W plus case.

Cover of CoderDojo Nano Make your own game

Marc Scott Beginner's Guide to Coding Book

You can also check out other publications from the Raspberry Pi family, including CoderDojo’s new CoderDojo Nano: Make Your Own Game, Eben Upton and Gareth Halfacree’s Raspberry Pi User Guide, and Marc Scott’s A Beginner’s Guide to Coding. And have I mentioned Carrie Anne’s Adventures in Raspberry Pi yet?

Stocking fillers for everyone

Looking for something small to keep your loved ones occupied on Christmas morning? Or do you have to buy a Secret Santa gift for the office tech? Here are some wonderful stocking fillers to fill your boots with this season.

Pi Hut 3D Christmas Tree - The Raspberry Pi Christmas Shopping List 2017

The Pi Hut 3D Xmas Tree: available as both a pre-soldered and a DIY version, this gadget will work with any 40-pin Raspberry Pi and allows you to create your own mini light show.



Google AIY Voice kit: build your own home assistant using a Raspberry Pi, the MagPi Essentials guide, and this brand-new kit. “Google, play Mariah Carey again…”



Pimoroni’s Raspberry Pi Zero W Project Kits offer everything you need, including the Pi, to make your own time-lapse cameras, music players, and more.



The official Raspberry Pi Sense HAT, Camera Module, and cases for the Pi 3 and Pi Zero will complete the collection of any Raspberry Pi owner, while also opening up exciting project opportunities.

STEAM gifts that everyone will love

Awesome Astronauts | Building LEGO’s Women of NASA!

LEGO Idea’s bought out this amazing ‘Women of NASA’ set, and I thought it would be fun to build, play and learn from these inspiring women! First up, let’s discover a little more about Sally Ride and Mae Jemison, two AWESOME ASTRONAUTS!

Treat the kids, and big kids, in your life to the newest LEGO Ideas set, the Women of NASA — starring Nancy Grace Roman, Margaret Hamilton, Sally Ride, and Mae Jemison!



Explore the world of wearables with Pimoroni’s sewable, hackable, wearable, adorable Bearables kits.



Add lights and motors to paper creations with the Activating Origami Kit, available from The Pi Hut.




We all loved Hidden Figures, and the STEAM enthusiast you know will do too. The film’s available on DVD, and you can also buy the original book, along with other fascinating non-fiction such as Rebecca Skloot’s The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Rachel Ignotofsky’s Women in Science, and Sydney Padua’s (mostly true) The Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace and Babbage.

Have we missed anything?

With so many amazing kits, HATs, and books available from members of the Raspberry Pi community, it’s hard to only pick a few. Have you found something splendid for the maker in your life? Maybe you’ve created your own kit that uses the Raspberry Pi? Share your favourites with us in the comments below or via our social media accounts.

The post The Raspberry Pi Christmas shopping list 2017 appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Movie & TV Companies Tackle Pirate IPTV in Australia Federal Court

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/movie-tv-companies-tackle-pirate-iptv-in-australia-federal-court-171207/

As movie and TV show piracy has migrated from the desktop towards mobile and living room-based devices, copyright holders have found the need to adapt to a new enemy.

Dealing with streaming services is now high on the agenda, with third-party Kodi addons and various Android apps posing the biggest challenge. Alongside is the much less prevalent but rapidly growing pay IPTV market, in which thousands of premium channels are delivered to homes for a relatively small fee.

In Australia, copyright holders are treating these services in much the same way as torrent sites. They feel that if they can force ISPs to block them, the problem can be mitigated. Most recently, movie and TV show giants Village Roadshow, Disney, Universal, Warner Bros, Twentieth Century Fox, and Paramount filed an application targeting HDSubs+, a pirate IPTV operation servicing thousands of Australians.

Filed in October, the application for the injunction targets Australia’s largest ISPs including Telstra, Optus, TPG, and Vocus, plus their subsidiaries. The movie and TV show companies want them to quickly block HDSubs+, to prevent it from reaching its audience.

HDSubs+ IPTV package
However, blocking isn’t particularly straightforward. Due to the way IPTV services are setup a number of domains need to be blocked, including their sales platforms, EPG (electronic program guide), software (such as an Android app), updates, and sundry other services. In HDSubs+ case around ten domains need to be restricted but in court today, Village Roadshow revealed that probably won’t deal with the problem.

HDSubs+ appears to be undergoing some kind of transformation, possibly to mitigate efforts to block it in Australia. ComputerWorld reports that it is now directing subscribers to update to a new version that works in a more evasive manner.

If they agree, HDSubs+ customers are being migrated over to a service called PressPlayPlus. It works in the same way as the old system but no longer uses the domain names cited in Village Roadshow’s injunction application. This means that DNS blocks, the usual weapon of choice for local ISPs, will prove futile.

Village Roadshow says that with this in mind it may be forced to seek enhanced IP address blocking, unless it is granted a speedy hearing for its application. This, in turn, may result in the normally cooperative ISPs returning to court to argue their case.

“If that’s what you want to do, then you’ll have to amend the orders and let the parties know,” Judge John Nicholas said.

“It’s only the former [DNS blocking] that carriage service providers have agreed to in the past.”

As things stand, Village Roadshow will return to court on December 15 for a case management hearing but in the meantime, the Federal Court must deal with another IPTV-related blocking request.

In common with its Australian and US-based counterparts, Hong Kong-based broadcaster Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) has launched a similar case asking local ISPs to block another IPTV service.

“Television Broadcasts Limited can confirm that we have commenced legal action in Australia to protect our copyright,” a TVB spokesperson told Computerworld.

TVB wants ISPs including Telstra, Optus, Vocus, and TPG plus their subsidiaries to block access to seven Android-based services named as A1, BlueTV, EVPAD, FunTV, MoonBox, Unblock, and hTV5.

Court documents list 21 URLs maintaining the services. They will all need to be blocked by DNS or other means, if the former proves futile. Online reports suggest that there are similarities among the IPTV products listed above. A demo for the FunTV IPTV service is shown below.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons

About the Amazon Trust Services Migration

Post Syndicated from Brent Meyer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/ses/669-2/

Amazon Web Services is moving the certificates for our services—including Amazon SES—to use our own certificate authority, Amazon Trust Services. We have carefully planned this change to minimize the impact it will have on your workflow. Most customers will not have to take any action during this migration.

About the Certificates

The Amazon Trust Services Certificate Authority (CA) uses the Starfield Services CA, which has been valid since 2005. The Amazon Trust Services certificates are available in most major operating systems released in the past 10 years, and are also trusted by all modern web browsers.

If you send email through the Amazon SES SMTP interface using a mail server that you operate, we recommend that you confirm that the appropriate certificates are installed. You can test whether your server trusts the Amazon Trust Services CAs by visiting the following URLs (for example, by using cURL):

If you see a message stating that the certificate issuer is not recognized, then you should install the appropriate root certificate. You can download individual certificates from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository. The process of adding a trusted certificate to your server varies depending on the operating system you use. For more information, see “Adding New Certificates,” below.

AWS SDKs and CLI

Recent versions of the AWS SDKs and the AWS CLI are not impacted by this change. If you use an AWS SDK or a version of the AWS CLI released prior to February 5, 2015, you should upgrade to the latest version.

Potential Issues

If your system is configured to use a very restricted list of root CAs (for example, if you use certificate pinning), you may be impacted by this migration. In this situation, you must update your pinned certificates to include the Amazon Trust Services CAs.

Adding New Root Certificates

The following sections list the steps you can take to install the Amazon Root CA certificates on your systems if they are not already present.

macOS

To install a new certificate on a macOS server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. At the command prompt, type the following command to install the certificate: sudo security add-trusted-cert -d -r trustRoot -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain /path/to/certificatename.crt, replacing /path/to/certificatename.crt with the full path to the certificate file.

Windows Server

To install a new certificate on a Windows server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. At the command prompt, type the following command to install the certificate: certutil -addstore -f "ROOT" c:\path\to\certificatename.crt, replacing c:\path\to\certificatename.crt with the full path to the certificate file.

Ubuntu

To install a new certificate on an Ubuntu (or similar) server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. Copy the certificate file to the directory /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/
  4. At the command prompt, type the following command to update the certificate authority store: sudo update-ca-certificates

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Fedora/CentOS

To install a new certificate on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (or similar) server

  1. Download the .pem file for the certificate you want to install from https://www.amazontrust.com/repository.
  2. Change the file extension for the file you downloaded from .pem to .crt.
  3. Copy the certificate file to the directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
  4. At the command line, type the following command to enable dynamic certificate authority configuration: sudo update-ca-trust force-enable
  5. At the command line, type the following command to update the certificate authority store: sudo update-ca-trust extract

To learn more about this migration, see How to Prepare for AWS’s Move to Its Own Certificate Authority on the AWS Security Blog.

Libertarians are against net neutrality

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/12/libertarians-are-against-net-neutrality.html

This post claims to be by a libertarian in support of net neutrality. As a libertarian, I need to debunk this. “Net neutrality” is a case of one-hand clapping, you rarely hear the competing side, and thus, that side may sound attractive. This post is about the other side, from a libertarian point of view.

That post just repeats the common, and wrong, left-wing talking points. I mean, there might be a libertarian case for some broadband regulation, but this isn’t it.

This thing they call “net neutrality” is just left-wing politics masquerading as some sort of principle. It’s no different than how people claim to be “pro-choice”, yet demand forced vaccinations. Or, it’s no different than how people claim to believe in “traditional marriage” even while they are on their third “traditional marriage”.

Properly defined, “net neutrality” means no discrimination of network traffic. But nobody wants that. A classic example is how most internet connections have faster download speeds than uploads. This discriminates against upload traffic, harming innovation in upload-centric applications like DropBox’s cloud backup or BitTorrent’s peer-to-peer file transfer. Yet activists never mention this, or other types of network traffic discrimination, because they no more care about “net neutrality” than Trump or Gingrich care about “traditional marriage”.

Instead, when people say “net neutrality”, they mean “government regulation”. It’s the same old debate between who is the best steward of consumer interest: the free-market or government.

Specifically, in the current debate, they are referring to the Obama-era FCC “Open Internet” order and reclassification of broadband under “Title II” so they can regulate it. Trump’s FCC is putting broadband back to “Title I”, which means the FCC can’t regulate most of its “Open Internet” order.

Don’t be tricked into thinking the “Open Internet” order is anything but intensely politically. The premise behind the order is the Democrat’s firm believe that it’s government who created the Internet, and all innovation, advances, and investment ultimately come from the government. It sees ISPs as inherently deceitful entities who will only serve their own interests, at the expense of consumers, unless the FCC protects consumers.

It says so right in the order itself. It starts with the premise that broadband ISPs are evil, using illegitimate “tactics” to hurt consumers, and continues with similar language throughout the order.

A good contrast to this can be seen in Tim Wu’s non-political original paper in 2003 that coined the term “net neutrality”. Whereas the FCC sees broadband ISPs as enemies of consumers, Wu saw them as allies. His concern was not that ISPs would do evil things, but that they would do stupid things, such as favoring short-term interests over long-term innovation (such as having faster downloads than uploads).

The political depravity of the FCC’s order can be seen in this comment from one of the commissioners who voted for those rules:

FCC Commissioner Jessica Rosenworcel wants to increase the minimum broadband standards far past the new 25Mbps download threshold, up to 100Mbps. “We invented the internet. We can do audacious things if we set big goals, and I think our new threshold, frankly, should be 100Mbps. I think anything short of that shortchanges our children, our future, and our new digital economy,” Commissioner Rosenworcel said.

This is indistinguishable from communist rhetoric that credits the Party for everything, as this booklet from North Korea will explain to you.

But what about monopolies? After all, while the free-market may work when there’s competition, it breaks down where there are fewer competitors, oligopolies, and monopolies.

There is some truth to this, in individual cities, there’s often only only a single credible high-speed broadband provider. But this isn’t the issue at stake here. The FCC isn’t proposing light-handed regulation to keep monopolies in check, but heavy-handed regulation that regulates every last decision.

Advocates of FCC regulation keep pointing how broadband monopolies can exploit their renting-seeking positions in order to screw the customer. They keep coming up with ever more bizarre and unlikely scenarios what monopoly power grants the ISPs.

But the never mention the most simplest: that broadband monopolies can just charge customers more money. They imagine instead that these companies will pursue a string of outrageous, evil, and less profitable behaviors to exploit their monopoly position.

The FCC’s reclassification of broadband under Title II gives it full power to regulate ISPs as utilities, including setting prices. The FCC has stepped back from this, promising it won’t go so far as to set prices, that it’s only regulating these evil conspiracy theories. This is kind of bizarre: either broadband ISPs are evilly exploiting their monopoly power or they aren’t. Why stop at regulating only half the evil?

The answer is that the claim “monopoly” power is a deception. It starts with overstating how many monopolies there are to begin with. When it issued its 2015 “Open Internet” order the FCC simultaneously redefined what they meant by “broadband”, upping the speed from 5-mbps to 25-mbps. That’s because while most consumers have multiple choices at 5-mbps, fewer consumers have multiple choices at 25-mbps. It’s a dirty political trick to convince you there is more of a problem than there is.

In any case, their rules still apply to the slower broadband providers, and equally apply to the mobile (cell phone) providers. The US has four mobile phone providers (AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile, and Sprint) and plenty of competition between them. That it’s monopolistic power that the FCC cares about here is a lie. As their Open Internet order clearly shows, the fundamental principle that animates the document is that all corporations, monopolies or not, are treacherous and must be regulated.

“But corporations are indeed evil”, people argue, “see here’s a list of evil things they have done in the past!”

No, those things weren’t evil. They were done because they benefited the customers, not as some sort of secret rent seeking behavior.

For example, one of the more common “net neutrality abuses” that people mention is AT&T’s blocking of FaceTime. I’ve debunked this elsewhere on this blog, but the summary is this: there was no network blocking involved (not a “net neutrality” issue), and the FCC analyzed it and decided it was in the best interests of the consumer. It’s disingenuous to claim it’s an evil that justifies FCC actions when the FCC itself declared it not evil and took no action. It’s disingenuous to cite the “net neutrality” principle that all network traffic must be treated when, in fact, the network did treat all the traffic equally.

Another frequently cited abuse is Comcast’s throttling of BitTorrent.Comcast did this because Netflix users were complaining. Like all streaming video, Netflix backs off to slower speed (and poorer quality) when it experiences congestion. BitTorrent, uniquely among applications, never backs off. As most applications become slower and slower, BitTorrent just speeds up, consuming all available bandwidth. This is especially problematic when there’s limited upload bandwidth available. Thus, Comcast throttled BitTorrent during prime time TV viewing hours when the network was already overloaded by Netflix and other streams. BitTorrent users wouldn’t mind this throttling, because it often took days to download a big file anyway.

When the FCC took action, Comcast stopped the throttling and imposed bandwidth caps instead. This was a worse solution for everyone. It penalized heavy Netflix viewers, and prevented BitTorrent users from large downloads. Even though BitTorrent users were seen as the victims of this throttling, they’d vastly prefer the throttling over the bandwidth caps.

In both the FaceTime and BitTorrent cases, the issue was “network management”. AT&T had no competing video calling service, Comcast had no competing download service. They were only reacting to the fact their networks were overloaded, and did appropriate things to solve the problem.

Mobile carriers still struggle with the “network management” issue. While their networks are fast, they are still of low capacity, and quickly degrade under heavy use. They are looking for tricks in order to reduce usage while giving consumers maximum utility.

The biggest concern is video. It’s problematic because it’s designed to consume as much bandwidth as it can, throttling itself only when it experiences congestion. This is what you probably want when watching Netflix at the highest possible quality, but it’s bad when confronted with mobile bandwidth caps.

With small mobile devices, you don’t want as much quality anyway. You want the video degraded to lower quality, and lower bandwidth, all the time.

That’s the reasoning behind T-Mobile’s offerings. They offer an unlimited video plan in conjunction with the biggest video providers (Netflix, YouTube, etc.). The catch is that when congestion occurs, they’ll throttle it to lower quality. In other words, they give their bandwidth to all the other phones in your area first, then give you as much of the leftover bandwidth as you want for video.

While it sounds like T-Mobile is doing something evil, “zero-rating” certain video providers and degrading video quality, the FCC allows this, because they recognize it’s in the customer interest.

Mobile providers especially have great interest in more innovation in this area, in order to conserve precious bandwidth, but they are finding it costly. They can’t just innovate, but must ask the FCC permission first. And with the new heavy handed FCC rules, they’ve become hostile to this innovation. This attitude is highlighted by the statement from the “Open Internet” order:

And consumers must be protected, for example from mobile commercial practices masquerading as “reasonable network management.”

This is a clear declaration that free-market doesn’t work and won’t correct abuses, and that that mobile companies are treacherous and will do evil things without FCC oversight.

Conclusion

Ignoring the rhetoric for the moment, the debate comes down to simple left-wing authoritarianism and libertarian principles. The Obama administration created a regulatory regime under clear Democrat principles, and the Trump administration is rolling it back to more free-market principles. There is no principle at stake here, certainly nothing to do with a technical definition of “net neutrality”.

The 2015 “Open Internet” order is not about “treating network traffic neutrally”, because it doesn’t do that. Instead, it’s purely a left-wing document that claims corporations cannot be trusted, must be regulated, and that innovation and prosperity comes from the regulators and not the free market.

It’s not about monopolistic power. The primary targets of regulation are the mobile broadband providers, where there is plenty of competition, and who have the most “network management” issues. Even if it were just about wired broadband (like Comcast), it’s still ignoring the primary ways monopolies profit (raising prices) and instead focuses on bizarre and unlikely ways of rent seeking.

If you are a libertarian who nonetheless believes in this “net neutrality” slogan, you’ve got to do better than mindlessly repeating the arguments of the left-wing. The term itself, “net neutrality”, is just a slogan, varying from person to person, from moment to moment. You have to be more specific. If you truly believe in the “net neutrality” technical principle that all traffic should be treated equally, then you’ll want a rewrite of the “Open Internet” order.

In the end, while libertarians may still support some form of broadband regulation, it’s impossible to reconcile libertarianism with the 2015 “Open Internet”, or the vague things people mean by the slogan “net neutrality”.

Running Windows Containers on Amazon ECS

Post Syndicated from Nathan Taber original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/running-windows-containers-on-amazon-ecs/

This post was developed and written by Jeremy Cowan, Thomas Fuller, Samuel Karp, and Akram Chetibi.

Containers have revolutionized the way that developers build, package, deploy, and run applications. Initially, containers only supported code and tooling for Linux applications. With the release of Docker Engine for Windows Server 2016, Windows developers have started to realize the gains that their Linux counterparts have experienced for the last several years.

This week, we’re adding support for running production workloads in Windows containers using Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS). Now, Amazon ECS provides an ECS-Optimized Windows Server Amazon Machine Image (AMI). This AMI is based on the EC2 Windows Server 2016 AMI, and includes Docker 17.06 Enterprise Edition and the ECS Agent 1.16. This AMI provides improved instance and container launch time performance. It’s based on Windows Server 2016 Datacenter and includes Docker 17.06.2-ee-5, along with a new version of the ECS agent that now runs as a native Windows service.

In this post, I discuss the benefits of this new support, and walk you through getting started running Windows containers with Amazon ECS.

When AWS released the Windows Server 2016 Base with Containers AMI, the ECS agent ran as a process that made it difficult to monitor and manage. As a service, the agent can be health-checked, managed, and restarted no differently than other Windows services. The AMI also includes pre-cached images for Windows Server Core 2016 and Windows Server Nano Server 2016. By caching the images in the AMI, launching new Windows containers is significantly faster. When Docker images include a layer that’s already cached on the instance, Docker re-uses that layer instead of pulling it from the Docker registry.

The ECS agent and an accompanying ECS PowerShell module used to install, configure, and run the agent come pre-installed on the AMI. This guarantees there is a specific platform version available on the container instance at launch. Because the software is included, you don’t have to download it from the internet. This saves startup time.

The Windows-compatible ECS-optimized AMI also reports CPU and memory utilization and reservation metrics to Amazon CloudWatch. Using the CloudWatch integration with ECS, you can create alarms that trigger dynamic scaling events to automatically add or remove capacity to your EC2 instances and ECS tasks.

Getting started

To help you get started running Windows containers on ECS, I’ve forked the ECS reference architecture, to build an ECS cluster comprised of Windows instances instead of Linux instances. You can pull the latest version of the reference architecture for Windows.

The reference architecture is a layered CloudFormation stack, in that it calls other stacks to create the environment. Within the stack, the ecs-windows-cluster.yaml file contains the instructions for bootstrapping the Windows instances and configuring the ECS cluster. To configure the instances outside of AWS CloudFormation (for example, through the CLI or the console), you can add the following commands to your instance’s user data:

Import-Module ECSTools
Initialize-ECSAgent

Or

Import-Module ECSTools
Initialize-ECSAgent –Cluster MyCluster -EnableIAMTaskRole

If you don’t specify a cluster name when you initialize the agent, the instance is joined to the default cluster.

Adding -EnableIAMTaskRole when initializing the agent adds support for IAM roles for tasks. Previously, enabling this setting meant running a complex script and setting an environment variable before you could assign roles to your ECS tasks.

When you enable IAM roles for tasks on Windows, it consumes port 80 on the host. If you have tasks that listen on port 80 on the host, I recommend configuring a service for them that uses load balancing. You can use port 80 on the load balancer, and the traffic can be routed to another host port on your container instances. For more information, see Service Load Balancing.

Create a cluster

To create a new ECS cluster, choose Launch stack, or pull the GitHub project to your local machine and run the following command:

aws cloudformation create-stack –template-body file://<path to master-windows.yaml> --stack-name <name>

Upload your container image

Now that you have a cluster running, step through how to build and push an image into a container repository. You use a repository hosted in Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) for this, but you could also use Docker Hub. To build and push an image to a repository, install Docker on your Windows* workstation. You also create a repository and assign the necessary permissions to the account that pushes your image to Amazon ECR. For detailed instructions, see Pushing an Image.

* If you are building an image that is based on Windows layers, then you must use a Windows environment to build and push your image to the registry.

Write your task definition

Now that your image is built and ready, the next step is to run your Windows containers using a task.

Start by creating a new task definition based on the windows-simple-iis image from Docker Hub.

  1. Open the ECS console.
  2. Choose Task Definitions, Create new task definition.
  3. Scroll to the bottom of the page and choose Configure via JSON.
  4. Copy and paste the following JSON into that field.
  5. Choose Save, Create.
{
   "family": "windows-simple-iis",
   "containerDefinitions": [
   {
     "name": "windows_sample_app",
     "image": "microsoft/iis",
     "cpu": 100,
     "entryPoint":["powershell", "-Command"],
     "command":["New-Item -Path C:\\inetpub\\wwwroot\\index.html -Type file -Value '<html><head><title>Amazon ECS Sample App</title> <style>body {margin-top: 40px; background-color: #333;} </style> </head><body> <div style=color:white;text-align:center><h1>Amazon ECS Sample App</h1> <h2>Congratulations!</h2> <p>Your application is now running on a container in Amazon ECS.</p></body></html>'; C:\\ServiceMonitor.exe w3svc"],
     "portMappings": [
     {
       "protocol": "tcp",
       "containerPort": 80,
       "hostPort": 8080
     }
     ],
     "memory": 500,
     "essential": true
   }
   ]
}

You can now go back into the Task Definition page and see windows-simple-iis as an available task definition.

There are a few important aspects of the task definition file to note when working with Windows containers. First, the hostPort is configured as 8080, which is necessary because the ECS agent currently uses port 80 to enable IAM roles for tasks required for least-privilege security configurations.

There are also some fairly standard task parameters that are intentionally not included. For example, network mode is not available with Windows at the time of this release, so keep that setting blank to allow Docker to configure WinNAT, the only option available today.

Also, some parameters work differently with Windows than they do with Linux. The CPU limits that you define in the task definition are absolute, whereas on Linux they are weights. For information about other task parameters that are supported or possibly different with Windows, see the documentation.

Run your containers

At this point, you are ready to run containers. There are two options to run containers with ECS:

  1. Task
  2. Service

A task is typically a short-lived process that ECS creates. It can’t be configured to actively monitor or scale. A service is meant for longer-running containers and can be configured to use a load balancer, minimum/maximum capacity settings, and a number of other knobs and switches to help ensure that your code keeps running. In both cases, you are able to pick a placement strategy and a specific IAM role for your container.

  1. Select the task definition that you created above and choose Action, Run Task.
  2. Leave the settings on the next page to the default values.
  3. Select the ECS cluster created when you ran the CloudFormation template.
  4. Choose Run Task to start the process of scheduling a Docker container on your ECS cluster.

You can now go to the cluster and watch the status of your task. It may take 5–10 minutes for the task to go from PENDING to RUNNING, mostly because it takes time to download all of the layers necessary to run the microsoft/iis image. After the status is RUNNING, you should see the following results:

You may have noticed that the example task definition is named windows-simple-iis:2. This is because I created a second version of the task definition, which is one of the powerful capabilities of using ECS. You can make the task definitions part of your source code and then version them. You can also roll out new versions and practice blue/green deployment, switching to reduce downtime and improve the velocity of your deployments!

After the task has moved to RUNNING, you can see your website hosted in ECS. Find the public IP or DNS for your ECS host. Remember that you are hosting on port 8080. Make sure that the security group allows ingress from your client IP address to that port and that your VPC has an internet gateway associated with it. You should see a page that looks like the following:

This is a nice start to deploying a simple single instance task, but what if you had a Web API to be scaled out and in based on usage? This is where you could look at defining a service and collecting CloudWatch data to add and remove both instances of the task. You could also use CloudWatch alarms to add more ECS container instances and keep up with the demand. The former is built into the configuration of your service.

  1. Select the task definition and choose Create Service.
  2. Associate a load balancer.
  3. Set up Auto Scaling.

The following screenshot shows an example where you would add an additional task instance when the CPU Utilization CloudWatch metric is over 60% on average over three consecutive measurements. This may not be aggressive enough for your requirements; it’s meant to show you the option to scale tasks the same way you scale ECS instances with an Auto Scaling group. The difference is that these tasks start much faster because all of the base layers are already on the ECS host.

Do not confuse task dynamic scaling with ECS instance dynamic scaling. To add additional hosts, see Tutorial: Scaling Container Instances with CloudWatch Alarms.

Conclusion

This is just scratching the surface of the flexibility that you get from using containers and Amazon ECS. For more information, see the Amazon ECS Developer Guide and ECS Resources.

– Jeremy, Thomas, Samuel, Akram

[$] Container IDs for the audit subsystem

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/740621/rss

Linux containers are something of an amorphous beast, at least with
respect to the kernel. There are lots of facilities that the kernel
provides (namespaces, control groups, seccomp, and so on) that can be
composed by user-space tools into containers of various shapes and
colors; the kernel is blissfully unaware of how user space views that
composition. But there is interest in having the kernel be more aware of
containers and for it to be able to distinguish what user space considers
to be a single container. One particular use case for the kernel managing
container identifiers is the audit
subsystem
, which needs unforgeable IDs for containers that can be
associated with
audit trails.