Tag Archives: video

Closed Caption support coming to Stream Live

Post Syndicated from Mickie Betz original https://blog.cloudflare.com/stream-live-captions/

Closed Caption support coming to Stream Live

Closed Caption support coming to Stream Live

Building inclusive technology is core to the Cloudflare mission. Cloudflare Stream has supported captions for on-demand videos for several years. Soon, Stream will auto-detect embedded captions and include it in the live stream delivered to your viewers.

Thousands of Cloudflare customers use the Stream product to build video functionality into their apps. With live caption support, Stream customers can better serve their users with a more comprehensive viewing experience.

Enabling Closed Captions in Stream Live

Stream Live scans for CEA-608 and CEA-708 captions in incoming live streams ingested via SRT and RTMPS.  Assuming the live streams you are pushing to Cloudflare Stream contain captions, you don’t have to do anything further: the captions will simply get included in the manifest file.

Closed Caption support coming to Stream Live

If you are using the Stream Player, these captions will be rendered by the Stream Player. If you are using your own player, you simply have to configure your player to display captions.  

Closed Caption support coming to Stream Live

Currently, Stream Live supports captions for a single language during the live event. While the support for captions is limited to one language during the live stream, you can upload captions for multiple languages once the event completes and the live event becomes an on-demand video.

What is CEA-608 and CEA-708?

When captions were first introduced in 1973, they were open captions. This means the captions were literally overlaid on top of the picture in the video and therefore, could not be turned off. In 1982, we saw the introduction of closed captions during live television. Captions were no longer imprinted on the video and were instead passed via a separate feed and rendered on the video by the television set.

CEA-608 (also known as Line 21) and CEA-708 are well-established standards used to transmit captions. CEA-708 is a modern iteration of CEA-608, offering support for nearly every language and text positioning–something not supported with CEA-608.


Live caption support will be available in closed beta next month. To request access, sign up for the closed beta.

Including captions in any video stream is critical to making your content more accessible. For example, the majority of live events are watched on mute and thereby, increasing the value of captions. While Stream Live does not generate live captions yet, we plan to build support for automatic live captions in the future.

Stream with sub-second latency is like a magical HDMI cable to the cloud

Post Syndicated from J. Scott Miller original https://blog.cloudflare.com/magic-hdmi-cable/

Stream with sub-second latency is like a magical HDMI cable to the cloud

Stream with sub-second latency is like a magical HDMI cable to the cloud

Starting today, in open beta, Cloudflare Stream supports video playback with sub-second latency over SRT or RTMPS at scale. Just like HLS and DASH formats, playback over RTMPS and SRT costs $1 per 1,000 minutes delivered regardless of video encoding settings used.

Stream is like a magic HDMI cable to the cloud. You can easily connect a video stream and display it from as many screens as you want wherever you want around the world.

What do we mean by sub-second?

Video latency is the time it takes from when a camera sees something happen live to when viewers of a broadcast see the same thing happen via their screen. Although we like to think what’s on TV is happening simultaneously in the studio and your living room at the same time, this is not the case. Often, cable TV takes five seconds to reach your home.

On the Internet, the range of latencies across different services varies widely from multiple minutes down to a few seconds or less. Live streaming technologies like HLS and DASH, used on by the most common video streaming websites typically offer 10 to 30 seconds of latency, and this is what you can achieve with Stream Live today. However, this range does not feel natural for quite a few use cases where the viewers interact with the broadcasters. Imagine a text chat next to an esports live stream or Q&A session in a remote webinar. These new ways of interacting with the broadcast won’t work with typical latencies that the industry is used to. You need one to two seconds at most to achieve the feeling that the viewer is in the same room as the broadcaster.

We expect Cloudflare Stream to deliver sub-second latencies reliably in most parts of the world by routing the video as much as possible within the Cloudflare network. For example, when you’re sending video from San Francisco on your Comcast home connection, the video travels directly to the nearest point where Comcast and Cloudflare connect, for example, San Jose. Whenever a viewer joins, say from Austin, the viewer connects to the Cloudflare location in Dallas, which then establishes a connection using the Cloudflare backbone to San Jose. This setup avoids unreliable long distance connections and allows Cloudflare to monitor the reliability and latency of the video all the way from broadcaster the last mile to the viewer last mile.

Serverless, dynamic topology

With Cloudflare Stream, the latency of content from the source to the destination is purely dependent on the physical distance between them: with no centralized routing, each Cloudflare location talks to other Cloudflare locations and shares the video among each other. This results in the minimum possible latency regardless of the locale you are broadcasting from.

We’ve tested about 500ms of glass to glass latency from San Francisco to London, both from and to residential networks. If both the broadcaster and the viewers were in California, this number would be lower, simply because of lower delay caused by less distance to travel over speed of light. An early tester was able to achieve 300ms of latency by broadcasting using OBS via RTMPS to Cloudflare Stream and pulling down that content over SRT using ffplay.

Stream with sub-second latency is like a magical HDMI cable to the cloud

Any server in the Cloudflare Anycast network can receive and publish low-latency video, which means that you’re automatically broadcasting to the nearest server with no configuration necessary. To minimize latency and avoid network congestion, we route video traffic between broadcaster and audience servers using the same network telemetry as Argo.

On top of this, we construct a dynamic distribution topology, unique to the stream, which grows to meet the capacity needs of the broadcast. We’re just getting started with low-latency video, and we will continue to focus on latency and playback reliability as our real-time video features grow.

An HDMI cable to the cloud

Most video on the Internet uses HTTP – the protocol for loading websites on your browser to deliver video. This has many advantages, such as easy to achieve interoperability across viewer devices. Maybe more importantly, HTTP can use the existing infrastructure like caches which reduce the cost of video delivery.

Using HTTP has a cost in latency as it is not a protocol built to deliver video. There’s been many attempts made to deliver low latency video over HTTP, with some reducing latency to a few seconds, but none reach the levels achievable by protocols designed with video in mind. WebRTC and video delivery over QUIC have the potential to further reduce latency, but face inconsistent support across platforms today.

Video-oriented protocols, such as RTMPS and SRT, side-step some of the challenges above but often require custom client libraries and are not available in modern web browsers. While we now support low latency video today over RTMPS and SRT, we are actively exploring other delivery protocols.

There’s no silver bullet – yet, and our goal is to make video delivery as easy as possible by supporting the set of protocols that enables our customers to meet their unique and creative needs. Today that can mean receiving RTMPS and delivering low-latency SRT, or ingesting SRT while publishing HLS. In the future, that may include ingesting WebRTC or publishing over QUIC or HTTP/3 or WebTransport. There are many interesting technologies on the horizon.

We’re excited to see new use cases emerge as low-latency video becomes easier to integrate and less costly to manage. A remote cycling instructor can ask her students to slow down in response to an increase in heart rate; an esports league can effortlessly repeat their live feed to remote broadcasters to provide timely, localized commentary while interacting with their audience.

Creative uses of low latency video

Viewer experience at events like a concert or a sporting event can be augmented with live video delivered in real time to participants’ phones. This way they can experience the event in real-time and see the goal scored or details of what’s going happening on the stage.

Often in big cities, people who cheer loudly across the city can be heard before seeing a goal scored on your own screen. This can be eliminated by when every video screen shows the same content at the same time.

Esports games, large company meetings or conferences where presenters or commentators react real time to comments on chat. The delay between a fan making a comment and them seeing the reaction on the video stream can be eliminated.

Online exercise bikes can provide even more relevant and timely feedback from the live instructors, adding to the sense of community developed while riding them.

Participants in esports streams can be switched from a passive viewer to an active live participant easily as there is no delay in the broadcast.

Security cameras can be monitored from anywhere in the world without having to open ports or set up centralized servers to receive and relay video.

Getting Started

Get started by using your existing inputs on Cloudflare Stream. Without the need to reconnect, they will be available instantly for playback with the RTMPS/SRT playback URLs.

If you don’t have any inputs on Stream, sign up for $5/mo. You will get the ability to push live video, broadcast, record and now pull video with sub-second latency.

You will need to use a computer program like FFmpeg or OBS to push video. To playback RTMPS you can use VLC and FFplay for SRT. To integrate in your native app, you can utilize FFmpeg wrappers for native apps such as ffmpeg-kit for iOS.

RTMPS and SRT playback work with the recently launched custom domain support, so you can use the domain of your choice and keep your branding.

Cloudflare Stream simplifies creator management for creator platforms

Post Syndicated from Ben Krebsbach original https://blog.cloudflare.com/stream-creator-management/

Cloudflare Stream simplifies creator management for creator platforms

Cloudflare Stream simplifies creator management for creator platforms

Creator platforms across the world use Cloudflare Stream to rapidly build video experiences into their apps. These platforms serve a diverse range of creators, enabling them to share their passion with their beloved audience. While working with creator platforms, we learned that many Stream customers track video usage on a per-creator basis in order to answer critical questions such as:

  • “Who are our fastest growing creators?”
  • “How much do we charge or pay creators each month?”
  • “What can we do more of in order to serve our creators?”

Introducing the Creator Property

Creator platforms enable artists, teachers and hobbyists to express themselves through various media, including video. We built Cloudflare Stream for these platforms, enabling them to rapidly build video use cases without needing to build and maintain a video pipeline at scale.

At its heart, every creator platform must manage ownership of user-generated content. When a video is uploaded to Stream, Stream returns a video ID. Platforms using Stream have traditionally had to maintain their own index to track content ownership. For example, when a user with internal user ID 83721759 uploads a video to Stream with video ID 06aadc28eb1897702d41b4841b85f322, the platform must maintain a database table of some sort to keep track of the fact that Stream video ID 06aadc28eb1897702d41b4841b85f322 belongs to internal user 83721759.

With the introduction of the creator property, platforms no longer need to maintain this index. Stream already has a direct creator upload feature to enable users to upload videos directly to Stream using tokenized URLs and without exposing account-wide auth information. You can now set the creator field with your user’s internal user ID at the time of requesting a tokenized upload URL:

curl -X POST "https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/accounts/023e105f4ecef8ad9ca31a8372d0c353/stream/direct_upload" \
     -H "X-Auth-Email: [email protected]" \
     -H "X-Auth-Key: c2547eb745079dac9320b638f5e225cf483cc5cfdda41" \
     -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
     --data '{"maxDurationSeconds":300,"expiry":"2021-01-02T02:20:00Z","creator": "<CREATOR_ID>", "thumbnailTimestampPct":0.529241,"allowedOrigins":["example.com"],"requireSignedURLs":true,"watermark":{"uid":"ea95132c15732412d22c1476fa83f27a"}}'

When the user uploads the video, the creator property would be automatically set to your internal user ID and can be leveraged for operations such as pulling analytics data for your creators.

Query By Creator Property

Setting the creator property on your video uploads is just the beginning. You can now filter Stream Analytics via the Dashboard or the GraphQL API using the creator property.

Cloudflare Stream simplifies creator management for creator platforms
Filter Stream Analytics in the Dashboard using the Creator property

Previously, if you wanted to generate a monthly report of all your creators and the number of minutes of watch time recorded for their videos, you’d likely use a scripting language such as Python to do the following:

  1. Call the Stream GraphQL API requesting a list of videos and their watch time
  2. Traverse through the list of videos and query your internal index to determine which creator each video belongs to
  3. Sum up the video watch time for each creator to get a clean report showing you video consumption grouped by the video creator

The creator property eliminates this three step manual process. You can make a single API call to the GraphQL API to request a list of creators and the consumption of their videos for a given time period. Here is an example GraphQL API query that returns minutes delivered by creator:

query {
  viewer {
    accounts(filter: { accountTag: "<ACCOUNT_ID>" }) {
        limit: 10
        orderBy: [sum_minutesViewed_DESC]
        filter: { date_lt: "2022-04-01", date_gt: "2022-04-31" }
      ) {
        sum {
        dimensions {

Stream is focused on helping creator platforms innovate and scale. Matt Ober, CTO of NFT media management platform Piñata, says “By allowing us to upload and then query using creator IDs, large-scale analytics of Cloudflare Stream is about to get a lot easier.”

Getting Started

Read the docs to learn more about setting the creator property on new and previously uploaded videos. You can also set the creator property on live inputs, so the recorded videos generated from the live event will already have the creator field populated.

Being able to filter analytics is just the beginning. We can’t wait to enable more creator-level operations, so you can spend more time on what makes your idea unique and less time maintaining table stakes infrastructure.

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

Post Syndicated from Renan Dincer original https://blog.cloudflare.com/stream-now-supports-srt-as-a-drop-in-replacement-for-rtmp/

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

SRT is a new and modern live video transport protocol. It features many improvements to the incumbent popular video ingest protocol, RTMP, such as lower latency, and better resilience against unpredictable network conditions on the public Internet. SRT supports newer video codecs and makes it easier to use accessibility features such as captions and multiple audio tracks. While RTMP development has been abandoned since at least 2012, SRT development is maintained by an active community of developers.

We don’t see RTMP use going down anytime soon, but we can do something so authors of new broadcasting software, as well as video streaming platforms, can have an alternative.

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

Starting today, in open beta, you can use Stream Connect as a gateway to translate SRT to RTMP or RTMP to SRT with your existing applications. This way, you can get the last-mile reliability benefits of SRT and can continue to use the RTMP service of your choice. It’s priced at $1 per 1,000 minutes, regardless of video encoding parameters.

You can also use SRT to go live on Stream Live, our end-to-end live streaming service to get HLS and DASH manifest URLs from your SRT input, and do simulcasting to multiple platforms whether you use SRT or RTMP.

Stream’s SRT and RTMP implementation supports adding or removing RTMP or SRT outputs without having to restart the source stream, scales to tens of thousands of concurrent video streams per customer and runs on every Cloudflare server in every Cloudflare location around the world.

Go live like it’s 2022

When we first started developing live video features on Cloudflare Stream earlier last year we had to decide whether to reimplement an old and unmaintained protocol, RTMP, or focus on the future and start off fresh by using a modern protocol. If we launched with RTMP, we would get instant compatibility with existing clients but would give up features that would greatly improve performance and reliability. Reimplementing RTMP would also mean we’d have to handle the complicated state machine that powers it, demux the FLV container, parse AMF and even write a server that sends the text “Genuine Adobe Flash Media Server 001” as part of the RTMP handshake.

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

Even though there were a few new protocols to evaluate and choose from in this project, the dominance of RTMP was still overwhelming. We decided to implement RTMP but really don’t want anybody else to do it again.

Eliminate head of line blocking

A common weakness of TCP when it comes to low latency video transfer is head of line blocking. Imagine a camera app sending videos to a live streaming server. The camera puts every frame that is captured into packets and sends it over a reliable TCP connection. Regardless of the diverse set of Internet infrastructure it may be passing through, TCP makes sure all packets get delivered in order (so that your video frames don’t jump around) and reliably (so you don’t see any parts of the frame missing). However, this type of connection comes at a cost. If a single packet is dropped, or lost in the network somewhere between two endpoints like it happens on mobile network connections or wifi often, it means the entire TCP connection is brought to a halt while the lost packet is found and re-transmitted. This means that if one frame is suddenly missing, then everything that would come after the lost video frame needs to wait. This is known as head of line blocking.

RTMP experiences head of line blocking because it uses a TCP connection. Since SRT is a UDP-based protocol, it does not experience head of line blocking. SRT features packet recovery that is aware of the low-latency and high reliability requirements of video. Similar to QUIC, it achieves this by implementing its own logic for a reliable connection on top of UDP, rather than relying on TCP.

SRT solves this problem by waiting only a little bit, because it knows that losing a single frame won’t be noticeable by the end viewer in the majority of cases. The video moves on if the frame is not re-transmitted right away. SRT really shines when the broadcaster is streaming with less-than-stellar Internet connectivity. Using SRT means fewer buffering events, lower latency and a better overall viewing experience for your viewers.


Comparing SRT and RTMP today may not be that useful for the most pragmatic app developers. Perhaps it’s just another protocol that does the same thing for you. It’s important to remember that even though there might not be a big improvement for you today, tomorrow there will be new video use cases that will benefit from a UDP-based protocol that avoids head of line blocking, supports forward error correction and modern codecs beyond H.264 for high-resolution video.

Switching protocols requires effort from both software that sends video and software that receives video. This is a frustrating chicken-or-the-egg problem. A video streaming service won’t implement a protocol not in use and clients won’t implement a protocol not supported by streaming services.

Starting today, you can use Stream Connect to translate between protocols for you and deprecate RTMP without having to wait for video platforms to catch up. This way, you can use your favorite live video streaming service with the protocol of your choice.

Stream is useful if you’re a live streaming platform too! You can start using SRT while maintaining compatibility with existing RTMP clients. When creating a video service, you can have Stream Connect to terminate RTMP for you and send SRT over to the destination you intend instead.

SRT is already implemented in software like FFmpeg and OBS. Here’s how to get it working from OBS:

Stream now supports SRT as a drop-in replacement for RTMP

Get started with signing up for Cloudflare Stream and adding a live input.

Protocol-agnostic Live Streaming

We’re working on adding support for more media protocols in addition to RTMP and SRT. What would you like to see next? Let us know! If this post vibes with you, come work with the engineers building with video and more at Cloudflare!

Build your next video application on Cloudflare

Post Syndicated from Jonathan Kuperman original https://blog.cloudflare.com/build-video-applications-cloudflare/

Build your next video application on Cloudflare

Build your next video application on Cloudflare

Historically, building video applications has been very difficult. There’s a lot of complicated tech behind recording, encoding, and playing videos. Luckily, Cloudflare Stream abstracts all the difficult parts away, so you can build custom video and streaming applications easily. Let’s look at how we can combine Cloudflare Stream, Access, Pages, and Workers to create a high-performance video application with very little code.

Today, we’re going to build a video application inspired by Cloudflare TV. We’ll have user authentication and the ability for administrators to upload recorded videos or livestream new content. Think about being able to build your own YouTube or Twitch using Cloudflare services!

Fetching a list of videos

On the main page of our application, we want to display a list of all videos. The videos are uploaded and stored with Cloudflare Stream, but more on that later! This code could be changed to display only the “trending” videos or a selection of videos chosen for each user. For now, we’ll use the search API and pass in an empty string to return all.

import { getSignedStreamId } from "../../src/cfStream"

export async function onRequestGet(context) {
    const {
    } = context

    const { id } = params

    if (id) {
        const res = await fetch(`https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/accounts/${env.CF_ACCOUNT_ID}/stream/${id}`, {
            method: "GET",
            headers: {
                "Authorization": `Bearer ${env.CF_API_TOKEN_STREAM}`

        const video = (await res.json()).result

        if (video.meta.visibility !== "public") {
            return new Response(null, {status: 401})

        const signedId = await getSignedStreamId(id, env.CF_STREAM_SIGNING_KEY)

        return new Response(JSON.stringify({
            signedId: `${signedId}`
        }), {
            headers: {
                "content-type": "application/json"
    } else {
        const url = new URL(request.url)
        const res = await (await fetch(`https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/accounts/${env.CF_ACCOUNT_ID}/stream?search=${url.searchParams.get("search") || ""}`, {
            headers: {
                "Authorization": `Bearer ${env.CF_API_TOKEN_STREAM}`

        const filteredVideos = res.result.filter(x => x.meta.visibility === "public") 
        const videos = await Promise.all(filteredVideos.map(async x => {
            const signedId = await getSignedStreamId(x.uid, env.CF_STREAM_SIGNING_KEY)
            return {
                uid: x.uid,
                status: x.status,
                thumbnail: `https://videodelivery.net/${signedId}/thumbnails/thumbnail.jpg`,
                meta: {
                    name: x.meta.name
                created: x.created,
                modified: x.modified,
                duration: x.duration,
        return new Response(JSON.stringify(videos), {headers: {"content-type": "application/json"}})

We’ll go through each video, filter out any private videos, and pull out the metadata we need, such as the thumbnail URL, ID, and created date.

Playing the videos

To allow users to play videos from your application, they need to be public, or you’ll have to sign each request. Marking your videos as public makes this process easier. However, there are many reasons you might want to control access to your videos. If you want users to log in before they play them or the ability to limit access in any way, mark them as private and use signed URLs to control access. You can find more information about securing your videos here.

If you are testing your application locally or expect to have fewer than 10,000 requests per day, you can call the /token endpoint to generate a signed token. If you expect more than 10,000 requests per day, sign your own tokens as we do here using JSON Web Tokens.

Allowing users to upload videos

The next step is to build out an admin page where users can upload their videos. You can find documentation on allowing user uploads here.

This process is made easy with the Cloudflare Stream API. You use your API token and account ID to generate a unique, one-time upload URL. Just make sure your token has the Stream:Edit permission. We hook into all POST requests from our application and return the generated upload URL.

export const cfTeamsAccessAuthMiddleware = async ({request, data, env, next}) => {
    try {
        const userEmail = request.headers.get("cf-access-authenticated-user-email")

        if (!userEmail) {
            throw new Error("User not found, make sure application is behind Cloudflare Access")
        // Pass user info to next handlers
        data.user = {
            email: userEmail
        return next()
    } catch (e) {
        return new Response(e.toString(), {status: 401})

export const onRequest = [

The admin page contains a form allowing users to drag and drop or upload videos from their computers. When a logged-in user hits submit on the upload form, the application generates a unique URL and then posts the FormData to it. This code would work well for building a video sharing site or with any application that allows user-generated content.

async function getOneTimeUploadUrl() {
    const res = await fetch('/api/admin/videos', {method: 'POST', headers: {'accept': 'application/json'}})
    const upload = await res.json()
    return upload.uploadURL

async function uploadVideo() {
    const videoInput = document.getElementById("video");

    const oneTimeUploadUrl = await getOneTimeUploadUrl();
    const video = videoInput.files[0];
    const formData = new FormData();
    formData.append("file", video);

    const uploadResult = await fetch(oneTimeUploadUrl, {
        method: "POST",
        body: formData,

Adding real time video with Stream Live

You can add a livestreaming section to your application as well, using Stream Live in conjunction with the techniques we’ve already covered.  You could allow logged-in users to start a broadcast and then allow other logged-in users, or even the public, to watch it in real-time! The streams will automatically save to your account, so they can be viewed immediately after the broadcast finishes in the main section of your application.

Securing our app with middleware

We put all authenticated pages behind this middleware function. It checks the request headers to make sure the user is sending a valid authenticated user email.

export const cfTeamsAccessAuthMiddleware = async ({request, data, env, next}) => {
    try {
        const userEmail = request.headers.get("cf-access-authenticated-user-email")

        if (!userEmail) {
            throw new Error("User not found, make sure application is behind Cloudflare Access")
        // Pass user info to next handlers
        data.user = {
            email: userEmail
        return next()
    } catch (e) {
        return new Response(e.toString(), {status: 401})

export const onRequest = [

Putting it all together with Pages

We have Cloudflare Access controlling our log-in flow. We use the Stream APIs to manage uploading, displaying, and watching videos. We use Workers for managing fetch requests and handling API calls. Now it’s time to tie it all together using Cloudflare Pages!

Pages provides an easy way to deploy and host static websites. But now, Pages seamlessly integrates with the Workers platform (link to announcement post). With this new integration, we can deploy this entire application with a single, readable repository.

Controlling access

Some applications are better public; others contain sensitive data and should be restricted to specific users. The main page is public for this application, and we’ve used Cloudflare Access to limit the admin page to employees. You could just as easily use Access to protect the entire application if you’re building an internal learning service or even if you want to beta launch a new site!

When a user clicks the admin link on our demo site, they will be prompted for an email address. If they enter a valid Cloudflare email, the application will send them an access code. Otherwise, they won’t be able to access that page.

Check out the source code and get started building your own video application today!

Real-Time Communications at Scale

Post Syndicated from Matt Silverlock original https://blog.cloudflare.com/announcing-our-real-time-communications-platform/

Real-Time Communications at Scale

Real-Time Communications at Scale

For every successful technology, there is a moment where its time comes. Something happens, usually external, to catalyze it — shifting it from being a good idea with promise, to a reality that we can’t imagine living without. Perhaps the best recent example was what happened to the cloud as a result of the introduction of the iPhone in 2007. Smartphones created a huge addressable market for small developers; and even big developers found their customer base could explode in a way that they couldn’t handle without access to public cloud infrastructure. Both wanted to be able to focus on building amazing applications, without having to worry about what lay underneath.

Last year, during the outbreak of COVID-19, a similar moment happened to real time communication. Being able to communicate is the lifeblood of any organization. Before 2020, much of it happened in meeting rooms in offices all around the world. But in March last year — that changed dramatically. Those meeting rooms suddenly were emptied. Fast-forward 18 months, and that massive shift in how we work has persisted.

While, undoubtedly, many organizations would not have been able to get by without the likes of Slack, Zoom and Teams as real time collaboration tools, we think today’s iteration of communication tools is just the tip of the iceberg. Looking around, it’s hard to escape the feeling there is going to be an explosion in innovation that is about to take place to enable organizations to communicate in a remote, or at least hybrid, world.

With this in mind, today we’re excited to be introducing Cloudflare’s Real Time Communications platform. This is a new suite of products designed to help you build the next generation of real-time, interactive applications. Whether it’s one-to-one video calling, group audio or video-conferencing, the demand for real-time communications only continues to grow.

Running a reliable and scalable real-time communications platform requires building out a large-scale network. You need to get your network edge within milliseconds of your users in multiple geographies to make sure everyone can always connect with low latency, low packet loss and low jitter. A backbone to route around Internet traffic jams. Infrastructure that can efficiently scale to serve thousands of participants at once. And then you need to deploy media servers, write business logic, manage multiple client platforms, and keep it all running smoothly. We think we can help with this.

Launching today, you will be able to leverage Cloudflare’s global edge network to improve connectivity for any existing WebRTC-based video and audio application, with what we’re calling “WebRTC Components”.  This includes scaling to (tens of) thousands of participants, leveraging our DDoS mitigation to protect your services from attacks, and enforce IP and ASN-based access policies in just a few clicks.

How Real Time is “Real Time”?

Real-time typically refers to communication that happens in under 500ms: that is, as fast as packets can traverse the fibre optic networks that connect the world together. In 2021, most real-time audio and video applications use WebRTC, a set of open standards and browser APIs that define how to connect, secure, and transfer both media and data over UDP. It was designed to bring better, more flexible bi-directional communication when compared to the primary browser-based communication protocol we rely on today, HTTP. And because WebRTC is supported in the browser, it means that users don’t need custom clients, nor do developers need to build them: all they need is a browser.

Importantly, we’ve seen the need for reliable, real-time communication across time-zones and geographies increase dramatically, as organizations change the way they work (yes, including us).

So where is real-time important in practice?

  • One-to-one calls (think FaceTime). We’re used to almost instantaneous communication over traditional telephone lines, and there’s no reason for us to head backwards.
  • Group calling and conferencing (Zoom or Google Meet), where even just a few seconds of delay results in everyone talking over each other.
  • Social video, gaming and sports. You don’t want to be 10 seconds behind the action or miss that key moment in a game because the stream dropped a few frames or decided to buffer.
  • Interactive applications: from 3D modeling in the browser, Augmented Reality on your phone, and even game streaming need to be in real-time.

We believe that we’ve only collectively scratched the surface when it comes to real-time applications — and part of that is because scaling real-time applications to even thousands of users requires new infrastructure paradigms and demands more from the network than traditional HTTP-based communication.

Enter: WebRTC Components

Today, we’re launching our closed beta WebRTC Components, allowing teams running centralized WebRTC TURN servers to offload it to Cloudflare’s distributed, global network and improve reliability, scale to more users, and spend less time managing infrastructure.

TURN, or Traversal Using Relays Around NAT (Network Address Translation), was designed to navigate the practical shortcomings of WebRTC’s peer-to-peer origins. WebRTC was (and is!) a peer-to-peer technology, but in practice, establishing reliable peer-to-peer connections remains hard due to Carrier-Grade NAT, corporate NATs and firewalls. Further, each peer is limited by its own network connectivity — in a traditional peer-to-peer mesh, participants can quickly find their network connections saturated because they have to receive data from every other peer. In a mixed environment with different devices (mobile, desktops), networks (high-latency 3G through to fast fiber), scaling to more than a handful of peers becomes extremely challenging.

Real-Time Communications at Scale

Running a TURN service at the edge instead of your own infrastructure gets you a better connection. Cloudflare operates an anycast network spanning 250+ cities, meaning we’re very close to wherever your users are. This means that when users connect to Cloudflare’s TURN service, they get a really good connection to the Cloudflare network. Once it’s on there, we leverage our network and private backbone to get you superior connectivity, all the way back to the other user on the call.

But even better: stop worrying about scale. WebRTC infrastructure is notoriously difficult to scale: you need to make sure you have the right capacity in the right location. Cloudflare’s TURN service scales automatically and if you want more endpoints they’re just an API call away.

Real-Time Communications at Scale

Of course WebRTC Components is built on the Cloudflare network, benefiting from the DDoS protection that it’s 100 Tbps network offers. From now on deploying scalable, secure, production-grade WebRTC relays globally is only a couple of API calls away.

A Developer First Real-Time Platform

But, as we like to say at Cloudflare: we’re just getting started. Managed, scalable TURN infrastructure is a critical building block to building real-time services for one-to-one and small group calling, especially for teams who have been managing their own infrastructure, but things become rapidly more complex when you start adding more participants.

Whether that’s managing the quality of the streams (“tracks”, in WebRTC parlance) each client is sending and receiving to keep call quality up, permissions systems to determine who can speak or broadcast in large-scale events, and/or building signalling infrastructure with support chat and interactivity on top of the media experience, one thing is clear: it there’s a lot to bite off.

With that in mind, here’s a sneak peek at where we’re headed:

  • Developer-first APIs that abstract the need to manage and configure low-level infrastructure, authentication, authorization and participant permissions. Think in terms of your participants, rooms and channels, without having to learn the intricacies of ICE, peer connections and media tracks.
  • Integration with Cloudflare for Teams to support organizational access policies: great for when your company town hall meetings are now conducted remotely.
  • Making it easy to connect any input and output source, including broadcasting to traditional HTTP streaming clients and recording for on-demand playback with Stream Live, and ingesting from RTMP sources with Stream Connect, or future protocols such as WHIP.
  • Embedded serverless capabilities via Cloudflare Workers, from triggering Workers on participant events (e.g. join, leave) through to building stateful chat and collaboration tools with Durable Objects and WebSockets.

… and this is just the beginning.

We’re also looking for ambitious engineers who want to play a role in building our RTC platform. If you’re an engineer interested in building the next generation of real-time, interactive applications, join us!

If you’re interested in working with us to help connect more of the world together, and are struggling with scaling your existing 1-to-1 real-time video & audio platform beyond a few hundred or thousand concurrent users, sign up for the closed beta of WebRTC Components. We’re especially interested in partnering with teams at the beginning of their real-time journeys and who are keen to iterate closely with us.

Serverless Live Streaming with Cloudflare Stream

Post Syndicated from Zaid Farooqui original https://blog.cloudflare.com/stream-live/

Serverless Live Streaming with Cloudflare Stream

Serverless Live Streaming with Cloudflare Stream

We’re excited to introduce the open beta of Stream Live, an end-to-end scalable live-streaming platform that allows you to focus on growing your live video apps, not your codebase.

With Stream Live, you can painlessly grow your streaming app to scale to millions of concurrent broadcasters and millions of concurrent users. Start sending live video from mobile or desktop using the industry standard RTMPS protocol to millions of viewers instantly. Stream Live works with the most popular live video broadcasting software you already use, including ffmpeg, OBS or Zoom. Your broadcasts are automatically recorded, optimized and delivered using the Stream player.

When you are building your live infrastructure from scratch, you have to answer a few critical questions:

  1. Which codec(s) are we going to use to encode the videos?”
  2. “Which protocols are we going to use to ingest and deliver videos?”
  3. “How are the different components going to impact latency?”

We built Stream Live, so you don’t have to think about these questions and spend considerable engineering effort answering them. Stream Live abstracts these pesky yet important implementation details by automatically choosing the most compatible codec and streaming protocol for the client device. There is no limit to the number of live broadcasts you can start and viewers you can have on Stream Live. Whether you want to make the next viral video sharing app or securely broadcast all-hands meetings to your company, Stream will scale with you without having to spend months building and maintaining video infrastructure.

Built-in Player and Access Control

Every live video gets an embed code that can be placed inside your app, enabling your users to watch the live stream. You can also use your own player with included support for the two major HTTP streaming formats — HLS and DASH — for a granular control over the user experience.

You can limit who can view your live videos with self-expiring tokenized links for each viewer. When generating the tokenized links, you can define constraints including time-based expiration, geo-fencing and IP restrictions. When building an online learning site or a video sharing app, you can put videos behind authentication, so only logged-in users can view your videos. Or if you are building a live concert platform, you may have agreements to only allow viewers from specific countries or regions. Stream’s signed tokens help you comply with complex and custom rulesets.

Instant Recordings

With Stream Live, you don’t have to wait for a recording to be available after the live broadcast ends. Live videos automatically get converted to recordings in less than a second. Viewers get access to the recording instantly, allowing them to catch up on what they missed.

Instant Scale

Whether your platform has one active broadcaster or ten thousand, Stream Live scales with your use case. You don’t have to worry about adding new compute instances, setting up availability zones or negotiating additional software licenses.

Legacy live video pipelines built in-house typically ingest and encode the live stream continents away in a single location. Video that is ingested far away makes video streaming unreliable, especially for global audiences. All Cloudflare locations run the necessary software to ingest live video in and deliver video out. Once your video broadcast is in the Cloudflare network, Stream Live uses the Cloudflare backbone and Argo to transmit your live video with increased reliability.

Serverless Live Streaming with Cloudflare Stream

Broadcast with 15 second latency

Depending on your video encoder settings, the time between you broadcasting and the video displaying on your viewer’s screens can be as low as fifteen seconds with Stream Live. Low latency allows you to build interactive features such as chat and Q&A into your application. This latency is good for broadcasting meetings, sports, concerts, and worship, but we know it doesn’t cover all uses for live video.

We’re on a mission to reduce the latency Stream Live adds to near-zero. The Cloudflare network is now within 50ms for 95% of the world’s population. We believe we can significantly reduce the delay from the broadcaster to the viewer in the coming months. Finally, in the world of live-streaming, latency is only meaningful once you can assume reliability. By using the Cloudflare network spanning over 250 locations, you get unparalleled reliability that is critical for live events.

Simple and predictable pricing

Stream Live is available as a pay-as-you-go service based on the duration of videos recorded and duration of video viewed.

  • It costs $5 per 1,000 minutes of video storage capacity per month. Live-streamed videos are automatically recorded. There is no additional cost for ingesting the live stream.
  • It costs $1 per 1,000 minutes of video viewed.
  • There are no surprises. You never have to pay hidden costs for video ingest, compute (encoding), egress or storage found in legacy video pipelines.
  • You can control how much you spend with Stream using billing alerts and restrict viewing by creating signed tokens that only work for authorized viewers.

Cloudflare Stream encodes the live stream in multiple quality levels at no additional cost. This ensures smooth playback for your viewers with varying Internet speed. As your viewers move from Wi-Fi to mobile networks, videos continue playing without interruption. Other platforms that offer live-streaming infrastructure tend to add extra fees for adding quality levels that caters to a global audience.

If your use case consists of thousands of concurrent broadcasters or millions of concurrent viewers, reach out to us for volume pricing.

Go live with Stream

Stream works independent of any domain on Cloudflare. If you already have a Cloudflare account with a Stream subscription, you can begin using Stream Live by clicking on the “Live Input” tab on the Stream Dashboard and creating a new input:

Serverless Live Streaming with Cloudflare Stream

If you are new to Cloudflare, sign up for Cloudflare Stream.

Friday Squid Blogging: Live Giant Squid Found in Japan

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2021/02/friday-squid-blogging-live-giant-squid-found-in-japan.html

A giant squid was found alive in the port of Izumo, Japan. Not a lot of news, just this Twitter thread (with a couple of videos).

If confirmed, I believe this will be the THIRD time EVER a giant squid was filmed alive!

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Determining What Video Conference Participants Are Typing from Watching Shoulder Movements

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2020/11/determining-what-video-conference-participants-are-typing-from-watching-shoulder-movements.html

Accuracy isn’t great, but that it can be done at all is impressive.

Murtuza Jadiwala, a computer science professor heading the research project, said his team was able to identify the contents of texts by examining body movement of the participants. Specifically, they focused on the movement of their shoulders and arms to extrapolate the actions of their fingers as they typed.

Given the widespread use of high-resolution web cams during conference calls, Jadiwala was able to record and analyze slight pixel shifts around users’ shoulders to determine if they were moving left or right, forward or backward. He then created a software program that linked the movements to a list of commonly used words. He says the “text inference framework that uses the keystrokes detected from the video … predict[s] words that were most likely typed by the target user. We then comprehensively evaluate[d] both the keystroke/typing detection and text inference frameworks using data collected from a large number of participants.”

In a controlled setting, with specific chairs, keyboards and webcam, Jadiwala said he achieved an accuracy rate of 75 percent. However, in uncontrolled environments, accuracy dropped to only one out of every five words being correctly identified.

Other factors contribute to lower accuracy levels, he said, including whether long sleeve or short sleeve shirts were worn, and the length of a user’s hair. With long hair obstructing a clear view of the shoulders, accuracy plummeted.

ICYMI: Serverless Q2 2020

Post Syndicated from Moheeb Zara original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/icymi-serverless-q2-2020/

Welcome to the 10th edition of the AWS Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap. Every quarter, we share all of the most recent product launches, feature enhancements, blog posts, webinars, Twitch live streams, and other interesting things that you might have missed!

In case you missed our last ICYMI, checkout what happened last quarter here.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda functions can now mount an Amazon Elastic File System (EFS). EFS is a scalable and elastic NFS file system storing data within and across multiple Availability Zones (AZ) for high availability and durability. In this way, you can use a familiar file system interface to store and share data across all concurrent execution environments of one, or more, Lambda functions. EFS supports full file system access semantics, such as strong consistency and file locking.

Using different EFS access points, each Lambda function can access different paths in a file system, or use different file system permissions. You can share the same EFS file system with Amazon EC2 instances, containerized applications using Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate, and on-premises servers.

Learn how to create an Amazon EFS-mounted Lambda function using the AWS Serverless Application Model in Sessions With SAM Episode 10.

With our recent launch of .NET Core 3.1 AWS Lambda runtime, we’ve also released version 2.0.0 of the PowerShell module AWSLambdaPSCore. The new version now supports PowerShell 7.

Amazon EventBridge

At AWS re:Invent 2019, we introduced a preview of Amazon EventBridge schema registry and discovery. This is a way to store the structure of the events (the schema) in a central location. It can simplify using events in your code by generating the code to process them for Java, Python, and TypeScript. In April, we announced general availability of EventBridge Schema Registry.

We also added support for resource policies. Resource policies allow sharing of schema repository across different AWS accounts and organizations. In this way, developers on different teams can search for and use any schema that another team has added to the shared registry.

Ben Smith, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, published a guide on how to capture user events and monitor user behavior using the Amazon EventBridge partner integration with Auth0. This enables better insight into your application to help deliver a more customized experience for your users.

AWS Step Functions

In May, we launched a new AWS Step Functions service integration with AWS CodeBuild. CodeBuild is a fully managed continuous integration service that compiles source code, runs tests, and produces packages that are ready for deployment. Now, during the execution of a state machine, you can start or stop a build, get build report summaries, and delete past build executions records.

With the new AWS CodePipeline support to invoke Step Functions you can customize your delivery pipeline with choices, external validations, or parallel tasks. Each of those tasks can now call CodeBuild to create a custom build following specific requirements. Learn how to build a continuous integration workflow with Step Functions and AWS CodeBuild.

Rob Sutter, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, has published a video series on Step Functions. We’ve compiled a playlist on YouTube to help you on your serverless journey.

AWS Amplify

The AWS Amplify Framework announced in April that they have rearchitected the Amplify UI component library to enable JavaScript developers to easily add authentication scenarios to their web apps. The authentication components include numerous improvements over previous versions. These include the ability to automatically sign in users after sign-up confirmation, better customization, and improved accessibility.

Amplify also announced the availability of Amplify Framework iOS and Amplify Framework Android libraries and tools. These help mobile application developers to easily build secure and scalable cloud-powered applications. Previously, mobile developers relied on a combination of tools and SDKS along with the Amplify CLI to create and manage a backend.

These new native libraries are oriented around use-cases, such as authentication, data storage and access, machine learning predictions etc. They provide a declarative interface that enables you to programmatically apply best practices with abstractions.

A mono-repository is a repository that contains more than one logical project, each in its own repository. Monorepo support is now available for the AWS Amplify Console, allowing developers to connect Amplify Console to a sub-folder in your mono-repository. Learn how to set up continuous deployment and hosting on a monorepo with the Amplify Console.

Amazon Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra)

Amazon Managed Apache Cassandra Service (MCS) is now generally available under the new name: Amazon Keyspaces (for Apache Cassandra). Amazon Keyspaces is built on Apache Cassandra and can be used as a fully managed serverless database. Your applications can read and write data from Amazon Keyspaces using your existing Cassandra Query Language (CQL) code, with little or no changes. Danilo Poccia explains how to use Amazon Keyspace with API Gateway and Lambda in this launch post.

AWS Glue

In April we extended AWS Glue jobs, based on Apache Spark, to run continuously and consume data from streaming platforms such as Amazon Kinesis Data Streams and Apache Kafka (including the fully-managed Amazon MSK). Learn how to manage a serverless extract, transform, load (ETL) pipeline with Glue in this guide by Danilo Poccia.

Serverless posts

Our team is always working to build and write content to help our customers better understand all our serverless offerings. Here is a list of the latest published to the AWS Compute Blog this quarter.

Introducing the new serverless LAMP stack

Ben Smith, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, introduces the Serverless LAMP stack. He explains how to use serverless technologies with PHP. Learn about the available tools, frameworks and strategies to build serverless applications, and why now is the right time to start.


Building a location-based, scalable, serverless web app

James Beswick, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, walks through building a location-based, scalable, serverless web app. Ask Around Me is an example project that allows users to ask questions within a geofence to create an engaging community driven experience.

Building well-architected serverless applications

Julian Wood, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, published two blog series on building well-architected serverless applications. Learn how to better understand application health and lifecycle management.

Device hacking with serverless

Go beyond the browser with these creative and physical projects. Moheeb Zara, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, published several serverless powered device hacks, all using off the shelf parts.




Tech Talks and events

We hold AWS Online Tech Talks covering serverless topics throughout the year. You can find these in the serverless section of the AWS Online Tech Talks page. We also regularly join in on podcasts, and record short videos you can find to learn in quick bite-sized chunks.

Here are the highlights from Q2.

Innovator Island Workshop

Learn how to build a complete serverless web application for a popular theme park called Innovator Island. James Beswick created a video series to walk you through this popular workshop at your own pace.

Serverless First Function

In May, we held a new virtual event series, the Serverless-First Function, to help you and your organization get the most out of the cloud. The first event, on May 21, included sessions from Amazon CTO, Dr. Werner Vogels, and VP of Serverless at AWS, David Richardson. The second event, May 28, was packed with sessions with our AWS Serverless Developer Advocate team. Catch up on the AWS Twitch channel.

Live streams

The AWS Serverless Developer Advocate team hosts several weekly livestreams on the AWS Twitch channel covering a wide range of topics. You can catch up on all our past content, including workshops, on the AWS Serverless YouTube channel.

Eric Johnson hosts “Sessions with SAM” every Thursday at 10AM PST. Each week, Eric shows how to use SAM to solve different serverless challenges. He explains how to use SAM templates to build powerful serverless applications. Catch up on the last few episodes.

James Beswick, AWS Serverless Developer Advocate, has compiled a round-up of all his content from Q2. He has plenty of videos ranging from beginner to advanced topics.

AWS Serverless Heroes

We’re pleased to welcome Kyuhyun Byun and Serkan Özal to the growing list of AWS Serverless Heroes. The AWS Hero program is a selection of worldwide experts that have been recognized for their positive impact within the community. They share helpful knowledge and organize events and user groups. They’re also contributors to numerous open-source projects in and around serverless technologies.

Still looking for more?

The Serverless landing page has much more information. The Lambda resources page contains case studies, webinars, whitepapers, customer stories, reference architectures, and even more getting started tutorials.

Follow the AWS Serverless team on our new LinkedIn page we share all the latest news and events. You can also follow all of us on Twitter to see latest news, follow conversations, and interact with the team.

Chris Munns: @chrismunns
Eric Johnson: @edjgeek
James Beswick: @jbesw
Moheeb Zara: @virgilvox
Ben Smith: @benjamin_l_s
Rob Sutter: @rts_rob
Julian Wood: @julian_wood

iPhone Apps Stealing Clipboard Data

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2020/06/iphone_apps_ste.html

iOS apps are repeatedly reading clipboard data, which can include all sorts of sensitive information.

While Haj Bakry and Mysk published their research in March, the invasive apps made headlines again this week with the developer beta release of iOS 14. A novel feature Apple added provides a banner warning every time an app reads clipboard contents. As large numbers of people began testing the beta release, they quickly came to appreciate just how many apps engage in the practice and just how often they do it.

This YouTube video, which has racked up more than 87,000 views since it was posted on Tuesday, shows a small sample of the apps triggering the new warning.

EDITED TO ADD (7/6): LinkedIn and Reddit are doing this.