Tag Archives: Singapore

HackSpace magazine #1 is out now!

Post Syndicated from Andrew Gregory original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/hackspace-magazine-1/

HackSpace magazine is finally here! Grab your copy of the new magazine for makers today, and try your hand at some new, exciting skills.

HackSpace magazine issue 1 cover

What is HackSpace magazine?

HackSpace magazine is the newest publication from the team behind The MagPi. Chock-full of amazing projects, tutorials, features, and maker interviews, HackSpace magazine brings together the makers of the world every month, with you — the community — providing the content.

HackSpace magazine is out now!

The new magazine for the modern maker is out now! Learn more at https://hsmag.cc HackSpace magazine is the new monthly magazine for people who love to make things and those who want to learn. Grab some duct tape, fire up a microcontroller, ready a 3D printer and hack the world around you!

Inside issue 1

Fancy smoking bacon with your very own cold smoker? How about protecting your home with a mini trebuchet for your front lawn? Or maybe you’d like to learn from awesome creator Becky Stern how to get paid for making the things you love? No matter whether it’s handheld consoles, robot prosthetics, Christmas projects, or, er, duct tape — whatever your maker passion, issue 1 is guaranteed to tick your boxes!



HackSpace magazine is packed with content from every corner of the maker world: from welding to digital making, and from woodwork to wearables. And whatever you enjoy making, we want to see it! So as you read through this first issue, imagine your favourite homemade projects on our pages, then make that a reality by emailing us the details via [email protected].

Get your copy

You can grab issue 1 of HackSpace magazine right now from WHSmith, Tesco, Sainsbury’s, and independent newsagents. If you live in the US, check out your local Barnes & Noble, Fry’s, or Micro Center next week. We’re also shipping to stores in Australia, Hong Kong, Canada, Singapore, Belgium and Brazil — ask your local newsagent whether they’ll be getting HackSpace magazine. Alternatively, you can get the new issue online from our store, or digitally via our Android or iOS apps. And don’t forget, as with all our publications, a free PDF of HackSpace magazine is available from release day.

We’re also offering money-saving subscriptions — find details on the the magazine website. And if you’re a subscriber of The MagPi, your free copy of HackSpace magazine is on its way, with details of a super 50% discount on subscriptions! Could this be the Christmas gift you didn’t know you wanted?

Share your makes and thoughts

Make sure to follow HackSpace magazine on Facebook and Twitter, or email the team at [email protected] to tell us about your projects and share your thoughts about issue 1. We’ve loved creating this new magazine for the maker community, and we hope you enjoy it as much as we do.

The post HackSpace magazine #1 is out now! appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Amazon QuickSight Update – Geospatial Visualization, Private VPC Access, and More

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-quicksight-update-geospatial-visualization-private-vpc-access-and-more/

We don’t often recognize or celebrate anniversaries at AWS. With nearly 100 services on our list, we’d be eating cake and drinking champagne several times a week. While that might sound like fun, we’d rather spend our working hours listening to customers and innovating. With that said, Amazon QuickSight has now been generally available for a little over a year and I would like to give you a quick update!

QuickSight in Action
Today, tens of thousands of customers (from startups to enterprises, in industries as varied as transportation, legal, mining, and healthcare) are using QuickSight to analyze and report on their business data.

Here are a couple of examples:

Gemini provides legal evidence procurement for California attorneys who represent injured workers. They have gone from creating custom reports and running one-off queries to creating and sharing dynamic QuickSight dashboards with drill-downs and filtering. QuickSight is used to track sales pipeline, measure order throughput, and to locate bottlenecks in the order processing pipeline.

Jivochat provides a real-time messaging platform to connect visitors to website owners. QuickSight lets them create and share interactive dashboards while also providing access to the underlying datasets. This has allowed them to move beyond the sharing of static spreadsheets, ensuring that everyone is looking at the same and is empowered to make timely decisions based on current data.

Transfix is a tech-powered freight marketplace that matches loads and increases visibility into logistics for Fortune 500 shippers in retail, food and beverage, manufacturing, and other industries. QuickSight has made analytics accessible to both BI engineers and non-technical business users. They scrutinize key business and operational metrics including shipping routes, carrier efficient, and process automation.

Looking Back / Looking Ahead
The feedback on QuickSight has been incredibly helpful. Customers tell us that their employees are using QuickSight to connect to their data, perform analytics, and make high-velocity, data-driven decisions, all without setting up or running their own BI infrastructure. We love all of the feedback that we get, and use it to drive our roadmap, leading to the introduction of over 40 new features in just a year. Here’s a summary:

Looking forward, we are watching an interesting trend develop within our customer base. As these customers take a close look at how they analyze and report on data, they are realizing that a serverless approach offers some tangible benefits. They use Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) as a data lake and query it using a combination of QuickSight and Amazon Athena, giving them agility and flexibility without static infrastructure. They also make great use of QuickSight’s dashboards feature, monitoring business results and operational metrics, then sharing their insights with hundreds of users. You can read Building a Serverless Analytics Solution for Cleaner Cities and review Serverless Big Data Analytics using Amazon Athena and Amazon QuickSight if you are interested in this approach.

New Features and Enhancements
We’re still doing our best to listen and to learn, and to make sure that QuickSight continues to meet your needs. I’m happy to announce that we are making seven big additions today:

Geospatial Visualization – You can now create geospatial visuals on geographical data sets.

Private VPC Access – You can now sign up to access a preview of a new feature that allows you to securely connect to data within VPCs or on-premises, without the need for public endpoints.

Flat Table Support – In addition to pivot tables, you can now use flat tables for tabular reporting. To learn more, read about Using Tabular Reports.

Calculated SPICE Fields – You can now perform run-time calculations on SPICE data as part of your analysis. Read Adding a Calculated Field to an Analysis for more information.

Wide Table Support – You can now use tables with up to 1000 columns.

Other Buckets – You can summarize the long tail of high-cardinality data into buckets, as described in Working with Visual Types in Amazon QuickSight.

HIPAA Compliance – You can now run HIPAA-compliant workloads on QuickSight.

Geospatial Visualization
Everyone seems to want this feature! You can now take data that contains a geographic identifier (country, city, state, or zip code) and create beautiful visualizations with just a few clicks. QuickSight will geocode the identifier that you supply, and can also accept lat/long map coordinates. You can use this feature to visualize sales by state, map stores to shipping destinations, and so forth. Here’s a sample visualization:

To learn more about this feature, read Using Geospatial Charts (Maps), and Adding Geospatial Data.

Private VPC Access Preview
If you have data in AWS (perhaps in Amazon Redshift, Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS), or on EC2) or on-premises in Teradata or SQL Server on servers without public connectivity, this feature is for you. Private VPC Access for QuickSight uses an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) for secure, private communication with data sources in a VPC. It also allows you to use AWS Direct Connect to create a secure, private link with your on-premises resources. Here’s what it looks like:

If you are ready to join the preview, you can sign up today.

Jeff;

 

Amazon Lightsail Update – Launch and Manage Windows Virtual Private Servers

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-lightsail-update-launch-and-manage-windows-virtual-private-servers/

I first told you about Amazon Lightsail last year in my blog post, Amazon Lightsail – the Power of AWS, the Simplicity of a VPS. Since last year’s launch, thousands of customers have used Lightsail to get started with AWS, launching Linux-based Virtual Private Servers.

Today we are adding support for Windows-based Virtual Private Servers. You can launch a VPS that runs Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2016, or Windows Server 2016 with SQL Server 2016 Express and be up and running in minutes. You can use your VPS to build, test, and deploy .NET or Windows applications without having to set up or run any infrastructure. Backups, DNS management, and operational metrics are all accessible with a click or two.

Servers are available in five sizes, with 512 MB to 8 GB of RAM, 1 or 2 vCPUs, and up to 80 GB of SSD storage. Prices (including software licenses) start at $10 per month:

You can try out a 512 MB server for one month (up to 750 hours) at no charge.

Launching a Windows VPS
To launch a Windows VPS, log in to Lightsail , click on Create instance, and select the Microsoft Windows platform. Then click on Apps + OS if you want to run SQL Server 2016 Express, or OS Only if Windows is all you need:

If you want to use a Powershell script to customize your instance after it launches for the first time, click on Add launch script and enter the script:

Choose your instance plan, enter a name for your instance(s), and select the quantity to be launched, then click on Create:

Your instance will be up and running within a minute or so:

Click on the instance, and then click on Connect using RDP:

This will connect using a built-in, browser-based RDP client (you can also use the IP address and the credentials with another client):

Available Today
This feature is available today in the US East (Northern Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), EU (London), EU (Ireland), EU (Frankfurt), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Sydney), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Regions.

Jeff;

 

AWS Hot Startups – September 2017

Post Syndicated from Tina Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hot-startups-september-2017/

As consumers continue to demand faster, simpler, and more on-the-go services, FinTech companies are responding with ever more innovative solutions to fit everyone’s needs and to improve customer experience. This month, we are excited to feature the following startups—all of whom are disrupting traditional financial services in unique ways:

  • Acorns – allowing customers to invest spare change automatically.
  • Bondlinc – improving the bond trading experience for clients, financial institutions, and private banks.
  • Lenda – reimagining homeownership with a secure and streamlined online service.

Acorns (Irvine, CA)

Driven by the belief that anyone can grow wealth, Acorns is relentlessly pursuing ways to help make that happen. Currently the fastest-growing micro-investing app in the U.S., Acorns takes mere minutes to get started and is currently helping over 2.2 million people grow their wealth. And unlike other FinTech apps, Acorns is focused on helping America’s middle class – namely the 182 million citizens who make less than $100,000 per year – and looking after their financial best interests.

Acorns is able to help their customers effortlessly invest their money, little by little, by offering ETF portfolios put together by Dr. Harry Markowitz, a Nobel Laureate in economic sciences. They also offer a range of services, including “Round-Ups,” whereby customers can automatically invest spare change from every day purchases, and “Recurring Investments,” through which customers can set up automatic transfers of just $5 per week into their portfolio. Additionally, Found Money, Acorns’ earning platform, can help anyone spend smarter as the company connects customers to brands like Lyft, Airbnb, and Skillshare, who then automatically invest in customers’ Acorns account.

The Acorns platform runs entirely on AWS, allowing them to deliver a secure and scalable cloud-based experience. By utilizing AWS, Acorns is able to offer an exceptional customer experience and fulfill its core mission. Acorns uses Terraform to manage services such as Amazon EC2 Container Service, Amazon CloudFront, and Amazon S3. They also use Amazon RDS and Amazon Redshift for data storage, and Amazon Glacier to manage document retention.

Acorns is hiring! Be sure to check out their careers page if you are interested.

Bondlinc (Singapore)

Eng Keong, Founder and CEO of Bondlinc, has long wanted to standardize, improve, and automate the traditional workflows that revolve around bond trading. As a former trader at BNP Paribas and Jefferies & Company, E.K. – as Keong is known – had personally seen how manual processes led to information bottlenecks in over-the-counter practices. This drove him, along with future Bondlinc CTO Vincent Caldeira, to start a new service that maximizes efficiency, information distribution, and accessibility for both clients and bankers in the bond market.

Currently, bond trading requires banks to spend a significant amount of resources retrieving data from expensive and restricted institutional sources, performing suitability checks, and attaching required documentation before presenting all relevant information to clients – usually by email. Bankers are often overwhelmed by these time-consuming tasks, which means clients don’t always get proper access to time-sensitive bond information and pricing. Bondlinc bridges this gap between banks and clients by providing a variety of solutions, including easy access to basic bond information and analytics, updates of new issues and relevant news, consolidated management of your portfolio, and a chat function between banker and client. By making the bond market much more accessible to clients, Bondlinc is taking private banking to the next level, while improving efficiency of the banks as well.

As a startup running on AWS since inception, Bondlinc has built and operated its SaaS product by leveraging Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon RDS across multiple Availability Zones to provide its customers (namely, financial institutions) a highly available and seamlessly scalable product distribution platform. Bondlinc also makes extensive use of Amazon CloudWatch, AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon SNS to meet the stringent operational monitoring, auditing, compliance, and governance requirements of its customers. Bondlinc is currently experimenting with Amazon Lex to build a conversational interface into its mobile application via a chat-bot that provides trading assistance services.

To see how Bondlinc works, request a demo at Bondlinc.com.

Lenda (San Francisco, CA)

Lenda is a digital mortgage company founded by seasoned FinTech entrepreneur Jason van den Brand. Jason wanted to create a smarter, simpler, and more streamlined system for people to either get a mortgage or refinance their homes. With Lenda, customers can find out if they are pre-approved for loans, and receive accurate, real-time mortgage rate quotes from industry-experienced home loan advisors. Lenda’s advisors support customers through the loan process by providing financial advice and guidance for a seamless experience.

Lenda’s innovative platform allows borrowers to complete their home loans online from start to finish. Through a savvy combination of being a direct lender with proprietary technology, Lenda has simplified the mortgage application process to save customers time and money. With an interactive dashboard, customers know exactly where they are in the mortgage process and can manage all of their documents in one place. The company recently received its Series A funding of $5.25 million, and van den Brand shared that most of the capital investment will be used to improve Lenda’s technology and fulfill the company’s mission, which is to reimagine homeownership, starting with home loans.

AWS allows Lenda to scale its business while providing a secure, easy-to-use system for a faster home loan approval process. Currently, Lenda uses Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, Amazon CloudFront, Amazon Redshift, and Amazon WorkSpaces.

Visit Lenda.com to find out more.

Thanks for reading and see you in October for another round of hot startups!

-Tina

Pirates Are Not Easily Deterred by Viruses and Malware, Study Finds

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/pirates-are-not-easily-deterred-by-viruses-and-malware-study-finds-170913/

Despite the widespread availability of legal streaming services, piracy remains rampant around the world.

This is the situation in Singapore where a new study commissioned by the Cable and Satellite Broadcasting Association of Asia (CASBAA) found that 39% of all Singaporeans download or stream movies, TV shows, or live sports illegally.

The survey, conducted by Sycamore Research, polled the opinions and behaviors of a weighted sample of 1,000 respondents. The research concludes that nearly half of the population regularly pirates and also found that these people are not easily deterred.

Although the vast majority of the population knows that piracy is against the law, the lure of free content is often hard to ignore. Many simply see it as socially acceptible behavior.

“The notion that piracy is something that everybody does nowadays turns it into a socially acceptable behavior”, Sycamore Research Director Anna Meadows says, commenting on the findings.

“Numerous studies have shown that what we perceive others to be doing has a far stronger influence on our behavior than what we know we ‘ought’ to do. People know that they shouldn’t really pirate, but they continue to do so because they believe those around them do as well.”

One of the main threats pirates face is the availability of malware and malicious ads that are present on some sites. This risk is recognized by 74% of the active pirates, but they continue nonetheless.

The dangers of malware and viruses, which is a key talking point among industry groups nowadays, do have some effect. Among those who stopped pirating, 40% cited it as their primary reason. That’s more than the availability of legal services, which is mentioned in 37% of cases.

Aside from traditional download and streaming sites, the growing popularity of pirate media boxes is clearly present in Singapore was well. A total of 14% of Singaporeans admit to having such a device in their home.

So why do people continue to pirate despite the risks?

The answer is simple; because it’s free. The vast majority (63%) mention the lack of financial costs as their main motivation to use pirate sites. The ability to watch something whenever they want and a lack of legal options follow at a distance, both at 31%.

“There are few perceived downsides to piracy,” Meadows notes.

“Whilst the risk of devices being infected with viruses or malware is understood, it is underweighted. In the face of the benefit of free content, people appear to discount the risks, as the idea of getting something for nothing is so psychologically powerful.”

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

The First AWS Regional Financial Services Guide Focuses on Singapore

Post Syndicated from Jodi Scrofani original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/the-first-aws-regional-financial-services-guide-focuses-on-singapore/

Financial Services image

To help Financial Services clients address Singapore’s regulations on financial institutions in a shared responsibility environment, AWS has published the AWS User Guide to Financial Services Regulations and Guidelines in Singapore. This first-ever AWS Financial Services guide is the culmination of the work AWS has done in the last year to help customers navigate the Monetary Authority of Singapore’s 2016 updated guidelines about cloud services.

This new guide examines Singaporean requirements and guidelines, providing information that will help you conduct due diligence on AWS with regard to IT security and risk management. The guide also shares leading practices to empower you to develop your own governance programs by using AWS.

The guide focuses on three top considerations for financial institutions operating in Singapore:

  • Outsourcing guidelines – Conduct a self-assessment of AWS services and align your governance requirements within a shared responsibility model.
  • Technology risk management – Take a deeper look at where shared responsibility exists for technology implementation and perform a self-assessment of AWS service responsibilities.
  • Cloud computing implementation – Assess additional responsibilities to ensure security and compliance with local guidelines.

We will release additional AWS Financial Services resource guides this year to help you understand the requirements in other markets around the globe. These guides will be posted on the AWS Compliance Resources page.

If you have questions or comments about this new guide, submit them in the “Comments” section below.

– Jodi

China Denies User VPN Crackdown, Blames False “Foreign Media” Reports

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/china-denies-user-vpn-crackdown-blames-false-foreign-media-reports-170713/

A notice published by China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in January said that the government had launched a 14-month campaign to crack down on local ‘unauthorized’ Internet platforms.

The idea is that all Internet services such as data centers, ISPs, CDNs, and VPNs, will eventually need pre-approval from the government to operate. Operating such a service without a corresponding telecommunications business license will constitute an offense.

After the news broke, a source with contacts at a high-level telecoms company in the region told TF that, in his opinion, user-based VPNs were not the target and that MPLS VPNs were. These types of VPN (pdf) allow businesses, including those in China, to connect their geographically separated business locations, such as those in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Indonesia, for example.

This week, however, Bloomberg broke the news that China’s Government had ordered telecommunications carriers to block individuals’ access to Virtual Private Networks. This, the publication said, would stop citizens from accessing the global Internet.

According to the report, the government ordered at least three state-run telecommunications firms, including China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, to stop people from using VPNs which allow people to circumvent censorship restrictions, otherwise known as the Great Firewall, by February next year.

Jake Parker, Beijing-based vice president of the US-China Business Council, agreed that the move “seems to impact individuals,” but last evening the Chinese authorities were attempting to pour cold water on the report.

In comments to China-based media outlet The Paper, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology denied issuing a notice to the telecoms companies requiring them to block user VPNs. It said that “foreign media reports” were inaccurate.

“Our subordinate Secretary did not issue the relevant notice, what foreign media reported was false,” the Ministry said.

The local media report then has the Ministry citing news that previously broke in January, detailing the new government measures that require cross-border enterprise-level VPN systems to be authorized and licensed.

“Foreign trade enterprises and multinational companies, due to office for personal use and other reasons, need to access cross-border networking,” the Ministry said, adding that licensing is available and won’t have a detrimental effect on normal operations.

Given this statement, the announcement in January, and the comments made to TF regarding the government targeting enterprise-level VPNs, it raises the question whether the term ‘VPN’ has perhaps been interpreted too widely, to include user-based services.

Nevertheless, in a follow-up report last evening, Bloomberg repeated its claims that Beijing had ordered state-run telecoms firms to stop people from using VPNs that route traffic overseas to avoid censorship.

“The clampdown will shutter one of the main ways in which people both local and foreign still manage to access the global, unfiltered web on a daily basis,” the report said.

Only time will tell how the landscape will pan out, but it’s safe to say that China would like a tighter hold on the web than it has now and that VPNs of all kinds will continue to undermine that control, unless something is done.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Under the Hood of Server-Side Encryption for Amazon Kinesis Streams

Post Syndicated from Damian Wylie original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/under-the-hood-of-server-side-encryption-for-amazon-kinesis-streams/

Customers are using Amazon Kinesis Streams to ingest, process, and deliver data in real time from millions of devices or applications. Use cases for Kinesis Streams vary, but a few common ones include IoT data ingestion and analytics, log processing, clickstream analytics, and enterprise data bus architectures.

Within milliseconds of data arrival, applications (KCL, Apache Spark, AWS Lambda, Amazon Kinesis Analytics) attached to a stream are continuously mining value or delivering data to downstream destinations. Customers are then scaling their streams elastically to match demand. They pay incrementally for the resources that they need, while taking advantage of a fully managed, serverless streaming data service that allows them to focus on adding value closer to their customers.

These benefits are great; however, AWS learned that many customers could not take advantage of Kinesis Streams unless their data-at-rest within a stream was encrypted. Many customers did not want to manage encryption on their own, so they asked for a fully managed, automatic, server-side encryption mechanism leveraging centralized AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) customer master keys (CMK).

Motivated by this feedback, AWS added another fully managed, low cost aspect to Kinesis Streams by delivering server-side encryption via KMS managed encryption keys (SSE-KMS) in the following regions:

  • US East (N. Virginia)
  • US West (Oregon)
  • US West (N. California)
  • EU (Ireland)
  • Asia Pacific (Singapore)
  • Asia Pacific (Tokyo)

In this post, I cover the mechanics of the Kinesis Streams server-side encryption feature. I also share a few best practices and considerations so that you can get started quickly.

Understanding the mechanics

The following section walks you through how Kinesis Streams uses CMKs to encrypt a message in the PutRecord or PutRecords path before it is propagated to the Kinesis Streams storage layer, and then decrypt it in the GetRecords path after it has been retrieved from the storage layer.

When server-side encryption is enabled—which takes just a few clicks in the console—the partition key and payload for every incoming record is encrypted automatically as it’s flowing into Kinesis Streams, using the selected CMK. When data is at rest within a stream, it’s encrypted.

When records are retrieved through a GetRecords request from the encrypted stream, they are decrypted automatically as they are flowing out of the service. That means your Kinesis Streams producers and consumers do not need to be aware of encryption. You have a fully managed data encryption feature at your fingertips, which can be enabled within seconds.

AWS also makes it easy to audit the application of server-side encryption. You can use the AWS Management Console for instant stream-level verification; the responses from PutRecord, PutRecords, and getRecords; or AWS CloudTrail.

Calling PutRecord or PutRecords

When server-side encryption is enabled for a particular stream, Kinesis Streams and KMS perform the following actions when your applications call PutRecord or PutRecords on a stream with server-side encryption enabled. The Amazon Kinesis Producer Library (KPL) uses PutRecords.

 

  1. Data is sent from a customer’s producer (client) to a Kinesis stream using TLS via HTTPS. Data in transit to a stream is encrypted by default.
  2. After data is received, it is momentarily stored in RAM within a front-end proxy layer.
  3. Kinesis Streams authenticates the producer, then impersonates the producer to request input keying material from KMS.
  4. KMS creates key material, encrypts it by using CMK, and sends both the plaintext and encrypted key material to the service, encrypted with TLS.
  5. The client uses the plaintext key material to derive data encryption keys (data keys) that are unique per-record.
  6. The client encrypts the payload and partition key using the data key in RAM within the front-end proxy layer and removes the plaintext data key from memory.
  7. The client appends the encrypted key material to the encrypted data.
  8. The plaintext key material is securely cached in memory within the front-end layer for reuse, until it expires after 5 minutes.
  9. The client delivers the encrypted message to a back-end store where it is stored at rest and fetchable by an authorized consumer through a GetRecords The Amazon Kinesis Client Library (KCL) calls GetRecords to retrieve records from a stream.

Calling getRecords

Kinesis Streams and KMS perform the following actions when your applications call GetRecords on a server-side encrypted stream.

 

  1. When a GeRecords call is made, the front-end proxy layer retrieves the encrypted record from its back-end store.
  2. The consumer (client) makes a request to KMS using a token generated by the customer’s request. KMS authorizes it.
  3. The client requests that KMS decrypt the encrypted key material.
  4. KMS decrypts the encrypted key material and sends the plaintext key material to the client.
  5. Kinesis Streams derives the per-record data keys from the decrypted key material.
  6. If the calling application is authorized, the client decrypts the payload and removes the plaintext data key from memory.
  7. The client delivers the payload over TLS and HTTPS to the consumer, requesting the records. Data in transit to a consumer is encrypted by default.

Verifying server-side encryption

Auditors or administrators often ask for proof that server-side encryption was or is enabled. Here are a few ways to do this.

To check if encryption is enabled now for your streams:

  • Use the AWS Management Console or the DescribeStream API operation. You can also see what CMK is being used for encryption.
  • See encryption in action by looking at responses from PutRecord, PutRecords, or GetRecords When encryption is enabled, the encryptionType parameter is set to “KMS”. If encryption is not enabled, encryptionType is not included in the response.

Sample PutRecord response

{
    "SequenceNumber": "49573959617140871741560010162505906306417380215064887298",
    "ShardId": "shardId-000000000000",
    "EncryptionType": "KMS"
}

Sample GetRecords response

{
    "Records": [
        {
            "Data": "aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=", 
            "PartitionKey": "test", 
            "ApproximateArrivalTimestamp": 1498292565.825, 
            "EncryptionType": "KMS", 
            "SequenceNumber": "495735762417140871741560010162505906306417380215064887298"
        }, 
        {
            "Data": "ZnJvZG8gbGl2ZXMK", 
            "PartitionKey": "3d0d9301-3c30-4c48-a9a8-e485b2982b28", 
            "ApproximateArrivalTimestamp": 1498292801.747, 
            "EncryptionType": "KMS", 
            "SequenceNumber": "49573959617140871741560010162507115232237011062036103170"
        }
    ], 
    "NextShardIterator": "AAAAAAAAAAEvFypHZDx/4bJVAS34puwdiNcwssKqbh/XhRK7HSYRq3RS+YXJnVKJ8j0gQUt94bONdqQYHk9X9JHgefMUDKzDzndy5WbZWO4CS3hRdMdrbmJ/9KoR4lOfZvqTLt6JWQjDqXv0IaKs06/LHYcEA3oPcyQLOTJHdJl2EzplCTZnn/U295ovxvqF9g9DY8y2nVoMkdFLmdcEMVXjhCDKiRIt", 
    "MillisBehindLatest": 0
}

To check if encryption was enabled, use CloudTrail, which logs the StartStreamEncryption() and StopStreamEncryption() API calls made against a particular stream.

Getting started

It’s very easy to enable, disable, or modify server-side encryption for a particular stream.

  1. In the Kinesis Streams console, select a stream and choose Details.
  2. Select a CMK and select Enabled.
  3. Choose Save.

You can enable encryption only for a live stream, not upon stream creation.  Follow the same process to disable a stream. To use a different CMK, select it and choose Save.

Each of these tasks can also be accomplished using the StartStreamEncryption and StopStreamEncryption API operations.

Considerations

There are a few considerations you should be aware of when using server-side encryption for Kinesis Streams:

  • Permissions
  • Costs
  • Performance

Permissions

One benefit of using the “(Default) aws/kinesis” AWS managed key is that every producer and consumer with permissions to call PutRecord, PutRecords, or GetRecords inherits the right permissions over the “(Default) aws/kinesis” key automatically.

However, this is not necessarily the same case for a CMK. Kinesis Streams producers and consumers do not need to be aware of encryption. However, if you enable encryption using a custom master key but a producer or consumer doesn’t have IAM permissions to use it, PutRecord, PutRecords, or GetRecords requests fail.

This is a great security feature. On the other hand, it can effectively lead to data loss if you inadvertently apply a custom master key that restricts producers and consumers from interacting from the Kinesis stream. Take precautions when applying a custom master key. For more information about the minimum IAM permissions required for producers and consumers interacting with an encrypted stream, see Using Server-Side Encryption.

Costs

When you apply server-side encryption, you are subject to KMS API usage and key costs. Unlike custom KMS master keys, the “(Default) aws/kinesis” CMK is offered free of charge. However, you still need to pay for the API usage costs that Kinesis Streams incurs on your behalf.

API usage costs apply for every CMK, including custom ones. Kinesis Streams calls KMS approximately every 5 minutes when it is rotating the data key. In a 30-day month, the total cost of KMS API calls initiated by a Kinesis stream should be less than a few dollars.

Performance

During testing, AWS discovered that there was a slight increase (typically 0.2 millisecond or less per record) with put and get record latencies due to the additional overhead of encryption.

If you have questions or suggestions, please comment below.

AWS Price Reduction – SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-price-reduction-sql-server-standard-edition-on-ec2/

I’m happy to be able to announce the 62nd AWS price reduction, this one for Microsoft SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2.

Many enterprise workloads run on Microsoft Windows, primarily on-premises or in corporate data centers. We believe that AWS is the best place to build, deploy, scale, and manage Windows applications due to the breadth of services that we provide, backed up by our global reach and our partner ecosystem. Customers like Adobe, Pitney Bowes, and DeVry University have all moved core production Windows Server workloads to AWS. Their applications run the gamut from SharePoint sites to custom .NET applications and SAP, and frequently use SQL Server.

Microsoft SQL Server on AWS runs on an EC2 Windows instance and can support your application development and migration efforts. It gives you control over every setting, just as you would have if you were running your relational database on-premises, with support for 32-bit and 64-bit versions.

Today we are reducing the On-Demand and Reserved Instance prices for Microsoft SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2 running on R4, M4, I3, and X1 instances by up to 52%, depending on instance type, size, and region. You can build and run enterprise-scale applications, massively scalable websites. and mobile applications even more cost-effectively than before.

Here are the largest price reductions for each region and instance type:

Region R4 M4 I3 X1
US East (Northern Virginia) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US East (Ohio) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US West (Oregon) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US West (Northern California) -51% -30% -50%
Canada (Central) -51% -51% -50% -44%
South America (São Paulo) -49% -30% -48%
EU (Ireland) -51% -29% -50% -51%
EU (Frankfurt) -51% -29% -50% -50%
EU (London) -51% -51% -50% -44%
Asia Pacific (Singapore) -51% -31% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Sydney) -51% -30% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) -51% -29% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Seoul)  -51% -31% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Mumbai)  -51% -33% -50% -50%

The new, lower prices for On-Demand instances are in effect as of July 1, 2017. The new pricing for Reserved Instances is in effect today.

Jeff;

 

Sorry, the “You Wouldn’t Steal a Car” Anti-Piracy Ad Wasn’t ‘Pirated’

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/sorry-the-you-wouldnt-steal-a-car-anti-piracy-ad-wasnt-pirated-170625/

In recent years millions of people have seen the Piracy It’s a Crime anti-piracy video.

According to popular belief and reputable news sources, the music used in the “You Wouldn’t Steal a Car” clip was itself pirated.

Oh the irony…

While the case in question dates back to the beginning of the decade, the alleged “theft” is still cited regularly. People regularly mention it on YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and also while commenting on various memes, as recently as a few days ago.

Amusing, for sure, but there’s one problem. It’s not true.

The sources for this remarkable story refer to the case of Dutch musician Melchior Rietveldt. In 2006 he was asked to compose a piece of music to be used in an anti-piracy advert. This was supposed to be used exclusively at a local film festival.

However, it turned out that the anti-piracy ad was recycled for various other purposes without the composer’s permission. The clip had been used on dozens of DVDs both in the Netherlands and overseas. This means that Rietveldt’s music was used without his permission, or pirated, as some would say.

Piracy. It’s a Crime

The above is true, as we reported in the past. And the composer was eventually compensated for missed royalties. However, the whole case has nothing to do with the Piracy It’s a Crime clip. It’s about an entirely different ad.

The actual Rietveldt commercial is unknown to the wider public, and there are no online copies that we know of. What we do know is that the “Piracy. It’s a Crime” clip was produced in 2004, not 2006, and also not for a Dutch film festival.

The Piracy It’s a Crime ad was part of a joint initiative by the Motion Picture Association (MPA) and the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS). The original announcement is still available online.

A source close to the Dutch film industry confirmed that the Rietveldt case has nothing to do with the frequently mentioned clip, which means that it’s all a massive misunderstanding. One that is now deeply ingrained in Internet history, it seems.

It made its way into the Who Sampled database, for example, ABC Science did a feature on it, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg.

So where does this fable originate from?

When covering the story, several news outlets used an image from the Piracy It’s a Crime video, since that’s the classic example of an anti-piracy ad. Somewhere along the line, however, other reporters started to identify that clip as Rietveldt’s work, without properly checking. Fast forward a few years and many now assume it’s an established fact.

Pirated or not, the Piracy it’s a Crime campaign remains a popular source for memes. Whether this is what the MPA and IPOS intended is doubtful, but at least they got the message out.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

In the Works – AWS Region in Hong Kong

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/in-the-works-aws-region-in-hong-kong/

Last year we launched new AWS Regions in Canada, India, Korea, the UK (London), and the United States (Ohio), and announced that new regions are coming to France (Paris), China (Ningxia), and Sweden (Stockholm).

Coming to Hong Kong in 2018
Today, I am happy to be able to tell you that we are planning to open up an AWS Region in Hong Kong, in 2018. Hong Kong is a leading international financial center, well known for its service oriented economy. It is rated highly on innovation and for ease of doing business. As an evangelist, I get to visit many great cities in the world, and was lucky to have spent some time in Hong Kong back in 2014 and met a number of awesome customers there. Many of these customers have given us feedback that they wanted a local AWS Region.

This will be the eighth AWS Region in Asia Pacific joining six other Regions there — Singapore, Tokyo, Sydney, Beijing, Seoul, and Mumbai, and an additional Region in China (Ningxia) expected to launch in the coming months. Together, these Regions will provide our customers with a total of 19 Availability Zones (AZs) and allow them to architect highly fault tolerant applications.

Today, our infrastructure comprises 43 Availability Zones across 16 geographic regions worldwide, with another three AWS Regions (and eight Availability Zones) in France, China, and Sweden coming online throughout 2017 and 2018, (see the AWS Global Infrastructure page for more info).

We are looking forward to serving new and existing customers in Hong Kong and working with partners across Asia-Pacific. Of course, the new region will also be open to existing AWS customers who would like to process and store data in Hong Kong. Public sector organizations such as government agencies, educational institutions, and nonprofits in Hong Kong will be able to use this region to store sensitive data locally (the AWS in the Public Sector page has plenty of success stories drawn from our worldwide customer base).

If you are a customer or a partner and have specific questions about this Region, you can contact our Hong Kong team.

Help Wanted
If you are interested in learning more about AWS positions in Hong Kong, please visit the Amazon Jobs site and set the location to Hong Kong.

Jeff;

 

Amazon Lightsail Update – 9 More Regions and Global Console

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-lightsail-update-9-more-regions-and-global-console/

Amazon Lightsail lets you launch Virtual Private Servers on AWS with just a few clicks. With prices starting at $5 per month, Lightsail takes care of the heavy lifting and gives you a simple way to build and host applications. As I showed you in my re:Invent post (Amazon Lightsail – The Power of AWS, the Simplicity of a VPS), you can choose a configuration from a menu and launch a virtual machine preconfigured with SSD-based storage, DNS management, and a static IP address.

Since we launched in November, many customers have used Lightsail to launch Virtual Private Servers. For example, Monash University is using Amazon Lightsail to rapidly re-platform a number of CMS services in a simple and cost-effective manner. They have already migrated 50 workloads and are now thinking of creating an internal CMS service based on Lightsail to allow staff and students to create their own CMS instances in a self-service manner.

Today we are expanding Lightsail into nine more AWS Regions and launching a new, global console.

New Regions
At re:Invent we made Lightsail available in the US East (Northern Virginia) Region. Earlier this month we added support for several additional Regions in the US and Europe. Today we are launching Lightsail in four of our Asia Pacific Regions, bringing the total to ten. Here’s the full list:

  • US East (Northern Virginia)
  • US West (Oregon)
  • US East (Ohio)
  • EU (London)
  • EU (Frankfurt)
  • EU (Ireland)
  • Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
  • Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
  • Asia Pacific (Singapore)
  • Asia Pacific (Sydney)

Global Console
The updated Lightsail console makes it easy for you to create and manage resources in one or more Regions. I simply choose the desired Region when I create a new instance:

I can see all of my instances and static IP addresses on the same page, no matter what Region they are in:

And I can perform searches that span all of my resources and Regions. All of my LAMP stacks:

Or all of my resources in the EU (Ireland) Region:

I can perform a similar search on the Snapshots tab:

A new DNS zones tab lets me see my existing zones and create new ones:

Creation of SSH keypairs is now specific to a Region:

I can manage my key pairs on a Region-by-Region basis:

Static IP addresses are also specific to a particular Region:

Available Now
You can use the new Lightsail console and create resources in all ten Regions today!

Jeff;

 

How Important is Hosting Location? Questions to Ask Your Hosting Provider

Post Syndicated from Sarah Wilson original https://www.anchor.com.au/blog/2017/05/site-hosting-location/

The importance of the location of your hosting partner will depend on your organisation requirements and your business needs. For a small business focussed on a single country with fairly low traffic, starting with shared hosting, or small virtual private server is generally the most cost effective place to host your site.  Hosting your site or web application in the same geographical location as your website visitors reduces page load times and latency (the lag between requesting data and receiving it) and will greatly improve user experience. If you are running a business critical website or ecommerce application, or have customers or visitors from various global locations, then incorrectly placing your website in an unsuitably located data centre will cost you much more than a monthly hosting fee!

Does the Location of My Hosting Provider Matter?

Location also matters when it comes to service.  Selecting a hosting provider you should be aware of their usual operation hours and ensure this fits with your companies requirements, and timezone! Why does this matter? You can’t choose when an unexpected outage of your site happens, so if your hosting provider is based in a different time zone with limited service hours, there may be no one to help you.  Here at Anchor,  we’ve implemented a “follow the sun support” model, around our 8am-6pm AEST operating hours. This means that anywhere you are in the world with a problem, you can pick up the phone and our friendly support team will be on hand to help.

But Why Do I Care Where the Data Centre is?

Data centres require state of the art cooling and power in order to keep the servers and hardware in perfect condition. Redundancy in the network is also a vital part of infrastructure, i.e. if something in the network fails, there is backup infrastructure, power or cooling so it can operate as normal. The data centre that Anchor uses for our shared hosting and VPS is brand new, with 24/7 security and state of the art technologies, located in Sydney.

On the flip side of this location conundrum is how you may serve customers in locations outside of Australia which can now be achieved via a public cloud offering such as Amazon Web Services (AWS). With AWS, your business can leverage a network of global data centres around the globe so you can serve your customers and audiences wherever they are located! For example, if your business operates in Australia and you have customers in Singapore, United Kingdom and USA, you can now have your application deployed in all four data centres so all of your customer sessions can be routed to the closest server.

Anchor provides fully managed hosting in our own Sydney based data centre, or on public clouds such as AWS. Get in touch to find out more about our managed hosting services.

The post How Important is Hosting Location? Questions to Ask Your Hosting Provider appeared first on AWS Managed Services by Anchor.

EC2 Price Reductions – Reserved Instances & M4 Instances

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/ec2-price-reductions-reserved-instances-m4-instances/

As AWS grows, we continue to find ways to make it an even better value. We work with our suppliers to drive down costs while also finding ways to build hardware and software that is increasingly more efficient and cost-effective.

In addition to reducing our prices on a regular and frequent basis, we also give customers options that help them to optimize their use of AWS. For example, Reserved Instances (first launched in 2009) allow Amazon EC2 users to obtain a significant discount when compared to On-Demand Pricing, along with a capacity reservation when used in a specific Availability Zone.

Our customers use multiple strategies to purchase and manage their Reserved Instances. Some prefer to make an upfront payment and earn a bigger discount; some prefer to pay nothing upfront and get a smaller (yet still substantial) discount. In the middle, others are happiest with a partial upfront payment and a discount that falls in between the two other options. In order to meet this wide range of preferences we are adding 3 Year No Upfront Standard Reserved Instances for most of the current generation instance types. We are also reducing prices for No Upfront Reserved Instances, Convertible Reserved Instances, and General Purpose M4 instances (both On-Demand and Reserved Instances). This is our 61st AWS Price Reduction.

Here are the details (all changes and reductions are effective immediately):

New No Upfront Payment Option for 3 Year Standard RIs – We previously offered a no upfront payment option with a 1 year term for Standard RIs. Today, we are adding a No Upfront payment option with a 3 year term for C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2 Standard Reserved Instances.

Lower Prices for No Upfront Reserved Instances – We are lowering the prices for No Upfront 1 Year Standard and 3 Year Convertible Reserved Instances for the C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2 instance types by up to 17%, depending on instance type, operating system, and region.

Here are the average reductions for No Upfront Reserved Instances for Linux in several representative regions:

US East (Northern Virginia)
US West (Oregon)
EU (Ireland)
Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
Asia Pacific (Singapore)
C4 -11% -11% -10% -10% -9%
M4 -16% -16% -16% -16% -17%
R4 -10% -10% -10% -10% -10%

Lower Prices for Convertible Reserved Instances – Convertible Reserved Instances allow you to change the instance family and other parameters associated with the RI at any time; this allows you to adjust your RI inventory as your application evolves and your needs change. We are lowering the prices for 3 Year Convertible Reserved Instances by up to 21% for most of the current generation instances (C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2).

Here are the average reductions for Convertible Reserved Instances for Linux in several representative regions:

US East (Northern Virginia)
US West (Oregon)
EU (Ireland)
Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
Asia Pacific (Singapore)
C4 -13% -13% -5% -5% -11%
M4 -19% -19% -17% -15% -21%
R4 -15% -15% -15% -15% -15%

Similar reductions will go into effect for nearly all of the other regions as well.

Lower Prices for M4 Instances – We are lowering the prices for M4 Linux instances by up to 7%.

Visit the EC2 Reserved Instance Pricing Page and the EC2 Pricing Page, or consult the AWS Price List API for all of the new prices.

Learn More
The following blog posts contain additional information about some of the improvements that we have made to the EC2 Reserved Instance model:

You can also read AWS Pricing and the Reserved Instances FAQ to learn more.

Jeff;

AWS Global Summits are Coming!

Post Syndicated from Ana Visneski original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-global-summits-are-coming/

One of the first things I got to do when I joined the AWS Blog team was to attend the summit in New York City last August. Meeting all of our customers, checking out Game Day, and getting to see the enthusiasm of the AWS community made me even more excited to be starting my adventure working on the blog with Jeff.

This year’s AWS Summit dates have been announced and whether you are new to the cloud or an experienced user, you can always learn something new at an AWS Summit. These free events, held around the world, are designed to educate you about the AWS platform. Our team has built a program that offers a multitude of learning opportunities covering a broad range of topics, and technical depth. Join us to develop the skills needed to design, deploy, and operate infrastructure and applications on AWS.

We have Summits taking place across North America, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Japan, and Greater China. To see the full list of cities and dates, check out the AWS Summits page.

Registration is now open for six locations including; San Francisco, Sydney, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Seoul, Manila, and Bangkok. You can also subscribe to the AWS Events RSS feed, follow @awscloud, and find us on Facebook.

And you never know, along with learning all sorts of new things at the summit, you just might run into me or Jeff and snag a blog sticker too!

-Ana

Now Available – I3 Instances for Demanding, I/O Intensive Applications

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/now-available-i3-instances-for-demanding-io-intensive-applications/

On the first day of AWS re:Invent I published an EC2 Instance Update and promised to share additional information with you as soon as I had it.

Today I am happy to be able to let you know that we are making six sizes of our new I3 instances available in fifteen AWS regions! Designed for I/O intensive workloads and equipped with super-efficient NVMe SSD storage, these instances can deliver up to 3.3 million IOPS at a 4 KB block and up to 16 GB/second of sequential disk throughput. This makes them a great fit for any workload that requires high throughput and low latency including relational databases, NoSQL databases, search engines, data warehouses, real-time analytics, and disk-based caches. When compared to the I2 instances, I3 instances deliver storage that is less expensive and more dense, with the ability to deliver substantially more IOPS and more network bandwidth per CPU core.

The Specs
Here are the instance sizes and the associated specs:

Instance Name vCPU Count Memory
Instance Storage (NVMe SSD) Price/Hour
i3.large 2 15.25 GiB 0.475 TB $0.15
i3.xlarge 4 30.5 GiB 0.950 TB $0.31
i3.2xlarge 8 61 GiB 1.9 TB $0.62
i3.4xlarge 16 122 GiB 3.8 TB (2 disks) $1.25
i3.8xlarge 32 244 GiB 7.6 TB (4 disks) $2.50
i3.16xlarge 64 488 GiB 15.2 TB (8 disks) $4.99

The prices shown are for On-Demand instances in the US East (Northern Virginia) Region; see the EC2 pricing page for more information.

I3 instances are available in On-Demand, Reserved, and Spot form in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), US West (Northern California), US East (Ohio), Canada (Central), South America (São Paulo), EU (Ireland), EU (London), EU (Frankfurt), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Sydney), and AWS GovCloud (US) Regions. You can also use them as Dedicated Hosts and as Dedicated Instances.

These instances support Hardware Virtualization (HVM) AMIs only, and must be run within a Virtual Private Cloud. In order to benefit from the performance made possible by the NVMe storage, you must run one of the following operating systems:

  • Amazon Linux AMI
  • RHEL – 6.5 or better
  • CentOS – 7.0 or better
  • Ubuntu – 16.04 or 16.10
  • SUSE 12
  • SUSE 11 with SP3
  • Windows Server 2008 R2, 2012 R2, and 2016

The I3 instances offer up to 8 NVMe SSDs. In order to achieve the best possible throughput and to get as many IOPS as possible, you can stripe multiple volumes together, or spread the I/O workload across them in another way.

Each vCPU (Virtual CPU) is a hardware hyperthread on an Intel E5-2686 v4 (Broadwell) processor running at 2.3 GHz. The processor supports the AVX2 instructions, along with Turbo Boost and NUMA.

Go For Launch
The I3 instances are available today in fifteen AWS regions and you can start to use them right now.

Jeff;

 

Amazon Cloud Directory – A Cloud-Native Directory for Hierarchical Data

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-cloud-directory-a-cloud-native-directory-for-hierarchical-data/

Our customers have traditionally used directories (typically Active Directory Lightweight Directory Service or LDAP-based) to manage hierarchically organized data. Device registries, course catalogs, network configurations, and user directories are often represented as hierarchies, sometimes with multiple types of relationships between objects in the same collection. For example, a user directory could have one hierarchy based on physical location (country, state, city, building, floor, and office), a second one based on projects and billing codes, and a third based on the management chain. However, traditional directory technologies do not support the use of multiple relationships in a single directory; you’d have to create and maintain additional directories if you needed to do this.

Scale is another important challenge. The fundamental operations on a hierarchy involve locating the parent or the child object of a given object. Given that hierarchies can be used to represent large, nested collections of information, these fundamental operations must be as efficient as possible, regardless of how many objects there are or how deeply they are nested. Traditional directories can be difficult to scale, and the pain only grows if you are using two or more in order to represent multiple hierarchies.

New Amazon Cloud Directory
Today we are launching Cloud Directory. This service is purpose-built for storing large amounts of strongly typed hierarchical data as described above. With the ability to scale to hundreds of millions of objects while remaining cost-effective, Cloud Directory is a great fit for all sorts of cloud and mobile applications.

Cloud Directory is a building block that already powers other AWS services including Amazon Cognito and AWS Organizations. Because it plays such a crucial role within AWS, it was designed with scalability, high availability, and security in mind (data is encrypted at rest and while in transit).

Amazon Cloud Directory is a managed service; you don’t need to think about installing or patching software, managing servers, or scaling any storage or compute infrastructure. You simply define the schemas, create a directory, and then populate your directory by making calls to the Cloud Directory API. This API is designed for speed and for scale, with efficient, batch-based read and write functions.

The long-lasting nature of a directory, combined with the scale and the diversity of use cases that it must support over its lifetime, brings another challenge to light. Experience has shown that static schemas lack the flexibility to adapt to the changes that arise with scale and with new use cases. In order to address this challenge and to make the directory future-proof, Cloud Directory is built around a model that explicitly makes room for change. You simply extend your existing schemas by adding new facets. This is a safe operation that leaves existing data intact so that existing applications will continue to work as expected. Combining schemas and facets allows you to represent multiple hierarchies within the same directory. For example, your first hierarchy could mirror your org chart. Later, you could add an additional facet to track some additional properties for each employee, perhaps a second phone number or a social network handle. After that, you can could create a geographically oriented hierarchy within the same data: Countries, states, buildings, floors, offices, and employees.

As I mentioned, other parts of AWS already use Amazon Cloud Directory. Cognito User Pools use Cloud Directory to offer application-specific user directories with support for user sign-up, sign-in and multi-factor authentication. With Cognito Your User Pools, you can easily and securely add sign-up and sign-in functionality to your mobile and web apps with a fully-managed service that scales to support hundreds of millions of users. Similarly, AWS Organizations uses Cloud Directory to support creation of groups of related AWS accounts and makes good use of multiple hierarchies to enforce a wide range of policies.

Before we dive in, let’s take a quick look at some important Amazon Cloud Directory concepts:

Directories are named, and must have at least one schema. Directories store objects, relationships between objects, schemas, and policies.

Facets model the data by defining required and allowable attributes. Each facet provides an independent scope for attribute names; this allows multiple applications that share a directory to safely and independently extend a given schema without fear of collision or confusion.

Schemas define the “shape” of data stored in a directory by making reference to one or more facets. Each directory can have one or more schemas. Schemas exist in one of three phases (Development, Published, or Applied). Development schemas can be modified; Published schemas are immutable. Amazon Cloud Directory includes a collection of predefined schemas for people, organizations, and devices. The combination of schemas and facets leaves the door open to significant additions to the initial data model and subject area over time, while ensuring that existing applications will still work as expected.

Attributes are the actual stored data. Each attribute is named and typed; data types include Boolean, binary (blob), date/time, number, and string. Attributes can be mandatory or optional, and immutable or editable. The definition of an attribute can specify a rule that is used to validate the length and/or content of an attribute before it is stored or updated. Binary and string objects can be length-checked against minimum and maximum lengths. A rule can indicate that a string must have a value chosen from a list, or that a number is within a given range.

Objects are stored in directories, have attributes, and are defined by a schema. Each object can have multiple children and multiple parents, as specified by the schema. You can use the multiple-parent feature to create multiple, independent hierarchies within a single directory (sometimes known as a forest of trees).

Policies can be specified at any level of the hierarchy, and are inherited by child objects. Cloud Directory does not interpret or assign any meaning to policies, leaving this up to the application. Policies can be used to specify and control access permissions, user rights, device characteristics, and so forth.

Creating a Directory
Let’s create a directory! I start by opening up the AWS Directory Service Console and clicking on the first Create directory button:

I enter a name for my directory (users), choose the person schema (which happens to have two facets; more about this in a moment), and click on Next:

The predefined (AWS) schema will be copied to my directory. I give it a name and a version, and click on Publish:

Then I review the configuration and click on Launch:

The directory is created, and I can then write code to add objects to it.

Pricing and Availability
Cloud Directory is available now in the US East (Northern Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), EU (Ireland), Asia Pacific (Sydney), and Asia Pacific (Singapore) Regions and you can start using it today.

Pricing is based on three factors: the amount of data that you store, the number of reads, and the number of writes (these prices are for US East (Northern Virginia)):

  • Storage – $0.25 / GB / month
  • Reads – $0.0040 for every 10,000 reads
  • Writes – $0.0043 for every 1,000 writes

In the Works
We have some big plans for Cloud Directory!

While the priorities can change due to customer feedback, we are working on cross-region replication, AWS Lambda integration, and the ability to create new directories via AWS CloudFormation.

Jeff;

AWS IPv6 Update – Global Support Spanning 15 Regions & Multiple AWS Services

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-ipv6-update-global-support-spanning-15-regions-multiple-aws-services/

We’ve been working to add IPv6 support to many different parts of AWS over the last couple of years, starting with Elastic Load Balancing, AWS IoT, Amazon Route 53, Amazon CloudFront, AWS WAF, and S3 Transfer Acceleration, all building up to last month’s announcement of IPv6 support for EC2 instances in Virtual Private Clouds (initially available for use in the US East (Ohio) Region).

Today I am happy to share the news that IPv6 support for EC2 instances in VPCs is now available in a total of fifteen regions, along with Application Load Balancer support for IPv6 in nine of those regions.

You can now build and deploy applications that can use IPv6 addresses to communicate with servers, object storage, load balancers, and content distribution services. In accord with the latest guidelines for IPv6 support from Apple and other vendors, your mobile applications can now make use of IPv6 addresses when they communicate with AWS.

IPv6 Now in 15 Regions
IPv6 support for EC2 instances in new and existing VPCs is now available in the US East (Northern Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Northern California), US West (Oregon), South America (São Paulo), Canada (Central), EU (Ireland), EU (Frankfurt), EU (London), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), and AWS GovCloud (US) Regions and you can start using it today!

You can enable IPv6 from the AWS Management Console when you create a new VPC:

Application Load Balancer
Application Load Balancers in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Northern California), US West (Oregon), South America (São Paulo), EU (Ireland), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), and AWS GovCloud (US) Regions now support IPv6 in dual-stack mode, making them accessible via IPv4 or IPv6 (we expect to add support for the remaining regions within a few weeks).

Simply enable the dualstack option when you configure the ALB and then make sure that your security groups allow or deny IPv6 traffic in accord with your requirements. Here’s how you select the dualstack option:

You can also enable this option by running the set-ip-address-type command or by making a call to the SetIpAddressType function. To learn more about this new feature, read the Load Balancer Address Type documentation.

IPv6 Recap
Here are the IPv6 launches that we made in the run-up to the launch of IPv6 support for EC2 instances in VPCs:

CloudFront, WAF, and S3 Transfer Acceleration – This launch let you enable IPv6 support for individual CloudFront distributions. Newly created distributions supported IPv6 by default and existing distributions could be upgraded with a couple of clicks (if you using Route 53 alias records, you also need to add an AAAA record to the domain). With IPv6 support enabled, the new addresses will show up in the CloudFront Access Logs. The launch also let you use AWS WAF to inspect requests that arrive via IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and to use a new, dual-stack endpoint for S3 Transfer Acceleration.

Route 53 – This launch added support for DNS queries over IPv6 (support for the requisite AAAA records was already in place). A subsequent launch added support for Health Checks of IPv6 Endpoints, allowing you to monitor the health of the endpoints and to arrange for DNS failover.

IoT – This product launch included IPv6 support for message exchange between devices and AWS IoT.

S3 – This launch added support for access to S3 buckets via dual-stack endpoints.

Elastic Load Balancing – This launch added publicly routable IPv6 addresses for Elastic Load Balancers.

Jeff;

 

New SOC 2 Report Available: Confidentiality

Post Syndicated from Chad Woolf original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/new-soc-2-report-available-confidentiality/

AICPA SOC logo

As with everything at Amazon, the success of our security and compliance program is primarily measured by one thing: our customers’ success. Our customers drive our portfolio of compliance reports, attestations, and certifications that support their efforts in running a secure and compliant cloud environment. As a result of our engagement with key customers across the globe, we are happy to announce the publication of our new SOC 2 Confidentiality report. This report is available now through AWS Artifact in the AWS Management Console.

We’ve been publishing SOC 2 Security and Availability Trust Principle reports for years now, and the Confidentiality criteria is complementary to the Security and Availability criteria. The SOC 2 Confidentiality Trust Principle, developed by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) Assurance Services Executive Committee (ASEC), outlines additional criteria focused on further safeguarding data, limiting and reducing access to authorized users, and addressing the effective and timely disposal of customer content after deletion by the customer.

The AWS SOC Report covers the data centers in the US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), US West (N. California), AWS GovCloud (US), EU (Ireland), EU (Frankfurt), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), and South America (São Paulo) Regions. See AWS Global Infrastructure for more information.

To request this report:

  1. Sign in to your AWS account.
  2. In the list of services under Security, Identity, and Compliance, choose Compliance Reports, and on the next page choose the report you would like to review. Note that you might need to request approval from Amazon for some reports. Requests are reviewed and approved by Amazon within 24 hours.

Want to know more? See answers to some frequently asked questions about the AWS SOC program.  

– Chad