Tag Archives: opensource

Is blockchain a security topic? (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/740929/rss

At Opensource.com, Mike Bursell looks at blockchain security from the angle of trust. Unlike cryptocurrencies, which are pseudonymous typically, other kinds of blockchains will require mapping users to real-life identities; that raises the trust issue.

What’s really interesting is that, if you’re thinking about moving to a permissioned blockchain or distributed ledger with permissioned actors, then you’re going to have to spend some time thinking about trust. You’re unlikely to be using a proof-of-work system for making blocks—there’s little point in a permissioned system—so who decides what comprises a “valid” block that the rest of the system should agree on? Well, you can rotate around some (or all) of the entities, or you can have a random choice, or you can elect a small number of über-trusted entities. Combinations of these schemes may also work.

If these entities all exist within one trust domain, which you control, then fine, but what if they’re distributors, or customers, or partners, or other banks, or manufacturers, or semi-autonomous drones, or vehicles in a commercial fleet? You really need to ensure that the trust relationships that you’re encoding into your implementation/deployment truly reflect the legal and IRL [in real life] trust relationships that you have with the entities that are being represented in your system.

And the problem is that, once you’ve deployed that system, it’s likely to be very difficult to backtrack, adjust, or reset the trust relationships that you’ve designed.”

7 tools for analyzing performance in Linux with bcc/BPF (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/739861/rss

Brendan Gregg introduces a
set of BPF-based tracing tools
on opensource.com.
Traditional analysis of filesystem performance focuses on block I/O
statistics—what you commonly see printed by the iostat(1) tool and plotted
by many performance-monitoring GUIs. Those statistics show how the disks
are performing, but not really the filesystem. Often you care more about
the filesystem’s performance than the disks, since it’s the filesystem that
applications make requests to and wait for. And the performance of
filesystems can be quite different from that of disks! Filesystems may
serve reads entirely from memory cache and also populate that cache via a
read-ahead algorithm and for write-back caching. xfsslower shows filesystem
performance—what the applications directly experience.

An intro to machine learning (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/734319/rss

Ulrich Drepper, once again an engineer at Red Hat, writes
about machine learning
on opensource.com.
Machine learning and artificial intelligence (ML/AI) mean different
things to different people, but the newest approaches have one thing in
common: They are based on the idea that a program’s output should be
created mostly automatically from a high-dimensional and possibly huge
dataset, with minimal or no intervention or guidance from a human. Open
source tools are used in a variety of machine learning and artificial
intelligence projects. In this article, I’ll provide an overview of the
state of machine learning today.

An intro to machine learning (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/734319/rss

Ulrich Drepper, once again an engineer at Red Hat, writes
about machine learning
on opensource.com.
Machine learning and artificial intelligence (ML/AI) mean different
things to different people, but the newest approaches have one thing in
common: They are based on the idea that a program’s output should be
created mostly automatically from a high-dimensional and possibly huge
dataset, with minimal or no intervention or guidance from a human. Open
source tools are used in a variety of machine learning and artificial
intelligence projects. In this article, I’ll provide an overview of the
state of machine learning today.

Netflix develops Morse code search option

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/netflix-morse-code/

What happens when Netflix gives its staff two days to hack the platform and create innovative (and often unnecessary) variations on the streaming service?

This. This is what happens.

Hack Day Summer 2017 Teleflix

Uploaded by NetflixOpenSource on 2017-08-28.

Netflix Hack Day

Twice a year, the wonderful team at Netflix is given two days to go nuts and create fun, random builds, taking inspiration from Netflix and its content. So far they’ve debuted a downgraded version of the streaming platform played on an original Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), turned hit show Narcos into a video game, and utilised VR technology into many more builds that, while they’ll never be made public, have no doubt led to some lightbulb moments for the creative teams involved.

DarNES – Netflix Hack Day – Winter 2015

In a world… where devices proliferate… darNES digs back in time to provide Netflix access to the original Nintendo Entertainment System.

Kevin Spacey? More like ‘Kevin Spacebar’, am I right? Aha…ha…haaaa…I’ll get my coat.

Teleflix

The Teleflix build from this summer’s Hack Day is obviously the best one yet, as it uses a Raspberry Pi. By writing code that decodes the dots and dashes from an original 1920s telegraph (provided by AT&T, and lovingly restored by the team using ketchup!) into keystrokes, they’re able to search for their favourite shows via Morse code.

Netflix Morse Code

Morse code, for the unaware, is a method for transmitting letters and numbers via a standardised series of beeps, clicks, or flashes. Stuck in a sticky situation? Three dots followed by three dashes and a further three dots gives you ‘SOS’. Sorted. So long as there’s someone there to see or hear it, who also understands Morse Code.

Morse Code

Morse code was a method of transmiting textual information as a series of on-off tones that could be directly understood by a skilled listener. Mooo-Theme: http://soundcloud.com/mooojvm/mooo-theme

So if you’d like to watch, for example, The Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, you simply send: – …. . / ..- -. -… .-. . .- -.- .- -… .-.. . / -.- .. — — -.– / … -.-. …. — .. -.. – and you’re set. Easy!

To reach Netflix, the team used a Playstation 4. However, if you want to skip a tech step, you could stream Netflix directly to your Raspberry Pi by following this relatively new tutorial. Nobody at Pi Towers has tried it out yet, but if you have we’d be interested to see how you got on in the comments below.

And if you’d like to play around a little more with the Raspberry Pi and Morse code, you can pick up your own Morse code key, or build one using conductive components such as buttons or bananas, and try it out for yourself.

Alex’s Netflix-themed Morse code quiz

Just for fun, here are the titles of some of my favourite shows to watch on Netflix, translated into Morse code. Using the key below, why not take a break and challenge your mind to translate them back into English. Reward yourself +10 imaginary House Points for each correct answer.

Netflix Morse Code

  1. -.. — -.-. – — .-. / .– …. —
  2. …. .- -. -. .. -… .- .-..
  3. – …. . / — .-
  4. … . -. … . —..
  5. .— . … … .. -.-. .- / .— — -. . …
  6. –. .. .-.. — — .-. . / –. .. .-. .-.. …
  7. –. .-.. — .–

The post Netflix develops Morse code search option appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Patrick McHardy and copyright profiteering (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/731941/rss

Over at Opensource.com, Heather Meeker, a lawyer who specializes in open-source licensing, published a lengthy FAQ on the GPL enforcement efforts of netfilter developer Patrick McHardy. In it, Meeker looks at how much code McHardy has contributed, specifics of the German legal system that may make it attractive to copyright trolling (or profiteering), and steps that companies and others can take to oppose these kinds of efforts.
Copyright ownership in large projects such as the Linux kernel is complicated. It’s like a patchwork quilt. When developers contribute to the kernel, they don’t sign any contribution agreement or assignment of copyright. The GPL covers their contributions, and the recipient of a copy of the software gets a license, under GPL, directly from all the authors. (The kernel project uses a document called a Developer Certificate of Origin, which does not grant any copyright license.) The contributors’ individual rights exist side-by-side with rights in the project as a whole. So, an author like McHardy would generally own the copyright in the contributions he created, but not in the whole kernel.

A homebrew Pi kit for home brewing

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/homebrew-beer-brewing-pi/

While the rest of us are forced to leave the house to obtain a tasty brew, beer master Christoper Aedo has incorporated a Raspberry Pi into his home brewing system for ultimate ‘sit-back-and-relax’ homebrew home brew.

homebrew home brew Raspberry Pi

KEG! KEG! KEG! KEG!

I drink and I know things

Having brewed his own beer for several years, Christopher was no novice in the pursuit of creating the perfect pint*. He was already brewing 10 gallons at a time when he decided to go all electric with a Raspberry Pi. Inspiration struck when he stumbled upon the StrangeBrew Elsinore Java server, and he went to work planning the best setup for the job:

Before I could talk myself out of the project, I decided to start buying parts. My basic design was a Hot Liquor Tank (HLT) and boil kettle with 5500W heating elements in them, plus a mash tun with a false bottom. I would use a pump to recirculate the mash through a 50 foot stainless coil in the HLT (a “heat exchanger recirculating mash system”, known as HERMS). I would need a second pump to circulate the water in the HLT, and to help with transferring water to the mash tun. All of the electrical components would be controlled with a Raspberry Pi.

Homebrew hardware setup

First, he set up the electrical side of his homebrew system using The Electric Brewing Company‘s walkthrough, swapping out the 12V solid-state relays for ones that manage the 3V needed by the Pi. Aedo then implemented the temperature sensors and controls of these relays. He used Hilitchi DS18B20 Waterproof Temperature Sensors connected to a 1-Wire bus and learned how to manage the relays in this tutorial.

Christopher wanted to be able to move his system around his property. Therefore, he squeezed all the electrical components of the build into a waterproof project box. For cooling purposes, he integrated copper shims and heat sinks.

homebrew home brew raspberry pi

Among the wires, wires, and more wires sits a Raspberry Pi, bottom left.

A brew-tiful build

With the hardware sorted, he took on the project’s software next. Although he had been inspired by it, Christopher decided to move away from the StrangeBrew Elsinore project in favour of the Python-based CraftBeerPi by active repo maintainer Manuel Fritsch.

homebrew home brew raspberry pi

The CraftBeerPi dashboard

This package allowed him to configure his chosen GPIO pins and set up the appropriate sensors. In fact, the setup process was so easy that Christoper also implemented a secondhand fridge as a fermentation chamber.

Duff Beer for me, Duff Beer for you…

In his recently released article on opensource.com, Aedo goes into far more detail. So if you want to create your own brewing kit, it offers all the info you need to get going.

Christoper attributes a lot of his build to the Hosehead, Electric Brewery, and CraftBeerPi projects. Using their resources and those of StrangeBrew Elsinore, any home brewer can control at least part of their system via a Raspberry Pi. Moreover, they can also keep track of their brewery stock levels via the wonderfully named Kegerface display.

We love seeing projects like this that take inspiration from others and build on them. We also love beer.

How about you? Have you created any sort of beer brewing system, from scratch or with the help of an existing project? Then make sure to share it with us in the comments below.

Duff man homebrew

 

*Did you know the British pint is larger than the American pint?

The post A homebrew Pi kit for home brewing appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Dynamic tracing in Linux user and kernel space (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/727318/rss

Over at Opensource.com, Pratyush Anand looks at dynamic tracing for both user space programs and the kernel. He gives an introduction to using uprobes and kprobes directly as well as using them via the perf tool. “We can insert kprobe within most of the symbols in /proc/kallsyms; other symbols have been blacklisted in the kernel. A kprobe insertion into the kprobe_events file for the symbols that aren’t compatible with a kprobe insertion should result in a write error. A probe can be inserted at some offset from the symbol base, as well. Like uprobe, we can also trace the return of a function using kretprobe. The value of a local variable can also be printed in trace output.

4 cool facts you should know about FreeDOS (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/726831/rss

In honor of the 23rd anniversary of FreeDOS, project founder Jim Hall has written about the project over at Opensource.com. The free MS-DOS replacement has been in around for longer than MS-DOS was and is still under active development. “DOS is an old system and the original didn’t support networking out of the box. Typically, you had to install device drivers for your hardware to connect to a network, which was usually a simple network like IPX. Few systems supported TCP/IP.

With FreeDOS, not only do we include a TCP/IP networking stack, we include tools and programs that let you browse the web. Use Dillo for a graphical web browser experience, or Lynx to view the web as formatted plain text. If you just want to grab the HTML code and manipulate it yourself, use Wget or Curl.”

What’s new in OpenStack Ocata (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original https://lwn.net/Articles/720704/rss

Over at Opensource.com, Rich Bowen looks at some of the new features in OpenStack Ocata, which was released back in February.
First, it’s important to remember that the Ocata cycle was very short. We usually do a release every six months, but with the rescheduling of the OpenStack Summit and OpenStack PTG (Project Team Gathering) events, Ocata was squeezed into 4 months to realign the releases with these events. So, while some projects squeezed a surprising amount of work into that time, most projects spent the time on smaller features and finishing up tasks leftover from the previous release.

At a high level, the Ocata release was all about upgrades and containers, themes that I heard from almost every team I interviewed. Developers spoke of how we can make upgrades smoother, and how we can deploy bits of the infrastructure in containers. These two things are closely related, and there seems to be more cross-project collaboration this time around than I’ve noticed in the past.”

Grok the GIL (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/720549/rss

Here’s an
opensource.com article
describing how the Python global interpreter
lock works and some nuances of writing threaded Python code.
Although the GIL does not excuse us from the need for locks, it does
mean there is no need for fine-grained locking. In a free-threaded language
like Java, programmers make an effort to lock shared data for the shortest
time possible, to reduce thread contention and allow maximum
parallelism. Because threads cannot run Python in parallel, however,
there’s no advantage to fine-grained locking. So long as no thread holds a
lock while it sleeps, does I/O, or some other GIL-dropping operation, you
should use the coarsest, simplest locks possible.

Google’s new open-source site

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/718273/rss

Google has announced
the launch of opensource.google.com. “Today, we’re launching opensource.google.com, a new website for Google Open Source that ties together all of our initiatives with information on how we use, release, and support open source.

This new site showcases the breadth and depth of our love for open source. It will contain the expected things: our programs, organizations we support, and a comprehensive list of open source projects we’ve released. But it also contains something unexpected: a look under the hood at how we “do” open source.”

Internet-enable your microcontroller projects for under $6 with ESP8266 (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from ris original https://lwn.net/Articles/715174/rss

David Egts takes
a look
at the ESP8266 Wi-Fi chip, on Opensource.com. “What is
the ESP8266 exactly? The ESP8266 is a 32-bit RISC CPU made by Espressif Systems. Its clock runs at
80MHz, and it supports up to 16MB of flash RAM for program storage. These
specifications are quite impressive when compared to an Arduino UNO, which
runs at 16MHz, only has 32KB of RAM, and is several times more
expensive. Another big difference is that the ESP8266 requires only 3.3
volts of power while most Arduinos require 5 volts. Keep this voltage
difference in mind when extending your existing Arduino knowledge and
projects to the ESP8266 to prevent magic smoke.

Top 10 FOSS legal stories in 2016 (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/714719/rss

Mark Radcliffe surveys
the most important legal issues
surrounding free and open-source
software on opensource.com. “The challenge for the Linux community
is to decide when to bring litigation to enforce the GPLv2. What it means
in many situations is that to be compliant is currently left to individual
contributors rather than being based on a set of community norms. As
Theodore Ts’o noted, this issue really concerns project
governance. Although permitting individual contributors to make these
decisions may be the Platonic ideal, the tradeoff is ambiguity for users
trying to be compliant as well as the potential for rogue members of the
community (like McHardy) to create problems. The members of the Linux
community and other FOSS communities need to consider how they can best
assist the members of their community to understand what compliance means
and to determine when litigation might be useful in furtherance of the
community’s goals.

What to know before jumping into a career as an open source lawyer (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/713855/rss

Luis Villa talks about
the open-source lawyer career path
on opensource.com.
First, going to law school is a gamble. Recent American law school
graduates must fight fiercely for one of the few jobs that can cover their
massive debt, and roughly 50% fail the California bar. And, the open source
gamble is bigger, because the opportunities are even fewer.

How to get up and running with sweet Orange Pi (Opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from ris original https://lwn.net/Articles/713072/rss

David Egts reviews the
Orange Pi
at Opensource.com. “Compared to a $5 Raspberry Pi Zero, the Orange Pi Zero is only a few dollars more expensive, but it is much more useful out of the box because it has onboard Internet connectivity and four CPU cores instead of one. This onboard networking capability also makes the Orange Pi Zero a better gift than a Raspberry Pi Zero because the Raspberry Pi Zero needs Micro-USB-to-USB adapters and a Wi-Fi USB adapter to connect to the Internet. When giving IoT devices as gifts, you want the recipient to enjoy the product as quickly and easily as possible, instead of giving something incomplete that will just end up on a shelf.

7 notable legal developments in open source in 2016 (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from corbet original http://lwn.net/Articles/710398/rss

Richard Fontana reviews
legal development in 2016
on opensource.com.
The Federal Source Code Policy is notable for placing emphasis on
adhering to proper standards for open development as well as open source
licensing. Agencies releasing open source code are directed to do so in a
manner that encourages engagement with existing communities, fosters growth
of new communities, and facilitates contribution both by the community to
the federal code and by federal employees and contractors to upstream
projects.

Top open source creative tools in 2016 (opensource.com)

Post Syndicated from jake original http://lwn.net/Articles/710094/rss

Over at opensource.com, Máirín Duffy has a lengthy overview of the open-source creative tools available. She covers the core applications (GIMP, Inkscape, Scribus, MyPaint, Blender, and Krita) for design, as well as tools for video, photography, 2D animation, audio, music, and more. “These six applications are the juggernauts of open source design tools. They are well-established, mature projects with full feature sets, stable releases, and active development communities. All six applications are cross-platform; each is available on Linux, OS X, and Windows, although in some cases the Linux versions are the most quickly updated. These applications are so widely known, I’ve also included highlights of the latest features available that you may have missed if you don’t closely follow their development.

If you’d like to follow new developments more closely, and perhaps even help out by testing the latest development versions of the first four of these applications—GIMP, Inkscape, Scribus, and MyPaint—you can install them easily on Linux using Flatpak.”