Tag Archives: React

Police Launch Investigation into Huge Pirate Manga Site Mangamura

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/police-launch-investigation-into-huge-pirate-manga-site-mangamura-180514/

Back in March, Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said that the government was considering measures to prohibit access to pirate sites.

While protecting all content is the overall aim, it became clear that the government was determined to protect Japan’s successful manga and anime industries.

It didn’t take long for a reaction. On Friday April 13, the government introduced emergency website blocking measures, seeking cooperation from the country’s ISPs.

NTT Communications Corp., NTT Docomo Inc. and NTT Plala Inc., quickly announced they would block three leading pirate sites – Mangamura, AniTube! and MioMio which have a huge following in Japan. However, after taking the country by storm during the past two years, Mangamura had already called it quits.

On April 17, in the wake of the government announcement, Mangamura disappeared. It’s unclear whether its vanishing act was directly connected to recent developments but a program on national public broadcasting organization NHK, which claimed to have traced the site’s administrators back to the United States, Ukraine, and other regions, can’t have helped.

Further details released this morning reveal the intense pressure Mangamura was under. With 100 million visits a month it was bound to attract attention and according to Mainichi, several publishing giants ran out of patience last year and reported the platform to the authorities.

Kodansha, Japan’s largest publisher, and three other companies filed criminal complaints with Fukuoka Prefectural Police, Oita Prefectural Police, and other law enforcement departments, claiming the site violated their rights.

“The complaints, which were lodged against an unknown suspect or suspects, were filed on behalf of manga artists who are copyright holders to the pirated works, including Hajime Isayama and Eiichiro Oda, known for their wildly popular ‘Shingeki no Kyojin’ (‘Attack on Titan,’ published by Kodansha) and ‘One Piece’ (Shueisha Inc.), respectively,” the publication reports.

Mangamura launch in January 2016 and became a huge hit in Japan. Anti-piracy group Content Overseas Distribution Association (CODA), which counts publishing giant Kodansha among its members, reports that between September 2017 and February 2018, the site was accessed 620 million times.

Based on a “one visit, one manga title read” formula, CODA estimates that the site caused damages to the manga industry of 319.2 billion yen – around US$2.91 billion.

As a result, police are now stepping up their efforts to identify Mangamura’s operators. Whether that will prove fruitful will remain to be seen but in the meantime, Japan’s site-blocking efforts continue to cause controversy.

As reported last month, lawyer and NTT customer Yuichi Nakazawa launched legal action against NTT, demanding that the corporation immediately end its site-blocking operations.

“NTT’s decision was made arbitrarily on the site without any legal basis. No matter how legitimate the objective of copyright infringement is, it is very dangerous,” Nakazawa told TorrentFreak.

“I felt that ‘freedom,’ which is an important value of the Internet, was threatened. Actually, when the interruption of communications had begun, the company thought it would be impossible to reverse the situation, so I filed a lawsuit at this stage.”

Japan’s Constitution and its Telecommunications Business Act both have “no censorship” clauses, meaning that site-blocking has the potential to be ruled illegal. It’s also illegal in Japan to invade the privacy of Internet users’ communications, which some observers have argued is necessary if users are to be prevented from accessing pirate sites.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

How Many Piracy Warnings Would Get You to Stop?

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/how-many-piracy-warnings-would-get-you-to-stop-180422/

For the past several years, copyright holders in the US and Europe have been trying to reach out to file-sharers in an effort to change their habits.

Whether via high-profile publicity lawsuits or a simple email, it’s hoped that by letting people know they aren’t anonymous, they’ll stop pirating and buy more content instead.

Traditionally, most ISPs haven’t been that keen on passing infringement notices on. However, the BMG v Cox lawsuit seems to have made a big difference, with a growing number of ISPs now visibly warning their users that they operate a repeat infringer policy.

But perhaps the big question is how seriously users take these warnings because – let’s face it – that’s the entire point of their existence.

There can be little doubt that a few recipients will be scurrying away at the slightest hint of trouble, intimidated by the mere suggestion that they’re being watched.

Indeed, a father in the UK – who received a warning last year as part of the Get it Right From a Genuine Site campaign – confidently and forcefully assured TF that there would be no more illegal file-sharing taking place on his ten-year-old son’s computer again – ever.

In France, where the HADOPI anti-piracy scheme received much publicity, people receiving an initial notice are most unlikely to receive additional ones in future. A December 2017 report indicated that of nine million first warning notices sent to alleged pirates since 2012, ‘just’ 800,000 received a follow-up warning on top.

The suggestion is that people either stop their piracy after getting a notice or two, or choose to “go dark” instead, using streaming sites for example or perhaps torrenting behind a decent VPN.

But for some people, the message simply doesn’t sink in early on.

A post on Reddit this week by a TWC Spectrum customer revealed that despite a wealth of readily available information (including masses in the specialist subreddit where the post was made), even several warnings fail to have an effect.

“Was just hit with my 5th copyright violation. They halted my internet and all,” the self-confessed pirate wrote.

There are at least three important things to note from this opening sentence.

Firstly, the first four warnings did nothing to change the user’s piracy habits. Secondly, Spectrum presumably had enough at five warnings and kicked in a repeat-infringer suspension, presumably to avoid the same fate as Cox in the BMG case. Third, the account suspension seems to have changed the game.

Notably, rather than some huge blockbuster movie, that fifth warning came due to something rather less prominent.

“Thought I could sneak in a random episode of Rosanne. The new one that aired LOL. That fast. Under 24 hours I got shut off. Which makes me feel like [ISPs] do monitor your traffic and its not just the people sending them notices,” the post read.

Again, some interesting points here.

Any content can be monitored by rightsholders but if it’s popular in the US then a warning delivered via an ISP seems to be more likely than elsewhere. However, the misconception that the monitoring is done by ISPs persists, despite that not being the case.

ISPs do not monitor users’ file-sharing activity, anti-piracy companies do. They can grab an IP address the second someone enters a torrent swarm, or even connects to a tracker. It happens in an instant, at a time of their choosing. Quickly jumping in and out of a torrent is no guarantee and the fallacy of not getting caught due to a failure to seed is just that – a fallacy.

But perhaps the most important thing is that after five warnings and a disconnection, the Reddit user decided to take action. Sadly for the people behind Rosanne, it’s not exactly the reaction they’d have hoped for.

“I do not want to push it but I am curious to what happens 6th time, and if I would even be safe behind a VPN,” he wrote.

“Just want to learn how to use a VPN and Sonarr and have a guilt free stress free torrent watching.”

Of course, there was no shortage of advice.

“If you have gotten 5 notices, you really should of learnt [sic] how to use a VPN before now,” one poster noted, perhaps inevitably.

But curiously, or perhaps obviously given the number of previous warnings, the fifth warning didn’t come as a surprise to the user.

“I knew they were going to hit me for it. I just didn’t think a 195mb file would do it. They were getting me for Disney movies in the past,” he added.

So how do you grab the attention of a persistent infringer like this? Five warnings and a suspension apparently. But clearly, not even that is a guarantee of success. Perhaps this is why most ‘strike’ schemes tend to give up on people who can’t be rehabilitated.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Achieving Major Stability and Performance Improvements in Yahoo Mail with a Novel Redux Architecture

Post Syndicated from mikesefanov original https://yahooeng.tumblr.com/post/173062946866

yahoodevelopers:

By Mohit Goenka, Gnanavel Shanmugam, and Lance Welsh

At Yahoo Mail, we’re constantly striving to upgrade our product experience. We do this not only by adding new features based on our members’ feedback, but also by providing the best technical solutions to power the most engaging experiences. As such, we’ve recently introduced a number of novel and unique revisions to the way in which we use Redux that have resulted in significant stability and performance improvements. Developers may find our methods useful in achieving similar results in their apps.

Improvements to product metrics

Last year Yahoo Mail implemented a brand new architecture using Redux. Since then, we have transformed the overall architecture to reduce latencies in various operations, reduce JavaScript exceptions, and better synchronized states. As a result, the product is much faster and more stable.

Stability improvements:

  • when checking for new emails – 20%
  • when reading emails – 30%
  • when sending emails – 20%

Performance improvements:

  • 10% improvement in page load performance
  • 40% improvement in frame rendering time

We have also reduced API calls by approximately 20%.

How we use Redux in Yahoo Mail

Redux architecture is reliant on one large store that represents the application state. In a Redux cycle, action creators dispatch actions to change the state of the store. React Components then respond to those state changes. We’ve made some modifications on top of this architecture that are atypical in the React-Redux community.

For instance, when fetching data over the network, the traditional methodology is to use Thunk middleware. Yahoo Mail fetches data over the network from our API. Thunks would create an unnecessary and undesirable dependency between the action creators and our API. If and when the API changes, the action creators must then also change. To keep these concerns separate we dispatch the action payload from the action creator to store them in the Redux state for later processing by “action syncers”. Action syncers use the payload information from the store to make requests to the API and process responses. In other words, the action syncers form an API layer by interacting with the store. An additional benefit to keeping the concerns separate is that the API layer can change as the backend changes, thereby preventing such changes from bubbling back up into the action creators and components. This also allowed us to optimize the API calls by batching, deduping, and processing the requests only when the network is available. We applied similar strategies for handling other side effects like route handling and instrumentation. Overall, action syncers helped us to reduce our API calls by ~20% and bring down API errors by 20-30%.

Another change to the normal Redux architecture was made to avoid unnecessary props. The React-Redux community has learned to avoid passing unnecessary props from high-level components through multiple layers down to lower-level components (prop drilling) for rendering. We have introduced action enhancers middleware to avoid passing additional unnecessary props that are purely used when dispatching actions. Action enhancers add data to the action payload so that data does not have to come from the component when dispatching the action. This avoids the component from having to receive that data through props and has improved frame rendering by ~40%. The use of action enhancers also avoids writing utility functions to add commonly-used data to each action from action creators.

image

In our new architecture, the store reducers accept the dispatched action via action enhancers to update the state. The store then updates the UI, completing the action cycle. Action syncers then initiate the call to the backend APIs to synchronize local changes.

Conclusion

Our novel use of Redux in Yahoo Mail has led to significant user-facing benefits through a more performant application. It has also reduced development cycles for new features due to its simplified architecture. We’re excited to share our work with the community and would love to hear from anyone interested in learning more.

TV Broadcaster Wants App Stores Blocked to Prevent Piracy

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/tv-broadcaster-wants-app-stores-blocked-to-prevent-piracy-180416/

After first targeting torrent and regular streaming platforms with blocking injunctions, last year Village Roadshow and studios including Disney, Universal, Warner Bros, Twentieth Century Fox, and Paramount began looking at a new threat.

The action targeted HDSubs+, a reasonably popular IPTV service that provides hundreds of otherwise premium live channels, movies, and sports for a relatively small monthly fee. The application was filed during October 2017 and targeted Australia’s largest ISPs.

In parallel, Hong Kong-based broadcaster Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) launched a similar action, demanding that the same ISPs (including Telstra, Optus, TPG, and Vocus, plus subsidiaries) block several ‘pirate’ IPTV services, named in court as A1, BlueTV, EVPAD, FunTV, MoonBox, Unblock, and hTV5.

Due to the similarity of the cases, both applications were heard in Federal Court in Sydney on Friday. Neither case is as straightforward as blocking a torrent or basic streaming portal, so both applicants are having to deal with additional complexities.

The TVB case is of particular interest. Up to a couple of dozen URLs maintain the services, which are used to provide the content, an EPG (electronic program guide), updates and sundry other features. While most of these appear to fit the description of an “online location” designed to assist copyright infringement, where the Android-based software for the IPTV services is hosted provides an interesting dilemma.

ComputerWorld reports that the apps – which offer live broadcasts, video-on-demand, and catch-up TV – are hosted on as-yet-unnamed sites which are functionally similar to Google Play or Apple’s App Store. They’re repositories of applications that also carry non-infringing apps, such as those for Netflix and YouTube.

Nevertheless, despite clear knowledge of this dual use, TVB wants to have these app marketplaces blocked by Australian ISPs, which would not only render the illicit apps inaccessible to the public but all of the non-infringing ones too. Part of its argument that this action would be reasonable appears to be that legal apps – such as Netflix’s for example – can also be freely accessed elsewhere.

It will be up to Justice Nicholas to decide whether the “primary purpose” of these marketplaces is to infringe or facilitate the infringement of TVB’s copyrights. However, TVB also appears to have another problem which is directly connected to the copyright status in Australia of its China-focused live programming.

Justice Nicholas questioned whether watching a stream in Australia of TVB’s live Chinese broadcasts would amount to copyright infringement because no copy of that content is being made.

“If most of what is occurring here is a reproduction of broadcasts that are not protected by copyright, then the primary purpose is not to facilitate copyright infringement,” Justice Nicholas said.

One of the problems appears to be that China is not a party to the 1961 Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations. However, TVB is arguing that it should still receive protection because it airs pre-recorded content and the live broadcasts are also archived for re-transmission via catch-up services.

The question over whether unchoreographed live broadcasts receive protection has been raised in other regions but in most cases, a workaround has been found. The presence of broadcaster logos on screen (which receive copyright protection) is a factor and it’s been reported that broadcasters are able to record the ‘live’ action and transmit a copy just a couple of seconds later, thereby broadcasting an already-copyrighted work.

While TVB attempts to overcome its issues, Village Roadshow is facing some of its own in its efforts to take down HDSubs+.

It appears that at least partly in response to the Roadshow legal action, the service has undergone some modifications, including a change of brand to ‘Press Play Extra’. As reported by ZDNet, there have been structural changes too, which means that Roadshow can no longer “see under the hood”.

According to Justice Nicholas, there is no evidence that the latest version of the app infringes copyright but according to counsel for Village Roadshow, the new app is merely transitional and preparing for a possible future change.

“We submit the difference to be drawn is reactive to my clients serving on the operators a notice,” counsel for Roadshow argued, with an expert describing the new app as “almost like a placeholder.”

In short, Roadshow still wants all of the target domains in its original application blocked because the company believes there’s a good chance they’ll be reactivated in the future.

None of the ISPs involved in either case turned up to the hearings on Friday, which removes one layer of complexity in what appears thus far to be less than straightforward cases.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

AWS AppSync – Production-Ready with Six New Features

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-appsync-production-ready-with-six-new-features/

If you build (or want to build) data-driven web and mobile apps and need real-time updates and the ability to work offline, you should take a look at AWS AppSync. Announced in preview form at AWS re:Invent 2017 and described in depth here, AWS AppSync is designed for use in iOS, Android, JavaScript, and React Native apps. AWS AppSync is built around GraphQL, an open, standardized query language that makes it easy for your applications to request the precise data that they need from the cloud.

I’m happy to announce that the preview period is over and that AWS AppSync is now generally available and production-ready, with six new features that will simplify and streamline your application development process:

Console Log Access – You can now see the CloudWatch Logs entries that are created when you test your GraphQL queries, mutations, and subscriptions from within the AWS AppSync Console.

Console Testing with Mock Data – You can now create and use mock context objects in the console for testing purposes.

Subscription Resolvers – You can now create resolvers for AWS AppSync subscription requests, just as you can already do for query and mutate requests.

Batch GraphQL Operations for DynamoDB – You can now make use of DynamoDB’s batch operations (BatchGetItem and BatchWriteItem) across one or more tables. in your resolver functions.

CloudWatch Support – You can now use Amazon CloudWatch Metrics and CloudWatch Logs to monitor calls to the AWS AppSync APIs.

CloudFormation Support – You can now define your schemas, data sources, and resolvers using AWS CloudFormation templates.

A Brief AppSync Review
Before diving in to the new features, let’s review the process of creating an AWS AppSync API, starting from the console. I click Create API to begin:

I enter a name for my API and (for demo purposes) choose to use the Sample schema:

The schema defines a collection of GraphQL object types. Each object type has a set of fields, with optional arguments:

If I was creating an API of my own I would enter my schema at this point. Since I am using the sample, I don’t need to do this. Either way, I click on Create to proceed:

The GraphQL schema type defines the entry points for the operations on the data. All of the data stored on behalf of a particular schema must be accessible using a path that begins at one of these entry points. The console provides me with an endpoint and key for my API:

It also provides me with guidance and a set of fully functional sample apps that I can clone:

When I clicked Create, AWS AppSync created a pair of Amazon DynamoDB tables for me. I can click Data Sources to see them:

I can also see and modify my schema, issue queries, and modify an assortment of settings for my API.

Let’s take a quick look at each new feature…

Console Log Access
The AWS AppSync Console already allows me to issue queries and to see the results, and now provides access to relevant log entries.In order to see the entries, I must enable logs (as detailed below), open up the LOGS, and check the checkbox. Here’s a simple mutation query that adds a new event. I enter the query and click the arrow to test it:

I can click VIEW IN CLOUDWATCH for a more detailed view:

To learn more, read Test and Debug Resolvers.

Console Testing with Mock Data
You can now create a context object in the console where it will be passed to one of your resolvers for testing purposes. I’ll add a testResolver item to my schema:

Then I locate it on the right-hand side of the Schema page and click Attach:

I choose a data source (this is for testing and the actual source will not be accessed), and use the Put item mapping template:

Then I click Select test context, choose Create New Context, assign a name to my test content, and click Save (as you can see, the test context contains the arguments from the query along with values to be returned for each field of the result):

After I save the new Resolver, I click Test to see the request and the response:

Subscription Resolvers
Your AWS AppSync application can monitor changes to any data source using the @aws_subscribe GraphQL schema directive and defining a Subscription type. The AWS AppSync client SDK connects to AWS AppSync using MQTT over Websockets and the application is notified after each mutation. You can now attach resolvers (which convert GraphQL payloads into the protocol needed by the underlying storage system) to your subscription fields and perform authorization checks when clients attempt to connect. This allows you to perform the same fine grained authorization routines across queries, mutations, and subscriptions.

To learn more about this feature, read Real-Time Data.

Batch GraphQL Operations
Your resolvers can now make use of DynamoDB batch operations that span one or more tables in a region. This allows you to use a list of keys in a single query, read records multiple tables, write records in bulk to multiple tables, and conditionally write or delete related records across multiple tables.

In order to use this feature the IAM role that you use to access your tables must grant access to DynamoDB’s BatchGetItem and BatchPutItem functions.

To learn more, read the DynamoDB Batch Resolvers tutorial.

CloudWatch Logs Support
You can now tell AWS AppSync to log API requests to CloudWatch Logs. Click on Settings and Enable logs, then choose the IAM role and the log level:

CloudFormation Support
You can use the following CloudFormation resource types in your templates to define AWS AppSync resources:

AWS::AppSync::GraphQLApi – Defines an AppSync API in terms of a data source (an Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain or a DynamoDB table).

AWS::AppSync::ApiKey – Defines the access key needed to access the data source.

AWS::AppSync::GraphQLSchema – Defines a GraphQL schema.

AWS::AppSync::DataSource – Defines a data source.

AWS::AppSync::Resolver – Defines a resolver by referencing a schema and a data source, and includes a mapping template for requests.

Here’s a simple schema definition in YAML form:

  AppSyncSchema:
    Type: "AWS::AppSync::GraphQLSchema"
    DependsOn:
      - AppSyncGraphQLApi
    Properties:
      ApiId: !GetAtt AppSyncGraphQLApi.ApiId
      Definition: |
        schema {
          query: Query
          mutation: Mutation
        }
        type Query {
          singlePost(id: ID!): Post
          allPosts: [Post]
        }
        type Mutation {
          putPost(id: ID!, title: String!): Post
        }
        type Post {
          id: ID!
          title: String!
        }

Available Now
These new features are available now and you can start using them today! Here are a couple of blog posts and other resources that you might find to be of interest:

Jeff;

 

 

More power to your Pi

Post Syndicated from James Adams original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/pi-power-supply-chip/

It’s been just over three weeks since we launched the new Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+. Although the product is branded Raspberry Pi 3B+ and not Raspberry Pi 4, a serious amount of engineering was involved in creating it. The wireless networking, USB/Ethernet hub, on-board power supplies, and BCM2837 chip were all upgraded: together these represent almost all the circuitry on the board! Today, I’d like to tell you about the work that has gone into creating a custom power supply chip for our newest computer.

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+, with custome power supply chip

The new Raspberry Pi 3B+, sporting a new, custom power supply chip (bottom left-hand corner)

Successful launch

The Raspberry Pi 3B+ has been well received, and we’ve enjoyed hearing feedback from the community as well as reading the various reviews and articles highlighting the solid improvements in wireless networking, Ethernet, CPU, and thermal performance of the new board. Gareth Halfacree’s post here has some particularly nice graphs showing the increased performance as well as how the Pi 3B+ keeps cool under load due to the new CPU package that incorporates a metal heat spreader. The Raspberry Pi production lines at the Sony UK Technology Centre are running at full speed, and it seems most people who want to get hold of the new board are able to find one in stock.

Powering your Pi

One of the most critical but often under-appreciated elements of any electronic product, particularly one such as Raspberry Pi with lots of complex on-board silicon (processor, networking, high-speed memory), is the power supply. In fact, the Raspberry Pi 3B+ has no fewer than six different voltage rails: two at 3.3V — one special ‘quiet’ one for audio, and one for everything else; 1.8V; 1.2V for the LPDDR2 memory; and 1.2V nominal for the CPU core. Note that the CPU voltage is actually raised and lowered on the fly as the speed of the CPU is increased and decreased depending on how hard the it is working. The sixth rail is 5V, which is the master supply that all the others are created from, and the output voltage for the four downstream USB ports; this is what the mains power adaptor is supplying through the micro USB power connector.

Power supply primer

There are two common classes of power supply circuits: linear regulators and switching regulators. Linear regulators work by creating a lower, regulated voltage from a higher one. In simple terms, they monitor the output voltage against an internally generated reference and continually change their own resistance to keep the output voltage constant. Switching regulators work in a different way: they ‘pump’ energy by first storing the energy coming from the source supply in a reactive component (usually an inductor, sometimes a capacitor) and then releasing it to the regulated output supply. The switches in switching regulators effect this energy transfer by first connecting the inductor (or capacitor) to store the source energy, and then switching the circuit so the energy is released to its destination.

Linear regulators produce smoother, less noisy output voltages, but they can only convert to a lower voltage, and have to dissipate energy to do so. The higher the output current and the voltage difference across them is, the more energy is lost as heat. On the other hand, switching supplies can, depending on their design, convert any voltage to any other voltage and can be much more efficient (efficiencies of 90% and above are not uncommon). However, they are more complex and generate noisier output voltages.

Designers use both types of regulators depending on the needs of the downstream circuit: for low-voltage drops, low current, or low noise, linear regulators are usually the right choice, while switching regulators are used for higher power or when efficiency of conversion is required. One of the simplest switching-mode power supply circuits is the buck converter, used to create a lower voltage from a higher one, and this is what we use on the Pi.

A history lesson

The BCM2835 processor chip (found on the original Raspberry Pi Model B and B+, as well as on the Zero products) has on-chip power supplies: one switch-mode regulator for the core voltage, as well as a linear one for the LPDDR2 memory supply. This meant that in addition to 5V, we only had to provide 3.3V and 1.8V on the board, which was relatively simple to do using cheap, off-the-shelf parts.

Pi Zero sporting a BCM2835 processor which only needs 2 external switchers (the components clustered behind the camera port)

When we moved to the BCM2836 for Raspberry Pi Model 2 (and subsequently to the BCM2837A1 and B0 for Raspberry Pi 3B and 3B+), the core supply and the on-chip LPDDR2 memory supply were not up to the job of supplying the extra processor cores and larger memory, so we removed them. (We also used the recovered chip area to help fit in the new quad-core ARM processors.) The upshot of this was that we had to supply these power rails externally for the Raspberry Pi 2 and models thereafter. Moreover, we also had to provide circuitry to sequence them correctly in order to control exactly when they power up compared to the other supplies on the board.

Power supply design is tricky (but critical)

Raspberry Pi boards take in 5V from the micro USB socket and have to generate the other required supplies from this. When 5V is first connected, each of these other supplies must ‘start up’, meaning go from ‘off’, or 0V, to their correct voltage in some short period of time. The order of the supplies starting up is often important: commonly, there are structures inside a chip that form diodes between supply rails, and bringing supplies up in the wrong order can sometimes ‘turn on’ these diodes, causing them to conduct, with undesirable consequences. Silicon chips come with a data sheet specifying what supplies (voltages and currents) are needed and whether they need to be low-noise, in what order they must power up (and in some cases down), and sometimes even the rate at which the voltages must power up and down.

A Pi3. Power supply components are clustered bottom left next to the micro USB, middle (above LPDDR2 chip which is on the bottom of the PCB) and above the A/V jack.

In designing the power chain for the Pi 2 and 3, the sequencing was fairly straightforward: power rails power up in order of voltage (5V, 3.3V, 1.8V, 1.2V). However, the supplies were all generated with individual, discrete devices. Therefore, I spent quite a lot of time designing circuitry to control the sequencing — even with some design tricks to reduce component count, quite a few sequencing components are required. More complex systems generally use a Power Management Integrated Circuit (PMIC) with multiple supplies on a single chip, and many different PMIC variants are made by various manufacturers. Since Raspberry Pi 2 days, I was looking for a suitable PMIC to simplify the Pi design, but invariably (and somewhat counter-intuitively) these were always too expensive compared to my discrete solution, usually because they came with more features than needed.

One device to rule them all

It was way back in May 2015 when I first chatted to Peter Coyle of Exar (Exar were bought by MaxLinear in 2017) about power supply products for Raspberry Pi. We didn’t find a product match then, but in June 2016 Peter, along with Tuomas Hollman and Trevor Latham, visited to pitch the possibility of building a custom power management solution for us.

I was initially sceptical that it could be made cheap enough. However, our discussion indicated that if we could tailor the solution to just what we needed, it could be cost-effective. Over the coming weeks and months, we honed a specification we agreed on from the initial sketches we’d made, and Exar thought they could build it for us at the target price.

The chip we designed would contain all the key supplies required for the Pi on one small device in a cheap QFN package, and it would also perform the required sequencing and voltage monitoring. Moreover, the chip would be flexible to allow adjustment of supply voltages from their default values via I2C; the largest supply would be capable of being adjusted quickly to perform the dynamic core voltage changes needed in order to reduce voltage to the processor when it is idling (to save power), and to boost voltage to the processor when running at maximum speed (1.4 GHz). The supplies on the chip would all be generously specified and could deliver significantly more power than those used on the Raspberry Pi 3. All in all, the chip would contain four switching-mode converters and one low-current linear regulator, this last one being low-noise for the audio circuitry.

The MXL7704 chip

The project was a great success: MaxLinear delivered working samples of first silicon at the end of May 2017 (almost exactly a year after we had kicked off the project), and followed through with production quantities in December 2017 in time for the Raspberry Pi 3B+ production ramp.

The team behind the power supply chip on the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ (group of six men, two of whom are holding Raspberry Pi boards)

Front row: Roger with the very first Pi 3B+ prototypes and James with a MXL7704 development board hacked to power a Pi 3. Back row left to right: Will Torgerson, Trevor Latham, Peter Coyle, Tuomas Hollman.

The MXL7704 device has been key to reducing Pi board complexity and therefore overall bill of materials cost. Furthermore, by being able to deliver more power when needed, it has also been essential to increasing the speed of the (newly packaged) BCM2837B0 processor on the 3B+ to 1.4GHz. The result is improvements to both the continuous output current to the CPU (from 3A to 4A) and to the transient performance (i.e. the chip has helped to reduce the ‘transient response’, which is the change in supply voltage due to a sudden current spike that occurs when the processor suddenly demands a large current in a few nanoseconds, as modern CPUs tend to do).

With the MXL7704, the power supply circuitry on the 3B+ is now a lot simpler than the Pi 3B design. This new supply also provides the LPDDR2 memory voltage directly from a switching regulator rather than using linear regulators like the Pi 3, thereby improving energy efficiency. This helps to somewhat offset the extra power that the faster Ethernet, wireless networking, and processor consume. A pleasing side effect of using the new chip is the symmetric board layout of the regulators — it’s easy to see the four switching-mode supplies, given away by four similar-looking blobs (three grey and one brownish), which are the inductors.

Close-up of the power supply chip on the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+

The Pi 3B+ PMIC MXL7704 — pleasingly symmetric

Kudos

It takes a lot of effort to design a new chip from scratch and get it all the way through to production — we are very grateful to the team at MaxLinear for their hard work, dedication, and enthusiasm. We’re also proud to have created something that will not only power Raspberry Pis, but will also be useful for other product designs: it turns out when you have a low-cost and flexible device, it can be used for many things — something we’re fairly familiar with here at Raspberry Pi! For the curious, the product page (including the data sheet) for the MXL7704 chip is here. Particular thanks go to Peter Coyle, Tuomas Hollman, and Trevor Latham, and also to Jon Cronk, who has been our contact in the US and has had to get up early to attend all our conference calls!

The MXL7704 design team celebrating on Pi Day — it takes a lot of people to design a chip!

I hope you liked reading about some of the effort that has gone into creating the new Pi. It’s nice to finally have a chance to tell people about some of the (increasingly complex) technical work that makes building a $35 computer possible — we’re very pleased with the Raspberry Pi 3B+, and we hope you enjoy using it as much as we’ve enjoyed creating it!

The post More power to your Pi appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

MPAA Aims to Prevent Piracy Leaks With New Security Program

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/mpaa-aims-to-prevent-piracy-leaks-with-new-security-program-180403/

When movies and TV shows leak onto the Internet in advance of their intended release dates, it’s generally a time of celebration for pirates.

Grabbing a workprint or DVD screener of an Oscar nominee or a yet to be aired on TV show makes the Internet bubble with excitement. But for the studios and companies behind the products, it presents their worst nightmare.

Despite all the takedown efforts known to man, once content appears, there’s no putting the genie back into the bottle.

With this in mind, the solution doesn’t lie with reactionary efforts such as Internet disconnections, site-blocking and similar measures, but better hygiene while content is still in production or being prepared for distribution. It’s something the MPAA hopes to address with a brand new program designed to bring the security of third-party vendors up to scratch.

The Trusted Partner Network (TPN) is the brainchild of the MPAA and the Content Delivery & Security Association (CDSA), a worldwide forum advocating the innovative and responsible delivery and storage of entertainment content.

TPN is being touted as a global industry-wide film and television content protection initiative which will help companies prevent leaks, breaches, and hacks of their customers’ movies and television shows prior to their intended release.

“Content is now created by a growing ecosystem of third-party vendors, who collaborate with varying degrees of security,” TPN explains.

“This has escalated the security threat to the entertainment industry’s most prized asset, its content. The TPN program seeks to raise security awareness, preparedness, and capabilities within our industry.”

The TPN will establish a “single benchmark of minimum security preparedness” for vendors whose details will be available via centralized and global “trusted partner” database. The TPN will replace security assessments programs already in place at the MPAA and CDSA.

While content owners and vendors are still able to conduct their own security assessments on an “as-needed” basis, the aim is for the TPN to reduce the number of assessments carried out while assisting in identifying vulnerabilities. The pool of “trusted partners” is designed to help all involved understand and meet the challenges of leaks, whether that’s movie, TV show, or associated content.

While joining the TPN program is voluntary, there’s a strong suggestion that becoming involved in the program is in vendors’ best interests. Being able to carry the TPN logo will be an asset to doing business with others involved in the scheme, it’s suggested.

Once in, vendors will need to hire a TPN-approved assessor to carry out an initial audit of their supply chain and best practices, which in turn will need to be guided by the MPAA’s existing content security guidelines.

“Vendors will hire a Qualified Assessor from the TPN database and will schedule their assessment and manage the process via the secure online platform,” TPN says, noting that vendors will cover their own costs unless an assessment is carried out at the request of a content owner.

The TPN explains that members of the scheme aren’t passed or failed in respect of their security preparedness. However, there’s an expectation they will be expected to come up to scratch and prove that with a subsequent positive report from a TPN approved assessor. Assessors themselves will also be assessed via the TPN Qualified Assessor Program.

By imposing MPAA best practices upon partner companies, it’s hoped that some if not all of the major leaks that have plagued the industry over the past several years will be prevented in future. Whether that’s the usual DVD screener leaks, workprints, scripts or other content, it’s believed the TPN should be able to help in some way, although the former might be a more difficult nut to crack.

There’s no doubting that the problem TPN aims to address is serious. In 2017 alone, hackers and other individuals obtained and then leaked episodes of Orange is the New Black, unreleased ABC content, an episode of Game of Thrones sourced from India and scripts from the same show. Even blundering efforts managed to make their mark.

“Creating the films and television shows enjoyed by audiences around the world increasingly requires a network of specialized vendors and technicians,” says MPAA chairman and CEO Charles Rivkin.

“That’s why maintaining high security standards for all third-party operations — from script to screen — is such an important part of preventing the theft of creative works and ultimately protects jobs and the health of our vibrant creative economy.”

According to TPN, the first class of TPN Assessors was recruited and tested last month while beta-testing of key vendors will begin in April. The full program will roll out in June 2018.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Pi 3B+: 48 hours later

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/3b-plus-aftermath/

Unless you’ve been AFK for the last two days, you’ll no doubt be aware of the release of the brand-spanking-new Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+. With faster connectivity, more computing power, Power over Ethernet (PoE) pins, and the same $35 price point, the new board has been a hit across all our social media accounts! So while we wind down from launch week, let’s all pull up a chair, make yet another cup of coffee, and look through some of our favourite reactions from the last 48 hours.

Twitter

Our Twitter mentions were refreshing at hyperspeed on Wednesday, as you all began to hear the news and spread the word about the newest member to the Raspberry Pi family.

Tanya Fish on Twitter

Happy Pi Day, people! New @Raspberry_Pi 3B+ is out.

News outlets, maker sites, and hobbyists published posts and articles about the new Pi’s spec upgrades and their plans for the device.

Hackster.io on Twitter

This sort of attention to detail work is exactly what I love about being involved with @Raspberry_Pi. We’re squeezing the last drops of performance out of the 40nm process node, and perfecting Pi 3 in the same way that the original B+ perfected Pi 1.” https://t.co/hEj7JZOGeZ

And I think we counted about 150 uses of this GIF on Twitter alone:

YouTube

Andy Warburton 👾 on Twitter

Is something going on with the @Raspberry_Pi today? You’d never guess from my YouTube subscriptions page… 😀

A few members of our community were lucky enough to get their hands on a 3B+ early, and sat eagerly by the YouTube publish button, waiting to release their impressions of our new board to the world. Others, with no new Pi in hand yet, posted reaction vids to the launch, discussing their plans for the upgraded Pi and comparing statistics against its predecessors.

New Raspberry Pi 3 B+ (2018) Review and Speed Tests

Happy Pi Day World! There is a new Raspberry Pi 3, the B+! In this video I will review the new Pi 3 B+ and do some speed tests. Let me know in the comments if you are getting one and what you are planning on making with it!

Long-standing community members such as The Raspberry Pi Guy, Alex “RasPi.TV” Eames, and Michael Horne joined Adafruit, element14, and RS Components (whose team produced the most epic 3B+ video we’ve seen so far), and makers Tinkernut and Estefannie Explains It All in sharing their thoughts, performance tests, and baked goods on the big day.

What’s new on the Raspberry Pi 3 B+

It’s Pi day! Sorry, wondrous Mathematical constant, this day is no longer about you. The Raspberry Pi foundation just released a new version of the Raspberry Pi called the Rapsberry Pi B+.

If you have a YouTube or Vimeo channel, or if you create videos for other social media channels, and have published your impressions of the new Raspberry Pi, be sure to share a link with us so we can see what you think!

Instagram

We shared a few photos and videos on Instagram, and over 30000 of you checked out our Instagram Story on the day.

Some glamour shots of the latest member of the #RaspberryPi family – the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ . Will you be getting one? What are your plans for our newest Pi?

5,609 Likes, 103 Comments – Raspberry Pi (@raspberrypifoundation) on Instagram: “Some glamour shots of the latest member of the #RaspberryPi family – the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ ….”

As hot off the press (out of the oven? out of the solder bath?) Pi 3B+ boards start to make their way to eager makers’ homes, they are all broadcasting their excitement, and we love seeing what they plan to get up to with it.

The new #raspberrypi 3B+ suits the industrial setting. Check out my website for #RPI3B Vs RPI3BPlus network speed test. #NotEnoughTECH #network #test #internet

8 Likes, 1 Comments – Mat (@notenoughtech) on Instagram: “The new #raspberrypi 3B+ suits the industrial setting. Check out my website for #RPI3B Vs RPI3BPlus…”

The new Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ is here and will be used for our Python staging server for our APIs #raspberrypi #pythoncode #googleadwords #shopify #datalayer

16 Likes, 3 Comments – Rob Edlin (@niddocks) on Instagram: “The new Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ is here and will be used for our Python staging server for our APIs…”

In the news

Eben made an appearance on ITV Anglia on Wednesday, talking live on Facebook about the new Raspberry Pi.

ITV Anglia

As the latest version of the Raspberry Pi computer is launched in Cambridge, Dr Eben Upton talks about the inspiration of Professor Stephen Hawking and his legacy to science. Add your questions in…

He was also fortunate enough to spend the morning with some Sixth Form students from the local area.

Sascha Williams on Twitter

On a day where science is making the headlines, lovely to see the scientists of the future in our office – getting tips from fab @Raspberry_Pi founder @EbenUpton #scientists #RaspberryPi #PiDay2018 @sirissac6thform

Principal Hardware Engineer Roger Thornton will also make a live appearance online this week: he is co-hosting Hack Chat later today. And of course, you can see more of Roger and Eben in the video where they discuss the new 3B+.

Introducing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ is now on sale now for $35.

It’s been a supremely busy week here at Pi Towers and across the globe in the offices of our Approved Resellers, and seeing your wonderful comments and sharing in your excitement has made it all worth it. Please keep it up, and be sure to share the arrival of your 3B+ as well as the projects into which you’ll be integrating them.

If you’d like to order a Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+, you can do so via our product page. And if you have any questions at all regarding the 3B+, the conversation is still taking place in the comments of Wednesday’s launch post, so head on over.

The post Pi 3B+: 48 hours later appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Your Hard Drive Crashed — Get Working Again Fast with Backblaze

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-to-recover-your-files-with-backblaze/

holding a hard drive and diagnostic tools
The worst thing for a computer user has happened. The hard drive on your computer crashed, or your computer is lost or completely unusable.

Fortunately, you’re a Backblaze customer with a current backup in the cloud. That’s great. The challenge is that you’ve got a presentation to make in just 48 hours and the document and materials you need for the presentation were on the hard drive that crashed.

Relax. Backblaze has your data (and your back). The question is, how do you get what you need to make that presentation deadline?

Here are some strategies you could use.

One — The first approach is to get back the presentation file and materials you need to meet your presentation deadline as quickly as possible. You can use another computer (maybe even your smartphone) to make that presentation.

Two — The second approach is to get your computer (or a new computer, if necessary) working again and restore all the files from your Backblaze backup.

Let’s start with Option One, which gets you back to work with just the files you need now as quickly as possible.

Option One — You’ve Got a Deadline and Just Need Your Files

Getting Back to Work Immediately

You want to get your computer working again as soon as possible, but perhaps your top priority is getting access to the files you need for your presentation. The computer can wait.

Find a Computer to Use

First of all. You’re going to need a computer to use. If you have another computer handy, you’re all set. If you don’t, you’re going to need one. Here are some ideas on where to find one:

  • Family and Friends
  • Work
  • Neighbors
  • Local library
  • Local school
  • Community or religious organization
  • Local computer shop
  • Online store

Laptop computer

If you have a smartphone that you can use to give your presentation or to print materials, that’s great. With the Backblaze app for iOS and Android, you can download files directly from your Backblaze account to your smartphone. You also have the option with your smartphone to email or share files from your Backblaze backup so you can use them elsewhere.

Laptop with smartphone

Download The File(s) You Need

Once you have the computer, you need to connect to your Backblaze backup through a web browser or the Backblaze smartphone app.

Backblaze Web Admin

Sign into your Backblaze account. You can download the files directly or use the share link to share files with yourself or someone else.

If you need step-by-step instructions on retrieving your files, see Restore the Files to the Drive section below. You also can find help at https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217665888-How-to-Create-a-Restore-from-Your-Backblaze-Backup.

Smartphone App

If you have an iOS or Android smartphone, you can use the Backblaze app and retrieve the files you need. You then could view the file on your phone, use a smartphone app with the file, or email it to yourself or someone else.

Backblaze Smartphone app (iOS)

Backblaze Smartphone app (iOS)

Using one of the approaches above, you got your files back in time for your presentation. Way to go!

Now, the next step is to get the computer with the bad drive running again and restore all your files, or, if that computer is no longer usable, restore your Backblaze backup to a new computer.

Option Two — You Need a Working Computer Again

Getting the Computer with the Failed Drive Running Again (or a New Computer)

If the computer with the failed drive can’t be saved, then you’re going to need a new computer. A new computer likely will come with the operating system installed and ready to boot. If you’ve got a running computer and are ready to restore your files from Backblaze, you can skip forward to Restore the Files to the Drive.

If you need to replace the hard drive in your computer before you restore your files, you can continue reading.

Buy a New Hard Drive to Replace the Failed Drive

The hard drive is gone, so you’re going to need a new drive. If you have a computer or electronics store nearby, you could get one there. Another choice is to order a drive online and pay for one or two-day delivery. You have a few choices:

  1. Buy a hard drive of the same type and size you had
  2. Upgrade to a drive with more capacity
  3. Upgrade to an SSD. SSDs cost more but they are faster, more reliable, and less susceptible to jolts, magnetic fields, and other hazards that can affect a drive. Otherwise, they work the same as a hard disk drive (HDD) and most likely will work with the same connector.


Hard Disk Drive (HDD)Solid State Drive (SSD)

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

Solid State Drive (SSD)


Be sure that the drive dimensions are compatible with where you’re going to install the drive in your computer, and the drive connector is compatible with your computer system (SATA, PCIe, etc.) Here’s some help.

Install the Drive

If you’re handy with computers, you can install the drive yourself. It’s not hard, and there are numerous videos on YouTube and elsewhere on how to do this. Just be sure to note how everything was connected so you can get everything connected and put back together correctly. Also, be sure that you discharge any static electricity from your body by touching something metallic before you handle anything inside the computer. If all this sounds like too much to handle, find a friend or a local computer store to help you.

Note:  If the drive that failed is a boot drive for your operating system (either Macintosh or Windows), you need to make sure that the drive is bootable and has the operating system files on it. You may need to reinstall from an operating system source disk or install files.

Restore the Files to the Drive

To start, you will need to sign in to the Backblaze website with your registered email address and password. Visit https://secure.backblaze.com/user_signin.htm to login.

Sign In to Your Backblaze Account

Selecting the Backup

Once logged in, you will be brought to the account Overview page. On this page, all of the computers registered for backup under your account are shown with some basic information about each. Select the backup from which you wish to restore data by using the appropriate “Restore” button.

Screenshot of Admin for Selecting the Type of Restore

Selecting the Type of Restore

Backblaze offers three different ways in which you can receive your restore data: downloadable ZIP file, USB flash drive, or USB hard drive. The downloadable ZIP restore option will create a ZIP file of the files you request that is made available for download for 7 days. ZIP restores do not have any additional cost and are a great option for individual files or small sets of data.

Depending on the speed of your internet connection to the Backblaze data center, downloadable restores may not always be the best option for restoring very large amounts of data. ZIP restores are limited to 500 GB per request and a maximum of 5 active requests can be submitted under a single account at any given time.

USB flash and hard drive restores are built with the data you request and then shipped to an address of your choosing via FedEx Overnight or FedEx Priority International. USB flash restores cost $99 and can contain up to 128 GB (110,000 MB of data) and USB hard drive restores cost $189 and can contain up to 4TB max (3,500,000 MB of data). Both include the cost of shipping.

You can return the ZIP drive within 30 days for a full refund with our Restore Return Refund Program, effectively making the process of restoring free, even with a shipped USB drive.

Screenshot of Admin for Selecting the Backup

Selecting Files for Restore

Using the left hand file viewer, navigate to the location of the files you wish to restore. You can use the disclosure triangles to see subfolders. Clicking on a folder name will display the folder’s files in the right hand file viewer. If you are attempting to restore files that have been deleted or are otherwise missing or files from a failed or disconnected secondary or external hard drive, you may need to change the time frame parameters.

Put checkmarks next to disks, files or folders you’d like to recover. Once you have selected the files and folders you wish to restore, select the “Continue with Restore” button above or below the file viewer. Backblaze will then build the restore via the option you select (ZIP or USB drive). You’ll receive an automated email notifying you when the ZIP restore has been built and is ready for download or when the USB restore drive ships.

If you are using the downloadable ZIP option, and the restore is over 2 GB, we highly recommend using the Backblaze Downloader for better speed and reliability. We have a guide on using the Backblaze Downloader for Mac OS X or for Windows.

For additional assistance, visit our help files at https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217665888-How-to-Create-a-Restore-from-Your-Backblaze-Backup

Screenshot of Admin for Selecting Files for Restore

Extracting the ZIP

Recent versions of both macOS and Windows have built-in capability to extract files from a ZIP archive. If the built-in capabilities aren’t working for you, you can find additional utilities for Macintosh and Windows.

Reactivating your Backblaze Account

Now that you’ve got a working computer again, you’re going to need to reinstall Backblaze Backup (if it’s not on the system already) and connect with your existing account. Start by downloading and reinstalling Backblaze.

If you’ve restored the files from your Backblaze Backup to your new computer or drive, you don’t want to have to reupload the same files again to your Backblaze backup. To let Backblaze know that this computer is on the same account and has the same files, you need to use “Inherit Backup State.” See https://help.backblaze.com/hc/en-us/articles/217666358-Inherit-Backup-State

Screenshot of Admin for Inherit Backup State

That’s It

You should be all set, either with the files you needed for your presentation, or with a restored computer that is again ready to do productive work.

We hope your presentation wowed ’em.

If you have any additional questions on restoring from a Backblaze backup, please ask away in the comments. Also, be sure to check out our help resources at https://www.backblaze.com/help.html.

The post Your Hard Drive Crashed — Get Working Again Fast with Backblaze appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Artificial Intelligence and the Attack/Defense Balance

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/03/artificial_inte.html

Artificial intelligence technologies have the potential to upend the longstanding advantage that attack has over defense on the Internet. This has to do with the relative strengths and weaknesses of people and computers, how those all interplay in Internet security, and where AI technologies might change things.

You can divide Internet security tasks into two sets: what humans do well and what computers do well. Traditionally, computers excel at speed, scale, and scope. They can launch attacks in milliseconds and infect millions of computers. They can scan computer code to look for particular kinds of vulnerabilities, and data packets to identify particular kinds of attacks.

Humans, conversely, excel at thinking and reasoning. They can look at the data and distinguish a real attack from a false alarm, understand the attack as it’s happening, and respond to it. They can find new sorts of vulnerabilities in systems. Humans are creative and adaptive, and can understand context.

Computers — so far, at least — are bad at what humans do well. They’re not creative or adaptive. They don’t understand context. They can behave irrationally because of those things.

Humans are slow, and get bored at repetitive tasks. They’re terrible at big data analysis. They use cognitive shortcuts, and can only keep a few data points in their head at a time. They can also behave irrationally because of those things.

AI will allow computers to take over Internet security tasks from humans, and then do them faster and at scale. Here are possible AI capabilities:

  • Discovering new vulnerabilities­ — and, more importantly, new types of vulnerabilities­ in systems, both by the offense to exploit and by the defense to patch, and then automatically exploiting or patching them.
  • Reacting and adapting to an adversary’s actions, again both on the offense and defense sides. This includes reasoning about those actions and what they mean in the context of the attack and the environment.
  • Abstracting lessons from individual incidents, generalizing them across systems and networks, and applying those lessons to increase attack and defense effectiveness elsewhere.
  • Identifying strategic and tactical trends from large datasets and using those trends to adapt attack and defense tactics.

That’s an incomplete list. I don’t think anyone can predict what AI technologies will be capable of. But it’s not unreasonable to look at what humans do today and imagine a future where AIs are doing the same things, only at computer speeds, scale, and scope.

Both attack and defense will benefit from AI technologies, but I believe that AI has the capability to tip the scales more toward defense. There will be better offensive and defensive AI techniques. But here’s the thing: defense is currently in a worse position than offense precisely because of the human components. Present-day attacks pit the relative advantages of computers and humans against the relative weaknesses of computers and humans. Computers moving into what are traditionally human areas will rebalance that equation.

Roy Amara famously said that we overestimate the short-term effects of new technologies, but underestimate their long-term effects. AI is notoriously hard to predict, so many of the details I speculate about are likely to be wrong­ — and AI is likely to introduce new asymmetries that we can’t foresee. But AI is the most promising technology I’ve seen for bringing defense up to par with offense. For Internet security, that will change everything.

This essay previously appeared in the March/April 2018 issue of IEEE Security & Privacy.

Needed: Senior Software Engineer

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/needed-senior-software-engineer/

Want to work at a company that helps customers in 156 countries around the world protect the memories they hold dear? A company that stores over 500 petabytes of customers’ photos, music, documents and work files in a purpose-built cloud storage system?

Well, here’s your chance. Backblaze is looking for a Sr. Software Engineer!

Company Description:

Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2 – robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. Part of our differentiation is being able to offer the lowest price of any of the big players while still being profitable.

We’ve managed to nurture a team oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. Don’t forget to check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.

We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.

Some Backblaze Perks:

  • Competitive healthcare plans
  • Competitive compensation and 401k
  • All employees receive Option grants
  • Unlimited vacation days
  • Strong coffee
  • Fully stocked Micro kitchen
  • Catered breakfast and lunches
  • Awesome people who work on awesome projects
  • New Parent Childcare bonus
  • Normal work hours
  • Get to bring your pets into the office
  • San Mateo Office – located near Caltrain and Highways 101 & 280

Want to know what you’ll be doing?

You will work on the server side APIs that authenticate users when they log in, accept the backups, manage the data, and prepare restored data for customers. And you will help build new features as well as support tools to help chase down and diagnose customer issues.

Must be proficient in:

  • Java
  • Apache Tomcat
  • Large scale systems supporting thousands of servers and millions of customers
  • Cross platform (Linux/Macintosh/Windows) — don’t need to be an expert on all three, but cannot be afraid of any

Bonus points for:

  • Cassandra experience
  • JavaScript
  • ReactJS
  • Python
  • Struts
  • JSP’s

Looking for an attitude of:

  • Passionate about building friendly, easy to use Interfaces and APIs.
  • Likes to work closely with other engineers, support, and sales to help customers.
  • Believes the whole world needs backup, not just English speakers in the USA.
  • Customer Focused (!!) — always focus on the customer’s point of view and how to solve their problem!

Required for all Backblaze Employees:

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done
  • Strong desire to work for a small, fast-paced company
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment
  • Rigorous adherence to best practices
  • Relentless attention to detail
  • Excellent interpersonal skills and good oral/written communication
  • Excellent troubleshooting and problem solving skills

This position is located in San Mateo, California but will also consider remote work as long as you’re no more than three time zones away and can come to San Mateo now and then.

Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

If this sounds like you —follow these steps:

  1. Send an email to [email protected] with the position in the subject line.
  2. Include your resume.
  3. Tell us a bit about your programming experience.

The post Needed: Senior Software Engineer appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Needed: Associate Front End Developer

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/needed-associate-front-end-developer/

Want to work at a company that helps customers in over 150 countries around the world protect the memories they hold dear? Do you want to challenge yourself with a business that serves consumers, SMBs, Enterprise, and developers?

If all that sounds interesting, you might be interested to know that Backblaze is looking for an Associate Front End Developer!

Backblaze is a 10 year old company. Providing great customer experiences is the “secret sauce” that enables us to successfully compete against some of technology’s giants. We’ll finish the year at ~$20MM ARR and are a profitable business. This is an opportunity to have your work shine at scale in one of the fastest growing verticals in tech — Cloud Storage.

You will utilize HTML, ReactJS, CSS and jQuery to develop intuitive, elegant user experiences. As a member of our Front End Dev team, you will work closely with our web development, software design, and marketing teams.

On a day to day basis, you must be able to convert image mockups to HTML or ReactJS – There’s some production work that needs to get done. But you will also be responsible for helping build out new features, rethink old processes, and enabling third party systems to empower our marketing, sales, and support teams.

Our Associate Front End Developer must be proficient in:

  • HTML, CSS, Javascript (ES5)
  • jQuery, Bootstrap (with responsive targets)
  • Understanding of ensuring cross-browser compatibility and browser security for features
  • Basic SEO principles and ensuring that applications will adhere to them
  • Familiarity with ES2015+, ReactJS, unit testing
  • Learning about third party marketing and sales tools through reading documentation. Our systems include Google Tag Manager, Google Analytics, Salesforce, and Hubspot.
  • React Flux, Redux, SASS, Node experience is a plus

We’re looking for someone that is:

  • Passionate about building friendly, easy to use Interfaces and APIs.
  • Likes to work closely with other engineers, support, and marketing to help customers.
  • Is comfortable working independently on a mutually agreed upon prioritization queue (we don’t micromanage, we do make sure tasks are reasonably defined and scoped).
  • Diligent with quality control. Backblaze prides itself on giving our team autonomy to get work done, do the right thing for our customers, and keep a pace that is sustainable over the long run. As such, we expect everyone that checks in code that is stable. We also have a small QA team that operates as a secondary check when needed.

Backblaze Employees Have:

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Strong desire to work for a small fast, paced company.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Comfort with well behaved pets in the office.

This position is located in San Mateo, California. Regular attendance in the office is expected.

Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

If this sounds like you…
Send an email to: jobscontact@backblaze.com with:

  1. Associate Front End Dev in the subject line
  2. Your resume attached
  3. An overview of your relevant experience

The post Needed: Associate Front End Developer appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Improve the Operational Efficiency of Amazon Elasticsearch Service Domains with Automated Alarms Using Amazon CloudWatch

Post Syndicated from Veronika Megler original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/improve-the-operational-efficiency-of-amazon-elasticsearch-service-domains-with-automated-alarms-using-amazon-cloudwatch/

A customer has been successfully creating and running multiple Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) domains to support their business users’ search needs across products, orders, support documentation, and a growing suite of similar needs. The service has become heavily used across the organization.  This led to some domains running at 100% capacity during peak times, while others began to run low on storage space. Because of this increased usage, the technical teams were in danger of missing their service level agreements.  They contacted me for help.

This post shows how you can set up automated alarms to warn when domains need attention.

Solution overview

Amazon ES is a fully managed service that delivers Elasticsearch’s easy-to-use APIs and real-time analytics capabilities along with the availability, scalability, and security that production workloads require.  The service offers built-in integrations with a number of other components and AWS services, enabling customers to go from raw data to actionable insights quickly and securely.

One of these other integrated services is Amazon CloudWatch. CloudWatch is a monitoring service for AWS Cloud resources and the applications that you run on AWS. You can use CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, collect and monitor log files, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in your AWS resources.

CloudWatch collects metrics for Amazon ES. You can use these metrics to monitor the state of your Amazon ES domains, and set alarms to notify you about high utilization of system resources.  For more information, see Amazon Elasticsearch Service Metrics and Dimensions.

While the metrics are automatically collected, the missing piece is how to set alarms on these metrics at appropriate levels for each of your domains. This post includes sample Python code to evaluate the current state of your Amazon ES environment, and to set up alarms according to AWS recommendations and best practices.

There are two components to the sample solution:

  • es-check-cwalarms.py: This Python script checks the CloudWatch alarms that have been set, for all Amazon ES domains in a given account and region.
  • es-create-cwalarms.py: This Python script sets up a set of CloudWatch alarms for a single given domain.

The sample code can also be found in the amazon-es-check-cw-alarms GitHub repo. The scripts are easy to extend or combine, as described in the section “Extensions and Adaptations”.

Assessing the current state

The first script, es-check-cwalarms.py, is used to give an overview of the configurations and alarm settings for all the Amazon ES domains in the given region. The script takes the following parameters:

python es-checkcwalarms.py -h
usage: es-checkcwalarms.py [-h] [-e ESPREFIX] [-n NOTIFY] [-f FREE][-p PROFILE] [-r REGION]
Checks a set of recommended CloudWatch alarms for Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains (optionally, those beginning with a given prefix).
optional arguments:
  -h, --help   		show this help message and exit
  -e ESPREFIX, --esprefix ESPREFIX	Only check Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains that begin with this prefix.
  -n NOTIFY, --notify NOTIFY    List of CloudWatch alarm actions; e.g. ['arn:aws:sns:xxxx']
  -f FREE, --free FREE  Minimum free storage (MB) on which to alarm
  -p PROFILE, --profile PROFILE     IAM profile name to use
  -r REGION, --region REGION       AWS region for the domain. Default: us-east-1

The script first identifies all the domains in the given region (or, optionally, limits them to the subset that begins with a given prefix). It then starts running a set of checks against each one.

The script can be run from the command line or set up as a scheduled Lambda function. For example, for one customer, it was deemed appropriate to regularly run the script to check that alarms were correctly set for all domains. In addition, because configuration changes—cluster size increases to accommodate larger workloads being a common change—might require updates to alarms, this approach allowed the automatic identification of alarms no longer appropriately set as the domain configurations changed.

The output shown below is the output for one domain in my account.

Starting checks for Elasticsearch domain iotfleet , version is 53
Iotfleet Automated snapshot hour (UTC): 0
Iotfleet Instance configuration: 1 instances; type:m3.medium.elasticsearch
Iotfleet Instance storage definition is: 4 GB; free storage calced to: 819.2 MB
iotfleet Desired free storage set to (in MB): 819.2
iotfleet WARNING: Not using VPC Endpoint
iotfleet WARNING: Does not have Zone Awareness enabled
iotfleet WARNING: Instance count is ODD. Best practice is for an even number of data nodes and zone awareness.
iotfleet WARNING: Does not have Dedicated Masters.
iotfleet WARNING: Neither index nor search slow logs are enabled.
iotfleet WARNING: EBS not in use. Using instance storage only.
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-ClusterStatus.yellow-Alarm ClusterStatus.yellow
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-ClusterStatus.red-Alarm ClusterStatus.red
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-CPUUtilization-Alarm CPUUtilization
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-JVMMemoryPressure-Alarm JVMMemoryPressure
iotfleet WARNING: Missing alarm!! ('ClusterIndexWritesBlocked', 'Maximum', 60, 5, 'GreaterThanOrEqualToThreshold', 1.0)
iotfleet Alarm ok; definition matches. Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-AutomatedSnapshotFailure-Alarm AutomatedSnapshotFailure
iotfleet Alarm: Threshold does not match: Test-Elasticsearch-iotfleet-FreeStorageSpace-Alarm Should be:  819.2 ; is 3000.0

The output messages fall into the following categories:

  • System overview, Informational: The Amazon ES version and configuration, including instance type and number, storage, automated snapshot hour, etc.
  • Free storage: A calculation for the appropriate amount of free storage, based on the recommended 20% of total storage.
  • Warnings: best practices that are not being followed for this domain. (For more about this, read on.)
  • Alarms: An assessment of the CloudWatch alarms currently set for this domain, against a recommended set.

The script contains an array of recommended CloudWatch alarms, based on best practices for these metrics and statistics. Using the array allows alarm parameters (such as free space) to be updated within the code based on current domain statistics and configurations.

For a given domain, the script checks if each alarm has been set. If the alarm is set, it checks whether the values match those in the array esAlarms. In the output above, you can see three different situations being reported:

  • Alarm ok; definition matches. The alarm set for the domain matches the settings in the array.
  • Alarm: Threshold does not match. An alarm exists, but the threshold value at which the alarm is triggered does not match.
  • WARNING: Missing alarm!! The recommended alarm is missing.

All in all, the list above shows that this domain does not have a configuration that adheres to best practices, nor does it have all the recommended alarms.

Setting up alarms

Now that you know that the domains in their current state are missing critical alarms, you can correct the situation.

To demonstrate the script, set up a new domain named “ver”, in us-west-2. Specify 1 node, and a 10-GB EBS disk. Also, create an SNS topic in us-west-2 with a name of “sendnotification”, which sends you an email.

Run the second script, es-create-cwalarms.py, from the command line. This script creates (or updates) the desired CloudWatch alarms for the specified Amazon ES domain, “ver”.

python es-create-cwalarms.py -r us-west-2 -e test -c ver -n "['arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:xxxxxxxxxx:sendnotification']"
EBS enabled: True type: gp2 size (GB): 10 No Iops 10240  total storage (MB)
Desired free storage set to (in MB): 2048.0
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterStatus.yellow-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterStatus.red-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-CPUUtilization-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-JVMMemoryPressure-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-FreeStorageSpace-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-ClusterIndexWritesBlocked-Alarm
Creating  Test-Elasticsearch-ver-AutomatedSnapshotFailure-Alarm
Successfully finished creating alarms!

As with the first script, this script contains an array of recommended CloudWatch alarms, based on best practices for these metrics and statistics. This approach allows you to add or modify alarms based on your use case (more on that below).

After running the script, navigate to Alarms on the CloudWatch console. You can see the set of alarms set up on your domain.

Because the “ver” domain has only a single node, cluster status is yellow, and that alarm is in an “ALARM” state. It’s already sent a notification that the alarm has been triggered.

What to do when an alarm triggers

After alarms are set up, you need to identify the correct action to take for each alarm, which depends on the alarm triggered. For ideas, guidance, and additional pointers to supporting documentation, see Get Started with Amazon Elasticsearch Service: Set CloudWatch Alarms on Key Metrics. For information about common errors and recovery actions to take, see Handling AWS Service Errors.

In most cases, the alarm triggers due to an increased workload. The likely action is to reconfigure the system to handle the increased workload, rather than reducing the incoming workload. Reconfiguring any backend store—a category of systems that includes Elasticsearch—is best performed when the system is quiescent or lightly loaded. Reconfigurations such as setting zone awareness or modifying the disk type cause Amazon ES to enter a “processing” state, potentially disrupting client access.

Other changes, such as increasing the number of data nodes, may cause Elasticsearch to begin moving shards, potentially impacting search performance on these shards while this is happening. These actions should be considered in the context of your production usage. For the same reason I also do not recommend running a script that resets all domains to match best practices.

Avoid the need to reconfigure during heavy workload by setting alarms at a level that allows a considered approach to making the needed changes. For example, if you identify that each weekly peak is increasing, you can reconfigure during a weekly quiet period.

While Elasticsearch can be reconfigured without being quiesced, it is not a best practice to automatically scale it up and down based on usage patterns. Unlike some other AWS services, I recommend against setting a CloudWatch action that automatically reconfigures the system when alarms are triggered.

There are other situations where the planned reconfiguration approach may not work, such as low or zero free disk space causing the domain to reject writes. If the business is dependent on the domain continuing to accept incoming writes and deleting data is not an option, the team may choose to reconfigure immediately.

Extensions and adaptations

You may wish to modify the best practices encoded in the scripts for your own environment or workloads. It’s always better to avoid situations where alerts are generated but routinely ignored. All alerts should trigger a review and one or more actions, either immediately or at a planned date. The following is a list of common situations where you may wish to set different alarms for different domains:

  • Dev/test vs. production
    You may have a different set of configuration rules and alarms for your dev environment configurations than for test. For example, you may require zone awareness and dedicated masters for your production environment, but not for your development domains. Or, you may not have any alarms set in dev. For test environments that mirror your potential peak load, test to ensure that the alarms are appropriately triggered.
  • Differing workloads or SLAs for different domains
    You may have one domain with a requirement for superfast search performance, and another domain with a heavy ingest load that tolerates slower search response. Your reaction to slow response for these two workloads is likely to be different, so perhaps the thresholds for these two domains should be set at a different level. In this case, you might add a “max CPU utilization” alarm at 100% for 1 minute for the fast search domain, while the other domain only triggers an alarm when the average has been higher than 60% for 5 minutes. You might also add a “free space” rule with a higher threshold to reflect the need for more space for the heavy ingest load if there is danger that it could fill the available disk quickly.
  • “Normal” alarms versus “emergency” alarms
    If, for example, free disk space drops to 25% of total capacity, an alarm is triggered that indicates action should be taken as soon as possible, such as cleaning up old indexes or reconfiguring at the next quiet period for this domain. However, if free space drops below a critical level (20% free space), action must be taken immediately in order to prevent Amazon ES from setting the domain to read-only. Similarly, if the “ClusterIndexWritesBlocked” alarm triggers, the domain has already stopped accepting writes, so immediate action is needed. In this case, you may wish to set “laddered” alarms, where one threshold causes an alarm to be triggered to review the current workload for a planned reconfiguration, but a different threshold raises a “DefCon 3” alarm that immediate action is required.

The sample scripts provided here are a starting point, intended for you to adapt to your own environment and needs.

Running the scripts one time can identify how far your current state is from your desired state, and create an initial set of alarms. Regularly re-running these scripts can capture changes in your environment over time and adjusting your alarms for changes in your environment and configurations. One customer has set them up to run nightly, and to automatically create and update alarms to match their preferred settings.

Removing unwanted alarms

Each CloudWatch alarm costs approximately $0.10 per month. You can remove unwanted alarms in the CloudWatch console, under Alarms. If you set up a “ver” domain above, remember to remove it to avoid continuing charges.

Conclusion

Setting CloudWatch alarms appropriately for your Amazon ES domains can help you avoid suboptimal performance and allow you to respond to workload growth or configuration issues well before they become urgent. This post gives you a starting point for doing so. The additional sleep you’ll get knowing you don’t need to be concerned about Elasticsearch domain performance will allow you to focus on building creative solutions for your business and solving problems for your customers.

Enjoy!


Additional Reading

If you found this post useful, be sure to check out Analyzing Amazon Elasticsearch Service Slow Logs Using Amazon CloudWatch Logs Streaming and Kibana and Get Started with Amazon Elasticsearch Service: How Many Shards Do I Need?

 


About the Author

Dr. Veronika Megler is a senior consultant at Amazon Web Services. She works with our customers to implement innovative big data, AI and ML projects, helping them accelerate their time-to-value when using AWS.

 

 

 

Setting up bug bounties for success

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original https://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2018/03/setting-up-bug-bounties-for-success.html

Bug bounties end up in the news with some regularity, usually for the wrong reasons. I’ve been itching to write
about that for a while – but instead of dwelling on the mistakes of the bygone days, I figured it may be better to
talk about some of the ways to get vulnerability rewards right.

What do you get out of bug bounties?

There’s plenty of differing views, but I like to think of such programs
simply as a bid on researchers’ time. In the most basic sense, you get three benefits:

  • Improved ability to detect bugs in production before they become major incidents.
  • A comparatively unbiased feedback loop to help you prioritize and measure other security work.
  • A robust talent pipeline for when you need to hire.

What bug bounties don’t offer?

You don’t get anything resembling a comprehensive security program or a systematic assessment of your platforms.
Researchers end up looking for bugs that offer favorable effort-to-payoff ratios for their skills and given the
very imperfect information they have about your enterprise. In other words, you may end up with a hundred
people looking for XSS and just one person looking for RCE.

Your reward structure can steer them toward the targets and bugs you care about, but it’s difficult to fully
eliminate this inherent skew. There’s only so far you can jack up your top-tier rewards, and only so far you can
go lowering the bottom-tier ones.

Don’t you have to outcompete the black market to get all the “good” bugs?

There is a free market price discovery component to it all: if you’re not getting the engagement you
were hoping for, you should probably consider paying more.

That said, there are going to be researchers who’d rather hurt you than work for you, no matter how much you pay;
you don’t have to win them over, and you don’t have to outspend every authoritarian government or
every crime syndicate. A bug bounty is effective simply if it attracts enough eyeballs to make bugs statistically
harder to find, and reduces the useful lifespan of any zero-days in black market trade. Plus, most
researchers don’t want their work to be used to crack down on dissidents in Egypt or Vietnam.

Another factor is that you’re paying for different things: a black market buyer probably wants a reliable exploit
capable of delivering payloads, and then demands silence for months or years to come; a vendor-run
bug bounty program is usually perfectly happy with a reproducible crash and doesn’t mind a researcher blogging
about their work.

In fact, while money is important, you will probably find out that it’s not enough to retain your top talent;
many folks want bug bounties to be more than a business transaction, and find a lot of value in having a close
relationship with your security team, comparing notes, and growing together. Fostering that partnership can
be more important than adding another $10,000 to your top reward.

How do I prevent it all from going horribly wrong?

Bug bounties are an unfamiliar beast to most lawyers and PR folks, so it’s a natural to be wary and try to plan
for every eventuality with pages and pages of impenetrable rules and fine-print legalese.

This is generally unnecessary: there is a strong self-selection bias, and almost every participant in a
vulnerability reward program will be coming to you in good faith. The more friendly, forthcoming, and
approachable you seem, and the more you treat them like peers, the more likely it is for your relationship to stay
positive. On the flip side, there is no faster way to make enemies than to make a security researcher feel that they
are now talking to a lawyer or to the PR dept.

Most people have strong opinions on disclosure policies; instead of imposing your own views, strive to patch reported bugs
reasonably quickly, and almost every reporter will play along. Demand researchers to cancel conference appearances,
take down blog posts, or sign NDAs, and you will sooner or later end up in the news.

But what if that’s not enough?

As with any business endeavor, mistakes will happen; total risk avoidance is seldom the answer. Learn to sincerely
apologize for mishaps; it’s not a sign of weakness to say “sorry, we messed up”. And you will almost certainly not end
up in the courtroom for doing so.

It’s good to foster a healthy and productive relationship with the community, so that they come to your defense when
something goes wrong. Encouraging people to disclose bugs and talk about their experiences is one way of accomplishing that.

What about extortion?

You should structure your program to naturally discourage bad behavior and make it stand out like a sore thumb.
Require bona fide reports with complete technical details before any reward decision is made by a panel of named peers;
and make it clear that you never demand non-disclosure as a condition of getting a reward.

To avoid researchers accidentally putting themselves in awkward situations, have clear rules around data exfiltration
and lateral movement: assure them that you will always pay based on the worst-case impact of their findings; in exchange,
ask them to stop as soon as they get a shell and never access any data that isn’t their own.

So… are there any downsides?

Yep. Other than souring up your relationship with the community if you implement your program wrong, the other consideration
is that bug bounties tend to generate a lot of noise from well-meaning but less-skilled researchers.

When this happens, do not get frustrated and do not penalize such participants; instead, help them grow. Consider
publishing educational articles, giving advice on how to investigate and structure reports, or
offering free workshops every now and then.

The other downside is cost; although bug bounties tend to offer far more bang for your buck than your average penetration
test, they are more random. The annual expenses tend to be fairly predictable, but there is always
some possibility of having to pay multiple top-tier rewards in rapid succession. This is the kind of uncertainty that
many mid-level budget planners react badly to.

Finally, you need to be able to fix the bugs you receive. It would be nuts to prefer to not know about the
vulnerabilities in the first place – but once you invite the research, the clock starts ticking and you need to
ship fixes reasonably fast.

So… should I try it?

There are folks who enthusiastically advocate for bug bounties in every conceivable situation, and people who dislike them
with fierce passion; both sentiments are usually strongly correlated with the line of business they are in.

In reality, bug bounties are not a cure-all, and there are some ways to make them ineffectual or even dangerous.
But they are not as risky or expensive as most people suspect, and when done right, they can actually be fun for your
team, too. You won’t know for sure until you try.

Petoi: a Pi-powered kitty cat

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/petoi-a-pi-powered-kitty-cat/

A robot pet is the dream of many a child, thanks to creatures such as K9, Doctor Who’s trusted companion, and the Tamagotchi, bleeping nightmare of parents worldwide. But both of these pale in comparison (sorry, K9) to Petoi, the walking, meowing, live-streaming cat from maker Rongzhong Li.

Petoi: OpenCat Demo

Mentioned on IEEE Spectrum: https://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/humanoids/video-friday-boston-dynamics-spotmini-opencat-robot-engineered-arts-mesmer-uncanny-valley More reads on Hackster: https://www.hackster.io/petoi/opencat-845129 优酷: http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzQxMzA1NjM0OA==.html?spm=a2h3j.8428770.3416059.1 We are developing programmable and highly maneuverable quadruped robots for STEM education and AI-enhanced services. Its compact and bionic design makes it the only affordable consumer robot that mimics various mammal gaits and reacts to surroundings.

Petoi

Not only have cats conquered the internet, they also have a paw firmly in the door of many makerspaces and spare rooms — rooms such as the one belonging to Petoi’s owner/maker, Rongzhong Li, who has been working on this feline creation since he bought his first Raspberry Pi.

Petoi Raspberry Pi Robot Cat

Petoi in its current state – apple for scale in lieu of banana

Petoi is just like any other housecat: it walks, it plays, its ribcage doubles as a digital xylophone — but what makes Petoi so special is Li’s use of the project as a platform for study.

I bought my first Raspberry Pi in June 2016 to learn coding hardware. This robot Petoi served as a playground for learning all the components in a regular Raspberry Pi beginner kit. I started with craft sticks, then switched to 3D-printed frames for optimized performance and morphology.

Various iterations of Petoi have housed various bits of tech, 3D-printed parts, and software, so while it’s impossible to list the exact ingredients you’d need to create your own version of Petoi, a few components remain at its core.

Petoi Raspberry Pi Robot Cat — skeleton prototype

An early version of Petoi, housed inside a plastic toy helicopter frame

A Raspberry Pi lives within Petoi and acts as its brain, relaying commands to an Arduino that controls movement. Li explains:

The Pi takes no responsibility for controlling detailed limb movements. It focuses on more serious questions, such as “Who am I? Where do I come from? Where am I going?” It generates mind and sends string commands to the Arduino slave.

Li is currently working on two functional prototypes: a mini version for STEM education, and a larger version for use within the field of AI research.

A cat and a robot cat walking upstairs Petoi Raspberry Pi Robot Cat

You can read more about the project, including details on the various interactions of Petoi, on the hackster.io project page.

Not quite ready to commit to a fully grown robot pet for your home? Why not code your own pixel pet with our free learning resource? And while you’re looking through our projects, check out our other pet-themed tutorials such as the Hamster party cam, the Infrared bird box, and the Cat meme generator.

The post Petoi: a Pi-powered kitty cat appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Getting product security engineering right

Post Syndicated from Michal Zalewski original http://lcamtuf.blogspot.com/2018/02/getting-product-security-engineering.html

Product security is an interesting animal: it is a uniquely cross-disciplinary endeavor that spans policy, consulting,
process automation, in-depth software engineering, and cutting-edge vulnerability research. And in contrast to many
other specializations in our field of expertise – say, incident response or network security – we have virtually no
time-tested and coherent frameworks for setting it up within a company of any size.

In my previous post, I shared some thoughts
on nurturing technical organizations and cultivating the right kind of leadership within. Today, I figured it would
be fitting to follow up with several notes on what I learned about structuring product security work – and about actually
making the effort count.

The “comfort zone” trap

For security engineers, knowing your limits is a sought-after quality: there is nothing more dangerous than a security
expert who goes off script and starts dispensing authoritatively-sounding but bogus advice on a topic they know very
little about. But that same quality can be destructive when it prevents us from growing beyond our most familiar role: that of
a critic who pokes holes in other people’s designs.

The role of a resident security critic lends itself all too easily to a sense of supremacy: the mistaken
belief that our cognitive skills exceed the capabilities of the engineers and product managers who come to us for help
– and that the cool bugs we file are the ultimate proof of our special gift. We start taking pride in the mere act
of breaking somebody else’s software – and then write scathing but ineffectual critiques addressed to executives,
demanding that they either put a stop to a project or sign off on a risk. And hey, in the latter case, they better
brace for our triumphant “I told you so” at some later date.

Of course, escalations of this type have their place, but they need to be a very rare sight; when practiced routinely, they are a telltale
sign of a dysfunctional team. We might be failing to think up viable alternatives that are in tune with business or engineering needs; we might
be very unpersuasive, failing to communicate with other rational people in a language they understand; or it might be that our tolerance for risk
is badly out of whack with the rest of the company. Whatever the cause, I’ve seen high-level escalations where the security team
spoke of valiant efforts to resist inexplicably awful design decisions or data sharing setups; and where product leads in turn talked about
pressing business needs randomly blocked by obstinate security folks. Sometimes, simply having them compare their notes would be enough to arrive
at a technical solution – such as sharing a less sensitive subset of the data at hand.

To be effective, any product security program must be rooted in a partnership with the rest of the company, focused on helping them get stuff done
while eliminating or reducing security risks. To combat the toxic us-versus-them mentality, I found it helpful to have some team members with
software engineering backgrounds, even if it’s the ownership of a small open-source project or so. This can broaden our horizons, helping us see
that we all make the same mistakes – and that not every solution that sounds good on paper is usable once we code it up.

Getting off the treadmill

All security programs involve a good chunk of operational work. For product security, this can be a combination of product launch reviews, design consulting requests, incoming bug reports, or compliance-driven assessments of some sort. And curiously, such reactive work also has the property of gradually expanding to consume all the available resources on a team: next year is bound to bring even more review requests, even more regulatory hurdles, and even more incoming bugs to triage and fix.

Being more tractable, such routine tasks are also more readily enshrined in SDLs, SLAs, and all kinds of other official documents that are often mistaken for a mission statement that justifies the existence of our teams. Soon, instead of explaining to a developer why they should fix a particular problem right away, we end up pointing them to page 17 in our severity classification guideline, which defines that “severity 2” vulnerabilities need to be resolved within a month. Meanwhile, another policy may be telling them that they need to run a fuzzer or a web application scanner for a particular number of CPU-hours – no matter whether it makes sense or whether the job is set up right.

To run a product security program that scales sublinearly, stays abreast of future threats, and doesn’t erect bureaucratic speed bumps just for the sake of it, we need to recognize this inherent tendency for operational work to take over – and we need to reign it in. No matter what the last year’s policy says, we usually don’t need to be doing security reviews with a particular cadence or to a particular depth; if we need to scale them back 10% to staff a two-quarter project that fixes an important API and squashes an entire class of bugs, it’s a short-term risk we should feel empowered to take.

As noted in my earlier post, I find contingency planning to be a valuable tool in this regard: why not ask ourselves how the team would cope if the workload went up another 30%, but bad financial results precluded any team growth? It’s actually fun to think about such hypotheticals ahead of the time – and hey, if the ideas sound good, why not try them out today?

Living for a cause

It can be difficult to understand if our security efforts are structured and prioritized right; when faced with such uncertainty, it is natural to stick to the safe fundamentals – investing most of our resources into the very same things that everybody else in our industry appears to be focusing on today.

I think it’s important to combat this mindset – and if so, we might as well tackle it head on. Rather than focusing on tactical objectives and policy documents, try to write down a concise mission statement explaining why you are a team in the first place, what specific business outcomes you are aiming for, how do you prioritize it, and how you want it all to change in a year or two. It should be a fluid narrative that reads right and that everybody on your team can take pride in; my favorite way of starting the conversation is telling folks that we could always have a new VP tomorrow – and that the VP’s first order of business could be asking, “why do you have so many people here and how do I know they are doing the right thing?”. It’s a playful but realistic framing device that motivates people to get it done.

In general, a comprehensive product security program should probably start with the assumption that no matter how many resources we have at our disposal, we will never be able to stay in the loop on everything that’s happening across the company – and even if we did, we’re not going to be able to catch every single bug. It follows that one of our top priorities for the team should be making sure that bugs don’t happen very often; a scalable way of getting there is equipping engineers with intuitive and usable tools that make it easy to perform common tasks without having to worry about security at all. Examples include standardized, managed containers for production jobs; safe-by-default APIs, such as strict contextual autoescaping for XSS or type safety for SQL; security-conscious style guidelines; or plug-and-play libraries that take care of common crypto or ACL enforcement tasks.

Of course, not all problems can be addressed on framework level, and not every engineer will always reach for the right tools. Because of this, the next principle that I found to be worth focusing on is containment and mitigation: making sure that bugs are difficult to exploit when they happen, or that the damage is kept in check. The solutions in this space can range from low-level enhancements (say, hardened allocators or seccomp-bpf sandboxes) to client-facing features such as browser origin isolation or Content Security Policy.

The usual consulting, review, and outreach tasks are an important facet of a product security program, but probably shouldn’t be the sole focus of your team. It’s also best to avoid undue emphasis on vulnerability showmanship: while valuable in some contexts, it creates a hypercompetitive environment that may be hostile to less experienced team members – not to mention, squashing individual bugs offers very limited value if the same issue is likely to be reintroduced into the codebase the next day. I like to think of security reviews as a teaching opportunity instead: it’s a way to raise awareness, form partnerships with engineers, and help them develop lasting habits that reduce the incidence of bugs. Metrics to understand the impact of your work are important, too; if your engagements are seen mostly as a yet another layer of red tape, product teams will stop reaching out to you for advice.

The other tenet of a healthy product security effort requires us to recognize at a scale and given enough time, every defense mechanism is bound to fail – and so, we need ways to prevent bugs from turning into incidents. The efforts in this space may range from developing product-specific signals for the incident response and monitoring teams; to offering meaningful vulnerability reward programs and nourishing a healthy and respectful relationship with the research community; to organizing regular offensive exercises in hopes of spotting bugs before anybody else does.

Oh, one final note: an important feature of a healthy security program is the existence of multiple feedback loops that help you spot problems without the need to micromanage the organization and without being deathly afraid of taking chances. For example, the data coming from bug bounty programs, if analyzed correctly, offers a wonderful way to alert you to systemic problems in your codebase – and later on, to measure the impact of any remediation and hardening work.

Spanish Authorities Launch New Campaign to Block Pirate Websites

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/spanish-authorities-launch-new-campaign-to-block-pirate-websites-180223/

Following complaints from Disney, 20th Century Fox, Paramount, Sony, Universal and Warner, a court in Spain recently ordered local ISPs to block HDFull.tv and Repelis.tv, a pair of popular pirate sites.

Citing changes in local law which helped facilitate the action, the MPA welcomed the blockades as necessary to prevent further damage to the creative industries. Now, just a week later, it seems that Spain really has the bit between its teeth.

An announcement from the Guardia Civil (Civil Guard), the oldest law enforcement agency in the country, reveals that almost two dozen websites have just been blocked for infringing intellectual property rights.

“The Civil Guard, within the framework of the ‘Operation CASCADA’, has initiated a campaign to block websites that allow people to download content protected by copyright and disseminate them through links in P2P networks, that is, networks of computers that work without fixed servers,” the Civil Guard said in a statement.

“In this first phase, a total of 23 web domains have been blocked from which direct download links of all kinds of protected audiovisual material such as movies, series, music and video games were accessed, many of them of recent creation and without being released yet in our country.

“High-quality versions of films available on the cinema billboards of our country were offered, although they had not yet been sold in physical or digital format and dubbed with audio in several languages.”

A full list of websites and domains hasn’t yet been provided by the authorities but familiar names including divxtotal.com and gamestorrents.com are confirmed to be included in the first wave.

The Civil Guard, which is organized as a military force under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Defense, said that the administrators of the sites operate their platforms from abroad, generating advertising revenue from Spanish visitors who are said to make up 80% of the sites’ traffic.

In common with similar sites, the authorities accuse their owners of taking evasive action to avoid being shut down, including hiding the true location of their servers while moving them from country to country and masking domain registration data.

“Cases have been detected in which previously judicially blocked domains were reactivated in a matter of hours, with practically identical domain names or even changing only the extension thereof. In this way, and even if several successive blocks were made, they were able to ‘resurrect’ the web pages again in a very short space of time,” the Civil Guard reports.

“For all these reasons, components of the Department of Telematic Crimes of the Central Operative Unit of the Civil Guard, responsible for the investigation, were forced to implement a series of measures tending to cause a total blockade of them that would be effective and definitive, being currently inaccessible web pages or lacking download links.”

According to the authorities, the sites are now being continuously monitored, with replacement domains being blocked in less than three hours. That doesn’t appear to have been the case yesterday, however.

It’s claimed that the blocked sites were created by “a person of Spanish origin” who subsequently sold them to a company in Argentina. On Thursday, Argentina-based site Dixv.com.ar fired back against the blockade with a new site called Yadivx.com, which is reportedly serving all of the former’s content to users in Spain.

The sites’ owners continue to administer the rogue sites from Argentina, Spanish authorities believe. Only time will tell who will emerge victorious but at least for now, the sites are remaining defiant.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN discounts, offers and coupons