Tag Archives: proxies

Putin Asked to Investigate Damage Caused By Telegram Web-Blocking

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/putin-asked-to-investigate-damage-caused-by-telegram-web-blocking-180526/

After a Moscow court gave the go-ahead for Telegram to be banned in Russia last month, the Internet became a battleground.

On the instructions of telecoms watchdog Roscomnadzor, ISPs across Russia tried to block Telegram by blackholing millions of IP addresses. The effect was both dramatic and pathetic. While Telegram remained stubbornly online, countless completely innocent services suffered outages as Roscomnadzor charged ahead with its mission.

Over the past several weeks, Roscomnadzor has gone some way to clean up the mess, partly by removing innocent Google and Amazon IP addresses from Russia’s blacklist. However, the collateral damage was so widespread it’s called into question the watchdog’s entire approach to web-blockades and whether they should be carried out at any cost.

This week, thanks to an annual report presented to President Vladimir Putin by business ombudsman Boris Titov, the matter looks set to be escalated. ‘The Book of Complaints and Suggestions of Russian Business’ contains comments from Internet ombudsman Dmitry Marinichev, who says that the Prosecutor General’s Office should launch an investigation into Roscomnadzor’s actions.

Marinichev said that when attempting to take down Telegram using aggressive technical means, Roscomnadzor relied upon “its own interpretation of court decisions” to provide guidance, TASS reports.

“When carrying out blockades of information resources, Roskomnadzor did not assess the related damage caused to them,” he said.

More than 15 million IP addresses were blocked, many of them with functions completely unrelated to the operations of Telegram. Marinichev said that the consequences were very real for those who suffered collateral damage.

“[The blocking led] to a temporary inaccessibility of Internet resources of a number of Russian enterprises in the Internet sector, including several banks and government information resources,” he reported.

In advice to the President, Marinichev suggests that the Prosecutor General’s Office should look into “the legality and validity of Roskomnadzor’s actions” which led to the “violation of availability of information resources of commercial companies” and “threatened the integrity, sustainability, and functioning of the unified telecommunications network of the Russian Federation and its critical information infrastructure.”

Early May, it was reported that in addition to various web services, around 50 VPN, proxy and anonymization platforms had been blocked for providing access to Telegram. In a May 22 report, that number had swelled to more than 80 although 10 were later unblocked after they stopped providing access to the messaging platform.

This week, Roscomnadzor has continued with efforts to block access to torrent and streaming platforms. In a new wave of action, the telecoms watchdog ordered ISPs to block at least 47 mirrors and proxies providing access to previously blocked sites.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

ExtraTorrent Replacement Displays Warning On Predecessor’s Shutdown Anniversary

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/extratorrent-replacement-displays-warning-on-predecessors-shutdown-anniversary-180518/

Exactly one year ago, millions of users in the BitTorrent community went into mourning with the shock depature of one of its major players.

ExtraTorrent was founded in back in November 2006, at a time when classic platforms such as TorrentSpy and Mininova were dominating the torrent site landscape. But with dedication and determination, the site amassed millions of daily visitors, outperforming every other torrent site apart from the mighty Pirate Bay.

Then, on May 17, 2017, everything came crashing down.

“ExtraTorrent has shut down permanently,” a note in the site read. “ExtraTorrent with all mirrors goes offline. We permanently erase all data. Stay away from fake ExtraTorrent websites and clones. Thx to all ET supporters and torrent community. ET was a place to be….”

While ExtraTorrent staff couldn’t be more clear in advising people to stay away from clones, few people listened to their warnings. Within hours, new sites appeared claiming to be official replacements for the much-loved torrent site and people flocked to them in their millions.

One of those was ExtraTorrent.ag, a torrent site connected to the operators of EZTV.ag, which appeared as a replacement in the wake of the official EZTV’s demise. Graphically very similar to the original ExtraTorrent, the .ag ‘replacement’ had none of its namesake’s community or unique content. But that didn’t dent its popularity.

ExtraTorrent.ag

At the start of this week, ExtraTorrent.ag was one of the most popular torrent sites on the Internet. With an Alexa rank of around 2,200, it would’ve clinched ninth position in our Top 10 Torrent Sites report earlier this year. However, after registering the site’s domain a year ago, something seems to have gone wrong.

Yesterday, on the anniversary of ExtraTorrent’s shutdown and exactly a year after the ExtraTorrent.ag domain was registered, ExtraTorrent.ag disappeared only to be replaced by a generic landing page, as shown below.

ExtraTorrent.ag landing page

This morning, however, there appear to be additional complications. Accessing with Firefox produces the page above but attempting to do so with Chrome produces an ominous security warning.

Chrome warning

Indeed, those protected by MalwareBytes won’t be able to access the page at all, since ExtraTorrent.ag redirects to the domain FindBetterResults.com, which the anti-malware app flags as malicious.

The change was reported to TF by the operator of domain unblocking site Unblocked.lol, which offers torrent site proxies as well as access to live TV and sports.

“I noticed when I started receiving emails saying ExtraTorrent was redirecting to some parked domain. When I jumped on the PC and checked myself it was just redirecting to a blank page,” he informs us.

“First I thought they’d blocked our IP address so I used some different ones. But I soon discovered the domain was in fact parked.”

So what has happened to this previously-functioning domain?

Whois records show that ExtraTorrent.ag was created on May 17, 2017 and appears to have been registered for a year. Yesterday, on May 17, 2018, the domain was updated to list what could potentially be a new owner, with an expiry date of May 17, 2019.

Once domains have expired, they usually enter an ‘Auto-Renew Grace Period’ for up to 45 days. This is followed by a 30-day ‘Redemption Grace Period’. At the end of this second period, domains cannot be renewed and are released for third-parties to register. That doesn’t appear to have been the case here.

So, to find out more about the sudden changes we reached out to the email address listed in the WHOIS report but received no response. Should we hear more we’ll update this report but in the meantime the Internet has lost one of its largest torrent sites and gained a rather pointless landing page with potential security risks.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Ransomware Update: Viruses Targeting Business IT Servers

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/ransomware-update-viruses-targeting-business-it-servers/

Ransomware warning message on computer

As ransomware attacks have grown in number in recent months, the tactics and attack vectors also have evolved. While the primary method of attack used to be to target individual computer users within organizations with phishing emails and infected attachments, we’re increasingly seeing attacks that target weaknesses in businesses’ IT infrastructure.

How Ransomware Attacks Typically Work

In our previous posts on ransomware, we described the common vehicles used by hackers to infect organizations with ransomware viruses. Most often, downloaders distribute trojan horses through malicious downloads and spam emails. The emails contain a variety of file attachments, which if opened, will download and run one of the many ransomware variants. Once a user’s computer is infected with a malicious downloader, it will retrieve additional malware, which frequently includes crypto-ransomware. After the files have been encrypted, a ransom payment is demanded of the victim in order to decrypt the files.

What’s Changed With the Latest Ransomware Attacks?

In 2016, a customized ransomware strain called SamSam began attacking the servers in primarily health care institutions. SamSam, unlike more conventional ransomware, is not delivered through downloads or phishing emails. Instead, the attackers behind SamSam use tools to identify unpatched servers running Red Hat’s JBoss enterprise products. Once the attackers have successfully gained entry into one of these servers by exploiting vulnerabilities in JBoss, they use other freely available tools and scripts to collect credentials and gather information on networked computers. Then they deploy their ransomware to encrypt files on these systems before demanding a ransom. Gaining entry to an organization through its IT center rather than its endpoints makes this approach scalable and especially unsettling.

SamSam’s methodology is to scour the Internet searching for accessible and vulnerable JBoss application servers, especially ones used by hospitals. It’s not unlike a burglar rattling doorknobs in a neighborhood to find unlocked homes. When SamSam finds an unlocked home (unpatched server), the software infiltrates the system. It is then free to spread across the company’s network by stealing passwords. As it transverses the network and systems, it encrypts files, preventing access until the victims pay the hackers a ransom, typically between $10,000 and $15,000. The low ransom amount has encouraged some victimized organizations to pay the ransom rather than incur the downtime required to wipe and reinitialize their IT systems.

The success of SamSam is due to its effectiveness rather than its sophistication. SamSam can enter and transverse a network without human intervention. Some organizations are learning too late that securing internet-facing services in their data center from attack is just as important as securing endpoints.

The typical steps in a SamSam ransomware attack are:

1
Attackers gain access to vulnerable server
Attackers exploit vulnerable software or weak/stolen credentials.
2
Attack spreads via remote access tools
Attackers harvest credentials, create SOCKS proxies to tunnel traffic, and abuse RDP to install SamSam on more computers in the network.
3
Ransomware payload deployed
Attackers run batch scripts to execute ransomware on compromised machines.
4
Ransomware demand delivered requiring payment to decrypt files
Demand amounts vary from victim to victim. Relatively low ransom amounts appear to be designed to encourage quick payment decisions.

What all the organizations successfully exploited by SamSam have in common is that they were running unpatched servers that made them vulnerable to SamSam. Some organizations had their endpoints and servers backed up, while others did not. Some of those without backups they could use to recover their systems chose to pay the ransom money.

Timeline of SamSam History and Exploits

Since its appearance in 2016, SamSam has been in the news with many successful incursions into healthcare, business, and government institutions.

March 2016
SamSam appears

SamSam campaign targets vulnerable JBoss servers
Attackers hone in on healthcare organizations specifically, as they’re more likely to have unpatched JBoss machines.

April 2016
SamSam finds new targets

SamSam begins targeting schools and government.
After initial success targeting healthcare, attackers branch out to other sectors.

April 2017
New tactics include RDP

Attackers shift to targeting organizations with exposed RDP connections, and maintain focus on healthcare.
An attack on Erie County Medical Center costs the hospital $10 million over three months of recovery.
Erie County Medical Center attacked by SamSam ransomware virus

January 2018
Municipalities attacked

• Attack on Municipality of Farmington, NM.
• Attack on Hancock Health.
Hancock Regional Hospital notice following SamSam attack
• Attack on Adams Memorial Hospital
• Attack on Allscripts (Electronic Health Records), which includes 180,000 physicians, 2,500 hospitals, and 7.2 million patients’ health records.

February 2018
Attack volume increases

• Attack on Davidson County, NC.
• Attack on Colorado Department of Transportation.
SamSam virus notification

March 2018
SamSam shuts down Atlanta

• Second attack on Colorado Department of Transportation.
• City of Atlanta suffers a devastating attack by SamSam.
The attack has far-reaching impacts — crippling the court system, keeping residents from paying their water bills, limiting vital communications like sewer infrastructure requests, and pushing the Atlanta Police Department to file paper reports.
Atlanta Ransomware outage alert
• SamSam campaign nets $325,000 in 4 weeks.
Infections spike as attackers launch new campaigns. Healthcare and government organizations are once again the primary targets.

How to Defend Against SamSam and Other Ransomware Attacks

The best way to respond to a ransomware attack is to avoid having one in the first place. If you are attacked, making sure your valuable data is backed up and unreachable by ransomware infection will ensure that your downtime and data loss will be minimal or none if you ever suffer an attack.

In our previous post, How to Recover From Ransomware, we listed the ten ways to protect your organization from ransomware.

  1. Use anti-virus and anti-malware software or other security policies to block known payloads from launching.
  2. Make frequent, comprehensive backups of all important files and isolate them from local and open networks. Cybersecurity professionals view data backup and recovery (74% in a recent survey) by far as the most effective solution to respond to a successful ransomware attack.
  3. Keep offline backups of data stored in locations inaccessible from any potentially infected computer, such as disconnected external storage drives or the cloud, which prevents them from being accessed by the ransomware.
  4. Install the latest security updates issued by software vendors of your OS and applications. Remember to patch early and patch often to close known vulnerabilities in operating systems, server software, browsers, and web plugins.
  5. Consider deploying security software to protect endpoints, email servers, and network systems from infection.
  6. Exercise cyber hygiene, such as using caution when opening email attachments and links.
  7. Segment your networks to keep critical computers isolated and to prevent the spread of malware in case of attack. Turn off unneeded network shares.
  8. Turn off admin rights for users who don’t require them. Give users the lowest system permissions they need to do their work.
  9. Restrict write permissions on file servers as much as possible.
  10. Educate yourself, your employees, and your family in best practices to keep malware out of your systems. Update everyone on the latest email phishing scams and human engineering aimed at turning victims into abettors.

Please Tell Us About Your Experiences with Ransomware

Have you endured a ransomware attack or have a strategy to avoid becoming a victim? Please tell us of your experiences in the comments.

The post Ransomware Update: Viruses Targeting Business IT Servers appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Backblaze at NAB 2018 in Las Vegas

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/backblaze-at-nab-2018-in-las-vegas/

Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage NAB Booth

Backblaze just returned from exhibiting at NAB in Las Vegas, April 9-12, where the response to our recent announcements was tremendous. In case you missed the news, Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage continues to extend its lead as the most affordable, high performance cloud on the planet.

Backblaze’s News at NAB

Backblaze at NAB 2018 in Las Vegas

The Backblaze booth just before opening

What We Were Asked at NAB

Our booth was busy from start to finish with attendees interested in learning more about Backblaze and B2 Cloud Storage. Here are the questions we were asked most often in the booth.

Q. How long has Backblaze been in business?
A. The company was founded in 2007. Today, we have over 500 petabytes of data from customers in over 150 countries.

B2 Partners at NAB 2018

Q. Where is your data stored?
A. We have data centers in California and Arizona and expect to expand to Europe by the end of the year.

Q. How can your services be so inexpensive?
A. Backblaze’s goal from the beginning was to offer cloud backup and storage that was easy to use and affordable. All the existing options were simply too expensive to be viable, so we created our own infrastructure. Our purpose-built storage system — the Backblaze’s Storage Pod — is recognized as one of the most cost efficient storage platforms available.

Q. Tell me about your hardware.
A. Backblaze’s Storage Pods hold 60 HDDs each, containing as much as 720TB data per pod, stored using Reed-Solomon error correction. Storage Pods are arranged in Tomes with twenty Storage Pods making up a Vault.

Q. Where do you fit in the data workflow?
A. People typically use B2 in for archiving completed projects. All data is readily available for download from B2, making it more convenient than off-line storage. In addition, DAM and MAM systems such as CatDV, axle ai, Cantemo, and others have integrated with B2 to store raw images behind the proxies.

Q. Who uses B2 in the M&E business?
A. KLRU-TV, the PBS station in Austin Texas, uses B2 to archive their entire 43 year catalog of Austin City Limits episodes and related materials. WunderVu, the production house for Pixvana, uses B2 to back up and archive their local storage systems on which they build virtual reality experiences for their customers.

Q. You’re the company that publishes the hard drive stats, right?
A. Yes, we are!

Backblaze Case Studies and Swag at NAB 2018 in Las Vegas

Were You at NAB?

If you were, we hope you stopped by the Backblaze booth to say hello. We’d like to hear what you saw at the show that was interesting or exciting. Please tell us in the comments.

The post Backblaze at NAB 2018 in Las Vegas appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Task Networking in AWS Fargate

Post Syndicated from Nathan Peck original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/task-networking-in-aws-fargate/

AWS Fargate is a technology that allows you to focus on running your application without needing to provision, monitor, or manage the underlying compute infrastructure. You package your application into a Docker container that you can then launch using your container orchestration tool of choice.

Fargate allows you to use containers without being responsible for Amazon EC2 instances, similar to how EC2 allows you to run VMs without managing physical infrastructure. Currently, Fargate provides support for Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS). Support for Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (Amazon EKS) will be made available in the near future.

Despite offloading the responsibility for the underlying instances, Fargate still gives you deep control over configuration of network placement and policies. This includes the ability to use many networking fundamentals such as Amazon VPC and security groups.

This post covers how to take advantage of the different ways of networking your containers in Fargate when using ECS as your orchestration platform, with a focus on how to do networking securely.

The first step to running any application in Fargate is defining an ECS task for Fargate to launch. A task is a logical group of one or more Docker containers that are deployed with specified settings. When running a task in Fargate, there are two different forms of networking to consider:

  • Container (local) networking
  • External networking

Container Networking

Container networking is often used for tightly coupled application components. Perhaps your application has a web tier that is responsible for serving static content as well as generating some dynamic HTML pages. To generate these dynamic pages, it has to fetch information from another application component that has an HTTP API.

One potential architecture for such an application is to deploy the web tier and the API tier together as a pair and use local networking so the web tier can fetch information from the API tier.

If you are running these two components as two processes on a single EC2 instance, the web tier application process could communicate with the API process on the same machine by using the local loopback interface. The local loopback interface has a special IP address of 127.0.0.1 and hostname of localhost.

By making a networking request to this local interface, it bypasses the network interface hardware and instead the operating system just routes network calls from one process to the other directly. This gives the web tier a fast and efficient way to fetch information from the API tier with almost no networking latency.

In Fargate, when you launch multiple containers as part of a single task, they can also communicate with each other over the local loopback interface. Fargate uses a special container networking mode called awsvpc, which gives all the containers in a task a shared elastic network interface to use for communication.

If you specify a port mapping for each container in the task, then the containers can communicate with each other on that port. For example the following task definition could be used to deploy the web tier and the API tier:

{
  "family": "myapp"
  "containerDefinitions": [
    {
      "name": "web",
      "image": "my web image url",
      "portMappings": [
        {
          "containerPort": 80
        }
      ],
      "memory": 500,
      "cpu": 10,
      "esssential": true
    },
    {
      "name": "api",
      "image": "my api image url",
      "portMappings": [
        {
          "containerPort": 8080
        }
      ],
      "cpu": 10,
      "memory": 500,
      "essential": true
    }
  ]
}

ECS, with Fargate, is able to take this definition and launch two containers, each of which is bound to a specific static port on the elastic network interface for the task.

Because each Fargate task has its own isolated networking stack, there is no need for dynamic ports to avoid port conflicts between different tasks as in other networking modes. The static ports make it easy for containers to communicate with each other. For example, the web container makes a request to the API container using its well-known static port:

curl 127.0.0.1:8080/my-endpoint

This sends a local network request, which goes directly from one container to the other over the local loopback interface without traversing the network. This deployment strategy allows for fast and efficient communication between two tightly coupled containers. But most application architectures require more than just internal local networking.

External Networking

External networking is used for network communications that go outside the task to other servers that are not part of the task, or network communications that originate from other hosts on the internet and are directed to the task.

Configuring external networking for a task is done by modifying the settings of the VPC in which you launch your tasks. A VPC is a fundamental tool in AWS for controlling the networking capabilities of resources that you launch on your account.

When setting up a VPC, you create one or more subnets, which are logical groups that your resources can be placed into. Each subnet has an Availability Zone and its own route table, which defines rules about how network traffic operates for that subnet. There are two main types of subnets: public and private.

Public subnets

A public subnet is a subnet that has an associated internet gateway. Fargate tasks in that subnet are assigned both private and public IP addresses:


A browser or other client on the internet can send network traffic to the task via the internet gateway using its public IP address. The tasks can also send network traffic to other servers on the internet because the route table can route traffic out via the internet gateway.

If tasks want to communicate directly with each other, they can use each other’s private IP address to send traffic directly from one to the other so that it stays inside the subnet without going out to the internet gateway and back in.

Private subnets

A private subnet does not have direct internet access. The Fargate tasks inside the subnet don’t have public IP addresses, only private IP addresses. Instead of an internet gateway, a network address translation (NAT) gateway is attached to the subnet:

 

There is no way for another server or client on the internet to reach your tasks directly, because they don’t even have an address or a direct route to reach them. This is a great way to add another layer of protection for internal tasks that handle sensitive data. Those tasks are protected and can’t receive any inbound traffic at all.

In this configuration, the tasks can still communicate to other servers on the internet via the NAT gateway. They would appear to have the IP address of the NAT gateway to the recipient of the communication. If you run a Fargate task in a private subnet, you must add this NAT gateway. Otherwise, Fargate can’t make a network request to Amazon ECR to download the container image, or communicate with Amazon CloudWatch to store container metrics.

Load balancers

If you are running a container that is hosting internet content in a private subnet, you need a way for traffic from the public to reach the container. This is generally accomplished by using a load balancer such as an Application Load Balancer or a Network Load Balancer.

ECS integrates tightly with AWS load balancers by automatically configuring a service-linked load balancer to send network traffic to containers that are part of the service. When each task starts, the IP address of its elastic network interface is added to the load balancer’s configuration. When the task is being shut down, network traffic is safely drained from the task before removal from the load balancer.

To get internet traffic to containers using a load balancer, the load balancer is placed into a public subnet. ECS configures the load balancer to forward traffic to the container tasks in the private subnet:

This configuration allows your tasks in Fargate to be safely isolated from the rest of the internet. They can still initiate network communication with external resources via the NAT gateway, and still receive traffic from the public via the Application Load Balancer that is in the public subnet.

Another potential use case for a load balancer is for internal communication from one service to another service within the private subnet. This is typically used for a microservice deployment, in which one service such as an internet user account service needs to communicate with an internal service such as a password service. Obviously, it is undesirable for the password service to be directly accessible on the internet, so using an internet load balancer would be a major security vulnerability. Instead, this can be accomplished by hosting an internal load balancer within the private subnet:

With this approach, one container can distribute requests across an Auto Scaling group of other private containers via the internal load balancer, ensuring that the network traffic stays safely protected within the private subnet.

Best Practices for Fargate Networking

Determine whether you should use local task networking

Local task networking is ideal for communicating between containers that are tightly coupled and require maximum networking performance between them. However, when you deploy one or more containers as part of the same task they are always deployed together so it removes the ability to independently scale different types of workload up and down.

In the example of the application with a web tier and an API tier, it may be the case that powering the application requires only two web tier containers but 10 API tier containers. If local container networking is used between these two container types, then an extra eight unnecessary web tier containers would end up being run instead of allowing the two different services to scale independently.

A better approach would be to deploy the two containers as two different services, each with its own load balancer. This allows clients to communicate with the two web containers via the web service’s load balancer. The web service could distribute requests across the eight backend API containers via the API service’s load balancer.

Run internet tasks that require internet access in a public subnet

If you have tasks that require internet access and a lot of bandwidth for communication with other services, it is best to run them in a public subnet. Give them public IP addresses so that each task can communicate with other services directly.

If you run these tasks in a private subnet, then all their outbound traffic has to go through an NAT gateway. AWS NAT gateways support up to 10 Gbps of burst bandwidth. If your bandwidth requirements go over this, then all task networking starts to get throttled. To avoid this, you could distribute the tasks across multiple private subnets, each with their own NAT gateway. It can be easier to just place the tasks into a public subnet, if possible.

Avoid using a public subnet or public IP addresses for private, internal tasks

If you are running a service that handles private, internal information, you should not put it into a public subnet or use a public IP address. For example, imagine that you have one task, which is an API gateway for authentication and access control. You have another background worker task that handles sensitive information.

The intended access pattern is that requests from the public go to the API gateway, which then proxies request to the background task only if the request is from an authenticated user. If the background task is in a public subnet and has a public IP address, then it could be possible for an attacker to bypass the API gateway entirely. They could communicate directly to the background task using its public IP address, without being authenticated.

Conclusion

Fargate gives you a way to run containerized tasks directly without managing any EC2 instances, but you still have full control over how you want networking to work. You can set up containers to talk to each other over the local network interface for maximum speed and efficiency. For running workloads that require privacy and security, use a private subnet with public internet access locked down. Or, for simplicity with an internet workload, you can just use a public subnet and give your containers a public IP address.

To deploy one of these Fargate task networking approaches, check out some sample CloudFormation templates showing how to configure the VPC, subnets, and load balancers.

If you have questions or suggestions, please comment below.

New – AWS PrivateLink for AWS Services: Kinesis, Service Catalog, EC2 Systems Manager, Amazon EC2 APIs, and ELB APIs in your VPC

Post Syndicated from Ana Visneski original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-privatelink-endpoints-kinesis-ec2-systems-manager-and-elb-apis-in-your-vpc/

This guest post is by Colm MacCárthaigh, Senior Engineer for Amazon Virtual Private Cloud.


Since VPC Endpoints launched in 2015, creating Endpoints has been a popular way to securely access S3 and DynamoDB from an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) without the need for an Internet gateway, a NAT gateway, or firewall proxies. With VPC Endpoints, the routing between the VPC and the AWS service is handled by the AWS network, and IAM policies can be used to control access to service resources.

Today we are announcing AWS PrivateLink, the newest generation of VPC Endpoints which is designed for customers to access AWS services in a highly available and scalable manner, while keeping all the traffic within the AWS network. Kinesis, Service Catalog, Amazon EC2, EC2 Systems Manager (SSM), and Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) APIs are now available to use inside your VPC, with support for more services coming soon such as Key Management Service (KMS) and Amazon Cloudwatch.

With traditional endpoints, it’s very much like connecting a virtual cable between your VPC and the AWS service. Connectivity to the AWS service does not require an Internet or NAT gateway, but the endpoint remains outside of your VPC. With PrivateLink, endpoints are instead created directly inside of your VPC, using Elastic Network Interfaces (ENIs) and IP addresses in your VPC’s subnets. The service is now in your VPC, enabling connectivity to AWS services via private IP addresses. That means that VPC Security Groups can be used to manage access to the endpoints and that PrivateLink endpoints can also be accessed from your premises via AWS Direct Connect.

Using the services powered by PrivateLink, customers can now manage fleets of instances, create and manage catalogs of IT services as well as store and process data, without requiring the traffic to traverse the Internet.

Creating a PrivateLink Endpoint
To create a PrivateLink endpoint, I navigate to the VPC Console, select Endpoints, and choose Create Endpoint.

I then choose which service I’d like to access. New PrivateLink endpoints have an “interface” type. In this case I’d like to use the Kinesis service directly from my VPC and I choose the kinesis-streams service.

At this point I can choose which of my VPCs I’d like to launch my new endpoint in, and select the subnets that the ENIs and IP addresses will be placed in. I can also associate the endpoint with a new or existing Security Group, allowing me to control which of my instances can access the Endpoint.

Because PrivateLink endpoints will use IP addresses from my VPC, I have the option to over-ride DNS for the AWS service DNS name by using VPC Private DNS. By leaving Enable Private DNS Name checked, lookups from within my VPC for “kinesis.us-east-1.amazonaws.com” will resolve to the IP addresses for the endpoint that I’m creating. This makes the transition to the endpoint seamless without requiring any changes to my applications. If I’d prefer to test or configure the endpoint before handling traffic by default, I can leave this disabled and then change it at any time by editing the endpoint.

Once I’m ready and happy with the VPC, subnets and DNS settings, I click Create Endpoint to complete the process.

Using a PrivateLink Endpoint

By default, with the Private DNS Name enabled, using a PrivateLink endpoint is as straight-forward as using the SDK, AWS CLI or other software that accesses the service API from within your VPC. There’s no need to change any code or configurations.

To support testing and advanced configurations, every endpoint also gets a set of DNS names that are unique and dedicated to your endpoint. There’s a primary name for the endpoint and zonal names.

The primary name is particularly useful for accessing your endpoint via Direct Connect, without having to use any DNS over-rides on-premises. Naturally, the primary name can also be used inside of your VPC.
The primary name, and the main service name – since I chose to over-ride it – include zonal fault-tolerance and will balance traffic between the Availability Zones. If I had an architecture that uses zonal isolation techniques, either for fault containment and compartmentalization, low latency, or for minimizing regional data transfer I could also use the zonal names to explicitly control whether my traffic flows between or stays within zones.

Pricing & Availability
AWS PrivateLink is available today in all AWS commercial regions except China (Beijing). For the region availability of individual services, please check our documentation.

Pricing starts at $0.01 / hour plus a data processing charge at $0.01 / GB. Data transferred between availability zones, or between your Endpoint and your premises via Direct Connect will also incur the usual EC2 Regional and Direct Connect data transfer charges. For more information, see VPC Pricing.

Colm MacCárthaigh

 

Deploying an NGINX Reverse Proxy Sidecar Container on Amazon ECS

Post Syndicated from Nathan Peck original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/nginx-reverse-proxy-sidecar-container-on-amazon-ecs/

Reverse proxies are a powerful software architecture primitive for fetching resources from a server on behalf of a client. They serve a number of purposes, from protecting servers from unwanted traffic to offloading some of the heavy lifting of HTTP traffic processing.

This post explains the benefits of a reverse proxy, and explains how to use NGINX and Amazon EC2 Container Service (Amazon ECS) to easily implement and deploy a reverse proxy for your containerized application.

Components

NGINX is a high performance HTTP server that has achieved significant adoption because of its asynchronous event driven architecture. It can serve thousands of concurrent requests with a low memory footprint. This efficiency also makes it ideal as a reverse proxy.

Amazon ECS is a highly scalable, high performance container management service that supports Docker containers. It allows you to run applications easily on a managed cluster of Amazon EC2 instances. Amazon ECS helps you get your application components running on instances according to a specified configuration. It also helps scale out these components across an entire fleet of instances.

Sidecar containers are a common software pattern that has been embraced by engineering organizations. It’s a way to keep server side architecture easier to understand by building with smaller, modular containers that each serve a simple purpose. Just like an application can be powered by multiple microservices, each microservice can also be powered by multiple containers that work together. A sidecar container is simply a way to move part of the core responsibility of a service out into a containerized module that is deployed alongside a core application container.

The following diagram shows how an NGINX reverse proxy sidecar container operates alongside an application server container:

In this architecture, Amazon ECS has deployed two copies of an application stack that is made up of an NGINX reverse proxy side container and an application container. Web traffic from the public goes to an Application Load Balancer, which then distributes the traffic to one of the NGINX reverse proxy sidecars. The NGINX reverse proxy then forwards the request to the application server and returns its response to the client via the load balancer.

Reverse proxy for security

Security is one reason for using a reverse proxy in front of an application container. Any web server that serves resources to the public can expect to receive lots of unwanted traffic every day. Some of this traffic is relatively benign scans by researchers and tools, such as Shodan or nmap:

[18/May/2017:15:10:10 +0000] "GET /YesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScanningForResearchPurposePleaseHaveALookAtTheUserAgentTHXYesThisIsAReallyLongRequestURLbutWeAreDoingItOnPurposeWeAreScann HTTP/1.1" 404 1389 - Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_11_1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/46.0.2490.86 Safari/537.36
[18/May/2017:18:19:51 +0000] "GET /clientaccesspolicy.xml HTTP/1.1" 404 322 - Cloud mapping experiment. Contact [email protected]

But other traffic is much more malicious. For example, here is what a web server sees while being scanned by the hacking tool ZmEu, which scans web servers trying to find PHPMyAdmin installations to exploit:

[18/May/2017:16:27:39 +0000] "GET /mysqladmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 391 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:39 +0000] "GET /web/phpMyAdmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 394 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:39 +0000] "GET /xampp/phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 396 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:40 +0000] "GET /apache-default/phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 405 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:40 +0000] "GET /phpMyAdmin-2.10.0.0/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 397 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:40 +0000] "GET /mysql/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 386 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:41 +0000] "GET /admin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 386 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:41 +0000] "GET /forum/phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 396 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:41 +0000] "GET /typo3/phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 396 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:42 +0000] "GET /phpMyAdmin-2.10.0.1/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 399 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:44 +0000] "GET /administrator/components/com_joommyadmin/phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 418 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:18:34:45 +0000] "GET /phpmyadmin/scripts/setup.php HTTP/1.1" 404 390 - ZmEu
[18/May/2017:16:27:45 +0000] "GET /w00tw00t.at.blackhats.romanian.anti-sec:) HTTP/1.1" 404 401 - ZmEu

In addition, servers can also end up receiving unwanted web traffic that is intended for another server. In a cloud environment, an application may end up reusing an IP address that was formerly connected to another service. It’s common for misconfigured or misbehaving DNS servers to send traffic intended for a different host to an IP address now connected to your server.

It’s the responsibility of anyone running a web server to handle and reject potentially malicious traffic or unwanted traffic. Ideally, the web server can reject this traffic as early as possible, before it actually reaches the core application code. A reverse proxy is one way to provide this layer of protection for an application server. It can be configured to reject these requests before they reach the application server.

Reverse proxy for performance

Another advantage of using a reverse proxy such as NGINX is that it can be configured to offload some heavy lifting from your application container. For example, every HTTP server should support gzip. Whenever a client requests gzip encoding, the server compresses the response before sending it back to the client. This compression saves network bandwidth, which also improves speed for clients who now don’t have to wait as long for a response to fully download.

NGINX can be configured to accept a plaintext response from your application container and gzip encode it before sending it down to the client. This allows your application container to focus 100% of its CPU allotment on running business logic, while NGINX handles the encoding with its efficient gzip implementation.

An application may have security concerns that require SSL termination at the instance level instead of at the load balancer. NGINX can also be configured to terminate SSL before proxying the request to a local application container. Again, this also removes some CPU load from the application container, allowing it to focus on running business logic. It also gives you a cleaner way to patch any SSL vulnerabilities or update SSL certificates by updating the NGINX container without needing to change the application container.

NGINX configuration

Configuring NGINX for both traffic filtering and gzip encoding is shown below:

http {
  # NGINX will handle gzip compression of responses from the app server
  gzip on;
  gzip_proxied any;
  gzip_types text/plain application/json;
  gzip_min_length 1000;
 
  server {
    listen 80;
 
    # NGINX will reject anything not matching /api
    location /api {
      # Reject requests with unsupported HTTP method
      if ($request_method !~ ^(GET|POST|HEAD|OPTIONS|PUT|DELETE)$) {
        return 405;
      }
 
      # Only requests matching the whitelist expectations will
      # get sent to the application server
      proxy_pass http://app:3000;
      proxy_http_version 1.1;
      proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
      proxy_set_header Connection 'upgrade';
      proxy_set_header Host $host;
      proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_cache_bypass $http_upgrade;
    }
  }
}

The above configuration only accepts traffic that matches the expression /api and has a recognized HTTP method. If the traffic matches, it is forwarded to a local application container accessible at the local hostname app. If the client requested gzip encoding, the plaintext response from that application container is gzip-encoded.

Amazon ECS configuration

Configuring ECS to run this NGINX container as a sidecar is also simple. ECS uses a core primitive called the task definition. Each task definition can include one or more containers, which can be linked to each other:

 {
  "containerDefinitions": [
     {
       "name": "nginx",
       "image": "<NGINX reverse proxy image URL here>",
       "memory": "256",
       "cpu": "256",
       "essential": true,
       "portMappings": [
         {
           "containerPort": "80",
           "protocol": "tcp"
         }
       ],
       "links": [
         "app"
       ]
     },
     {
       "name": "app",
       "image": "<app image URL here>",
       "memory": "256",
       "cpu": "256",
       "essential": true
     }
   ],
   "networkMode": "bridge",
   "family": "application-stack"
}

This task definition causes ECS to start both an NGINX container and an application container on the same instance. Then, the NGINX container is linked to the application container. This allows the NGINX container to send traffic to the application container using the hostname app.

The NGINX container has a port mapping that exposes port 80 on a publically accessible port but the application container does not. This means that the application container is not directly addressable. The only way to send it traffic is to send traffic to the NGINX container, which filters that traffic down. It only forwards to the application container if the traffic passes the whitelisted rules.

Conclusion

Running a sidecar container such as NGINX can bring significant benefits by making it easier to provide protection for application containers. Sidecar containers also improve performance by freeing your application container from various CPU intensive tasks. Amazon ECS makes it easy to run sidecar containers, and automate their deployment across your cluster.

To see the full code for this NGINX sidecar reference, or to try it out yourself, you can check out the open source NGINX reverse proxy reference architecture on GitHub.

– Nathan
 @nathankpeck

The Importance of a CDN: Speed and Security

Post Syndicated from Sarah Wilson original https://www.anchor.com.au/blog/2017/03/importance-cdn-website-speed-security/

As a hosting provider, we speak with many businesses who need a fix for their slow site speeds. There are many contributing factors why hosting infrastructure may be constraining your site performance but typically; old infrastructure used by some hosting providers, contention issues and even the physical location of the servers.  Having your site hosted in a high-speed environment with world class managed services (such as Anchor) provides the right foundations and utilising a Content Delivery Network (CDN) that can give you that extra boost in speed and performance you desire – and deserve. One of the more popular site performance applications is Cloudflare; global network designed to optimize security, performance and reliability, without the bloat of legacy technologies. Cloudflare  has some robust CDN capabilities in addition to other security services like DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) protection and reverse proxies.

A traditional CDN is a group of web servers distributed across multiple locations around the world, which delivers content more efficiently to users. The server selected for delivering content to a specific user is typically based on a measure of network proximity. For example, the server with the fewest network hops or the server with the quickest response time is chosen.

If you are looking to take advantage of a CDN,  a great place to to start is Cloudflare’s free plan. This basic plan can be set up in less than 5 minutes and only requires a simple change to your domain’s DNS settings to get you up and running. There is no hardware or software to install or maintain and you do not need to change any of your site’s existing code. As a partner of Cloudflare, we can offer discounted pricing to our customers if you are looking to take advantage of some of Cloudflare’s advanced performance and security features such as image optimisations, firewalls and PCI compliance to name just a few.

CloudFlare utilises more than 40 data centres in almost as many countries, and use the size of their ‘quietly built cloud’ to process more than 5% of all web requests. It includes:

  • A Global CDN
  • DDoS Protection
  • Page Rules

DDoS Protection- Why do I need it and how to protect against attack?

In 2015 the internet saw the highest rate of DDoS attacks ever. Generally, the attackers will flood a network or service (usually with thousands of IP addresses) in order to overwhelm the server and make a network or website unavailable for its users. It is extremely important to make sure your site is protected from such an attack, especially if your site is eCommerce and down time will prevent customers completing their purchases.

What are Global CDN’s?

As mentioned above, Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are important for a number of reasons. The primary feature that a CDN does, is provides alternative server nodes, or locations for the user to download resources (usually JavaScript or static content). This means that although the server may be located in the US, someone in Sydney can still experience fast load speed and response times due to this reduced latency.  This is extremely important for sites that have users in other countries, especially those who are shopping online, as these sites generally have a large volumes of images, which can be timely to load. Overall, it improves your user’s experience in terms of speed.

Page Rules

Page Rules give you the ability to control how Cloudflare actually works on a URL or subdomain basis, which means it allows you to customise it’s functionality to match your domain’s unique needs. They give you the ability to take various actions based on the page’s URL, such as creating redirects, fine tuning caching behavior, or enabling and disabling our various services. This helps you to optimize speed, harden security, increase reliability, maximize bandwidth savings, and much more.

Other benefits include, the added scalability or capacity effects that a CDN like Cloudflare has, not only does it have higher availability but also lower packet loss. Further, Cloudflare provides website traffic insight and other analytics such as threat monitoring, so that you can improve your site even further.

As a partner of Cloudflare, Anchor receives discounted rates for the Pro and Business plans, as well as can help you install the free plan if you are a customer.  The easiest part about Cloudflare however, is that it only requires a simple change to your domain’s DNS settings. There is no hardware or software to install or maintain and you do not need to change any of your site’s existing code.

If your site is running slow and want know how you can boost your site performance, contact us for a free, no obligation site hosting check up.

The post The Importance of a CDN: Speed and Security appeared first on AWS Managed Services by Anchor.

In Case You Missed These: AWS Security Blog Posts from January, February, and March

Post Syndicated from Craig Liebendorfer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/in-case-you-missed-these-aws-security-blog-posts-from-january-february-and-march/

Image of lock and key

In case you missed any AWS Security Blog posts published so far in 2017, they are summarized and linked to below. The posts are shown in reverse chronological order (most recent first), and the subject matter ranges from protecting dynamic web applications against DDoS attacks to monitoring AWS account configuration changes and API calls to Amazon EC2 security groups.

March

March 22: How to Help Protect Dynamic Web Applications Against DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53
Using a content delivery network (CDN) such as Amazon CloudFront to cache and serve static text and images or downloadable objects such as media files and documents is a common strategy to improve webpage load times, reduce network bandwidth costs, lessen the load on web servers, and mitigate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. AWS WAF is a web application firewall that can be deployed on CloudFront to help protect your application against DDoS attacks by giving you control over which traffic to allow or block by defining security rules. When users access your application, the Domain Name System (DNS) translates human-readable domain names (for example, www.example.com) to machine-readable IP addresses (for example, 192.0.2.44). A DNS service, such as Amazon Route 53, can effectively connect users’ requests to a CloudFront distribution that proxies requests for dynamic content to the infrastructure hosting your application’s endpoints. In this blog post, I show you how to deploy CloudFront with AWS WAF and Route 53 to help protect dynamic web applications (with dynamic content such as a response to user input) against DDoS attacks. The steps shown in this post are key to implementing the overall approach described in AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency and enable the built-in, managed DDoS protection service, AWS Shield.

March 21: New AWS Encryption SDK for Python Simplifies Multiple Master Key Encryption
The AWS Cryptography team is happy to announce a Python implementation of the AWS Encryption SDK. This new SDK helps manage data keys for you, and it simplifies the process of encrypting data under multiple master keys. As a result, this new SDK allows you to focus on the code that drives your business forward. It also provides a framework you can easily extend to ensure that you have a cryptographic library that is configured to match and enforce your standards. The SDK also includes ready-to-use examples. If you are a Java developer, you can refer to this blog post to see specific Java examples for the SDK. In this blog post, I show you how you can use the AWS Encryption SDK to simplify the process of encrypting data and how to protect your encryption keys in ways that help improve application availability by not tying you to a single region or key management solution.

March 21: Updated CJIS Workbook Now Available by Request
The need for guidance when implementing Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS)–compliant solutions has become of paramount importance as more law enforcement customers and technology partners move to store and process criminal justice data in the cloud. AWS services allow these customers to easily and securely architect a CJIS-compliant solution when handling criminal justice data, creating a durable, cost-effective, and secure IT infrastructure that better supports local, state, and federal law enforcement in carrying out their public safety missions. AWS has created several documents (collectively referred to as the CJIS Workbook) to assist you in aligning with the FBI’s CJIS Security Policy. You can use the workbook as a framework for developing CJIS-compliant architecture in the AWS Cloud. The workbook helps you define and test the controls you operate, and document the dependence on the controls that AWS operates (compute, storage, database, networking, regions, Availability Zones, and edge locations).

March 9: New Cloud Directory API Makes It Easier to Query Data Along Multiple Dimensions
Today, we made available a new Cloud Directory API, ListObjectParentPaths, that enables you to retrieve all available parent paths for any directory object across multiple hierarchies. Use this API when you want to fetch all parent objects for a specific child object. The order of the paths and objects returned is consistent across iterative calls to the API, unless objects are moved or deleted. In case an object has multiple parents, the API allows you to control the number of paths returned by using a paginated call pattern. In this blog post, I use an example directory to demonstrate how this new API enables you to retrieve data across multiple dimensions to implement powerful applications quickly.

March 8: How to Access the AWS Management Console Using AWS Microsoft AD and Your On-Premises Credentials
AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also known as AWS Microsoft AD, is a managed Microsoft Active Directory (AD) hosted in the AWS Cloud. Now, AWS Microsoft AD makes it easy for you to give your users permission to manage AWS resources by using on-premises AD administrative tools. With AWS Microsoft AD, you can grant your on-premises users permissions to resources such as the AWS Management Console instead of adding AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts or configuring AD Federation Services (AD FS) with Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). In this blog post, I show how to use AWS Microsoft AD to enable your on-premises AD users to sign in to the AWS Management Console with their on-premises AD user credentials to access and manage AWS resources through IAM roles.

March 7: How to Protect Your Web Application Against DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon Route 53 and an External Content Delivery Network
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are attempts by a malicious actor to flood a network, system, or application with more traffic, connections, or requests than it is able to handle. To protect your web application against DDoS attacks, you can use AWS Shield, a DDoS protection service that AWS provides automatically to all AWS customers at no additional charge. You can use AWS Shield in conjunction with DDoS-resilient web services such as Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53 to improve your ability to defend against DDoS attacks. Learn more about architecting for DDoS resiliency by reading the AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency whitepaper. You also have the option of using Route 53 with an externally hosted content delivery network (CDN). In this blog post, I show how you can help protect the zone apex (also known as the root domain) of your web application by using Route 53 to perform a secure redirect to prevent discovery of your application origin.

Image of lock and key

February

February 27: Now Generally Available – AWS Organizations: Policy-Based Management for Multiple AWS Accounts
Today, AWS Organizations moves from Preview to General Availability. You can use Organizations to centrally manage multiple AWS accounts, with the ability to create a hierarchy of organizational units (OUs). You can assign each account to an OU, define policies, and then apply those policies to an entire hierarchy, specific OUs, or specific accounts. You can invite existing AWS accounts to join your organization, and you can also create new accounts. All of these functions are available from the AWS Management Console, the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), and through the AWS Organizations API.To read the full AWS Blog post about today’s launch, see AWS Organizations – Policy-Based Management for Multiple AWS Accounts.

February 23: s2n Is Now Handling 100 Percent of SSL Traffic for Amazon S3
Today, we’ve achieved another important milestone for securing customer data: we have replaced OpenSSL with s2n for all internal and external SSL traffic in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) commercial regions. This was implemented with minimal impact to customers, and multiple means of error checking were used to ensure a smooth transition, including client integration tests, catching potential interoperability conflicts, and identifying memory leaks through fuzz testing.

February 22: Easily Replace or Attach an IAM Role to an Existing EC2 Instance by Using the EC2 Console
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles enable your applications running on Amazon EC2 to use temporary security credentials. IAM roles for EC2 make it easier for your applications to make API requests securely from an instance because they do not require you to manage AWS security credentials that the applications use. Recently, we enabled you to use temporary security credentials for your applications by attaching an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance by using the AWS CLI and SDK. To learn more, see New! Attach an AWS IAM Role to an Existing Amazon EC2 Instance by Using the AWS CLI. Starting today, you can attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance from the EC2 console. You can also use the EC2 console to replace an IAM role attached to an existing instance. In this blog post, I will show how to attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance from the EC2 console.

February 22: How to Audit Your AWS Resources for Security Compliance by Using Custom AWS Config Rules
AWS Config Rules enables you to implement security policies as code for your organization and evaluate configuration changes to AWS resources against these policies. You can use Config rules to audit your use of AWS resources for compliance with external compliance frameworks such as CIS AWS Foundations Benchmark and with your internal security policies related to the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP), and other regimes. AWS provides some predefined, managed Config rules. You also can create custom Config rules based on criteria you define within an AWS Lambda function. In this post, I show how to create a custom rule that audits AWS resources for security compliance by enabling VPC Flow Logs for an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). The custom rule meets requirement 4.3 of the CIS AWS Foundations Benchmark: “Ensure VPC flow logging is enabled in all VPCs.”

February 13: AWS Announces CISPE Membership and Compliance with First-Ever Code of Conduct for Data Protection in the Cloud
I have two exciting announcements today, both showing AWS’s continued commitment to ensuring that customers can comply with EU Data Protection requirements when using our services.

February 13: How to Enable Multi-Factor Authentication for AWS Services by Using AWS Microsoft AD and On-Premises Credentials
You can now enable multi-factor authentication (MFA) for users of AWS services such as Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight and their on-premises credentials by using your AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Enterprise Edition) directory, also known as AWS Microsoft AD. MFA adds an extra layer of protection to a user name and password (the first “factor”) by requiring users to enter an authentication code (the second factor), which has been provided by your virtual or hardware MFA solution. These factors together provide additional security by preventing access to AWS services, unless users supply a valid MFA code.

February 13: How to Create an Organizational Chart with Separate Hierarchies by Using Amazon Cloud Directory
Amazon Cloud Directory enables you to create directories for a variety of use cases, such as organizational charts, course catalogs, and device registries. Cloud Directory offers you the flexibility to create directories with hierarchies that span multiple dimensions. For example, you can create an organizational chart that you can navigate through separate hierarchies for reporting structure, location, and cost center. In this blog post, I show how to use Cloud Directory APIs to create an organizational chart with two separate hierarchies in a single directory. I also show how to navigate the hierarchies and retrieve data. I use the Java SDK for all the sample code in this post, but you can use other language SDKs or the AWS CLI.

February 10: How to Easily Log On to AWS Services by Using Your On-Premises Active Directory
AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Enterprise Edition), also known as Microsoft AD, now enables your users to log on with just their on-premises Active Directory (AD) user name—no domain name is required. This new domainless logon feature makes it easier to set up connections to your on-premises AD for use with applications such as Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight, and it keeps the user logon experience free from network naming. This new interforest trusts capability is now available when using Microsoft AD with Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight Enterprise Edition. In this blog post, I explain how Microsoft AD domainless logon works with AD interforest trusts, and I show an example of setting up Amazon WorkSpaces to use this capability.

February 9: New! Attach an AWS IAM Role to an Existing Amazon EC2 Instance by Using the AWS CLI
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles enable your applications running on Amazon EC2 to use temporary security credentials that AWS creates, distributes, and rotates automatically. Using temporary credentials is an IAM best practice because you do not need to maintain long-term keys on your instance. Using IAM roles for EC2 also eliminates the need to use long-term AWS access keys that you have to manage manually or programmatically. Starting today, you can enable your applications to use temporary security credentials provided by AWS by attaching an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance. You can also replace the IAM role attached to an existing EC2 instance. In this blog post, I show how you can attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance by using the AWS CLI.

February 8: How to Remediate Amazon Inspector Security Findings Automatically
The Amazon Inspector security assessment service can evaluate the operating environments and applications you have deployed on AWS for common and emerging security vulnerabilities automatically. As an AWS-built service, Amazon Inspector is designed to exchange data and interact with other core AWS services not only to identify potential security findings but also to automate addressing those findings. Previous related blog posts showed how you can deliver Amazon Inspector security findings automatically to third-party ticketing systems and automate the installation of the Amazon Inspector agent on new Amazon EC2 instances. In this post, I show how you can automatically remediate findings generated by Amazon Inspector. To get started, you must first run an assessment and publish any security findings to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) topic. Then, you create an AWS Lambda function that is triggered by those notifications. Finally, the Lambda function examines the findings and then implements the appropriate remediation based on the type of issue.

February 6: How to Simplify Security Assessment Setup Using Amazon EC2 Systems Manager and Amazon Inspector
In a July 2016 AWS Blog post, I discussed how to integrate Amazon Inspector with third-party ticketing systems by using Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) and AWS Lambda. This AWS Security Blog post continues in the same vein, describing how to use Amazon Inspector to automate various aspects of security management. In this post, I show you how to install the Amazon Inspector agent automatically through the Amazon EC2 Systems Manager when a new Amazon EC2 instance is launched. In a subsequent post, I will show you how to update EC2 instances automatically that run Linux when Amazon Inspector discovers a missing security patch.

Image of lock and key

January

January 30: How to Protect Data at Rest with Amazon EC2 Instance Store Encryption
Encrypting data at rest is vital for regulatory compliance to ensure that sensitive data saved on disks is not readable by any user or application without a valid key. Some compliance regulations such as PCI DSS and HIPAA require that data at rest be encrypted throughout the data lifecycle. To this end, AWS provides data-at-rest options and key management to support the encryption process. For example, you can encrypt Amazon EBS volumes and configure Amazon S3 buckets for server-side encryption (SSE) using AES-256 encryption. Additionally, Amazon RDS supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE). Instance storage provides temporary block-level storage for Amazon EC2 instances. This storage is located on disks attached physically to a host computer. Instance storage is ideal for temporary storage of information that frequently changes, such as buffers, caches, and scratch data. By default, files stored on these disks are not encrypted. In this blog post, I show a method for encrypting data on Linux EC2 instance stores by using Linux built-in libraries. This method encrypts files transparently, which protects confidential data. As a result, applications that process the data are unaware of the disk-level encryption.

January 27: How to Detect and Automatically Remediate Unintended Permissions in Amazon S3 Object ACLs with CloudWatch Events
Amazon S3 Access Control Lists (ACLs) enable you to specify permissions that grant access to S3 buckets and objects. When S3 receives a request for an object, it verifies whether the requester has the necessary access permissions in the associated ACL. For example, you could set up an ACL for an object so that only the users in your account can access it, or you could make an object public so that it can be accessed by anyone. If the number of objects and users in your AWS account is large, ensuring that you have attached correctly configured ACLs to your objects can be a challenge. For example, what if a user were to call the PutObjectAcl API call on an object that is supposed to be private and make it public? Or, what if a user were to call the PutObject with the optional Acl parameter set to public-read, therefore uploading a confidential file as publicly readable? In this blog post, I show a solution that uses Amazon CloudWatch Events to detect PutObject and PutObjectAcl API calls in near-real time and helps ensure that the objects remain private by making automatic PutObjectAcl calls, when necessary.

January 26: Now Available: Amazon Cloud Directory—A Cloud-Native Directory for Hierarchical Data
Today we are launching Amazon Cloud Directory. This service is purpose-built for storing large amounts of strongly typed hierarchical data. With the ability to scale to hundreds of millions of objects while remaining cost-effective, Cloud Directory is a great fit for all sorts of cloud and mobile applications.

January 24: New SOC 2 Report Available: Confidentiality
As with everything at Amazon, the success of our security and compliance program is primarily measured by one thing: our customers’ success. Our customers drive our portfolio of compliance reports, attestations, and certifications that support their efforts in running a secure and compliant cloud environment. As a result of our engagement with key customers across the globe, we are happy to announce the publication of our new SOC 2 Confidentiality report. This report is available now through AWS Artifact in the AWS Management Console.

January 18: Compliance in the Cloud for New Financial Services Cybersecurity Regulations
Financial regulatory agencies are focused more than ever on ensuring responsible innovation. Consequently, if you want to achieve compliance with financial services regulations, you must be increasingly agile and employ dynamic security capabilities. AWS enables you to achieve this by providing you with the tools you need to scale your security and compliance capabilities on AWS. The following breakdown of the most recent cybersecurity regulations, NY DFS Rule 23 NYCRR 500, demonstrates how AWS continues to focus on your regulatory needs in the financial services sector.

January 9: New Amazon GameDev Blog Post: Protect Multiplayer Game Servers from DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon GameLift
In online gaming, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks target a game’s network layer, flooding servers with requests until performance degrades considerably. These attacks can limit a game’s availability to players and limit the player experience for those who can connect. Today’s new Amazon GameDev Blog post uses a typical game server architecture to highlight DDoS attack vulnerabilities and discusses how to stay protected by using built-in AWS Cloud security, AWS security best practices, and the security features of Amazon GameLift. Read the post to learn more.

January 6: The Top 10 Most Downloaded AWS Security and Compliance Documents in 2016
The following list includes the 10 most downloaded AWS security and compliance documents in 2016. Using this list, you can learn about what other people found most interesting about security and compliance last year.

January 6: FedRAMP Compliance Update: AWS GovCloud (US) Region Receives a JAB-Issued FedRAMP High Baseline P-ATO for Three New Services
Three new services in the AWS GovCloud (US) region have received a Provisional Authority to Operate (P-ATO) from the Joint Authorization Board (JAB) under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP). JAB issued the authorization at the High baseline, which enables US government agencies and their service providers the capability to use these services to process the government’s most sensitive unclassified data, including Personal Identifiable Information (PII), Protected Health Information (PHI), Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI), criminal justice information (CJI), and financial data.

January 4: The Top 20 Most Viewed AWS IAM Documentation Pages in 2016
The following 20 pages were the most viewed AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) documentation pages in 2016. I have included a brief description with each link to give you a clearer idea of what each page covers. Use this list to see what other people have been viewing and perhaps to pique your own interest about a topic you’ve been meaning to research.

January 3: The Most Viewed AWS Security Blog Posts in 2016
The following 10 posts were the most viewed AWS Security Blog posts that we published during 2016. You can use this list as a guide to catch up on your blog reading or even read a post again that you found particularly useful.

January 3: How to Monitor AWS Account Configuration Changes and API Calls to Amazon EC2 Security Groups
You can use AWS security controls to detect and mitigate risks to your AWS resources. The purpose of each security control is defined by its control objective. For example, the control objective of an Amazon VPC security group is to permit only designated traffic to enter or leave a network interface. Let’s say you have an Internet-facing e-commerce website, and your security administrator has determined that only HTTP (TCP port 80) and HTTPS (TCP 443) traffic should be allowed access to the public subnet. As a result, your administrator configures a security group to meet this control objective. What if, though, someone were to inadvertently change this security group’s rules and enable FTP or other protocols to access the public subnet from any location on the Internet? That expanded access could weaken the security posture of your assets. Consequently, your administrator might need to monitor the integrity of your company’s security controls so that the controls maintain their desired effectiveness. In this blog post, I explore two methods for detecting unintended changes to VPC security groups. The two methods address not only control objectives but also control failures.

If you have questions about or issues with implementing the solutions in any of these posts, please start a new thread on the forum identified near the end of each post.

– Craig

How to Help Protect Dynamic Web Applications Against DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53

Post Syndicated from Holly Willey original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-protect-dynamic-web-applications-against-ddos-attacks-by-using-amazon-cloudfront-and-amazon-route-53/

Using a content delivery network (CDN) such as Amazon CloudFront to cache and serve static text and images or downloadable objects such as media files and documents is a common strategy to improve webpage load times, reduce network bandwidth costs, lessen the load on web servers, and mitigate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. AWS WAF is a web application firewall that can be deployed on CloudFront to help protect your application against DDoS attacks by giving you control over which traffic to allow or block by defining security rules. When users access your application, the Domain Name System (DNS) translates human-readable domain names (for example, www.example.com) to machine-readable IP addresses (for example, 192.0.2.44). A DNS service, such as Amazon Route 53, can effectively connect users’ requests to a CloudFront distribution that proxies requests for dynamic content to the infrastructure hosting your application’s endpoints.

In this blog post, I show you how to deploy CloudFront with AWS WAF and Route 53 to help protect dynamic web applications (with dynamic content such as a response to user input) against DDoS attacks. The steps shown in this post are key to implementing the overall approach described in AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency and enable the built-in, managed DDoS protection service, AWS Shield.

Background

AWS hosts CloudFront and Route 53 services on a distributed network of proxy servers in data centers throughout the world called edge locations. Using the global Amazon network of edge locations for application delivery and DNS service plays an important part in building a comprehensive defense against DDoS attacks for your dynamic web applications. These web applications can benefit from the increased security and availability provided by CloudFront and Route 53 as well as improving end users’ experience by reducing latency.

The following screenshot of an Amazon.com webpage shows how static and dynamic content can compose a dynamic web application that is delivered via HTTPS protocol for the encryption of user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by a web server.

Screenshot of an Amazon.com webpage with static and dynamic content

The following map shows the global Amazon network of edge locations available to serve static content and proxy requests for dynamic content back to the origin as of the writing of this blog post. For the latest list of edge locations, see AWS Global Infrastructure.

Map showing Amazon edge locations

How AWS Shield, CloudFront, and Route 53 work to help protect against DDoS attacks

To help keep your dynamic web applications available when they are under DDoS attack, the steps in this post enable AWS Shield Standard by configuring your applications behind CloudFront and Route 53. AWS Shield Standard protects your resources from common, frequently occurring network and transport layer DDoS attacks. Attack traffic can be geographically isolated and absorbed using the capacity in edge locations close to the source. Additionally, you can configure geographical restrictions to help block attacks originating from specific countries.

The request-routing technology in CloudFront connects each client to the nearest edge location, as determined by continuously updated latency measurements. HTTP and HTTPS requests sent to CloudFront can be monitored, and access to your application resources can be controlled at edge locations using AWS WAF. Based on conditions that you specify in AWS WAF, such as the IP addresses that requests originate from or the values of query strings, traffic can be allowed, blocked, or allowed and counted for further investigation or remediation. The following diagram shows how static and dynamic web application content can originate from endpoint resources within AWS or your corporate data center. For more details, see How CloudFront Delivers Content and How CloudFront Works with Regional Edge Caches.

Route 53 DNS requests and subsequent application traffic routed through CloudFront are inspected inline. Always-on monitoring, anomaly detection, and mitigation against common infrastructure DDoS attacks such as SYN/ACK floods, UDP floods, and reflection attacks are built into both Route 53 and CloudFront. For a review of common DDoS attack vectors, see How to Help Prepare for DDoS Attacks by Reducing Your Attack Surface. When the SYN flood attack threshold is exceeded, SYN cookies are activated to avoid dropping connections from legitimate clients. Deterministic packet filtering drops malformed TCP packets and invalid DNS requests, only allowing traffic to pass that is valid for the service. Heuristics-based anomaly detection evaluates attributes such as type, source, and composition of traffic. Traffic is scored across many dimensions, and only the most suspicious traffic is dropped. This method allows you to avoid false positives while protecting application availability.

Route 53 is also designed to withstand DNS query floods, which are real DNS requests that can continue for hours and attempt to exhaust DNS server resources. Route 53 uses shuffle sharding and anycast striping to spread DNS traffic across edge locations and help protect the availability of the service.

The next four sections provide guidance about how to deploy CloudFront, Route 53, AWS WAF, and, optionally, AWS Shield Advanced.

Deploy CloudFront

To take advantage of application delivery with DDoS mitigations at the edge, start by creating a CloudFront distribution and configuring origins:

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the CloudFront console
  2. Choose Create Distribution.
  3. On the first page of the Create Distribution Wizard, in the Web section, choose Get Started.
  4. Specify origin settings for the distribution. The following screenshot of the CloudFront console shows an example CloudFront distribution configured with an Elastic Load Balancing load balancer origin, as shown in the previous diagram. I have configured this example to set the Origin SSL Protocols to use TLSv1.2 and the Origin Protocol Policy to HTTP Only. For more information about creating an HTTPS listener for your ELB load balancer and requesting a certificate from AWS Certificate Manager (ACM), see Getting Started with Elastic Load BalancingSupported Regions, and Requiring HTTPS for Communication Between CloudFront and Your Custom Origin.
  1. Specify cache behavior settings for the distribution, as shown in the following screenshot. You can configure each URL path pattern with a set of associated cache behaviors. For dynamic web applications, set the Minimum TTL to 0 so that CloudFront will make a GET request with an If-Modified-Since header back to the origin. When CloudFront proxies traffic to the origin from edge locations and back, multiple concurrent requests for the same object are collapsed into a single request. The request is sent over a persistent connection from the edge location to the region over networks monitored by AWS. The use of a large initial TCP window size in CloudFront maximizes the available bandwidth, and TCP Fast Open (TFO) reduces latency.
  2. To ensure that all traffic to CloudFront is encrypted and to enable SSL termination from clients at global edge locations, specify Redirect HTTP to HTTPS for Viewer Protocol Policy. Moving SSL termination to CloudFront offloads computationally expensive SSL negotiation, helps mitigate SSL abuse, and reduces latency with the use of OCSP stapling and session tickets. For more information about options for serving HTTPS requests, see Choosing How CloudFront Serves HTTPS Requests. For dynamic web applications, set Allowed HTTP Methods to include all methods, set Forward Headers to All, and for Query String Forwarding and Caching, choose Forward all, cache based on all.
  1. Specify distribution settings for the distribution, as shown in the following screenshot. Enter your domain names in the Alternate Domain Names box and choose Custom SSL Certificate.
  2. Choose Create Distribution. Note the x.cloudfront.net Domain Name of the distribution. In the next section, you will configure Route 53 to route traffic to this CloudFront distribution domain name.

Configure Route 53

When you created a web distribution in the previous section, CloudFront assigned a domain name to the distribution, such as d111111abcdef8.cloudfront.net. You can use this domain name in the URLs for your content, such as: http://d111111abcdef8.cloudfront.net/logo.jpg.

Alternatively, you might prefer to use your own domain name in URLs, such as: http://example.com/logo.jpg. You can accomplish this by creating a Route 53 alias resource record set that routes dynamic web application traffic to your CloudFront distribution by using your domain name. Alias resource record sets are virtual records specific to Route 53 that are used to map alias resource record sets for your domain to your CloudFront distribution. Alias resource record sets are similar to CNAME records except there is no charge for DNS queries to Route 53 alias resource record sets mapped to AWS services. Alias resource record sets are also not visible to resolvers, and they can be created for the root domain (zone apex) as well as subdomains.

A hosted zone, similar to a DNS zone file, is a collection of records that belongs to a single parent domain name. Each hosted zone has four nonoverlapping name servers in a delegation set. If a DNS query is dropped, the client automatically retries the next name server. If you have not already registered a domain name and have not configured a hosted zone for your domain, complete these two prerequisite steps before proceeding:

After you have registered your domain name and configured your public hosted zone, follow these steps to create an alias resource record set:

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Route 53 console.
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Hosted Zones.
  3. Choose the name of the hosted zone for the domain that you want to use to route traffic to your CloudFront distribution.
  4. Choose Create Record Set.
  5. Specify the following values:
    • Name – Type the domain name that you want to use to route traffic to your CloudFront distribution. The default value is the name of the hosted zone. For example, if the name of the hosted zone is example.com and you want to use acme.example.com to route traffic to your distribution, type acme.
    • Type – Choose A – IPv4 address. If IPv6 is enabled for the distribution and you are creating a second resource record set, choose AAAA – IPv6 address.
    • Alias – Choose Yes.
    • Alias Target – In the CloudFront distributions section, choose the name that CloudFront assigned to the distribution when you created it.
    • Routing Policy – Accept the default value of Simple.
    • Evaluate Target Health – Accept the default value of No.
  6. Choose Create.
  7. If IPv6 is enabled for the distribution, repeat Steps 4 through 6. Specify the same settings except for the Type field, as explained in Step 5.

The following screenshot of the Route 53 console shows a Route 53 alias resource record set that is configured to map a domain name to a CloudFront distribution.

If your dynamic web application requires geo redundancy, you can use latency-based routing in Route 53 to run origin servers in different AWS regions. Route 53 is integrated with CloudFront to collect latency measurements from each edge location. With Route 53 latency-based routing, each CloudFront edge location goes to the region with the lowest latency for the origin fetch.

Enable AWS WAF

AWS WAF is a web application firewall that helps detect and mitigate web application layer DDoS attacks by inspecting traffic inline. Application layer DDoS attacks use well-formed but malicious requests to evade mitigation and consume application resources. You can define custom security rules (also called web ACLs) that contain a set of conditions, rules, and actions to block attacking traffic. After you define web ACLs, you can apply them to CloudFront distributions, and web ACLs are evaluated in the priority order you specified when you configured them. Real-time metrics and sampled web requests are provided for each web ACL.

You can configure AWS WAF whitelisting or blacklisting in conjunction with CloudFront geo restriction to prevent users in specific geographic locations from accessing your application. The AWS WAF API supports security automation such as blacklisting IP addresses that exceed request limits, which can be useful for mitigating HTTP flood attacks. Use the AWS WAF Security Automations Implementation Guide to implement rate-based blacklisting.

The following diagram shows how the (a) flow of CloudFront access logs files to an Amazon S3 bucket (b) provides the source data for the Lambda log parser function (c) to identify HTTP flood traffic and update AWS WAF web ACLs. As CloudFront receives requests on behalf of your dynamic web application, it sends access logs to an S3 bucket, triggering the Lambda log parser. The Lambda function parses CloudFront access logs to identify suspicious behavior, such as an unusual number of requests or errors, and it automatically updates your AWS WAF rules to block subsequent requests from the IP addresses in question for a predefined amount of time that you specify.

Diagram of the process

In addition to automated rate-based blacklisting to help protect against HTTP flood attacks, prebuilt AWS CloudFormation templates are available to simplify the configuration of AWS WAF for a proactive application-layer security defense. The following diagram provides an overview of CloudFormation template input into the creation of the CommonAttackProtection stack that includes AWS WAF web ACLs used to block, allow, or count requests that meet the criteria defined in each rule.

Diagram of CloudFormation template input into the creation of the CommonAttackProtection stack

To implement these application layer protections, follow the steps in Tutorial: Quickly Setting Up AWS WAF Protection Against Common Attacks. After you have created your AWS WAF web ACLs, you can assign them to your CloudFront distribution by updating the settings.

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the CloudFront console.
  2. Choose the link under the ID column for your CloudFront distribution.
  3. Choose Edit under the General
  4. Choose your AWS WAF Web ACL from the drop-down
  5. Choose Yes, Edit.

Activate AWS Shield Advanced (optional)

Deploying CloudFront, Route 53, and AWS WAF as described in this post enables the built-in DDoS protections for your dynamic web applications that are included with AWS Shield Standard. (There is no upfront cost or charge for AWS Shield Standard beyond the normal pricing for CloudFront, Route 53, and AWS WAF.) AWS Shield Standard is designed to meet the needs of many dynamic web applications.

For dynamic web applications that have a high risk or history of frequent, complex, or high volume DDoS attacks, AWS Shield Advanced provides additional DDoS mitigation capacity, attack visibility, cost protection, and access to the AWS DDoS Response Team (DRT). For more information about AWS Shield Advanced pricing, see AWS Shield Advanced pricing. To activate advanced protection services, follow these steps:

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the AWS WAF console.
  2. If this is your first time signing in to the AWS WAF console, choose Get started with AWS Shield Advanced. Otherwise, choose Protected resources.
  3. Choose Activate AWS Shield Advanced.
  4. Choose the resource type and resource to protect.
  5. For Name, enter a friendly name that will help you identify the AWS resources that are protected. For example, My CloudFront AWS Shield Advanced distributions.
  6. (Optional) For Web DDoS attack, select Enable. You will be prompted to associate an existing web ACL with these resources, or create a new ACL if you don’t have any yet.
  7. Choose Add DDoS protection.

Summary

In this blog post, I outline the steps to deploy CloudFront and configure Route 53 in front of your dynamic web application to leverage the global Amazon network of edge locations for DDoS resiliency. The post also provides guidance about enabling AWS WAF for application layer traffic monitoring and automated rules creation to block malicious traffic. I also cover the optional steps to activate AWS Shield Advanced, which helps build a more comprehensive defense against DDoS attacks for your dynamic web applications.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or issues implementing this solution, please open a new thread on the AWS WAF forum.

– Holly

AWS Quick Starts Update – Tableau, Splunk, Compliance, Alfresco, Symantec

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-quick-starts-update-tableau-splunk-compliance-alfresco-symantec/

AWS Quick Starts help you to deploy popular solutions on AWS. Each Quick Start is designed by AWS solutions architects or partners, and makes use of AWS best practices for security and high availability. You can use them to spin up test or production environments that you can use right away.

The Quick Starts include comprehensive deployment guides and AWS CloudFormation templates that you can launch with a single click. The collection of Quick Starts is broken down in to seven categories, as follows:

  • DevOps
  • Databases & storage
  • Big Data & analytics
  • Security & compliance
  • Microsoft & SAP
  • Networking & access
  • Additional

Over the past two months we have added six new Quick Starts to our collection, bringing the total up to 42. Today I would like to give you an overview of the newest Quick Starts in each category.

Tableau Server (Big data & analytics)
The Tableau Server on AWS Quick Start helps you to deploy a fully functional Tableau Server on the AWS Cloud. You can launch a single node deployment in your default VPC, or a multi-node cluster deployment in a new or existing VPC. Here’s the cluster architecture:

The CloudFormation template will prompt you for (among other things) your Tableau Activation Key.

Splunk Enterprise (Big data & analytics)
The Splunk Enterprise on AWS Quick Start helps you to deploy a distributed Splunk Enterprise environment on the AWS Cloud. You can launch into an existing VPC with two or more Availability Zones or you can create a new VPC. Here’s the architecture:

The template will prompt you for the name of an S3 bucket and the path (within the bucket) to a Splunk license file.

UK OFFICIAL (Security & compliance)
The UK-OFFICIAL on AWS Quick Start sets up a standardized AWS Cloud environment that supports workloads that are classified as United Kingdom (UK) OFFICIAL. The environment aligns with the in-scope guidelines found in the NCSC Cloud Security Principles and the CIS Critical Security Controls (take a look at the security controls matrix to learn more). Here’s the architecture:

Alfresco One
The Alfresco One on AWS Quick Start helps you to deploy an Alfresco One Enterprise Content Management server cluster in the AWS Cloud. It can be deployed into an existing VPC, or it can set up a new one with public and private subnets. Here’s the architecture:

You will need to have an Alfresco trial license in order to launch the cluster.

Symantec Protection Engine (Security & compliance)
The Symantec Protection Engine on AWS Quick Start helps you to deploy Symantec Protection Engine (SPE) in less than an hour. Once deployed (into a new or existing VPC), you can use SPE’s APIs to incorporate malware and threat detection into your applications. You can also connect it to proxies and scan traffic for viruses, trojans, and other types of malware. Here’s the architecture:

You will need to purchase an SPE license or subscribe to the SPE AMI in order to use this Quick Start.

For More Info
To learn more about our Quick Starts, check out the Quick Starts FAQ. If you are interested in authoring a Quick Start of your own, read our Quick Starts Contributor’s Guide.

Jeff;

 

Cloudflare Reverse Proxies are Dumping Uninitialized Memory

Post Syndicated from ris original https://lwn.net/Articles/715535/rss

Thanks to Josh Triplett for sending us this chromium
bug report
about a dump of unitialized memory caused by Cloudflare’s
reverse proxies. “A while later, we figured out how to reproduce the
problem. It looked like that if an html page hosted behind cloudflare had a
specific combination of unbalanced tags, the proxy would intersperse pages
of uninitialized memory into the output (kinda like heartbleed, but
cloudflare specific and worse for reasons I’ll explain later). My working
theory was that this was related to their “ScrapeShield” feature which
parses and obfuscates html – but because reverse proxies are shared between
customers, it would affect *all* Cloudflare customers. We fetched a few live samples, and we observed encryption keys, cookies, passwords, chunks of POST data and even HTTPS requests for other major cloudflare-hosted sites from other users. Once we understood what we were seeing and the implications, we immediately stopped and contacted cloudflare security.

NAT is a firewall

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2017/01/nat-is-firewall.html

NAT is a firewall. It’s the most common firewall. It’s the best firewall.

I thought I’d point this out because most security experts might disagree, pointing to some “textbook definition”. This is wrong.

A “firewall” is anything that establishes a barrier between some internal (presumably trusted) network and the outside, public, and dangerous Internet where anybody can connect to you at any time. A NAT creates exactly that sort of barrier.

What other firewalls provide (the SPI packet filters) is the ability to block outbound connections, not just incoming connections. That’s nice, but that’s not a critical feature. Indeed, few organizations use firewalls that way, it just causes complaints when internal users cannot access Internet resources.

Another way of using firewalls is to specify connections between a DMZ and an internal network, such as a web server exposed to the Internet that needs a hole in the firewall to access an internal database. While not technically part of the NAT definition, it’s a feature of all modern NATs. It’s the only way to get some games to work, for example.

There’s already more than 10-billion devices on the Internet, including homes with many devices, as well as most mobile phones. This means that NAT is the most common firewall. The reason hackers find it difficult hacking into iPhones is partly because they connect to the Internet through carrier-grade NAT. When hackers used “alpine” as the backdoor in Cydia, they still had to exploit it over local WiFi rather than the carrier network.

Not only is NAT the most common firewall, it’s the best firewall. Simple SPI firewalls that don’t translate addresses have an inherent hole in that they are “fail open”. It’s easy to apply the wrong firewall ruleset, either permanently, or just for moment. You see this on internal IDS, where for no reason there’s suddenly a spike of attacks against internal machines because of a bad rule. Every large organization I’ve worked with can cite examples of this.

NAT, on the other hand, fails closed. Common mistakes shutdown access to the Internet rather than open up access from the Internet. The benefit is so compelling that organizations with lots of address space really need to give it up and move to private addressing instead.

The definition of firewall is malleable. At one time it included explicit and transparent proxies, for example, which were the most popular type. These days, many people think of only state packet inspection filters as the “true” firewall. I take the more expansive view of things.

The upshot is this: NAT is by definition a firewall. It’s the most popular firewall. It’s the best firewalling technology.


Note: Of course, no organization should use firewalls of any type. They break the “end-to-end” principle of the Internet, and thus should be banned by law.

HexorBase – Administer & Audit Multiple Database Servers

Post Syndicated from Darknet original http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/darknethackers/~3/U6P_31VgCP0/

HexorBase is a database application designed to administer and to audit multiple database servers simultaneously from a centralised location, it is capable of performing SQL queries and brute-force attacks against common database servers (MySQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, PostgreSQL). It allows packet routing through proxies or even…

Read the full post at darknet.org.uk

Generate Your Own API Gateway Developer Portal

Post Syndicated from Bryan Liston original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/generate-your-own-api-gateway-developer-portal/


Shiva Krishnamurthy, Sr. Product Manager

Amazon API Gateway helps you quickly build highly scalable, secure, and robust APIs. Developers who want to consume your API to build web, mobile, or other types of apps need a site where they can learn about the API, acquire access, and manage their consumption. You can do this by hosting a developer portal: a web application that lists your APIs in catalog form, displays API documentation to help developers understand your API, and allows them to sign up for access. The application also needs to let developers test your APIs, and provide feedback to grow a successful developer ecosystem. Finally, you may also want to monetize your APIs and grow API product revenue.

Today, we published aws-api-gateway-developer-portal, an open source serverless web application that you can use to get started building your own developer portal. In just a few easy steps, you can generate a serverless web application that lists your APIs on API Gateway in catalog form, and allows for developer signups. The application is built using aws-serverless-express, an open source library that we published recently, that makes it incredibly easy to build serverless web applications using API Gateway and AWS Lambda. The application uses a SAM (Serverless Application Model) template to deploy its serverless resources, and is very easy to deploy and operate.

Walkthrough

In this post, I walk through the steps for creating a sample API and developer portal for third-party developer consumption:

  • Create an API or import a Swagger definition
  • Deploy the API for developer access
  • Document the API for easier developer consumption
  • Structure it into a usage plan to set access control policies, and set throttling limits.
  • Use aws-api-gateway-developer-portal to generate a developer portal, and then set up and configure the portal
  • Log in as a developer and verify the process of consuming an API.

You can also see how to create a AWS Marketplace listing and monetize your API.

Create an API

To get started, log in to the Amazon API Gateway console and import the example API (PetStore). You can also create your own APIs using Swagger, the console, or APIs.

Deploy the API

After creation, deploy the API to a stage to make it accessible to developers, and ready for testing. For this example, use “Marketplace” as the name for the API stage.

Document the API

API Gateway recently announced support for API documentation. You can now document various parts of your API by either importing Swagger or using the API Gateway console to edit API documentation directly.

Navigate to the Documentation tab to add missing documentation and make it easier for developers to understand your API. After you are satisfied with the new documentation, choose Publish Documentation and choose the Marketplace stage created earlier to update the previously deployed PetStore API with the modified documentation.

Package the API into usage plans

Usage plans in API Gateway help you structure your API for developer access. You can associate API keys to usage plans, and set throttling limits and quotas on a per-API key basis. Choose Usage Plans in the console, create a new usage plan, and set throttling limits and quotas as shown below.

When your customers subscribe to this usage plan, their requests are throttled at 200 RPS, and they can each make only 200,000 requests per month. You can change these limits at any time.

Choose Next to create the usage plan. (Skip the API Key screen, and add the Marketplace stage we created earlier)

Generate and configure a developer portal

Now, generate a developer portal in order to list the usage plan that you created earlier. To do this, clone the aws-api-gateway-developer-portal into a local folder. The README includes instructions on how to get set up, but let’s run through it step-by-step. First, ensure that you have the latest version of Node.js installed. For this walkthrough, you use the latest version of the AWS CLI, so make sure that you have your AWS credentials handy. and that you have configured the AWS CLI with the access-key and secret-key using the `aws –configure’ command.

Set up the developer portal

Then, open up a terminal window and run `npm run setup’. This step modifies several project files in-line with the information that you supply—choose a name for the S3 bucket that store webpages for the developer portal, as well as a name for the Lambda function that wraps the Express.js web application. The S3 bucket names that you specify in this step must be region-unique, so use a prefix (eg. ‘my-org-dev-portal-artifacts’).

After entering those details, it then creates the artifacts bucket on S3 (if the S3 bucket name you provided in the previous step doesn’t already exist). It also runs “package and deploy” on the SAM template using the new

command. It takes several minutes for CloudFormation to create the stack.

This step creates all the resources that you need for the developer portal, after setting up the IAM roles that are needed for the operation of this application. Navigate to the AWS CloudFormation console, and choose the Resources tab to see the full list of resources that have been created.

The core components that were created for your portal are listed below:

  • API Gateway API: Proxies HTTP requests to the back-end Lambda function (Express.js web server that serves website content)
  • Developer portal S3 website URL: Runs the developer portal site (publically accessible bucket)
  • Lambda function: Acts as the primary back end or API server
  • Cognito user and identity pools: Creates Cognito user pool and identity pool, and links them.
  • DynamoDB table – Stores a map of API key IDs to customer IDs, which lets you track the API key and customer association.
  • Lambda function Acts as a listener that subscribes to a particular SNS topic, which is useful when customers cancel or subscribe to an API.

Configure the developer portal post-setup

Additional files are then modified with values from your new resources, such as Cognito pool IDs, etc., and your web app is then uploaded to Amazon S3. After this step completes, it opens up your developer portal website in your default browser.

At this point, you have a complete serverless website ready. The application has been integrated with Cognito User Pools, which makes it easy for you to sign up developers and manage their access. For more information, see the Amazon Cognito Your User Pools – Now Generally Available post.

Edit the dev-portal/src/catalog.json file to list your APIs that appear in the developer portal. This can be a subset of all the APIs you have in API Gateway. Replace the contents of this file with your API definitions. For accuracy, export your APIs from API Gateway as Swagger, and copy them into the catalog.json file. Then, run `npm run upload-site’ to make these APIs available in the developer portal.

Verify the process

Test the end-user flow by signing up for access.

After you sign in as a developer, you can subscribe to an API, to receive an API key that you as a developer would use in your API requests.

You can also browse the API documentation that the API owner published (you, as of 5 minutes ago…), and learn more about the API.

You can even test an API with your API Key. Click the “Show API Key” button on the top right corner of the page, and copy your API Key. Next click the red alert icon, enter your API Key, and click Authorize. Finally, click the “Try it out!” button on any of your resources to make a request to your live API.

Your static content for the site is packaged into the folder ‘/dev-portal’. Modify the case studies, and getting started content in this folder; when you’re satisfied, run ‘npm run upload-site’ to push the changes to your portal.

Monetize your APIs

Amazon API Gateway now integrates with the AWS Marketplace to help API owners monetize their API and meter usage for their API products, without writing any code. Now, any API built using API Gateway can easily be published on the AWS Marketplace using the API Gateway console, AWS CLI, or AWS SDK.

API Gateway automatically and accurately meters API consumption for any such API published to the AWS Marketplace and send it to the AWS Marketplace Metering Service, enabling sellers to focus on adding value to their API products rather than building integrations with AWS Marketplace. For more information, see the Monetize your APIs in AWS Marketplace using API Gateway post.

To leverage this feature, you must offer a developer portal that accepts signups from AWS customers. You can use this developer portal implementation to either build your own from scratch, or use it to add functionality to your existing site.

Conclusion

To summarize, you started with an API on API Gateway and structured it for developer consumption. Then in just a few easy steps, you used aws-api-gateway-developer-portal, to spin up a developer portal on serverless architecture, ready to accept developer signups. This application needs no infrastructure management, scales out-of-the-box, and directly integrates with AWS Marketplace to help you monetize your APIs.

If you have any questions or suggestions, please comment below.

UFONet – Open Redirect DDoS Tool

Post Syndicated from Darknet original http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/darknethackers/~3/Hyv3xrsVqxg/

UFONet is an open redirect DDoS tool designed to launch attacks against a target, using insecure redirects in third party web applications, like a botnet. Obviously, only for testing purposes. The tool abuses OSI Layer 7-HTTP to create/manage ‘zombies’ and to conduct different attacks using; GET/POST, multi-threading, proxies, origin spoofing…

Read the full post at darknet.org.uk