Tag Archives: policy

Now Use AWS IAM to Delete a Service-Linked Role When You No Longer Require an AWS Service to Perform Actions on Your Behalf

Post Syndicated from Ujjwal Pugalia original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/now-use-aws-iam-to-delete-a-service-linked-role-when-you-no-longer-require-an-aws-service-to-perform-actions-on-your-behalf/

Earlier this year, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) introduced service-linked roles, which provide you an easy and secure way to delegate permissions to AWS services. Each service-linked role delegates permissions to an AWS service, which is called its linked service. Service-linked roles help with monitoring and auditing requirements by providing a transparent way to understand all actions performed on your behalf because AWS CloudTrail logs all actions performed by the linked service using service-linked roles. For information about which services support service-linked roles, see AWS Services That Work with IAM. Over time, more AWS services will support service-linked roles.

Today, IAM added support for the deletion of service-linked roles through the IAM console and the IAM API/CLI. This means you now can revoke permissions from the linked service to create and manage AWS resources in your account. When you delete a service-linked role, the linked service no longer has the permissions to perform actions on your behalf. To ensure your AWS services continue to function as expected when you delete a service-linked role, IAM validates that you no longer have resources that require the service-linked role to function properly. This prevents you from inadvertently revoking permissions required by an AWS service to manage your existing AWS resources and helps you maintain your resources in a consistent state. If there are any resources in your account that require the service-linked role, you will receive an error when you attempt to delete the service-linked role, and the service-linked role will remain in your account. If you do not have any resources that require the service-linked role, you can delete the service-linked role and IAM will remove the service-linked role from your account.

In this blog post, I show how to delete a service-linked role by using the IAM console. To learn more about how to delete service-linked roles by using the IAM API/CLI, see the DeleteServiceLinkedRole API documentation.

Note: The IAM console does not currently support service-linked role deletion for Amazon Lex, but you can delete your service-linked role by using the Amazon Lex console. To learn more, see Service Permissions.

How to delete a service-linked role by using the IAM console

If you no longer need to use an AWS service that uses a service-linked role, you can remove permissions from that service by deleting the service-linked role through the IAM console. To delete a service-linked role, you must have permissions for the iam:DeleteServiceLinkedRole action. For example, the following IAM policy grants the permission to delete service-linked roles used by Amazon Redshift. To learn more about working with IAM policies, see Working with Policies.

{ 
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "AllowDeletionOfServiceLinkedRolesForRedshift",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": ["iam:DeleteServiceLinkedRole"],
            "Resource": ["arn:aws:iam::*:role/aws-service-role/redshift.amazonaws.com/AWSServiceRoleForRedshift*"]
	 }
    ]
}

To delete a service-linked role by using the IAM console:

  1. Navigate to the IAM console and choose Roles from the navigation pane.

Screenshot of the Roles page in the IAM console

  1. Choose the service-linked role you want to delete and then choose Delete role. In this example, I choose the  AWSServiceRoleForRedshift service-linked role.

Screenshot of the AWSServiceRoleForRedshift service-linked role

  1. A dialog box asks you to confirm that you want to delete the service-linked role you have chosen. In the Last activity column, you can see when the AWS service last used the service-linked role, which tells you when the linked service last used the service-linked role to perform an action on your behalf. If you want to continue to delete the service-linked role, choose Yes, delete to delete the service-linked role.

Screenshot of the "Delete role" window

  1. IAM then checks whether you have any resources that require the service-linked role you are trying to delete. While IAM checks, you will see the status message, Deletion in progress, below the role name. Screenshot showing "Deletion in progress"
  1. If no resources require the service-linked role, IAM deletes the role from your account and displays a success message on the console.

Screenshot of the success message

  1. If there are AWS resources that require the service-linked role you are trying to delete, you will see the status message, Deletion failed, below the role name.

Screenshot showing the "Deletion failed"

  1. If you choose View details, you will see a message that explains the deletion failed because there are resources that use the service-linked role.
    Screenshot showing details about why the role deletion failed
  2. Choose View Resources to view the Amazon Resource Names (ARNs) of the first five resources that require the service-linked role. You can delete the service-linked role only after you delete all resources that require the service-linked role. In this example, only one resource requires the service-linked role.

Conclusion

Service-linked roles make it easier for you to delegate permissions to AWS services to create and manage AWS resources on your behalf and to understand all actions the service will perform on your behalf. If you no longer need to use an AWS service that uses a service-linked role, you can remove permissions from that service by deleting the service-linked role through the IAM console. However, before you delete a service-linked role, you must delete all the resources associated with that role to ensure that your resources remain in a consistent state.

If you have any questions, submit a comment in the “Comments” section below. If you need help working with service-linked roles, start a new thread on the IAM forum or contact AWS Support.

– Ujjwal

Greater Transparency into Actions AWS Services Perform on Your Behalf by Using AWS CloudTrail

Post Syndicated from Ujjwal Pugalia original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/get-greater-transparency-into-actions-aws-services-perform-on-your-behalf-by-using-aws-cloudtrail/

To make managing your AWS account easier, some AWS services perform actions on your behalf, including the creation and management of AWS resources. For example, AWS Elastic Beanstalk automatically handles the deployment details of capacity provisioning, load balancing, auto-scaling, and application health monitoring. To make these AWS actions more transparent, AWS adds an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) service-linked roles to your account for each linked service you use. Service-linked roles let you view all actions an AWS service performs on your behalf by using AWS CloudTrail logs. This helps you monitor and audit the actions AWS services perform on your behalf. No additional actions are required from you and you can continue using AWS services the way you do today.

To learn more about which AWS services use service-linked roles and log actions on your behalf to CloudTrail, see AWS Services That Work with IAM. Over time, more AWS services will support service-linked roles. For more information about service-linked roles, see Role Terms and Concepts.

In this blog post, I demonstrate how to view CloudTrail logs so that you can more easily monitor and audit AWS services performing actions on your behalf. First, I show how AWS creates a service-linked role in your account automatically when you configure an AWS service that supports service-linked roles. Next, I show how you can view the policies of a service-linked role that grants an AWS service permission to perform actions on your behalf. Finally, I  use the configured AWS service to perform an action and show you how the action appears in your CloudTrail logs.

How AWS creates a service-linked role in your account automatically

I will use Amazon Lex as the AWS service that performs actions on your behalf for this post. You can use Amazon Lex to create chatbots that allow for highly engaging conversational experiences through voice and text. You also can use chatbots on mobile devices, web browsers, and popular chat platform channels such as Slack. Amazon Lex uses Amazon Polly on your behalf to synthesize speech that sounds like a human voice.

Amazon Lex uses two IAM service-linked roles:

  • AWSServiceRoleForLexBots — Amazon Lex uses this service-linked role to invoke Amazon Polly to synthesize speech responses for your chatbot.
  • AWSServiceRoleForLexChannels — Amazon Lex uses this service-linked role to post text to your chatbot when managing channels such as Slack.

You don’t need to create either of these roles manually. When you create your first chatbot using the Amazon Lex console, Amazon Lex creates the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots role for you. When you first associate a chatbot with a messaging channel, Amazon Lex creates the AWSServiceRoleForLexChannels role in your account.

1. Start configuring the AWS service that supports service-linked roles

Navigate to the Amazon Lex console, and choose Get Started to navigate to the Create your Lex bot page. For this example, I choose a sample chatbot called OrderFlowers. To learn how to create a custom chatbot, see Create a Custom Amazon Lex Bot.

Screenshot of making the choice to create an OrderFlowers chatbot

2. Complete the configuration for the AWS service

When you scroll down, you will see the settings for the OrderFlowers chatbot. Notice the field for the IAM role with the value, AWSServiceRoleForLexBots. This service-linked role is “Automatically created on your behalf.” After you have entered all details, choose Create to build your sample chatbot.

Screenshot of the automatically created service-linked role

AWS has created the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role in your account. I will return to using the chatbot later in this post when I discuss how Amazon Lex performs actions on your behalf and how CloudTrail logs these actions. First, I will show how you can view the permissions for the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role by using the IAM console.

How to view actions in the IAM console that AWS services perform on your behalf

When you configure an AWS service that supports service-linked roles, AWS creates a service-linked role in your account automatically. You can view the service-linked role by using the IAM console.

1. View the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role on the IAM console

Go to the IAM console, and choose AWSServiceRoleForLexBots on the Roles page. You can confirm that this role is a service-linked role by viewing the Trusted entities column.

Screenshot of the service-linked role

2.View the trusted entities that can assume the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role

Choose the Trust relationships tab on the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots role page. You can view the trusted entities that can assume the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role to perform actions on your behalf. In this example, the trusted entity is lex.amazonaws.com.

Screenshot of the trusted entities that can assume the service-linked role

3. View the policy attached to the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role

Choose AmazonLexBotPolicy on the Permissions tab to view the policy attached to the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role. You can view the policy summary to see that AmazonLexBotPolicy grants permission to Amazon Lex to use Amazon Polly.

Screenshot showing that AmazonLexBotPolicy grants permission to Amazon Lex to use Amazon Polly

4. View the actions that the service-linked role grants permissions to use

Choose Polly to view the action, SynthesizeSpeech, that the AmazonLexBotPolicy grants permission to Amazon Lex to perform on your behalf. Amazon Lex uses this permission to synthesize speech responses for your chatbot. I show later in this post how you can monitor this SynthesizeSpeech action in your CloudTrail logs.

Screenshot showing the the action, SynthesizeSpeech, that the AmazonLexBotPolicy grants permission to Amazon Lex to perform on your behalf

Now that I know the trusted entity and the policy attached to the service-linked role, let’s go back to the chatbot I created earlier and see how CloudTrail logs the actions that Amazon Lex performs on my behalf.

How to use CloudTrail to view actions that AWS services perform on your behalf

As discussed already, I created an OrderFlowers chatbot on the Amazon Lex console. I will use the chatbot and display how the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role helps me track actions in CloudTrail. First, though, I must have an active CloudTrail trail created that stores the logs in an Amazon S3 bucket. I will use a trail called TestTrail and an S3 bucket called account-ids-slr.

1. Use the Amazon Lex chatbot via the Amazon Lex console

In Step 2 in the first section of this post, when I chose Create, Amazon Lex built the OrderFlowers chatbot. After the chatbot was built, the right pane showed that a Test Bot was created. Now, I choose the microphone symbol in the right pane and provide voice input to test the OrderFlowers chatbot. In this example, I tell the chatbot, “I would like to order some flowers.” The bot replies to me by asking, “What type of flowers would you like to order?”

Screenshot of voice input to test the OrderFlowers chatbot

When the chatbot replies using voice, Amazon Lex uses Amazon Polly to synthesize speech from text to voice. Amazon Lex assumes the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role to perform the SynthesizeSpeech action.

2. Check CloudTrail to view actions performed on your behalf

Now that I have created the chatbot, let’s see which actions were logged in CloudTrail. Choose CloudTrail from the Services drop-down menu to reach the CloudTrail console. Choose Trails and choose the S3 bucket in which you are storing your CloudTrail logs.

Screenshot of the TestTrail trail

In the S3 bucket, you will find log entries for the SynthesizeSpeech event. This means that CloudTrail logged the action when Amazon Lex assumed the AWSServiceRoleForLexBots service-linked role to invoke Amazon Polly to synthesize speech responses for your chatbot. You can monitor and audit this invocation, and it provides you with transparency into Amazon Polly’s SynthesizeSpeech action that Amazon Lex invoked on your behalf. The applicable CloudTrail log section follows and I have emphasized the key lines.

{  
         "eventVersion":"1.05",
         "userIdentity":{  
           "type":"AssumedRole",
            "principalId":"{principal-id}:OrderFlowers",
            "arn":"arn:aws:sts::{account-id}:assumed-role/AWSServiceRoleForLexBots/OrderFlowers",
            "accountId":"{account-id}",
            "accessKeyId":"{access-key-id}",
            "sessionContext":{  
               "attributes":{  
                  "mfaAuthenticated":"false",
                  "creationDate":"2017-09-17T17:30:05Z"
               },
               "sessionIssuer":{  
                  "type":"Role",
                  "principalId":"{principal-id}",
                  "arn":"arn:aws:iam:: {account-id}:role/aws-service-role/lex.amazonaws.com/AWSServiceRoleForLexBots",
                  "accountId":"{account-id",
                  "userName":"AWSServiceRoleForLexBots"
               }
            },
            "invokedBy":"lex.amazonaws.com"
         },
         "eventTime":"2017-09-17T17:30:05Z",
         "eventSource":"polly.amazonaws.com",
         "eventName":"SynthesizeSpeech",
         "awsRegion":"us-east-1",
         "sourceIPAddress":"lex.amazonaws.com",
         "userAgent":"lex.amazonaws.com",
         "requestParameters":{  
            "outputFormat":"mp3",
            "textType":"text",
            "voiceId":"Salli",
            "text":"**********"
         },
         "responseElements":{  
            "requestCharacters":45,
            "contentType":"audio/mpeg"
         },
         "requestID":"{request-id}",
         "eventID":"{event-id}",
         "eventType":"AwsApiCall",
         "recipientAccountId":"{account-id}"
      }

Conclusion

Service-linked roles make it easier for you to track and view actions that linked AWS services perform on your behalf by using CloudTrail. When an AWS service supports service-linked roles to enable this additional logging, you will see a service-linked role added to your account.

If you have comments about this post, submit a comment in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about working with service-linked roles, start a new thread on the IAM forum or contact AWS Support.

– Ujjwal

How to Query Personally Identifiable Information with Amazon Macie

Post Syndicated from Chad Woolf original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-query-personally-identifiable-information-with-amazon-macie/

Amazon Macie logo

In August 2017 at the AWS Summit New York, AWS launched a new security and compliance service called Amazon Macie. Macie uses machine learning to automatically discover, classify, and protect sensitive data in AWS. In this blog post, I demonstrate how you can use Macie to help enable compliance with applicable regulations, starting with data retention.

How to query retained PII with Macie

Data retention and mandatory data deletion are common topics across compliance frameworks, so knowing what is stored and how long it has been or needs to be stored is of critical importance. For example, you can use Macie for Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) 3.2, requirement 3, “Protect stored cardholder data,” which mandates a “quarterly process for identifying and securely deleting stored cardholder data that exceeds defined retention.” You also can use Macie for ISO 27017 requirement 12.3.1, which calls for “retention periods for backup data.” In each of these cases, you can use Macie’s built-in queries to identify the age of data in your Amazon S3 buckets and to help meet your compliance needs.

To get started with Macie and run your first queries of personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive data, follow the initial setup as described in the launch post on the AWS Blog. After you have set up Macie, walk through the following steps to start running queries. Start by focusing on the S3 buckets that you want to inventory and capture important compliance related activity and data.

To start running Macie queries:

  1. In the AWS Management Console, launch the Macie console (you can type macie to find the console).
  2. Click Dashboard in the navigation pane. This shows you an overview of the risk level and data classification type of all inventoried S3 buckets, categorized by date and type.
    Screenshot of "Dashboard" in the navigation pane
  3. Choose S3 objects by PII priority. This dashboard lets you sort by PII priority and PII types.
    Screenshot of "S3 objects by PII priority"
  4. In this case, I want to find information about credit card numbers. I choose the magnifying glass for the type cc_number (note that PII types can be used for custom queries). This view shows the events where PII classified data has been uploaded to S3. When I scroll down, I see the individual files that have been identified.
    Screenshot showing the events where PII classified data has been uploaded to S3
  5. Before looking at the files, I want to continue to build the query by only showing items with high priority. To do so, I choose the row called Object PII Priority and then the magnifying glass icon next to High.
    Screenshot of refining the query for high priority events
  6. To view the results matching these queries, I scroll down and choose any file listed. This shows vital information such as creation date, location, and object access control list (ACL).
  7. The piece I am most interested in this case is the Object PII details line to understand more about what was found in the file. In this case, I see name and credit card information, which is what caused the high priority. Scrolling up again, I also see that the query fields have updated as I interacted with the UI.
    Screenshot showing "Object PII details"

Let’s say that I want to get an alert every time Macie finds new data matching this query. This alert can be used to automate response actions by using AWS Lambda and Amazon CloudWatch Events.

  1. I choose the left green icon called Save query as alert.
    Screenshot of "Save query as alert" button
  2. I can customize the alert and change things like category or severity to fit my needs based on the alert data.
  3. Another way to find the information I am looking for is to run custom queries. To start using custom queries, I choose Research in the navigation pane.
    1. To learn more about custom Macie queries and what you can do on the Research tab, see Using the Macie Research Tab.
  4. I change the type of query I want to run from CloudTrail data to S3 objects in the drop-down list menu.
    Screenshot of choosing "S3 objects" from the drop-down list menu
  5. Because I want PII data, I start typing in the query box, which has an autocomplete feature. I choose the pii_types: query. I can now type the data I want to look for. In this case, I want to see all files matching the credit card filter so I type cc_number and press Enter. The query box now says, pii_types:cc_number. I press Enter again to enable autocomplete, and then I type AND pii_types:email to require both a credit card number and email address in a single object.
    The query looks for all files matching the credit card filter ("cc_number")
  6. I choose the magnifying glass to search and Macie shows me all S3 objects that are tagged as PII of type Credit Cards. I can further specify that I only want to see PII of type Credit Card that are classified as High priority by adding AND and pii_impact:high to the query.
    Screenshot showing narrowing the query results furtherAs before, I can save this new query as an alert by clicking Save query as alert, which will be triggered by data matching the query going forward.

Advanced tip

Try the following advanced queries using Lucene query syntax and save the queries as alerts in Macie.

  • Use a regular-expression based query to search for a minimum of 10 credit card numbers and 10 email addresses in a single object:
    • pii_explain.cc_number:/([1-9][0-9]|[0-9]{3,}) distinct Credit Card Numbers.*/ AND pii_explain.email:/([1-9][0-9]|[0-9]{3,}) distinct Email Addresses.*/
  • Search for objects containing at least one credit card, name, and email address that have an object policy enabling global access (searching for S3 AllUsers or AuthenticatedUsers permissions):
    • (object_acl.Grants.Grantee.URI:”http\://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/global/AllUsers” OR  object_acl.Grants.Grantee.URI:”http\://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/global/AllUsers”) AND (pii_types.cc_number AND pii_types.email AND pii_types.name)

These are two ways to identify and be alerted about PII by using Macie. In a similar way, you can create custom alerts for various AWS CloudTrail events by choosing a different data set on which to run the queries again. In the examples in this post, I identified credit cards stored in plain text (all data in this post is example data only), determined how long they had been stored in S3 by viewing the result details, and set up alerts to notify or trigger actions on new sensitive data being stored. With queries like these, you can build a reliable data validation program.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about how to use Macie, start a new thread on the Macie forum or contact AWS Support.

-Chad

What the NSA Collects via 702

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/09/what_the_nsa_co.html

New York Times reporter Charlie Savage writes about some bad statistics we’re all using:

Among surveillance legal policy specialists, it is common to cite a set of statistics from an October 2011 opinion by Judge John Bates, then of the FISA Court, about the volume of internet communications the National Security Agency was collecting under the FISA Amendments Act (“Section 702”) warrantless surveillance program. In his opinion, declassified in August 2013, Judge Bates wrote that the NSA was collecting more than 250 million internet communications a year, of which 91 percent came from its Prism system (which collects stored e-mails from providers like Gmail) and 9 percent came from its upstream system (which collects transmitted messages from network operators like AT&T).

These numbers are wrong. This blog post will address, first, the widespread nature of this misunderstanding; second, how I came to FOIA certain documents trying to figure out whether the numbers really added up; third, what those documents show; and fourth, what I further learned in talking to an intelligence official. This is far too dense and weedy for a New York Times article, but should hopefully be of some interest to specialists.

Worth reading for the details.

Inside the MPAA, Netflix & Amazon Global Anti-Piracy Alliance

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/inside-the-mpaa-netflix-amazon-global-anti-piracy-alliance-170918/

The idea of collaboration in the anti-piracy arena isn’t new but an announcement this summer heralded what is destined to become the largest project the entertainment industry has ever seen.

The Alliance for Creativity and Entertainment (ACE) is a coalition of 30 companies that reads like a who’s who of the global entertainment market. In alphabetical order its members are:

Amazon, AMC Networks, BBC Worldwide, Bell Canada and Bell Media, Canal+ Group, CBS Corporation, Constantin Film, Foxtel, Grupo Globo, HBO, Hulu, Lionsgate, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), Millennium Media, NBCUniversal, Netflix, Paramount Pictures, SF Studios, Sky, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Star India, Studio Babelsberg, STX Entertainment, Telemundo, Televisa, Twentieth Century Fox, Univision Communications Inc., Village Roadshow, The Walt Disney Company, and Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.

The aim of the project is clear. Instead of each company considering its anti-piracy operations as a distinct island, ACE will bring them all together while presenting a united front to decision and lawmakers. At the core of the Alliance will be the MPAA.

“ACE, with its broad coalition of creators from around the world, is designed, specifically, to leverage the best possible resources to reduce piracy,”
outgoing MPAA chief Chris Dodd said in June.

“For decades, the MPAA has been the gold standard for antipiracy enforcement. We are proud to provide the MPAA’s worldwide antipiracy resources and the deep expertise of our antipiracy unit to support ACE and all its initiatives.”

Since then, ACE and its members have been silent on the project. Today, however, TorrentFreak can pull back the curtain, revealing how the agreement between the companies will play out, who will be in control, and how much the scheme will cost.

Power structure: Founding Members & Executive Committee Members

Netflix, Inc., Amazon Studios LLC, Paramount Pictures Corporation, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc., Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Universal City Studios LLC, Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc., and Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, are the ‘Founding Members’ (Governing Board) of ACE.

These companies are granted full voting rights on ACE business, including the approval of initiatives and public policy, anti-piracy strategy, budget-related matters, plus approval of legal action. Not least, they’ll have the power to admit or expel ACE members.

All actions taken by the Governing Board (never to exceed nine members) need to be approved by consensus, with each Founding Member able to vote for or against decisions. Members are also allowed to abstain but one persistent objection will be enough to stop any matter being approved.

The second tier – ‘Executive Committee Members’ – is comprised of all the other companies in the ACE project (as listed above, minus the Governing Board). These companies will not be allowed to vote on ACE initiatives but can present ideas and strategies. They’ll also be allowed to suggest targets for law enforcement action while utilizing the MPAA’s anti-piracy resources.

Rights of all members

While all members of ACE can utilize the alliance’s resources, none are barred from simultaneously ‘going it alone’ on separate anti-piracy initiatives. None of these strategies and actions need approval from the Founding Members, provided they’re carried out in a company’s own name and at its own expense.

Information obtained by TorrentFreak indicates that the MPAA also reserves the right to carry out anti-piracy actions in its own name or on behalf of its member studios. The pattern here is different, since the MPAA’s global anti-piracy resources are the same resources being made available to the ACE alliance and for which members have paid to share.

Expansion of ACE

While ACE membership is already broad, the alliance is prepared to take on additional members, providing certain criteria are met. Crucially, any prospective additions must be owners or producers of movies and/or TV shows. The Governing Board will then vet applicants to ensure that they meet the criteria for acceptance as a new Executive Committee Members.

ACE Operations

The nine Governing Board members will meet at least four times a year, with each nominating a senior executive to serve as its representative. The MPAA’s General Counsel will take up the position of non-voting member of the Governing Board and will chair its meetings.

Matters to be discussed include formulating and developing the alliance’s ‘Global Anti-Piracy Action Plan’ and approving and developing the budget. ACE will also form an Anti-Piracy Working Group, which is scheduled to meet at least once a month.

On a daily basis, the MPAA and its staff will attend to the business of the ACE alliance. The MPAA will carry out its own work too but when presenting to outside third parties, it will clearly state which “hat” it is currently wearing.

Much deliberation has taken place over who should be the official spokesperson for ACE. Documents obtained by TF suggest that the MPAA planned to hire a consulting firm to find a person for the role, seeking a professional with international experience who had never been previously been connected with the MPAA.

They appear to have settled on Zoe Thorogood, who previously worked for British Prime Minister David Cameron.

Money, money, money

Of course, the ACE program isn’t going to fund itself, so all members are required to contribute to the operation. The MPAA has opened a dedicated bank account under its control specifically for the purpose, with members contributing depending on status.

Founding/Governing Board Members will be required to commit $5m each annually. However, none of the studios that are MPAA members will have to hand over any cash, since they already fund the MPAA, whose anti-piracy resources ACE is built.

“Each Governing Board Member will contribute annual dues in an amount equal to $5 million USD. Payment of dues shall be made bi-annually in equal shares, payable at
the beginning of each six (6) month period,” the ACE agreement reads.

“The contribution of MPAA personnel, assets and resources…will constitute and be considered as full payment of each MPAA Member Studio’s Governing Board dues.”

That leaves just Netflix and Amazon paying the full amount of $5m in cash each.

From each company’s contribution, $1m will be paid into legal trust accounts allocated to each Governing Board member. If ACE-agreed litigation and legal expenses exceed that amount for the year, members will be required to top up their accounts to cover their share of the costs.

For the remaining 21 companies on the Executive Committee, annual dues are $200,000 each, to be paid in one installment at the start of the financial year – $4.2m all in. Of all dues paid by all members from both tiers, half will be used to boost anti-piracy resources, over and above what the MPAA will spend on the same during 2017.

“Fifty percent (50%) of all dues received from Global Alliance Members other than
the MPAA Member Studios…shall, as agreed by the Governing Board, be used (a) to increase the resources spent on online antipiracy over and above….the amount of MPAA’s 2017 Content Protection Department budget for online antipiracy initiatives/operations,” an internal ACE document reads.

Intellectual property

As the project moves forward, the Alliance expects to gain certain knowledge and experience. On the back of that, the MPAA hopes to grow its intellectual property portfolio.

“Absent written agreement providing otherwise, any and all data, intellectual property, copyrights, trademarks, or know-how owned and/or contributed to the Global Alliance by MPAA, or developed or created by the MPAA or the Global Alliance during the Term of this Charter, shall remain and/or become the exclusive property of the MPAA,” the ACE agreement reads.

That being said, all Governing Board Members will also be granted “perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive licenses” to use the same under certain rules, even in the event they leave the ACE initiative.

Terms and extensions

Any member may withdraw from the Alliance at any point, but there will be no refunds. Additionally, any financial commitment previously made to litigation will have to be honored by the member.

The ACE agreement has an initial term of two years but Governing Board Members will meet not less than three months before it is due to expire to vote on any extension.

To be continued……

With the internal structure of ACE now revealed, all that remains is to discover the contents of the initiative’s ‘Global Anti-Piracy Action Plan’. To date, that document has proven elusive but with an operation of such magnitude, future leaks are a distinct possibility.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

MetalKettle Addon Repository Vulnerable After GitHub ‘Takeover’

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/metalkettle-after-github-takeover-170915/

A few weeks ago MetalKettle, one of the most famous Kodi addon developers of recent times, decided to call it quits.

Worried about potential legal risks, he saw no other option than to halt all development of third-party Kodi addons.

Soon after this announcement, the developer proceeded to remove the GitHub account which was used to distribute his addons. However, he didn’t realize that this might not have been the best decision.

As it turns out, GitHub allows outsiders to re-register names of deleted accounts. While this might not be a problem in most cases, it can be disastrous when the accounts are connected to Kodi add-ons that are constantly pinging for new updates.

In essence, it means that the person who registered the Github account can load content onto the boxes of people who still have the MetalKettle repo installed. Quite a dangerous prospect, something MetalKettle realizes as well.

“Someone has re-registered metalkettle on github. So in theory could pollute any devices with the repo still installed,” he warned on Twitter.

“Warning : if any users have a metalkettle repo installed on their systems or within a build – please delete ASAP,” he added.

MetalKettle warning

It’s not clear what the intentions of the new MetalKettle user are on GitHub, if he or she has any at all. But, people should be very cautious and probably remove it from their systems.

The real MetalKettle, meanwhile, alerted TVAddons to the situation and they have placed the repository on their Indigo blacklist of banned software. This effectively disables the repository on devices with Indigo installed.

GitHub on their turn may want to reconsider their removal policy. Perhaps it’s smarter to not make old usernames available for registration, at least not for a while, as it’s clearly a vulnerability.

This is also shown by another Kodi repo controversy that appeared earlier today. Another GitHub account that was reportedly deleted earlier, resurfaced today pushing a new version of the Exodus addon and other sources.

According to some, the GitHub account is operated by the original Exodus developers and perfectly safe, but others warn that the name was reregistered in bad faith.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Simplify Your Jenkins Builds with AWS CodeBuild

Post Syndicated from Paul Roberts original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/simplify-your-jenkins-builds-with-aws-codebuild/

Jeff Bezos famously said, “There’s a lot of undifferentiated heavy lifting that stands between your idea and that success.” He went on to say, “…70% of your time, energy, and dollars go into the undifferentiated heavy lifting and only 30% of your energy, time, and dollars gets to go into the core kernel of your idea.”

If you subscribe to this maxim, you should not be spending valuable time focusing on operational issues related to maintaining the Jenkins build infrastructure. Companies such as Riot Games have over 1.25 million builds per year and have written several lengthy blog posts about their experiences designing a complex, custom Docker-powered Jenkins build farm. Dealing with Jenkins slaves at scale is a job in itself and Riot has engineers focused on managing the build infrastructure.

Typical Jenkins Build Farm

 

As with all technology, the Jenkins build farm architectures have evolved. Today, instead of manually building your own container infrastructure, there are Jenkins Docker plugins available to help reduce the operational burden of maintaining these environments. There is also a community-contributed Amazon EC2 Container Service (Amazon ECS) plugin that helps remove some of the overhead, but you still need to configure and manage the overall Amazon ECS environment.

There are various ways to create and manage your Jenkins build farm, but there has to be a way that significantly reduces your operational overhead.

Introducing AWS CodeBuild

AWS CodeBuild is a fully managed build service that removes the undifferentiated heavy lifting of provisioning, managing, and scaling your own build servers. With CodeBuild, there is no software to install, patch, or update. CodeBuild scales up automatically to meet the needs of your development teams. In addition, CodeBuild is an on-demand service where you pay as you go. You are charged based only on the number of minutes it takes to complete your build.

One AWS customer, Recruiterbox, helps companies hire simply and predictably through their software platform. Two years ago, they began feeling the operational pain of maintaining their own Jenkins build farms. They briefly considered moving to Amazon ECS, but chose an even easier path forward instead. Recuiterbox transitioned to using Jenkins with CodeBuild and are very happy with the results. You can read more about their journey here.

Solution Overview: Jenkins and CodeBuild

To remove the heavy lifting from managing your Jenkins build farm, AWS has developed a Jenkins AWS CodeBuild plugin. After the plugin has been enabled, a developer can configure a Jenkins project to pick up new commits from their chosen source code repository and automatically run the associated builds. After the build is successful, it will create an artifact that is stored inside an S3 bucket that you have configured. If an error is detected somewhere, CodeBuild will capture the output and send it to Amazon CloudWatch logs. In addition to storing the logs on CloudWatch, Jenkins also captures the error so you do not have to go hunting for log files for your build.

 

AWS CodeBuild with Jenkins Plugin

 

The following example uses AWS CodeCommit (Git) as the source control management (SCM) and Amazon S3 for build artifact storage. Logs are stored in CloudWatch. A development pipeline that uses Jenkins with CodeBuild plugin architecture looks something like this:

 

AWS CodeBuild Diagram

Initial Solution Setup

To keep this blog post succinct, I assume that you are using the following components on AWS already and have applied the appropriate IAM policies:

·         AWS CodeCommit repo.

·         Amazon S3 bucket for CodeBuild artifacts.

·         SNS notification for text messaging of the Jenkins admin password.

·         IAM user’s key and secret.

·         A role that has a policy with these permissions. Be sure to edit the ARNs with your region, account, and resource name. Use this role in the AWS CloudFormation template referred to later in this post.

 

Jenkins Installation with CodeBuild Plugin Enabled

To make the integration with Jenkins as frictionless as possible, I have created an AWS CloudFormation template here: https://s3.amazonaws.com/proberts-public/jenkins.yaml. Download the template, sign in the AWS CloudFormation console, and then use the template to create a stack.

 

CloudFormation Inputs

Jenkins Project Configuration

After the stack is complete, log in to the Jenkins EC2 instance using the user name “admin” and the password sent to your mobile device. Now that you have logged in to Jenkins, you need to create your first project. Start with a Freestyle project and configure the parameters based on your CodeBuild and CodeCommit settings.

 

AWS CodeBuild Plugin Configuration in Jenkins

 

Additional Jenkins AWS CodeBuild Plugin Configuration

 

After you have configured the Jenkins project appropriately you should be able to check your build status on the Jenkins polling log under your project settings:

 

Jenkins Polling Log

 

Now that Jenkins is polling CodeCommit, you can check the CodeBuild dashboard under your Jenkins project to confirm your build was successful:

Jenkins AWS CodeBuild Dashboard

Wrapping Up

In a matter of minutes, you have been able to provision Jenkins with the AWS CodeBuild plugin. This will greatly simplify your build infrastructure management. Now kick back and relax while CodeBuild does all the heavy lifting!


About the Author

Paul Roberts is a Strategic Solutions Architect for Amazon Web Services. When he is not working on Serverless, DevOps, or Artificial Intelligence, he is often found in Lake Tahoe exploring the various mountain ranges with his family.

AWS IAM Policy Summaries Now Help You Identify Errors and Correct Permissions in Your IAM Policies

Post Syndicated from Joy Chatterjee original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/iam-policy-summaries-now-help-you-identify-errors-and-correct-permissions-in-your-iam-policies/

In March, we made it easier to view and understand the permissions in your AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies by using IAM policy summaries. Today, we updated policy summaries to help you identify and correct errors in your IAM policies. When you set permissions using IAM policies, for each action you specify, you must match that action to supported resources or conditions. Now, you will see a warning if these policy elements (Actions, Resources, and Conditions) defined in your IAM policy do not match.

When working with policies, you may find that although the policy has valid JSON syntax, it does not grant or deny the desired permissions because the Action element does not have an applicable Resource element or Condition element defined in the policy. For example, you may want to create a policy that allows users to view a specific Amazon EC2 instance. To do this, you create a policy that specifies ec2:DescribeInstances for the Action element and the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the instance for the Resource element. When testing this policy, you find AWS denies this access because ec2:DescribeInstances does not support resource-level permissions and requires access to list all instances. Therefore, to grant access to this Action element, you need to specify a wildcard (*) in the Resource element of your policy for this Action element in order for the policy to function correctly.

To help you identify and correct permissions, you will now see a warning in a policy summary if the policy has either of the following:

  • An action that does not support the resource specified in a policy.
  • An action that does not support the condition specified in a policy.

In this blog post, I walk through two examples of how you can use policy summaries to help identify and correct these types of errors in your IAM policies.

How to use IAM policy summaries to debug your policies

Example 1: An action does not support the resource specified in a policy

Let’s say a human resources (HR) representative, Casey, needs access to the personnel files stored in HR’s Amazon S3 bucket. To do this, I create the following policy to grant all actions that begin with s3:List. In addition, I grant access to s3:GetObject in the Action element of the policy. To ensure that Casey has access only to a specific bucket and not others, I specify the bucket ARN in the Resource element of the policy.

Note: This policy does not grant the desired permissions.

This policy does not work. Do not copy.
{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "ThisPolicyDoesNotGrantAllListandGetActions",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": ["s3:List*",
                       "s3:GetObject"],
            "Resource": ["arn:aws:s3:::HumanResources"]
        }
    ]
}

After I create the policy, HRBucketPermissions, I select this policy from the Policies page to view the policy summary. From here, I check to see if there are any warnings or typos in the policy. I see a warning at the top of the policy detail page because the policy does not grant some permissions specified in the policy, which is caused by a mismatch among the actions, resources, or conditions.

Screenshot showing the warning at the top of the policy

To view more details about the warning, I choose Show remaining so that I can understand why the permissions do not appear in the policy summary. As shown in the following screenshot, I see no access to the services that are not granted by the IAM policy in the policy, which is expected. However, next to S3, I see a warning that one or more S3 actions do not have an applicable resource.

Screenshot showing that one or more S3 actions do not have an applicable resource

To understand why the specific actions do not have a supported resource, I choose S3 from the list of services and choose Show remaining. I type List in the filter to understand why some of the list actions are not granted by the policy. As shown in the following screenshot, I see these warnings:

  • This action does not support resource-level permissions. This means the action does not support resource-level permissions and requires a wildcard (*) in the Resource element of the policy.
  • This action does not have an applicable resource. This means the action supports resource-level permissions, but not the resource type defined in the policy. In this example, I specified an S3 bucket for an action that supports only an S3 object resource type.

From these warnings, I see that s3:ListAllMyBuckets, s3:ListBucketMultipartUploadsParts3:ListObjects , and s3:GetObject do not support an S3 bucket resource type, which results in Casey not having access to the S3 bucket. To correct the policy, I choose Edit policy and update the policy with three statements based on the resource that the S3 actions support. Because Casey needs access to view and read all of the objects in the HumanResources bucket, I add a wildcard (*) for the S3 object path in the Resource ARN.

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "TheseActionsSupportBucketResourceType",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": ["s3:ListBucket",
                       "s3:ListBucketByTags",
                       "s3:ListBucketMultipartUploads",
                       "s3:ListBucketVersions"],
            "Resource": ["arn:aws:s3:::HumanResources"]
        },{
            "Sid": "TheseActionsRequireAllResources",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": ["s3:ListAllMyBuckets",
                       "s3:ListMultipartUploadParts",
                       "s3:ListObjects"],
            "Resource": [ "*"]
        },{
            "Sid": "TheseActionsRequireSupportsObjectResourceType",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": ["s3:GetObject"],
            "Resource": ["arn:aws:s3:::HumanResources/*"]
        }
    ]
}

After I make these changes, I see the updated policy summary and see that warnings are no longer displayed.

Screenshot of the updated policy summary that no longer shows warnings

In the previous example, I showed how to identify and correct permissions errors that include actions that do not support a specified resource. In the next example, I show how to use policy summaries to identify and correct a policy that includes actions that do not support a specified condition.

Example 2: An action does not support the condition specified in a policy

For this example, let’s assume Bob is a project manager who requires view and read access to all the code builds for his team. To grant him this access, I create the following JSON policy that specifies all list and read actions to AWS CodeBuild and defines a condition to limit access to resources in the us-west-2 Region in which Bob’s team develops.

This policy does not work. Do not copy. 
{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "ListReadAccesstoCodeServices",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "codebuild:List*",
                "codebuild:BatchGet*"
            ],
            "Resource": ["*"], 
             "Condition": {
                "StringEquals": {
                    "ec2:Region": "us-west-2"
                }
            }
        }
    ]	
}

After I create the policy, PMCodeBuildAccess, I select this policy from the Policies page to view the policy summary in the IAM console. From here, I check to see if the policy has any warnings or typos. I see an error at the top of the policy detail page because the policy does not grant any permissions.

Screenshot with an error showing the policy does not grant any permissions

To view more details about the error, I choose Show remaining to understand why no permissions result from the policy. I see this warning: One or more conditions do not have an applicable action. This means that the condition is not supported by any of the actions defined in the policy.

From the warning message (see preceding screenshot), I realize that ec2:Region is not a supported condition for any actions in CodeBuild. To correct the policy, I separate the list actions that do not support resource-level permissions into a separate Statement element and specify * as the resource. For the remaining CodeBuild actions that support resource-level permissions, I use the ARN to specify the us-west-2 Region in the project resource type.

CORRECT POLICY 
{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Sid": "TheseActionsSupportAllResources",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "codebuild:ListBuilds",
                "codebuild:ListProjects",
                "codebuild:ListRepositories",
                "codebuild:ListCuratedEnvironmentImages",
                "codebuild:ListConnectedOAuthAccounts"
            ],
            "Resource": ["*"] 
        }, {
            "Sid": "TheseActionsSupportAResource",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
                "codebuild:ListBuildsForProject",
                "codebuild:BatchGet*"
            ],
            "Resource": ["arn:aws:codebuild:us-west-2:123456789012:project/*"] 
        }

    ]	
}

After I make the changes, I view the updated policy summary and see that no warnings are displayed.

Screenshot showing the updated policy summary with no warnings

When I choose CodeBuild from the list of services, I also see that for the actions that support resource-level permissions, the access is limited to the us-west-2 Region.

Screenshow showing that for the Actions that support resource-level permissions, the access is limited to the us-west-2 region.

Conclusion

Policy summaries make it easier to view and understand the permissions and resources in your IAM policies by displaying the permissions granted by the policies. As I’ve demonstrated in this post, you can also use policy summaries to help you identify and correct your IAM policies. To understand the types of warnings that policy summaries support, you can visit Troubleshoot IAM Policies. To view policy summaries in your AWS account, sign in to the IAM console and navigate to any policy on the Policies page of the IAM console or the Permissions tab on a user’s page.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or suggestions for this solution, start a new thread on the IAM forum or contact AWS Support.

– Joy

Manage Kubernetes Clusters on AWS Using CoreOS Tectonic

Post Syndicated from Arun Gupta original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/kubernetes-clusters-aws-coreos-tectonic/

There are multiple ways to run a Kubernetes cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The first post in this series explained how to manage a Kubernetes cluster on AWS using kops. This second post explains how to manage a Kubernetes cluster on AWS using CoreOS Tectonic.

Tectonic overview

Tectonic delivers the most current upstream version of Kubernetes with additional features. It is a commercial offering from CoreOS and adds the following features over the upstream:

  • Installer
    Comes with a graphical installer that installs a highly available Kubernetes cluster. Alternatively, the cluster can be installed using AWS CloudFormation templates or Terraform scripts.
  • Operators
    An operator is an application-specific controller that extends the Kubernetes API to create, configure, and manage instances of complex stateful applications on behalf of a Kubernetes user. This release includes an etcd operator for rolling upgrades and a Prometheus operator for monitoring capabilities.
  • Console
    A web console provides a full view of applications running in the cluster. It also allows you to deploy applications to the cluster and start the rolling upgrade of the cluster.
  • Monitoring
    Node CPU and memory metrics are powered by the Prometheus operator. The graphs are available in the console. A large set of preconfigured Prometheus alerts are also available.
  • Security
    Tectonic ensures that cluster is always up to date with the most recent patches/fixes. Tectonic clusters also enable role-based access control (RBAC). Different roles can be mapped to an LDAP service.
  • Support
    CoreOS provides commercial support for clusters created using Tectonic.

Tectonic can be installed on AWS using a GUI installer or Terraform scripts. The installer prompts you for the information needed to boot the Kubernetes cluster, such as AWS access and secret key, number of master and worker nodes, and instance size for the master and worker nodes. The cluster can be created after all the options are specified. Alternatively, Terraform assets can be downloaded and the cluster can be created later. This post shows using the installer.

CoreOS License and Pull Secret

Even though Tectonic is a commercial offering, a cluster for up to 10 nodes can be created by creating a free account at Get Tectonic for Kubernetes. After signup, a CoreOS License and Pull Secret files are provided on your CoreOS account page. Download these files as they are needed by the installer to boot the cluster.

IAM user permission

The IAM user to create the Kubernetes cluster must have access to the following services and features:

  • Amazon Route 53
  • Amazon EC2
  • Elastic Load Balancing
  • Amazon S3
  • Amazon VPC
  • Security groups

Use the aws-policy policy to grant the required permissions for the IAM user.

DNS configuration

A subdomain is required to create the cluster, and it must be registered as a public Route 53 hosted zone. The zone is used to host and expose the console web application. It is also used as the static namespace for the Kubernetes API server. This allows kubectl to be able to talk directly with the master.

The domain may be registered using Route 53. Alternatively, a domain may be registered at a third-party registrar. This post uses a kubernetes-aws.io domain registered at a third-party registrar and a tectonic subdomain within it.

Generate a Route 53 hosted zone using the AWS CLI. Download jq to run this command:

ID=$(uuidgen) && \
aws route53 create-hosted-zone \
--name tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io \
--caller-reference $ID \
| jq .DelegationSet.NameServers

The command shows an output such as the following:

[
  "ns-1924.awsdns-48.co.uk",
  "ns-501.awsdns-62.com",
  "ns-1259.awsdns-29.org",
  "ns-749.awsdns-29.net"
]

Create NS records for the domain with your registrar. Make sure that the NS records can be resolved using a utility like dig web interface. A sample output would look like the following:

The bottom of the screenshot shows NS records configured for the subdomain.

Download and run the Tectonic installer

Download the Tectonic installer (version 1.7.1) and extract it. The latest installer can always be found at coreos.com/tectonic. Start the installer:

./tectonic/tectonic-installer/$PLATFORM/installer

Replace $PLATFORM with either darwin or linux. The installer opens your default browser and prompts you to select the cloud provider. Choose Amazon Web Services as the platform. Choose Next Step.

Specify the Access Key ID and Secret Access Key for the IAM role that you created earlier. This allows the installer to create resources required for the Kubernetes cluster. This also gives the installer full access to your AWS account. Alternatively, to protect the integrity of your main AWS credentials, use a temporary session token to generate temporary credentials.

You also need to choose a region in which to install the cluster. For the purpose of this post, I chose a region close to where I live, Northern California. Choose Next Step.

Give your cluster a name. This name is part of the static namespace for the master and the address of the console.

To enable in-place update to the Kubernetes cluster, select the checkbox next to Automated Updates. It also enables update to the etcd and Prometheus operators. This feature may become a default in future releases.

Choose Upload “tectonic-license.txt” and upload the previously downloaded license file.

Choose Upload “config.json” and upload the previously downloaded pull secret file. Choose Next Step.

Let the installer generate a CA certificate and key. In this case, the browser may not recognize this certificate, which I discuss later in the post. Alternatively, you can provide a CA certificate and a key in PEM format issued by an authorized certificate authority. Choose Next Step.

Use the SSH key for the region specified earlier. You also have an option to generate a new key. This allows you to later connect using SSH into the Amazon EC2 instances provisioned by the cluster. Here is the command that can be used to log in:

ssh –i <key> [email protected]<ec2-instance-ip>

Choose Next Step.

Define the number and instance type of master and worker nodes. In this case, create a 6 nodes cluster. Make sure that the worker nodes have enough processing power and memory to run the containers.

An etcd cluster is used as persistent storage for all of Kubernetes API objects. This cluster is required for the Kubernetes cluster to operate. There are three ways to use the etcd cluster as part of the Tectonic installer:

  • (Default) Provision the cluster using EC2 instances. Additional EC2 instances are used in this case.
  • Use an alpha support for cluster provisioning using the etcd operator. The etcd operator is used for automated operations of the etcd master nodes for the cluster itself, in addition to for etcd instances that are created for application usage. The etcd cluster is provisioned within the Tectonic installer.
  • Bring your own pre-provisioned etcd cluster.

Use the first option in this case.

For more information about choosing the appropriate instance type, see the etcd hardware recommendation. Choose Next Step.

Specify the networking options. The installer can create a new public VPC or use a pre-existing public or private VPC. Make sure that the VPC requirements are met for an existing VPC.

Give a DNS name for the cluster. Choose the domain for which the Route 53 hosted zone was configured earlier, such as tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io. Multiple clusters may be created under a single domain. The cluster name and the DNS name would typically match each other.

To select the CIDR range, choose Show Advanced Settings. You can also choose the Availability Zones for the master and worker nodes. By default, the master and worker nodes are spread across multiple Availability Zones in the chosen region. This makes the cluster highly available.

Leave the other values as default. Choose Next Step.

Specify an email address and password to be used as credentials to log in to the console. Choose Next Step.

At any point during the installation, you can choose Save progress. This allows you to save configurations specified in the installer. This configuration file can then be used to restore progress in the installer at a later point.

To start the cluster installation, choose Submit. At another time, you can download the Terraform assets by choosing Manually boot. This allows you to boot the cluster later.

The logs from the Terraform scripts are shown in the installer. When the installation is complete, the console shows that the Terraform scripts were successfully applied, the domain name was resolved successfully, and that the console has started. The domain works successfully if the DNS resolution worked earlier, and it’s the address where the console is accessible.

Choose Download assets to download assets related to your cluster. It contains your generated CA, kubectl configuration file, and the Terraform state. This download is an important step as it allows you to delete the cluster later.

Choose Next Step for the final installation screen. It allows you to access the Tectonic console, gives you instructions about how to configure kubectl to manage this cluster, and finally deploys an application using kubectl.

Choose Go to my Tectonic Console. In our case, it is also accessible at http://cluster.tectonic.kubernetes-aws.io/.

As I mentioned earlier, the browser does not recognize the self-generated CA certificate. Choose Advanced and connect to the console. Enter the login credentials specified earlier in the installer and choose Login.

The Kubernetes upstream and console version are shown under Software Details. Cluster health shows All systems go and it means that the API server and the backend API can be reached.

To view different Kubernetes resources in the cluster choose, the resource in the left navigation bar. For example, all deployments can be seen by choosing Deployments.

By default, resources in the all namespace are shown. Other namespaces may be chosen by clicking on a menu item on the top of the screen. Different administration tasks such as managing the namespaces, getting list of the nodes and RBAC can be configured as well.

Download and run Kubectl

Kubectl is required to manage the Kubernetes cluster. The latest version of kubectl can be downloaded using the following command:

curl -LO https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/$(curl -s https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/stable.txt)/bin/darwin/amd64/kubectl

It can also be conveniently installed using the Homebrew package manager. To find and access a cluster, Kubectl needs a kubeconfig file. By default, this configuration file is at ~/.kube/config. This file is created when a Kubernetes cluster is created from your machine. However, in this case, download this file from the console.

In the console, choose admin, My Account, Download Configuration and follow the steps to download the kubectl configuration file. Move this file to ~/.kube/config. If kubectl has already been used on your machine before, then this file already exists. Make sure to take a backup of that file first.

Now you can run the commands to view the list of deployments:

~ $ kubectl get deployments --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE         NAME                                    DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kube-system       etcd-operator                           1         1         1            1           43m
kube-system       heapster                                1         1         1            1           40m
kube-system       kube-controller-manager                 3         3         3            3           43m
kube-system       kube-dns                                1         1         1            1           43m
kube-system       kube-scheduler                          3         3         3            3           43m
tectonic-system   container-linux-update-operator         1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   default-http-backend                    1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   kube-state-metrics                      1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   kube-version-operator                   1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   prometheus-operator                     1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-channel-operator               1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-console                        2         2         2            2           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-identity                       2         2         2            2           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-ingress-controller             1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-monitoring-auth-alertmanager   1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-monitoring-auth-prometheus     1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-prometheus-operator            1         1         1            1           40m
tectonic-system   tectonic-stats-emitter                  1         1         1            1           40m

This output is similar to the one shown in the console earlier. Now, this kubectl can be used to manage your resources.

Upgrade the Kubernetes cluster

Tectonic allows the in-place upgrade of the cluster. This is an experimental feature as of this release. The clusters can be updated either automatically, or with manual approval.

To perform the update, choose Administration, Cluster Settings. If an earlier Tectonic installer, version 1.6.2 in this case, is used to install the cluster, then this screen would look like the following:

Choose Check for Updates. If any updates are available, choose Start Upgrade. After the upgrade is completed, the screen is refreshed.

This is an experimental feature in this release and so should only be used on clusters that can be easily replaced. This feature may become a fully supported in a future release. For more information about the upgrade process, see Upgrading Tectonic & Kubernetes.

Delete the Kubernetes cluster

Typically, the Kubernetes cluster is a long-running cluster to serve your applications. After its purpose is served, you may delete it. It is important to delete the cluster as this ensures that all resources created by the cluster are appropriately cleaned up.

The easiest way to delete the cluster is using the assets downloaded in the last step of the installer. Extract the downloaded zip file. This creates a directory like <cluster-name>_TIMESTAMP. In that directory, give the following command to delete the cluster:

TERRAFORM_CONFIG=$(pwd)/.terraformrc terraform destroy --force

This destroys the cluster and all associated resources.

You may have forgotten to download the assets. There is a copy of the assets in the directory tectonic/tectonic-installer/darwin/clusters. In this directory, another directory with the name <cluster-name>_TIMESTAMP contains your assets.

Conclusion

This post explained how to manage Kubernetes clusters using the CoreOS Tectonic graphical installer.  For more details, see Graphical Installer with AWS. If the installation does not succeed, see the helpful Troubleshooting tips. After the cluster is created, see the Tectonic tutorials to learn how to deploy, scale, version, and delete an application.

Future posts in this series will explain other ways of creating and running a Kubernetes cluster on AWS.

Arun

AWS Earns Department of Defense Impact Level 5 Provisional Authorization

Post Syndicated from Chris Gile original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/aws-earns-department-of-defense-impact-level-5-provisional-authorization/

AWS GovCloud (US) Region image

The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) has granted the AWS GovCloud (US) Region an Impact Level 5 (IL5) Department of Defense (DoD) Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide (CC SRG) Provisional Authorization (PA) for six core services. This means that AWS’s DoD customers and partners can now deploy workloads for Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) exceeding IL4 and for unclassified National Security Systems (NSS).

We have supported sensitive Defense community workloads in the cloud for more than four years, and this latest IL5 authorization is complementary to our FedRAMP High Provisional Authorization that covers 18 services in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region. Our customers now have the flexibility to deploy any range of IL 2, 4, or 5 workloads by leveraging AWS’s services, attestations, and certifications. For example, when the US Air Force needed compute scale to support the Next Generation GPS Operational Control System Program, they turned to AWS.

In partnership with a certified Third Party Assessment Organization (3PAO), an independent validation was conducted to assess both our technical and nontechnical security controls to confirm that they meet the DoD’s stringent CC SRG standards for IL5 workloads. Effective immediately, customers can begin leveraging the IL5 authorization for the following six services in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region:

AWS has been a long-standing industry partner with DoD, federal-agency customers, and private-sector customers to enhance cloud security and policy. We continue to collaborate on the DoD CC SRG, Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) and other government requirements to ensure that policy makers enact policies to support next-generation security capabilities.

In an effort to reduce the authorization burden of our DoD customers, we’ve worked with DISA to port our assessment results into an easily ingestible format by the Enterprise Mission Assurance Support Service (eMASS) system. Additionally, we undertook a separate effort to empower our industry partners and customers to efficiently solve their compliance, governance, and audit challenges by launching the AWS Customer Compliance Center, a portal providing a breadth of AWS-specific compliance and regulatory information.

We look forward to providing sustained cloud security and compliance support at scale for our DoD customers and adding additional services within the IL5 authorization boundary. See AWS Services in Scope by Compliance Program for updates. To request access to AWS’s DoD security and authorization documentation, contact AWS Sales and Business Development. For a list of frequently asked questions related to AWS DoD SRG compliance, see the AWS DoD SRG page.

To learn more about the announcement in this post, tune in for the AWS Automating DoD SRG Impact Level 5 Compliance in AWS GovCloud (US) webinar on October 11, 2017, at 11:00 A.M. Pacific Time.

– Chris Gile, Senior Manager, AWS Public Sector Risk & Compliance

 

 

Narcos’ Cali Cartel Threatens to ‘Kill’ Illegal Downloaders

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/narcos-cali-cartel-threatens-to-kill-illegal-downloaders-170912/

Netflix offers a great alternative to piracy, and for dozens of millions of people it’s a favorite pastime.

Since Netflix’s priorities are shifting more to the production of original content, piracy is turning into a more serious problem for the company.

This shows, as the video giant now has an anti-piracy policy that’s on par with many major Hollywood studios. Over the past year, Netflix issued over a million takedown requests to Internet services, but they also target downloaders in a more direct fashion.

Where other Hollywood companies approach pirates with settlement demands or warning letters, Netflix is enlisting the stars of the latest Narcos season, who play the Cali Cartel.

In the message, targeted at the French market, the four drug lords warn people not to download any episodes without permission. Or else..

“Hey you, yes you, do you think you’re smart? Do you think we didn’t see you Googling ‘Narcos season 3 download’? Don’t be a fool. Narcos is a business,” Pepe begins.

“If you want your entertainment. If you want your show. You’re gonna pay the Cali Cartel, ‘hijo de puta’,” Pacho adds, using the strong language one expects from a cartel leader.

The message continues with Miguel referencing the French three-strikes law Hadopi, under which file-sharers received several warnings before facing a possible Internet disconnection. The Cali Cartel doesn’t do courtesy letters, he stresses.

“Do you think we’re like Hadopi? Do you think we’re going to send you a nice and polite letter first? Please, sir / madam, could you please not illegally download Narcos? We don’t do courtesy letters.”

“There is no please, no por favor, no s’il vous plait,” Pepe adds.

Finally, the big boss chimes in delivering the final threat. People who continue to download or point others to “shitty” websites with pop-ups that offer Narcos for free, can expect to meet the bullet.

“There’s bullets for you, your family, and all the people you send to watch Narcos on all those shitty websites full of questionable pop-ups,” Gilberto says.

“You know where to find us. Don’t mess around ‘hijo de puta’,” his brother adds.

While the message is amusing and might even be good PR for the show, one has to wonder whether it will be enough for people to sign up for a subscription. Netflix might be wondering the same, as they are still sending out takedown requests targeting pirate download and streaming sites, just in case.

Narcos “takedown”

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.

Research on What Motivates ISIS — and Other — Fighters

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/09/research_on_wha.html

Interesting research from Nature Human Behaviour: “The devoted actor’s will to fight and the spiritual dimension of human conflict“:

Abstract: Frontline investigations with fighters against the Islamic State (ISIL or ISIS), combined with multiple online studies, address willingness to fight and die in intergroup conflict. The general focus is on non-utilitarian aspects of human conflict, which combatants themselves deem ‘sacred’ or ‘spiritual’, whether secular or religious. Here we investigate two key components of a theoretical framework we call ‘the devoted actor’ — sacred values and identity fusion with a group­ — to better understand people’s willingness to make costly sacrifices. We reveal three crucial factors: commitment to non-negotiable sacred values and the groups that the actors are wholly fused with; readiness to forsake kin for those values; and perceived spiritual strength of ingroup versus foes as more important than relative material strength. We directly relate expressed willingness for action to behaviour as a check on claims that decisions in extreme conflicts are driven by cost-benefit calculations, which may help to inform policy decisions for the common defense.

[$] CPU frequency governors and remote callbacks

Post Syndicated from corbet original https://lwn.net/Articles/732740/rss

The kernel’s CPU-frequency (“cpufreq”) governors are charged with picking
an operating frequency for each processor that minimizes power use while
maintaining an adequate level of performance as determined by the current
policy. These governors normally run locally, with each CPU handling its
own frequency management. The 4.14 kernel release, though, will enable the
CPU-frequency governors to control the frequency of any CPU in the
system if the architecture permits, a change that should improve the
performance of the system overall.

A Framework for Cyber Security Insurance

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/08/a_framework_for.html

New paper: “Policy measures and cyber insurance: a framework,” by Daniel Woods and Andrew Simpson, Journal of Cyber Policy, 2017.

Abstract: The role of the insurance industry in driving improvements in cyber security has been identified as mutually beneficial for both insurers and policy-makers. To date, there has been no consideration of the roles governments and the insurance industry should pursue in support of this public­-private partnership. This paper rectifies this omission and presents a framework to help underpin such a partnership, giving particular consideration to possible government interventions that might affect the cyber insurance market. We have undertaken a qualitative analysis of reports published by policy-making institutions and organisations working in the cyber insurance domain; we have also conducted interviews with cyber insurance professionals. Together, these constitute a stakeholder analysis upon which we build our framework. In addition, we present a research roadmap to demonstrate how the ideas described might be taken forward.

How to Configure an LDAPS Endpoint for Simple AD

Post Syndicated from Cameron Worrell original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-configure-an-ldaps-endpoint-for-simple-ad/

Simple AD, which is powered by Samba  4, supports basic Active Directory (AD) authentication features such as users, groups, and the ability to join domains. Simple AD also includes an integrated Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. LDAP is a standard application protocol for the access and management of directory information. You can use the BIND operation from Simple AD to authenticate LDAP client sessions. This makes LDAP a common choice for centralized authentication and authorization for services such as Secure Shell (SSH), client-based virtual private networks (VPNs), and many other applications. Authentication, the process of confirming the identity of a principal, typically involves the transmission of highly sensitive information such as user names and passwords. To protect this information in transit over untrusted networks, companies often require encryption as part of their information security strategy.

In this blog post, we show you how to configure an LDAPS (LDAP over SSL/TLS) encrypted endpoint for Simple AD so that you can extend Simple AD over untrusted networks. Our solution uses Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) to send decrypted LDAP traffic to HAProxy running on Amazon EC2, which then sends the traffic to Simple AD. ELB offers integrated certificate management, SSL/TLS termination, and the ability to use a scalable EC2 backend to process decrypted traffic. ELB also tightly integrates with Amazon Route 53, enabling you to use a custom domain for the LDAPS endpoint. The solution needs the intermediate HAProxy layer because ELB can direct traffic only to EC2 instances. To simplify testing and deployment, we have provided an AWS CloudFormation template to provision the ELB and HAProxy layers.

This post assumes that you have an understanding of concepts such as Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and its components, including subnets, routing, Internet and network address translation (NAT) gateways, DNS, and security groups. You should also be familiar with launching EC2 instances and logging in to them with SSH. If needed, you should familiarize yourself with these concepts and review the solution overview and prerequisites in the next section before proceeding with the deployment.

Note: This solution is intended for use by clients requiring an LDAPS endpoint only. If your requirements extend beyond this, you should consider accessing the Simple AD servers directly or by using AWS Directory Service for Microsoft AD.

Solution overview

The following diagram and description illustrates and explains the Simple AD LDAPS environment. The CloudFormation template creates the items designated by the bracket (internal ELB load balancer and two HAProxy nodes configured in an Auto Scaling group).

Diagram of the the Simple AD LDAPS environment

Here is how the solution works, as shown in the preceding numbered diagram:

  1. The LDAP client sends an LDAPS request to ELB on TCP port 636.
  2. ELB terminates the SSL/TLS session and decrypts the traffic using a certificate. ELB sends the decrypted LDAP traffic to the EC2 instances running HAProxy on TCP port 389.
  3. The HAProxy servers forward the LDAP request to the Simple AD servers listening on TCP port 389 in a fixed Auto Scaling group configuration.
  4. The Simple AD servers send an LDAP response through the HAProxy layer to ELB. ELB encrypts the response and sends it to the client.

Note: Amazon VPC prevents a third party from intercepting traffic within the VPC. Because of this, the VPC protects the decrypted traffic between ELB and HAProxy and between HAProxy and Simple AD. The ELB encryption provides an additional layer of security for client connections and protects traffic coming from hosts outside the VPC.

Prerequisites

  1. Our approach requires an Amazon VPC with two public and two private subnets. The previous diagram illustrates the environment’s VPC requirements. If you do not yet have these components in place, follow these guidelines for setting up a sample environment:
    1. Identify a region that supports Simple AD, ELB, and NAT gateways. The NAT gateways are used with an Internet gateway to allow the HAProxy instances to access the internet to perform their required configuration. You also need to identify the two Availability Zones in that region for use by Simple AD. You will supply these Availability Zones as parameters to the CloudFormation template later in this process.
    2. Create or choose an Amazon VPC in the region you chose. In order to use Route 53 to resolve the LDAPS endpoint, make sure you enable DNS support within your VPC. Create an Internet gateway and attach it to the VPC, which will be used by the NAT gateways to access the internet.
    3. Create a route table with a default route to the Internet gateway. Create two NAT gateways, one per Availability Zone in your public subnets to provide additional resiliency across the Availability Zones. Together, the routing table, the NAT gateways, and the Internet gateway enable the HAProxy instances to access the internet.
    4. Create two private routing tables, one per Availability Zone. Create two private subnets, one per Availability Zone. The dual routing tables and subnets allow for a higher level of redundancy. Add each subnet to the routing table in the same Availability Zone. Add a default route in each routing table to the NAT gateway in the same Availability Zone. The Simple AD servers use subnets that you create.
    5. The LDAP service requires a DNS domain that resolves within your VPC and from your LDAP clients. If you do not have an existing DNS domain, follow the steps to create a private hosted zone and associate it with your VPC. To avoid encryption protocol errors, you must ensure that the DNS domain name is consistent across your Route 53 zone and in the SSL/TLS certificate (see Step 2 in the “Solution deployment” section).
  2. Make sure you have completed the Simple AD Prerequisites.
  3. We will use a self-signed certificate for ELB to perform SSL/TLS decryption. You can use a certificate issued by your preferred certificate authority or a certificate issued by AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).
    Note: To prevent unauthorized connections directly to your Simple AD servers, you can modify the Simple AD security group on port 389 to block traffic from locations outside of the Simple AD VPC. You can find the security group in the EC2 console by creating a search filter for your Simple AD directory ID. It is also important to allow the Simple AD servers to communicate with each other as shown on Simple AD Prerequisites.

Solution deployment

This solution includes five main parts:

  1. Create a Simple AD directory.
  2. Create a certificate.
  3. Create the ELB and HAProxy layers by using the supplied CloudFormation template.
  4. Create a Route 53 record.
  5. Test LDAPS access using an Amazon Linux client.

1. Create a Simple AD directory

With the prerequisites completed, you will create a Simple AD directory in your private VPC subnets:

  1. In the Directory Service console navigation pane, choose Directories and then choose Set up directory.
  2. Choose Simple AD.
    Screenshot of choosing "Simple AD"
  3. Provide the following information:
    • Directory DNS – The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the directory, such as corp.example.com. You will use the FQDN as part of the testing procedure.
    • NetBIOS name – The short name for the directory, such as CORP.
    • Administrator password – The password for the directory administrator. The directory creation process creates an administrator account with the user name Administrator and this password. Do not lose this password because it is nonrecoverable. You also need this password for testing LDAPS access in a later step.
    • Description – An optional description for the directory.
    • Directory Size – The size of the directory.
      Screenshot of the directory details to provide
  4. Provide the following information in the VPC Details section, and then choose Next Step:
    • VPC – Specify the VPC in which to install the directory.
    • Subnets – Choose two private subnets for the directory servers. The two subnets must be in different Availability Zones. Make a note of the VPC and subnet IDs for use as CloudFormation input parameters. In the following example, the Availability Zones are us-east-1a and us-east-1c.
      Screenshot of the VPC details to provide
  5. Review the directory information and make any necessary changes. When the information is correct, choose Create Simple AD.

It takes several minutes to create the directory. From the AWS Directory Service console , refresh the screen periodically and wait until the directory Status value changes to Active before continuing. Choose your Simple AD directory and note the two IP addresses in the DNS address section. You will enter them when you run the CloudFormation template later.

Note: Full administration of your Simple AD implementation is out of scope for this blog post. See the documentation to add users, groups, or instances to your directory. Also see the previous blog post, How to Manage Identities in Simple AD Directories.

2. Create a certificate

In the previous step, you created the Simple AD directory. Next, you will generate a self-signed SSL/TLS certificate using OpenSSL. You will use the certificate with ELB to secure the LDAPS endpoint. OpenSSL is a standard, open source library that supports a wide range of cryptographic functions, including the creation and signing of x509 certificates. You then import the certificate into ACM that is integrated with ELB.

  1. You must have a system with OpenSSL installed to complete this step. If you do not have OpenSSL, you can install it on Amazon Linux by running the command, sudo yum install openssl. If you do not have access to an Amazon Linux instance you can create one with SSH access enabled to proceed with this step. Run the command, openssl version, at the command line to see if you already have OpenSSL installed.
    [[email protected] ~]$ openssl version
    OpenSSL 1.0.1k-fips 8 Jan 2015

  2. Create a private key using the command, openssl genrsa command.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl genrsa 2048 > privatekey.pem
    Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
    ......................................................................................................................................................................+++
    ..........................+++
    e is 65537 (0x10001)

  3. Generate a certificate signing request (CSR) using the openssl req command. Provide the requested information for each field. The Common Name is the FQDN for your LDAPS endpoint (for example, ldap.corp.example.com). The Common Name must use the domain name you will later register in Route 53. You will encounter certificate errors if the names do not match.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl req -new -key privatekey.pem -out server.csr
    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request.

  4. Use the openssl x509 command to sign the certificate. The following example uses the private key from the previous step (privatekey.pem) and the signing request (server.csr) to create a public certificate named server.crt that is valid for 365 days. This certificate must be updated within 365 days to avoid disruption of LDAPS functionality.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey privatekey.pem -out server.crt
    Signature ok
    subject=/C=XX/L=Default City/O=Default Company Ltd/CN=ldap.corp.example.com
    Getting Private key

  5. You should see three files: privatekey.pem, server.crt, and server.csr.
    [[email protected] tmp]$ ls
    privatekey.pem server.crt server.csr

    Restrict access to the private key.

    [[email protected] tmp]$ chmod 600 privatekey.pem

    Keep the private key and public certificate for later use. You can discard the signing request because you are using a self-signed certificate and not using a Certificate Authority. Always store the private key in a secure location and avoid adding it to your source code.

  6. In the ACM console, choose Import a certificate.
  7. Using your favorite Linux text editor, paste the contents of your server.crt file in the Certificate body box.
  8. Using your favorite Linux text editor, paste the contents of your privatekey.pem file in the Certificate private key box. For a self-signed certificate, you can leave the Certificate chain box blank.
  9. Choose Review and import. Confirm the information and choose Import.

3. Create the ELB and HAProxy layers by using the supplied CloudFormation template

Now that you have created your Simple AD directory and SSL/TLS certificate, you are ready to use the CloudFormation template to create the ELB and HAProxy layers.

  1. Load the supplied CloudFormation template to deploy an internal ELB and two HAProxy EC2 instances into a fixed Auto Scaling group. After you load the template, provide the following input parameters. Note: You can find the parameters relating to your Simple AD from the directory details page by choosing your Simple AD in the Directory Service console.
Input parameter Input parameter description
HAProxyInstanceSize The EC2 instance size for HAProxy servers. The default size is t2.micro and can scale up for large Simple AD environments.
MyKeyPair The SSH key pair for EC2 instances. If you do not have an existing key pair, you must create one.
VPCId The target VPC for this solution. Must be in the VPC where you deployed Simple AD and is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SubnetId1 The Simple AD primary subnet. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SubnetId2 The Simple AD secondary subnet. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
MyTrustedNetwork Trusted network Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) to allow connections to the LDAPS endpoint. For example, use the VPC CIDR to allow clients in the VPC to connect.
SimpleADPriIP The primary Simple AD Server IP. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
SimpleADSecIP The secondary Simple AD Server IP. This information is available in your Simple AD directory details page.
LDAPSCertificateARN The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) for the SSL certificate. This information is available in the ACM console.
  1. Enter the input parameters and choose Next.
  2. On the Options page, accept the defaults and choose Next.
  3. On the Review page, confirm the details and choose Create. The stack will be created in approximately 5 minutes.

4. Create a Route 53 record

The next step is to create a Route 53 record in your private hosted zone so that clients can resolve your LDAPS endpoint.

  1. If you do not have an existing DNS domain for use with LDAP, create a private hosted zone and associate it with your VPC. The hosted zone name should be consistent with your Simple AD (for example, corp.example.com).
  2. When the CloudFormation stack is in CREATE_COMPLETE status, locate the value of the LDAPSURL on the Outputs tab of the stack. Copy this value for use in the next step.
  3. On the Route 53 console, choose Hosted Zones and then choose the zone you used for the Common Name box for your self-signed certificate. Choose Create Record Set and enter the following information:
    1. Name – The label of the record (such as ldap).
    2. Type – Leave as A – IPv4 address.
    3. Alias – Choose Yes.
    4. Alias Target – Paste the value of the LDAPSURL on the Outputs tab of the stack.
  4. Leave the defaults for Routing Policy and Evaluate Target Health, and choose Create.
    Screenshot of finishing the creation of the Route 53 record

5. Test LDAPS access using an Amazon Linux client

At this point, you have configured your LDAPS endpoint and now you can test it from an Amazon Linux client.

  1. Create an Amazon Linux instance with SSH access enabled to test the solution. Launch the instance into one of the public subnets in your VPC. Make sure the IP assigned to the instance is in the trusted IP range you specified in the CloudFormation parameter MyTrustedNetwork in Step 3.b.
  2. SSH into the instance and complete the following steps to verify access.
    1. Install the openldap-clients package and any required dependencies:
      sudo yum install -y openldap-clients.
    2. Add the server.crt file to the /etc/openldap/certs/ directory so that the LDAPS client will trust your SSL/TLS certificate. You can copy the file using Secure Copy (SCP) or create it using a text editor.
    3. Edit the /etc/openldap/ldap.conf file and define the environment variables BASE, URI, and TLS_CACERT.
      • The value for BASE should match the configuration of the Simple AD directory name.
      • The value for URI should match your DNS alias.
      • The value for TLS_CACERT is the path to your public certificate.

Here is an example of the contents of the file.

BASE dc=corp,dc=example,dc=com
URI ldaps://ldap.corp.example.com
TLS_CACERT /etc/openldap/certs/server.crt

To test the solution, query the directory through the LDAPS endpoint, as shown in the following command. Replace corp.example.com with your domain name and use the Administrator password that you configured with the Simple AD directory

$ ldapsearch -D "[email protected]corp.example.com" -W sAMAccountName=Administrator

You should see a response similar to the following response, which provides the directory information in LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) for the administrator distinguished name (DN) from your Simple AD LDAP server.

# extended LDIF
#
# LDAPv3
# base <dc=corp,dc=example,dc=com> (default) with scope subtree
# filter: sAMAccountName=Administrator
# requesting: ALL
#

# Administrator, Users, corp.example.com
dn: CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=corp,DC=example,DC=com
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: user
description: Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
instanceType: 4
whenCreated: 20170721123204.0Z
uSNCreated: 3223
name: Administrator
objectGUID:: l3h0HIiKO0a/ShL4yVK/vw==
userAccountControl: 512
…

You can now use the LDAPS endpoint for directory operations and authentication within your environment. If you would like to learn more about how to interact with your LDAPS endpoint within a Linux environment, here are a few resources to get started:

Troubleshooting

If you receive an error such as the following error when issuing the ldapsearch command, there are a few things you can do to help identify issues.

ldap_sasl_bind(SIMPLE): Can't contact LDAP server (-1)
  • You might be able to obtain additional error details by adding the -d1 debug flag to the ldapsearch command in the previous section.
    $ ldapsearch -D "[email protected]" -W sAMAccountName=Administrator –d1

  • Verify that the parameters in ldap.conf match your configured LDAPS URI endpoint and that all parameters can be resolved by DNS. You can use the following dig command, substituting your configured endpoint DNS name.
    $ dig ldap.corp.example.com

  • Confirm that the client instance from which you are connecting is in the CIDR range of the CloudFormation parameter, MyTrustedNetwork.
  • Confirm that the path to your public SSL/TLS certificate configured in ldap.conf as TLS_CAERT is correct. You configured this in Step 5.b.3. You can check your SSL/TLS connection with the command, substituting your configured endpoint DNS name for the string after –connect.
    $ echo -n | openssl s_client -connect ldap.corp.example.com:636

  • Verify that your HAProxy instances have the status InService in the EC2 console: Choose Load Balancers under Load Balancing in the navigation pane, highlight your LDAPS load balancer, and then choose the Instances

Conclusion

You can use ELB and HAProxy to provide an LDAPS endpoint for Simple AD and transport sensitive authentication information over untrusted networks. You can explore using LDAPS to authenticate SSH users or integrate with other software solutions that support LDAP authentication. This solution’s CloudFormation template is available on GitHub.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or issues implementing this solution, start a new thread on the Directory Service forum.

– Cameron and Jeff

Now Available: The First Guide in the AWS Government Handbook Series

Post Syndicated from Craig Liebendorfer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/now-available-the-first-guide-in-the-aws-government-handbook-series/

Secure Network Connections image

AWS recently released the first guide in the new AWS Government Handbook Series: Secure Network Connections: An evaluation of the US Trusted Internet Connections program. This new series examines key cybersecurity policy initiatives that have been operating in the traditional IT space, unpacks their security objectives, and identifies lessons learned and best practices of global government first movers and early adopters seeking to achieve the initiative’s security outcomes in the cloud.

In particular, “Secure Network Connections” provides guidance to government policy makers on AWS’s position and recommendations for establishing cloud-based network perimeter monitoring capabilities. Note that this guidance can be applied to any organization that requires centralized perimeter network monitoring. The guide also summarizes lessons learned from AWS’s work with the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) through an analysis of its federal secure network connections program, Trusted Internet Connections (TIC).

If you have questions or comments about this new guide, submit them in the “Comments” section below. And note that the next guide in this series will be published later this year.

– Craig

Many Film Students Pirate Films for Their Courses

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/many-film-students-pirate-films-for-their-courses-170822/

Hollywood leaves no opportunity unused in stressing that piracy is hurting the livelihoods of millions of people who work in the movie industry.

Despite these efforts, many people who have or aspire to a career in the movie industry regularly turn to pirate sites. This includes film students who are required to watch movies for class assignments.

New research by Wendy Rodgers, Humanities Research Liaison Librarian at Memorial University of Newfoundland, reveals that piracy is a common occurrence among film students in Canada. This is the conclusion of an extensive survey among students, professors, and librarians at several large universities.

The results, outlined in a paper titled “Buy, Borrow, or Steal? Film Access for Film Studies Students,” show that students know that piracy is illegal. However, more than half admit to having downloaded movies in the past because it’s more convenient, cheaper, or the only option.

“92% of students know that downloading copyrighted films through P2P or other free online methods is illegal. Yet 60% have done it anyway, reportedly turning to illegal sources because legal channels were inconvenient, expensive, or unavailable,” Rodgers writes.

The students are not alone in their deviant behavior. The study reveals that 17% of librarians and 14% of faculty have also pirated films.

Moving on, the students were asked about their methods to access films that are required course material. P2P downloading is popular here as well, with 42% admitting that they “always” or “usually” pirate these films. Using “free websites” was also common for 51% of the students, but this could include both legal platforms and pirate sites.

Buying or renting a DVD is significantly less popular, with 8% and 2% respectively. The same is true for lending from the university library reserve desk, which scored only 22%.

For staff and librarians, it doesn’t come as a surprise that many students download content illegally. They think the majority of the students use pirate sources, and one of the surveyed professors admits to having an unofficial “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy

“I have made it my policy not to ask HOW the students are viewing the films, since I know most are doing so illegally. I do not encourage this, and I ensure legal access is available, but many students are so used to illegally downloading media that their first instinct is to view the films that way.”

Among librarians, the piracy habits of students are also well known. The paper quotes a librarian who sometimes points out that certain films are only available on pirate sites, without actively encouraging students to break the law.

“If a film is out of print or otherwise not legally available in Canada, and if the film might otherwise be available online by nefarious networking means, I will inform patrons of the fact, and advise them that I would never in good conscience advise them to avail themselves of those means.

“You catch my drift? If they’re looking for the film it is because they need it for academic purposes, and our protectionist IP regime is sometimes an unfortunate hindrance,” the librarian stated.

The paper’s main conclusion is that piracy is widespread among film students, in part because of lacking legal options. It recommends that libraries increase the legal availability of required course material, and lobby the movie industry and government for change.

“Librarians and educators need to do more to support students, recognizing that the system – not the student – is dysfunctional,” Rodgers notes.

While students certainly have their own responsibilities, it would make sense to increase streaming options, digitize DVDs when legally possible, and screen more films in class, for example.

“Buy, Borrow, or Steal? Film Access for Film Studies Students” was accepted for publication and will appear in a future issue of the College & Research Libraries journal.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and ANONYMOUS VPN services.