Tag Archives: Inclusion

Universal design for learning in computing | Hello World #15

Post Syndicated from Hayley Leonard original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/universal-design-for-learning-in-computing-hello-world-15/

In our brand-new issue of Hello World magazine, Hayley Leonard from our team gives a primer on how computing educators can apply the Universal Design for Learning framework in their lessons.

Cover of issue 15 of Hello World magazine

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for considering how tools and resources can be used to reduce barriers and support all learners. Based on findings from neuroscience, it has been developed over the last 30 years by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), a nonprofit education research and development organisation based in the US. UDL is currently used across the globe, with research showing it can be an efficient approach for designing flexible learning environments and accessible content.

A computing classroom populated by students with diverse genders and ethnicities

Engaging a wider range of learners is an important issue in computer science, which is often not chosen as an optional subject by girls and those from some minority ethnic groups. Researchers at the Creative Technology Research Lab in the US have been investigating how UDL principles can be applied to computer science, to improve learning and engagement for all students. They have adapted the UDL guidelines to a computer science education context and begun to explore how teachers use the framework in their own practice. The hope is that understanding and adapting how the subject is taught could help to increase the representation of all groups in computing.

The UDL guidelines help educators anticipate barriers to learning and plan activities to overcome them.

A scientific approach

The UDL framework is based on neuroscientific evidence which highlights how different areas or networks in the brain work together to process information during learning. Importantly, there is variation across individuals in how each of these networks functions and how they interact with each other. This means that a traditional approach to teaching, in which a main task is differentiated for certain students with special educational needs, may miss out on the variation in learning between all students across different tasks.

A stylised representation of the human brain
The UDL framework is based on neuroscientific evidence

The UDL guidelines highlight different opportunities to take learner differences into account when planning lessons. The framework is structured according to three main principles, which are directly related to three networks in the brain that play a central role in learning. It encourages educators to plan multiple, flexible methods of engagement in learning (affective networks), representation of the teaching materials (recognition networks), and opportunities for action and expression of what has been learnt (strategic networks).

The three principles of UDL are each expanded into guidelines and checkpoints that allow educators to identify the different methods of engagement, representation, and expression to be used in a particular lesson. Each principle is also broken down into activities that allow learners to access the learning goals, remain engaged and build on their learning, and begin to internalise the approaches to learning so that they are empowered for the future.

Examples of UDL guidelines for computer science education from the Creative Technology Research Lab

Multiple means of engagement Multiple means of representation Multiple means of
action and expression
Provide options for recruiting interests
* Give students choice (software, project, topic)
* Allow students to make projects relevant to culture and age
Provide options for perception
* Model computing through physical representations as well as through interactive whiteboard/videos etc.
* Select coding apps and websites that allow adjustment of visual settings (e.g. font size/contrast) and that are compatible with screen readers
Provide options for physical action
* Include CS unplugged activities that show physical relationships of abstract computing concepts
* Use assistive technology, including a larger or smaller mouse or touchscreen devices
Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence
* Utilise pair programming and group work with clearly defined roles
* Discuss the integral role of perseverance and problem-solving in computer science
Provide options for language, mathematical expressions, and symbols
* Teach and review computing vocabulary (e.g. code, animations, algorithms)
* Provide reference sheets with images of blocks, or with common syntax when using text
Provide options for expression and communication
* Provide sentence starters or checklists for communicating in order to collaborate, give feedback, and explain work
* Provide options that include starter code
Provide options for self-regulation
* Break up coding activities with opportunities for reflection, such as ‘turn and talk’ or written questions
* Model different strategies for dealing with frustration appropriately
Provide options for comprehension
* Encourage students to ask questions as comprehension checkpoints
* Use relevant analogies and make cross-curricular connections explicit
Provide options for executive function
* Embed prompts to stop and plan, test, or debug throughout a lesson or project
* Demonstrate debugging with think-alouds

Each principle of the UDL framework is associated with three areas of activity which may be considered when planning lessons or units of work. It will not be the case that each area of activity should be covered in every lesson, and some may prove more important in particular contexts than others. The full table and explanation can be found on the Creative Technology Research Lab website at ctrl.education.ufl.edu/projects/tactic.

Applying UDL to computer science education

While an advantage of UDL is that the principles can be applied across different subjects, it is important to think carefully about what activities to address these principles could look like in the case of computer science.

Maya Israel
Researcher Maya Israel will speak at our April seminar

Researchers at the Creative Technology Research Lab, led by Maya Israel, have identified key activities, some of which are presented in the table on the previous page. These guidelines will help educators anticipate potential barriers to learning and plan activities that can overcome them, or adapt activities from those in existing schemes of work, to help engage the widest possible range of students in the lesson.

UDL in the classroom

As well as suggesting approaches to applying UDL to computer science education, the research team at the Creative Technology Research Lab has also investigated how teachers are using UDL in practice. Israel and colleagues worked with four novice computer science teachers in US elementary schools to train them in the use of UDL and understand how they applied the framework in their teaching.

Smiling learners in a computing classroom

The research found that the teachers were most likely to include in their teaching multiple means of engagement, followed by multiple methods of representation. For example, they all offered choice in their students’ activities and provided materials in different formats (such as oral and visual presentations and demonstrations). They were less likely to provide multiple means of action and expression, and mainly addressed this principle through supporting students in planning work and checking their progress against their goals.

Although the study included only four teachers, it highlighted the flexibility of the UDL approach in catering for different needs within variable teaching contexts. More research will be needed in future, with larger samples, to understand how successful the approach is in helping a wide range of students to achieve good learning outcomes.

Find out more about using UDL

There are numerous resources designed to help teachers learn more about the UDL framework and how to apply it to teaching computing. The CAST website (helloworld.cc/cast) includes an explainer video and the detailed UDL guidelines. The Creative Technology Research Lab website has computing-specific ideas and lesson plans using UDL (helloworld.cc/udl).

Maya Israel will be presenting her research at our computing education research seminar series, on 20 April 2021. Our seminars are free to attend and open to anyone from anywhere around the world. Find out more about the current seminar series, which focuses on diversity and inclusion, and sign up to attend for free.

Further reading

The post Universal design for learning in computing | Hello World #15 appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Verified, episode 2 – A Conversation with Emma Smith, Director of Global Cyber Security at Vodafone

Post Syndicated from Stephen Schmidt original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/verified-episode-2-conversation-with-emma-smith-director-of-global-cyber-security-at-vodafone/

Over the past 8 months, it’s become more important for us all to stay in contact with peers around the globe. Today, I’m proud to bring you the second episode of our new video series, Verified: Presented by AWS re:Inforce. Even though we couldn’t be together this year at re:Inforce, our annual security conference, we still wanted to share some of the conversations with security leaders that would have taken place at the conference. The series showcases conversations with security leaders around the globe. In episode two, I’m talking to Emma Smith, Vodafone’s Global Cyber Security Director.

Vodafone is a global technology communications company with an optimistic culture. Their focus is connecting people and building the digital future for society. During our conversation, Emma detailed how the core values of the Global Cyber Security team were inspired by the company. “We’ve got a team of people who are ultimately passionate about protecting customers, protecting society, protecting Vodafone, protecting all of our services and our employees.” Emma shared experiences about the evolution of the security organization during her past 5 years with the company.

We were also able to touch on one of Emma’s passions, diversity and inclusion. Emma has worked to implement diversity and drive a policy of inclusion at Vodafone. In June, she was named Diversity Champion in the SC Awards Europe. In her own words: “It makes me realize that my job is to smooth the way for everybody else and to try and remove some of those obstacles or barriers that were put in their way… it means that I’m really passionate about trying to get a very diverse team in security, but also in Vodafone, so that we reflect our customer base, so that we’ve got diversity of thinking, of backgrounds, of experience, and people who genuinely feel comfortable being themselves at work—which is easy to say but really hard to create that culture of safety and belonging.”

Stay tuned for future episodes of Verified: Presented by AWS re:Inforce here on the AWS Security Blog. You can watch episode one, an interview with Jason Chan, Vice President of Information Security at Netflix on YouTube. If you have an idea or a topic you’d like covered in this series, please drop us a comment below.

Want more AWS Security how-to content, news, and feature announcements? Follow us on Twitter.

Author

Steve Schmidt

Steve is Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer for AWS. His duties include leading product design, management, and engineering development efforts focused on bringing the competitive, economic, and security benefits of cloud computing to business and government customers. Prior to AWS, he had an extensive career at the Federal Bureau of Investigation, where he served as a senior executive and section chief. He currently holds 11 patents in the field of cloud security architecture. Follow Steve on Twitter.

Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

Post Syndicated from Hady Mendez original https://blog.cloudflare.com/commit-to-diversity-equity-and-inclusion-every-day/

Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

The world is waking up
Protesting in the name of Black Lives Matter.
Reading the book “White Fragility”.
Watching the documentary “13th”.

The world is waking up to the fight against racism and I couldn’t be happier!

But let’s be clear: learning about anti-racism and being anti-racist are not the same things. Learning is a good first step and a necessary one. But if you don’t apply the knowledge you acquire, then you are not helping to move the needle.

Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

Since the murder of George Floyd at the hands/knees of the Minneapolis police, people all over the world have been focused on Black Lives Matter and anti-racism. At Cloudflare, we’ve seen an increase in cyberattacks, we’ve heard from the leadership of Afroflare, our Employee Resource Group for employees of African descent, and we held our first ever Day On, held on June 18, Cloudflare’s employee day of learning about bias, the history and psychological effects of racism,, and how racism can get baked into algorithms.

By way of this blog post, I want to share my thoughts about where I think we go from here and how I believe we can truly embody Diversity Equity and Inclusion (DEI) in our workplace.

Is diversity recruiting the answer to anti-racism in the workplace?

Many Cloudflarians said we should increase our diversity recruiting efforts as part of the feedback we received after our Day On event. But recruiting more diverse candidates only solves one part of the problem. There are still two major hurdles to overcome:

  • Employees need to feel welcome and have a sense of belonging
  • Employees need to feel valued and have an equal opportunity for career advancement

Employee Resource Groups (ERGs) offer opportunities to foster community and a sense of belonging. But it is beyond the scope of an ERG to ensure all employees have equal opportunities for advancement. And honestly, this is where a lot of companies fall short. It’s the reason you see people sharing pictures and calling out management teams or boards of directors all over social media. Because there is a lack of visible signs of diversity at senior levels. Numbers can be misleading. A company might state, “We have 11% employees of this group or 8% of that group.” That’s great, but how many of these employees are thriving in their current roles and getting promoted at the same pace as their white counterparts? Or being compensated at the same rate as their male counterparts? The answers to those questions are much more telling, yet seldom shared.

Folks, if we are going to see meaningful change, we all need to get onboard with Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. It’s really not the type of thing that people can opt-in or out of. It won’t work. And even if, and when, everyone opts in to make DEI a priority, that won’t be enough. We won’t start to see real change until we are all living and breathing DEI day in and day out.

Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

What does committing to DEI every day look like?

Doing something (anything) every day that flexes our DEI muscles and gets us closer to meaningful outcomes.

Examples include:

  • Mentoring a person from an underrepresented group or asking someone from an underrepresented group to mentor you.
  • Scheduling coffee meetings with underrepresented people around the company and finding out how you can help to amplify their voices.
  • Providing candid, timely coaching to underrepresented employees to help them grow in their field or area of expertise.
  • Learning to value the different approaches and styles that people from underrepresented groups bring to the workplace.
  • Watching Cloudflare TV segments like, “Everyone at the Table” which airs weekly and promotes an open dialogue about everyday topics from the perspective of people with different perspectives.
  • Hosting office-wide or team-wide “listening circles” where employees can share what a just and equitable workplace looks like to them.
  • Requesting educational opportunities for your team or whole company such as implicit bias workshops or allyship workshops. Asking if your company’s leaders have attended similar workshops.
  • Asking your manager/team leadership how you may help increase the diversity of your team.
  • Suggesting ideas for building a more inclusive culture within your team such as running meetings in a manner where everyone has an equal opportunity to speak, keeping meetings and work social activities within working hours, and regularly hosting conversations about how the team can be more inclusive.
  • And finally – asking the opinion of someone from an under-represented group. This one is especially important since so many of us are not present when critical decisions are being made.
Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

Why is committing to DEI on a daily basis important?

  • Because it’s easier for us to do nothing. Keeping the status quo is easy. Coming together to change the system is hard work. Especially if everyone is not on board.
  • Because having a company full of underrepresented people who are not being heard, seen, celebrated, or promoted is not going to get us the outcomes we want. And trust me, it doesn’t take long to realize that you are not going to make it at a company. Racism, discrimination, and unfair treatment can be very subtle but under-represented people can tell when they are valued and appreciated. And when they are being set up to fail.
  • Because we know too much. The system is broken. Underrepresented groups have always known this. But now that it is a fact most people acknowledge and accept, we can’t ignore it. A wise woman once said, “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” (Maya Angelou)

I’ll end my commentary with this: I view DEI as a journey that we must commit to every day. Here at Cloudflare. Across the tech industry. And in our world.

Notice I used the word journey. It’s not a destination in the sense that we do these 10 things and we have “arrived”. Instead, I believe it is a journey that we will always be on with milestones and achievements to be celebrated along the way.

To help you start flexing your DEI muscle, I’m kicking off a 21-Day DEI Challenge starting today! Every day, for the next 21 days, I challenge you to share in a public forum (bonus points for doing it on LinkedIn) how you are helping to move DEI forward. You can take a small step or a really big one. What matters is that you are flexing that muscle and challenging yourself (and others) to start the journey. #21DayDEIChallenge #BeAntiRacist #MoveTheNeedle

I hope you are up for the challenge that DEI offers us because the future of our company, industry, and society depends on it.

Commit to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, Every Day

Postscript: This blog post is dedicated to the memory of the late Congressman John Lewis, a great civil rights leader and so much more, who challenged all of us to be brave enough to make noise and get into “good trouble” for the sake of justice and equality. Rest in Power, Mr. Lewis.