Tag Archives: Internet of Things

No, Toothbrushes Were Not Used in a Massive DDoS Attack

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2024/02/no-toothbrushes-were-not-used-in-a-massive-ddos-attack.html

The widely reported story last week that 1.5 million smart toothbrushes were hacked and used in a DDoS attack is false.

Near as I can tell, a German reporter talking to someone at Fortinet got it wrong, and then everyone else ran with it without reading the German text. It was a hypothetical, which Fortinet eventually confirmed.

Or maybe it was a stock-price hack.

On IoT Devices and Software Liability

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2024/01/on-iot-devices-and-software-liability.html

New law journal article:

Smart Device Manufacturer Liability and Redress for Third-Party Cyberattack Victims

Abstract: Smart devices are used to facilitate cyberattacks against both their users and third parties. While users are generally able to seek redress following a cyberattack via data protection legislation, there is no equivalent pathway available to third-party victims who suffer harm at the hands of a cyberattacker. Given how these cyberattacks are usually conducted by exploiting a publicly known and yet un-remediated bug in the smart device’s code, this lacuna is unreasonable. This paper scrutinises recent judgments from both the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the Supreme Court of the Republic of Ireland to ascertain whether these rulings pave the way for third-party victims to pursue negligence claims against the manufacturers of smart devices. From this analysis, a narrow pathway, which outlines how given a limited set of circumstances, a duty of care can be established between the third-party victim and the manufacturer of the smart device is proposed.

A Robot the Size of the World

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2023/12/a-robot-the-size-of-the-world.html

In 2016, I wrote about an Internet that affected the world in a direct, physical manner. It was connected to your smartphone. It had sensors like cameras and thermostats. It had actuators: Drones, autonomous cars. And it had smarts in the middle, using sensor data to figure out what to do and then actually do it. This was the Internet of Things (IoT).

The classical definition of a robot is something that senses, thinks, and acts—that’s today’s Internet. We’ve been building a world-sized robot without even realizing it.

In 2023, we upgraded the “thinking” part with large-language models (LLMs) like GPT. ChatGPT both surprised and amazed the world with its ability to understand human language and generate credible, on-topic, humanlike responses. But what these are really good at is interacting with systems formerly designed for humans. Their accuracy will get better, and they will be used to replace actual humans.

In 2024, we’re going to start connecting those LLMs and other AI systems to both sensors and actuators. In other words, they will be connected to the larger world, through APIs. They will receive direct inputs from our environment, in all the forms I thought about in 2016. And they will increasingly control our environment, through IoT devices and beyond.

It will start small: Summarizing emails and writing limited responses. Arguing with customer service—on chat—for service changes and refunds. Making travel reservations.

But these AIs will interact with the physical world as well, first controlling robots and then having those robots as part of them. Your AI-driven thermostat will turn the heat and air conditioning on based also on who’s in what room, their preferences, and where they are likely to go next. It will negotiate with the power company for the cheapest rates by scheduling usage of high-energy appliances or car recharging.

This is the easy stuff. The real changes will happen when these AIs group together in a larger intelligence: A vast network of power generation and power consumption with each building just a node, like an ant colony or a human army.

Future industrial-control systems will include traditional factory robots, as well as AI systems to schedule their operation. It will automatically order supplies, as well as coordinate final product shipping. The AI will manage its own finances, interacting with other systems in the banking world. It will call on humans as needed: to repair individual subsystems or to do things too specialized for the robots.

Consider driverless cars. Individual vehicles have sensors, of course, but they also make use of sensors embedded in the roads and on poles. The real processing is done in the cloud, by a centralized system that is piloting all the vehicles. This allows individual cars to coordinate their movement for more efficiency: braking in synchronization, for example.

These are robots, but not the sort familiar from movies and television. We think of robots as discrete metal objects, with sensors and actuators on their surface, and processing logic inside. But our new robots are different. Their sensors and actuators are distributed in the environment. Their processing is somewhere else. They’re a network of individual units that become a robot only in aggregate.

This turns our notion of security on its head. If massive, decentralized AIs run everything, then who controls those AIs matters a lot. It’s as if all the executive assistants or lawyers in an industry worked for the same agency. An AI that is both trusted and trustworthy will become a critical requirement.

This future requires us to see ourselves less as individuals, and more as parts of larger systems. It’s AI as nature, as Gaia—everything as one system. It’s a future more aligned with the Buddhist philosophy of interconnectedness than Western ideas of individuality. (And also with science-fiction dystopias, like Skynet from the Terminator movies.) It will require a rethinking of much of our assumptions about governance and economy. That’s not going to happen soon, but in 2024 we will see the first steps along that path.

This essay previously appeared in Wired.

Join AWS Hybrid Cloud & Edge Day to Learn How to Deploy Your Applications in the Everywhere Cloud

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/join-aws-hybrid-cloud-edge-day-to-learn-how-to-deploy-your-applications-in-the-everywhere-cloud/

In his keynote of AWS re:Invent 2021, Dr. Werner Vogels shared the insight of how “the everywhere cloud” is bringing AWS to new locales through AWS hardware and services and spotlighted it as one of his tech predictions for 2022 and beyond in his blog post.

“What we will see in 2022, and even more so in the years to come, is the cloud accelerating beyond the traditional centralized infrastructure model and into unexpected environments where specialized technology is needed. The cloud will be in your car, your tea kettle, and your TV. The cloud will be in everything from trucks driving down the road, to the ships and planes that transport goods. The cloud will be globally distributed, and connected to almost any digital device or system on Earth, and even in space.”

AWS provides a truly consistent and secure experience to build and run applications across the continuum of environments where customers operate—from the cloud to large metro areas, 5G networks, on-premises locations, and to mobile and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

To learn more, join us for AWS Hybrid Cloud & Edge Day, a free-to-attend one-day virtual event on August 30, 2023, starting at 10:00 AM PDT (1:00 PM ET). We will stream the event simultaneously across multiple platforms, including LinkedIn Live, Twitter, YouTube, and Twitch.

You can hear from AWS leaders and industry analysts on the latest hybrid cloud and edge computing trends and emerging technologies and learn best practices for using AWS hybrid cloud and edge services across the cloud continuum. Also, learn from our customers on data strategies and key use cases and gain a deeper understanding of AWS hybrid cloud and edge services and new features and benefits.

Here are some of the highlights you can expect from this event:

Leadership session – To kick off the day, we have a leadership session featuring Jan Hofmeyr, vice president of EC2 Edge, sharing insights into how customers are building high-performance, intelligent applications with recently announced AWS hybrid cloud, edge, and IoT capabilities. Elias Khnaser, chief of research at EK Media Group, will join Jan to discuss the global, business, and economic trends impacting hybrid cloud and edge computing and discuss the customer requirements and use cases.

Cloud-closer sessions – We’ll discuss how AWS is bringing the cloud closer to metro areas and telco networks. Services such as AWS Local Zones, AWS Outposts family, and AWS Wavelength bring the power of cloud compute and storage to the edge of 5G networks, unlocking more performant mobile experiences. We’ll highlight new and innovative use cases, including Norton LifeLock, Electronic Arts, and Epic Games, who have taken advantage of the operational consistency between AWS Regions and the edge. Also you can learn how to deploy in hybrid cloud scenarios in on-premises locations, such as examples from MindBody and ElToro through Onica, and more customer cases.

On-premises sessions – Learn about our options to bring AWS Cloud to your data centers and on-premises locations for a truly consistent experience across your environments. We will review real-world examples of how AWS hybrid and edge services enable local processing of data for faster response time and faster decision-making. Also, we will share how Toyota takes advantage of hybrid options from Amazon ECS and Amazon EKS to use familiar management tools across your environments to successfully modernize your applications. You can learn how to meet your on-premises regulatory requirements and real-world scenarios effectively in critical aspects of digital sovereignty and data residency.

Rugged edge sessions – You will learn about AWS services to support rugged, mobile, and disconnected edge, such as AWS Snow Family to enable organizations to deploy compute workloads in locations with denied, disrupted, intermittent, and limited (DDIL) connectivity. Learn how DDR.Live deployed their own 4G/LTE or 5G private network using AWS Private 5G for live events in the place with limited wireless connection. We will discuss the top use cases, such as deploying a pre-trained object detection model and architecting applications at the edge. Finally, we will discuss the benefits and requirements of operating at the edge with Holger Mueller, vice president and principal analyst, Constellation Research, Inc.

IoT panel discussion – We will discuss from panelist of AWS IoT customers and industry experts on their innovation journey. Join us to see how EuroTech brought to market a set of devices and services that improve operational efficiencies with connectivity at the edge. You’ll also hear how Wallbox, an Electric Vehicle charging company, reduced their operational costs and scaled efficiently with AWS IoT services.

Multicloud sessions – AWS has the tools to help you run and support your multicloud operations in the areas of governance, ops management, observability, and more. We will discuss common challenges in hybrid and multicloud environments and how AWS helps you manage, operate, and automate your processes. We’ll also talk about how Rackspace used AWS Systems Manager for instance patching across hybrid and multicloud environments, automating their infrastructure management across cloud providers.

This event is for any customer and builder who is eager to learn more about hybrid cloud, edge computing, IoT, networking, content delivery, and 5G. We’ll cover how you can support applications that need to remain on premises or at the edge due to low latency, local data processing, or data residency requirements.

To learn more details, see the event schedule, and register for AWS Hybrid Cloud & Edge Day, go to the event page.

Channy

How SOCAR handles large IoT data with Amazon MSK and Amazon ElastiCache for Redis

Post Syndicated from Younggu Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/how-socar-handles-large-iot-data-with-amazon-msk-and-amazon-elasticache-for-redis/

This is a guest blog post co-written with SangSu Park and JaeHong Ahn from SOCAR. 

As companies continue to expand their digital footprint, the importance of real-time data processing and analysis cannot be overstated. The ability to quickly measure and draw insights from data is critical in today’s business landscape, where rapid decision-making is key. With this capability, businesses can stay ahead of the curve and develop new initiatives that drive success.

This post is a continuation of How SOCAR built a streaming data pipeline to process IoT data for real-time analytics and control. In this post, we provide a detailed overview of streaming messages with Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK) and Amazon ElastiCache for Redis, covering technical aspects and design considerations that are essential for achieving optimal results.

SOCAR is the leading Korean mobility company with strong competitiveness in car-sharing. SOCAR wanted to design and build a solution for a new Fleet Management System (FMS). This system involves the collection, processing, storage, and analysis of Internet of Things (IoT) streaming data from various vehicle devices, as well as historical operational data such as location, speed, fuel level, and component status.

This post demonstrates a solution for SOCAR’s production application that allows them to load streaming data from Amazon MSK into ElastiCache for Redis, optimizing the speed and efficiency of their data processing pipeline. We also discuss the key features, considerations, and design of the solution.

Background

SOCAR operates about 20,000 cars and is planning to include other large vehicle types such as commercial vehicles and courier trucks. SOCAR has deployed in-car devices that capture data using AWS IoT Core. This data was then stored in Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS). The challenge with this approach included inefficient performance and high resource usage. Therefore, SOCAR looked for purpose-built databases tailored to the needs of their application and usage patterns while meeting the future requirements of SOCAR’s business and technical requirements. The key requirements for SOCAR included achieving maximum performance for real-time data analytics, which required storing data in an in-memory data store.

After careful consideration, ElastiCache for Redis was selected as the optimal solution due to its ability to handle complex data aggregation rules with ease. One of the challenges faced was loading data from Amazon MSK into the database, because there was no built-in Kafka connector and consumer available for this task. This post focuses on the development of a Kafka consumer application that was designed to tackle this challenge by enabling performant data loading from Amazon MSK to Redis.

Solution overview

Extracting valuable insights from streaming data can be a challenge for businesses with diverse use cases and workloads. That’s why SOCAR built a solution to seamlessly bring data from Amazon MSK into multiple purpose-built databases, while also empowering users to transform data as needed. With fully managed Apache Kafka, Amazon MSK provides a reliable and efficient platform for ingesting and processing real-time data.

The following figure shows an example of the data flow at SOCAR.

solution overview

This architecture consists of three components:

  • Streaming data – Amazon MSK serves as a scalable and reliable platform for streaming data, capable of receiving and storing messages from a variety of sources, including AWS IoT Core, with messages organized into multiple topics and partitions
  • Consumer application – With a consumer application, users can seamlessly bring data from Amazon MSK into a target database or data storage while also defining data transformation rules as needed
  • Target databases – With the consumer application, the SOCAR team was able to load data from Amazon MSK into two separate databases, each serving a specific workload

Although this post focuses on a specific use case with ElastiCache for Redis as the target database and a single topic called gps, the consumer application we describe can handle additional topics and messages, as well as different streaming sources and target databases such as Amazon DynamoDB. Our post covers the most important aspects of the consumer application, including its features and components, design considerations, and a detailed guide to the code implementation.

Components of the consumer application

The consumer application comprises three main parts that work together to consume, transform, and load messages from Amazon MSK into a target database. The following diagram shows an example of data transformations in the handler component.

consumer-application

The details of each component are as follows:

  • Consumer – This consumes messages from Amazon MSK and then forwards the messages to a downstream handler.
  • Loader – This is where users specify a target database. For example, SOCAR’s target databases include ElastiCache for Redis and DynamoDB.
  • Handler – This is where users can apply data transformation rules to the incoming messages before loading them into a target database.

Features of the consumer application

This connection has three features:

  • Scalability – This solution is designed to be scalable, ensuring that the consumer application can handle an increasing volume of data and accommodate additional applications in the future. For instance, SOCAR sought to develop a solution capable of handling not only the current data from approximately 20,000 vehicles but also a larger volume of messages as the business and data continue to grow rapidly.
  • Performance – With this consumer application, users can achieve consistent performance, even as the volume of source messages and target databases increases. The application supports multithreading, allowing for concurrent data processing, and can handle unexpected spikes in data volume by easily increasing compute resources.
  • Flexibility – This consumer application can be reused for any new topics without having to build the entire consumer application again. The consumer application can be used to ingest new messages with different configuration values in the handler. SOCAR deployed multiple handlers to ingest many different messages. Also, this consumer application allows users to add additional target locations. For example, SOCAR initially developed a solution for ElastiCache for Redis and then replicated the consumer application for DynamoDB.

Design considerations of the consumer application

Note the following design considerations for the consumer application:

  • Scale out – A key design principle of this solution is scalability. To achieve this, the consumer application runs with Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS) because it can allow users to increase and replicate consumer applications easily.
  • Consumption patterns – To receive, store, and consume data efficiently, it’s important to design Kafka topics depending on messages and consumption patterns. Depending on messages consumed at the end, messages can be received into multiple topics of different schemas. For example, SOCAR has many different topics that are consumed by different workloads.
  • Purpose-built database – The consumer application supports loading data into multiple target options based on the specific use case. For example, SOCAR stored real-time IoT data in ElastiCache for Redis to power real-time dashboard and web applications, while storing recent trip information in DynamoDB that didn’t require real-time processing.

Walkthrough overview

The producer of this solution is AWS IoT Core, which sends out messages into a topic called gps. The target database of this solution is ElastiCache for Redis. ElastiCache for Redis a fast in-memory data store that provides sub-millisecond latency to power internet-scale, real-time applications. Built on open-source Redis and compatible with the Redis APIs, ElastiCache for Redis combines the speed, simplicity, and versatility of open-source Redis with the manageability, security, and scalability from Amazon to power the most demanding real-time applications.

The target location can be either another database or storage depending on the use case and workload. SOCAR uses Amazon EKS to operate the containerized solution to achieve scalability, performance, and flexibility. Amazon EKS is a managed Kubernetes service to run Kubernetes in the AWS Cloud. Amazon EKS automatically manages the availability and scalability of the Kubernetes control plane nodes responsible for scheduling containers, managing application availability, storing cluster data, and other key tasks.

For the programming language, the SOCAR team decided to use the Go Programming language, utilizing both the AWS SDK for Go and a Goroutine, a lightweight logical or virtual thread managed by the Go runtime, which makes it easy to manage multiple threads. The AWS SDK for Go simplifies the use of AWS services by providing a set of libraries that are consistent and familiar for Go developers.

In the following sections, we walk through the steps to implement the solution:

  1. Create a consumer.
  2. Create a loader.
  3. Create a handler.
  4. Build a consumer application with the consumer, loader, and handler.
  5. Deploy the consumer application.

Prerequisites

For this walkthrough, you should have the following:

Create a consumer

In this example, we use a topic called gps, and the consumer includes a Kafka client that receives messages from the topic. SOCAR created a struct and built a consumer (called NewConsumer in the code) to make it extendable. With this approach, any additional parameters and rules can be added easily.

To authenticate with Amazon MSK, SOCAR uses IAM. Because SOCAR already uses IAM to authenticate other resources, such as Amazon EKS, it uses the same IAM role (aws_msk_iam_v2) to authenticate clients for both Amazon MSK and Apache Kafka actions.

The following code creates the consumer:

type Consumer struct {
	logger      *zerolog.Logger
	kafkaReader *kafka.Reader
}

func NewConsumer(logger *zerolog.Logger, awsCfg aws.Config, brokers []string, consumerGroupID, topic string) *Consumer {
	return &Consumer{
		logger: logger,
		kafkaReader: kafka.NewReader(kafka.ReaderConfig{
			Dialer: &kafka.Dialer{
				TLS:           &tls.Config{MinVersion: tls.VersionTLS12},
				Timeout:       10 * time.Second,
				DualStack:     true,
				SASLMechanism: aws_msk_iam_v2.NewMechanism(awsCfg),
			},
			Brokers:     brokers, //
			GroupID:     consumerGroupID, //
			Topic:       topic, //
			StartOffset: kafka.LastOffset, //
		}),
	}
}

func (consumer *Consumer) Close() error {
	var err error = nil
	if consumer.kafkaReader != nil {
		err = consumer.kafkaReader.Close()
		consumer.logger.Info().Msg("closed kafka reader")
	}
	return err
}

func (consumer *Consumer) Consume(ctx context.Context) (kafka.message, error) {
	return consumer.kafkaReader.Readmessage(ctx)
}

Create a loader

The loader function, represented by the Loader struct, is responsible for loading messages to the target location, which in this case is ElastiCache for Redis. The NewLoader function initializes a new instance of the Loader struct with a logger and a Redis cluster client, which is used to communicate with the ElastiCache cluster. The redis.NewClusterClient object is initialized using the NewRedisClient function, which uses IAM to authenticate the client for Redis actions. This ensures secure and authorized access to the ElastiCache cluster. The Loader struct also contains the Close method to close the Kafka reader and free up resources.

The following code creates a loader:

type Loader struct {
	logger      *zerolog.Logger
	redisClient *redis.ClusterClient
}

func NewLoader(logger *zerolog.Logger, redisClient *redis.ClusterClient) *Loader {
	return &Loader{
		logger:      logger,
		redisClient: redisClient,
	}
}

func (consumer *Consumer) Close() error {
	var err error = nil
	if consumer.kafkaReader != nil {
		err = consumer.kafkaReader.Close()
		consumer.logger.Info().Msg("closed kafka reader")
	}
	return err
}

func (consumer *Consumer) Consume(ctx context.Context) (kafka.Message, error) {
	return consumer.kafkaReader.ReadMessage(ctx)
}

func NewRedisClient(ctx context.Context, awsCfg aws.Config, addrs []string, replicationGroupID, username string) (*redis.ClusterClient, error) {
	redisClient := redis.NewClusterClient(&redis.ClusterOptions{
		NewClient: func(opt *redis.Options) *redis.Client {
			return redis.NewClient(&redis.Options{
				Addr: opt.Addr,
				CredentialsProvider: func() (username string, password string) {
					token, err := BuildRedisIAMAuthToken(ctx, awsCfg, replicationGroupID, opt.Username)
					if err != nil {
						panic(err)
					}
					return opt.Username, token
				},
				PoolSize:    opt.PoolSize,
				PoolTimeout: opt.PoolTimeout,
				TLSConfig:   &tls.Config{InsecureSkipVerify: true},
			})
		},
		Addrs:       addrs,
		Username:    username,
		PoolSize:    100,
		PoolTimeout: 1 * time.Minute,
	})
	pong, err := redisClient.Ping(ctx).Result()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	if pong != "PONG" {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("failed to verify connection to redis server")
	}
	return redisClient, nil
}

Create a handler

A handler is used to include business rules and data transformation logic that prepares data before loading it into the target location. It acts as a bridge between a consumer and a loader. In this example, the topic name is cars.gps.json, and the message includes two keys, lng and lat, with data type Float64. The business logic can be defined in a function like handlerFuncGpsToRedis and then applied as follows:

type (
	handlerFunc    func(ctx context.Context, loader *Loader, key, value []byte) error
	handlerFuncMap map[string]handlerFunc
)

var HandlerRedis = handlerFuncMap{
	"cars.gps.json":   handlerFuncGpsToRedis
}

func GetHandlerFunc(funcMap handlerFuncMap, topic string) (handlerFunc, error) {
	handlerFunc, exist := funcMap[topic]
	if !exist {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("failed to find handler func for '%s'", topic)
	}
	return handlerFunc, nil
}

func handlerFuncGpsToRedis(ctx context.Context, loader *Loader, key, value []byte) error {
	// unmarshal raw data to map
	data := map[string]interface{}{}
	err := json.Unmarshal(value, &data)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// prepare things to load on redis as geolocation
	name := string(key)
	lng, err := getFloat64ValueFromMap(data, "lng")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	lat, err := getFloat64ValueFromMap(data, "lat")
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// add geolocation to redis
	return loader.RedisGeoAdd(ctx, "cars#gps", name, lng, lat)
}

Build a consumer application with the consumer, loader, and handler

Now you have created the consumer, loader, and handler. The next step is to build a consumer application using them. In a consumer application, you read messages from your stream with a consumer, transform them using a handler, and then load transformed messages into a target location with a loader. These three components are parameterized in a consumer application function such as the one shown in the following code:

type Connector struct {
	ctx    context.Context
	logger *zerolog.Logger

	consumer *Consumer
	handler  handlerFuncMap
	loader   *Loader
}

func NewConnector(ctx context.Context, logger *zerolog.Logger, consumer *Consumer, handler handlerFuncMap, loader *Loader) *Connector {
	return &Connector{
		ctx:    ctx,
		logger: logger,

		consumer: consumer,
		handler:  handler,
		loader:   loader,
	}
}

func (connector *Connector) Close() error {
	var err error = nil
	if connector.consumer != nil {
		err = connector.consumer.Close()
	}
	if connector.loader != nil {
		err = connector.loader.Close()
	}
	return err
}

func (connector *Connector) Run() error {
	wg := sync.WaitGroup{}
	defer wg.Wait()
	handlerFunc, err := GetHandlerFunc(connector.handler, connector.consumer.kafkaReader.Config().Topic)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	for {
		msg, err := connector.consumer.Consume(connector.ctx)
		if err != nil {
			if errors.Is(context.Canceled, err) {
				break
			}
		}

		wg.Add(1)
		go func(key, value []byte) {
			defer wg.Done()
			err = handlerFunc(connector.ctx, connector.loader, key, value)
			if err != nil {
				connector.logger.Err(err).Msg("")
			}
		}(msg.Key, msg.Value)
	}
	return nil
}

Deploy the consumer application

To achieve maximum parallelism, SOCAR containerizes the consumer application and deploys it into multiple pods on Amazon EKS. Each consumer application contains a unique consumer, loader, and handler. For example, if you need to receive messages from a single topic with five partitions, you can deploy five identical consumer applications, each running in its own pod. Similarly, if you have two topics with three partitions each, you should deploy two consumer applications, resulting in a total of six pods. It’s a best practice to run one consumer application per topic, and the number of pods should match the number of partitions to enable concurrent message processing. The pod number can be specified in the Kubernetes deployment configuration

There are two stages in the Dockerfile. The first stage is the builder, which installs build tools and dependencies, and builds the application. The second stage is the runner, which uses a smaller base image (Alpine) and copies only the necessary files from the builder stage. It also sets the appropriate user permissions and runs the application. It’s also worth noting that the builder stage uses a specific version of the Golang image, while the runner stage uses a specific version of the Alpine image, both of which are considered to be lightweight and secure images.

The following code is an example of the Dockerfile:

# builder
FROM golang:1.18.2-alpine3.16 AS builder
RUN apk add build-base
WORKDIR /usr/src/app
COPY go.mod go.sum ./
RUN go mod download
COPY . .
RUN go build -o connector .

# runner
FROM alpine:3.16.0 AS runner
WORKDIR /usr/bin/app
RUN apk add --no-cache tzdata
RUN addgroup --system app && adduser --system --shell /bin/false --ingroup app app
COPY --from=builder /usr/src/app/connector .
RUN chown -R app:app /usr/bin/app
USER app
ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/bin/app/connector"]

Conclusion

In this post, we discussed SOCAR’s approach to building a consumer application that enables IoT real-time streaming from Amazon MSK to target locations such as ElastiCache for Redis. We hope you found this post informative and useful. Thank you for reading!


About the Authors

SangSu Park is the Head of Operation Group at SOCAR. His passion is to keep learning, embrace challenges, and strive for mutual growth through communication. He loves to travel in search of new cities and places.

jaehongJaeHong Ahn is a DevOps Engineer in SOCAR’s cloud infrastructure team. He is dedicated to promoting collaboration between developers and operators. He enjoys creating DevOps tools and is committed to using his coding abilities to help build a better world. He loves to cook delicious meals as a private chef for his wife.

bdb-2857-youngguYounggu Yun works at AWS Data Lab in Korea. His role involves helping customers across the APAC region meet their business objectives and overcome technical challenges by providing prescriptive architectural guidance, sharing best practices, and building innovative solutions together.

Processing geospatial IoT data with AWS IoT Core and the Amazon Location Service

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/processing-geospatial-iot-data-with-aws-iot-core-and-the-amazon-location-service/

This post is written by Swarna Kunnath (Cloud Application Architect), and Anand Komandooru (Sr. Cloud Application Architect).

This blog post shows how to republish messages that arrive from Internet of Things (IoT) devices across AWS accounts using a replatforming approach. A replatforming approach minimizes changes to the core application architecture, allowing an organization to reduce risk and meet business needs more quickly. In this post, you also learn how to track an IoT device’s location using the Amazon Location Service.

The example used in this post relates to an aviation company that has airplanes with line replacement unit devices or transponders. Transponders are IoT devices that send airplane geospatial data (location and altitude) to the AWS IoT Core service. The company’s airplane transponders send location data to the AWS IoT Core service provisioned in an existing AWS account (source account). The solution required manual intervention to track airplane location sent by the transponders.

They must rearchitect their application due to an internal reorganization event. As part of the rearchitecture approach, the business decides to enhance the application to process the transponder messages in another AWS account (destination account). In addition, the business needs full automation of the airplane’s location tracking process, to minimize the risk of the application changes, and to deliver the changes quickly.

Solution overview

The high-level solution republishes the IoT messages from the source account to the destination account using AWS IoT Core, Amazon SQS, AWS Lambda, and integrates the application with Amazon Location Service. IoT messages are replicated to an IoT topic in the destination account for downstream processing, minimizing changes to the original application architecture. Integration with Amazon Location Service automates the process of device location tracking and alert generation.

The AWS IoT platform allows you to connect your internet-enabled devices to the AWS Cloud via MQTT, HTTP, or WebSocket protocol. Once connected, the devices send data to the MQTT topics. Data ingested on MQTT topics is routed into AWS services (Amazon S3, SQS, Amazon DynamoDB, and Lambda) by configuring rules in the AWS IoT Rules Engine. The AWS IoT Rules Engine offers ways to define queries to format and filter messages published by these devices, and supports integration with several other AWS services as targets.

The Amazon Location Service lets you add geospatial data including capabilities such as maps, points of interest, geocoding, routing, geofences, and tracking. The tracker with geofence tracks the location of the device based on the geospatial data in the published IoT messages. Amazon Location Service generates enter and exit events and integrates with Amazon EventBridge and Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) to generate alerts based on defined filters in EventBridge rules.

The solution in this post delivers high availability, scalability, and cost efficiency by using serverless and managed services. The serverless services used by this solution also provide automatic scaling and built-in high availability. Integrating Amazon Location Service with AWS IoT and EventBridge helps to automate the auditing and processing of geospatial messages.

Solution architecture

These steps describe an end-to-end sequence of events:

  1. An IoT device (a transponder in an airplane) publishes a message to the AWS IoT Core service in the source account.
  2. The message arrives at an AWS IoT Core topic in the source account.
  3. AWS IoT Rules Engine receives the message and processes it, using IoT rules attached to the corresponding topic in the source account.
  4. An AWS IoT rule replicates the message to an SQS queue in the destination account.
  5. A Lambda function in the destination account polls the SQS queue and publishes received messages in batches to the destination account IoT topic.
  6. The Location action configured to the IoT rule sends the messages to Amazon Location Service tracker from the IoT topic.
  7. An Amazon Location tracker sends events when an IoT device enters or exits a linked geofence.
  8. EventBridge receives these events and, via the configured event rule, sends out SNS notifications for the configured devices.

Pre-requisites

This example has the following prerequisites:

  1. Access to the AWS services mentioned in this blog post within two AWS Accounts.
  2. A local install of AWS SAM CLI to build and deploy the sample code.

Solution walkthrough

To deploy this solution, first deploy IoT components via the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM), in the source and destination accounts. After, configure Amazon Location Service resources in the destination account. To learn more, visit the AWS SAM deployment documentation.

Deploying the code

Deploy the following AWS SAM templates in order:

To build and deploy the code, run:

sam build --template <TemplateName>.yaml
sam deploy --guided

Configuring a tracker

Amazon Location Trackers send device location updates that provide data to retrieve current and historical locations for devices.

Using Amazon Location Trackers and Amazon Location Geofences together, you can automatically evaluate the location updates from your IoT devices against your geofences to generate the geofence events. Actions could be taken to generate the alerts based on the areas of interest.

  1. Follow the instructions in the documentation to create the tracker resource from the AWS Management Console. Use this information for the new tracker:
    • Name: Enter a unique name that has a maximum of 100 characters. For example, FlightTracker.
    • Description: Enter an optional description. For example, Tracker for storing device positions.
  2. Configure a Location action to the destination IoT rule that receives messages from the destination IoT topic and publishes them in batches to the configured Tracker device (for example, FlightTracker). The parameters in the JSON data that is returned to the Location action can also be configured via substitution templates.

Geofence collection

Geofences contain points and vertices that form a closed boundary, which defines an area of interest. For example, flight origin and destination details. You can use tools, such as GeoJSON.io, to draw geofences and save the output as a GeoJSON file. Follow the instructions in the documentation to create the GeoJSON file and link it to the geofence collection.

  1. Create the geofence collection with a GeoJSON file and link it to the tracker you just created.
  2. Link the tracker to the geofence by following these instructions and start tracking the device’s location updates. You can link them together so that you automatically evaluate location updates against all your geofences. You can evaluate device positions against geofences on demand as well.

When device positions are evaluated against geofences, they generate events. For example, when a plane enters or exits a location specified in the geofence.

You can configure EventBridge with rules to react to these events. You can set up SNS to notify your clients when a specific tracker device location changes. Follow the instructions in the documentation on how to set up EventBridge rules to integrate with Amazon Location Service events.

Testing the solution

You can test the first part of the solution by sending an IoT message with location details in the JSON format from the source account and verify that the message arrives at the destination account SQS queue. Detailed instructions to publish a test message from the source account that includes location information (latitude and longitude) can be found here.

Messages from the destination account SQS queue are published to the Amazon Location Service Tracker. When the location in the test message matches the criteria provided in the geofence, Amazon Location Service generates an event. EventBridge has a rule configured that gets matched when an Amazon Location tracker event arrives, and the rule target is an SNS topic that sends an email or text message to the client.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring future charges, delete the CloudFormation stacks, location tracker, and geofence collection created as part of the solution walk-through. Replace the resource identifiers in the following commands with the ID/name of the resources.

  1. Delete the SAM application stack:
    aws cloudformation delete-stack --stack-name <StackName>
    

    Refer to this documentation for further information.

  2. Delete the location tracker:
    aws location delete-tracker --tracker-name <TrackerName>
  3. Delete the geofence collection:
    aws location delete-geofence-collection --collection-name <GeoCollectionName>

Conclusion

This blog post shows how to create a serverless solution for cross account IoT message publishing and tracking device location updates using Amazon Location Service.

It describes the process of how to publish AWS IoT messages across multiple accounts. Integration with the Amazon Location Service shows how to track IoT device location updates and generate alerts, alleviating the need for manual device location tracking.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

AWS Week in Review – November 7, 2022

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-november-7-2022/

With three weeks to go until AWS re:Invent opens in Las Vegas, the AWS News Blog Team is hard at work creating blog posts to share the latest launches and previews with you. As usual, we have a strong mix of new services, new features, and a surprise or two.

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that caught my eye last week:

Amazon SNS Data Protection and Masking – After a quick public preview, this cool feature is now generally available. It uses pattern matching, machine learning models, and content policies to help protect data at scale. You can find many different kinds of personally identifiable information (PII) and protected health information (PHI) in message bodies and either block message delivery or mask (de-identify) the sensitive data, all in real-time and on a per-topic basis. To learn more, read the blog post or the message data protection documentation.

Amazon Textract Updates – This service extracts text, handwriting, and data from any document or image. This past week we updated the AnalyzeID function so that it can now extract the machine readable zone (MRZ) on passports issued by the United States, and we added the entire OCR output to the API response. We also updated the machine learning models that power the AnalyzeDocument function, with a focus on single-character boxed forms commonly found on tax and immigration documents. Finally, we updated the AnalyzeExpense function with support for new fields and higher accuracy for existing fields, bringing the total field count to more than 40.

Another Amazon Braket Processor – Our quantum computing service now supports Aquila, a new 256-qubit quantum computer from QuEra that is based on a programmable array of neutral Rubidium atoms. According to the What’s New, Aquila supports the Analog Hamiltonian Simulation (AHS) paradigm, allowing it to solve for the static and dynamic properties of quantum systems composed of many interacting particles.

Amazon S3 on Outposts – This service now lets you use additional S3 Lifecycle rules to optimize capacity management. You can expire objects as they age or are replaced with newer versions, with control at the bucket level, or for subsets defined by prefixes, object tags, or object sizes. There’s more info in the What’s New and in the S3 documentation.

AWS CloudFormation – There were two big updates last week: support for Amazon RDS Multi-AZ deployments with two readable standbys, and better access to detailed information on failed stack instances for operations on CloudFormation StackSets.

Amazon MemoryDB for Redis – You can now use data tiering as a lower cost way to to scale your clusters up to hundreds of terabytes of capacity. This new option uses a combination of instance memory and SSD storage in each cluster node, with all data stored durably in a multi-AZ transaction log. There’s more information in the What’s New and the blog post.

Amazon EC2 – You can now remove launch permissions for Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) that are directly shared with your AWS account.

X in Y – We launched existing AWS services and instance types in additional Regions:

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Here are some additional news items that you may find interesting:

AWS Open Source News and Updates – My colleague Ricardo Sueiras highlights new open source projects, tools, and demos from the AWS Community. Read Installment 134 to see what’s going on!

New Case Study – A new AWS case study describes how Taggle (a company focused on smart water solutions in Australia) created an IoT platform that runs on AWS and uses Amazon Kinesis Data Streams to store & ingest data in real time. Using AWS allowed them to scale to accommodate 80,000 additional sensors that will roll out in 2022.

Upcoming AWS Events
re:Invent 2022AWS re:Invent is just three weeks away! Join us live from November 28th to December 2nd for keynotes, training and certification opportunities, and over 1,500 technical sessions. If you cannot make it to Las Vegas you can also join us online to watch the keynotes and leadership sessions live. Be sure to check out the re:Invent 2022 Attendee Guides, each curated by an AWS Hero, AWS industry team, or AWS partner.

PeerTalk – If you will be attending re:Invent in person and are interested in meeting with me or any of our featured experts, be sure to check out PeerTalk, our new onsite networking program.

That’s all for this week!

Jeff;

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS.

Digital License Plates

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2022/10/digital-license-plates.html

California just legalized digital license plates, which seems like a solution without a problem.

The Rplate can reportedly function in extreme temperatures, has some customization features, and is managed via Bluetooth using a smartphone app. Rplates are also equipped with an LTE antenna, which can be used to push updates, change the plate if the vehicle is reported stolen or lost, and notify vehicle owners if their car may have been stolen.

Perhaps most importantly to the average car owner, Reviver said Rplate owners can renew their registration online through the Reviver mobile app.

That’s it?

Right now, an Rplate for a personal vehicle (the battery version) runs to $19.95 a month for 48 months, which will total $975.60 if kept for the full term. If opting to pay a year at a time, the price is $215.40 a year for the same four-year period, totaling $861.60. Wired plates for commercial vehicles run $24.95 for 48 months, and $275.40 if paid yearly.

That’s a lot to pay for the luxury of not having to find an envelope and stamp.

Plus, the privacy risks:

Privacy risks are an obvious concern when thinking about strapping an always-connected digital device to a car, but the California law has taken steps that may address some of those concerns.

“The bill would generally prohibit an alternative device [i.e. digital plate] from being equipped with GPS or other vehicle location tracking capability,” California’s legislative digest said of the new law. Commercial fleets are exempt from the rule, unsurprisingly.

More important are the security risks. Do we think for a minute that your digital license plate is secure from denial-of-service attacks, or number swapping attacks, or whatever new attacks will be dreamt up? Seems like a piece of stamped metal is the most secure option.

AWS IoT FleetWise Now Generally Available – Easily Collect Vehicle Data and Send to the Cloud

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-iot-fleetwise-now-generally-available-easily-collect-vehicle-data-and-send-to-the-cloud/

Today we announce the general availability of AWS IoT FleetWise, a fully managed AWS service that makes it easier to collect, transform, and transfer vehicle data to the cloud. Last AWS re:Invent 2021, we previewed AWS IoT FleetWise, heard customer feedback, and improved features for various use cases of near-real-time vehicle data processing.

With AWS IoT FleetWise, automakers, fleet operators, and automotive suppliers can take the complex variability out of collecting data from vehicle fleets at scale. You can access standardized fleet-wide vehicle data and avoid developing custom data collection systems, or you can integrate AWS IoT FleetWise to enhance your existing systems. AWS IoT FleetWise enables intelligent data collection that sends the exact data you need from the vehicle to the cloud. You can use the data to analyze vehicle fleet health to more quickly identify potential maintenance issues or make in-vehicle infotainment systems smarter. Furthermore, you can use it to train machine learning (ML) models that improve autonomous driving and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS).

For example, electric vehicle (EV) battery temperature is a critical metric that should be continuously analyzed for the entire vehicle fleet. In order to avoid costly continuous data ingestion, you may want to optimize the data collection by setting a threshold on EV battery temperature. The results of this analysis would be provided to the automaker’s quality engineering department, enabling fast assessment of the criticality and possible root causes of any issues identified at certain temperatures. Based on the root cause analysis, the automaker can then take short-term actions to support the driver affected by the issue, as well as midterm actions to improve vehicle quality.

How AWS IoT FleetWise Works
AWS IoT FleetWise provides a vehicle modeling framework that you can use to model your vehicle and its sensors and actuators in the cloud. To enable secure communication between your vehicle and the cloud, AWS IoT FleetWise also provides the AWS IoT FleetWise Edge Agent application that you can use to download and install in-vehicle electronic control units (ECUs) such as the gateway, in-vehicle infotainment controller, etc. You define data collection schemes in the cloud and deploy them to your vehicle.

The AWS IoT FleetWise Edge Agent running in your vehicle uses data collection schemes to control what data to collect and when to transfer it to the cloud. Data collected and ingested through AWS IoT FleetWise Edge Agent software goes directly into your Amazon Timestream table or Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) repositories via AWS IoT Core.

AWS IoT FleetWise Features
To get started with AWS IoT FleetWise, you can register your account and configure the settings via the AWS console. AWS IoT FleetWise automatically registers your AWS account, IAM role, and Amazon Timestream resources.

The Edge Agent software is a C++ application distributed as source code and is available on GitHub to collect, decode, normalize, cache, and ingest vehicle data to AWS. It supports multiple deployment options, such as vehicle gateways, infotainment systems, telematics control units (TCUs), or aftermarket devices. When vehicles are connected to the cloud, the Edge Agent continually receives data collection schemes and collects, decodes, normalizes and ingests the transformed vehicle data to AWS.

Let’s see the benefits and features of AWS IoT FleetWise:

Signal catalog
A signal catalog contains a collection of vehicle signals. Signals are fundamental structures that you define to contain vehicle data and its metadata. A signal can be a sensor and its status, an attribute as static information of the manufacturer, a branch to represent a nested structure such as Vehicle.Powertrain.combustionEngine expression, or an actuator such as the state of a vehicle device. For example, you can create a sensor to receive in-vehicle temperature values and store its metadata, including a sensor name, a data type, and a unit.

Signals in a signal catalog can be used to model vehicles that use different protocols and data formats. For example, there are two cars made by different automakers: one uses the Controller Area Network (CAN) to transmit the in-vehicle temperature data and the other uses On-board Diagnostic (OBD) protocol.

You can define a sensor in the signal catalog to receive in-vehicle temperature values. This sensor can be used to represent the thermocouples in both cars, irrespective of how this temperature data is available within the vehicle networks. For more information, see Create and manage signal catalogs in the AWS documentation.

Vehicle models
Vehicle models are virtual declarative representations that standardize the format of your vehicles and define relationships between signals in the vehicles. Vehicle models enforce consistent information across multiple vehicles of the same type so that you can quickly configure and create a vehicle fleet. In each vehicle model, you can add signals, including attributes, branches (signal hierarchies), sensors, and actuators.

You can define condition-based schemes to control what data to collect, such as data in-vehicle temperature values that are greater than 40 degrees. You can also define time-based schemes to control how often to collect data. For more information, see Create and manage vehicle models in the AWS documentation.

When a decoder manifest is associated with a vehicle model, you can create a vehicle. Each vehicle corresponds to an AWS IoT thing. You can use an existing AWS IoT thing to create a vehicle or set AWS IoT FleetWise to automatically create an AWS IoT thing for your vehicle. For more information, see Provision vehicles in the AWS documentation. After you create vehicles, you can create campaigns for them.

Campaigns
A campaign gives the AWS IoT FleetWise Edge Agent instructions on how to select, collect, and transfer data to the cloud. You can make a campaign with vehicle attributes that you added when creating vehicles, and a data collection scheme. You can manually define the data collection scheme either condition-based logical expressions such as $variable.myVehicle.InVehicleTemperature > 40.0, or time-based data collection in milliseconds such as from 10000 – 60000 milliseconds. To learn more, see Create a campaign in the AWS documentation.

After you create and approve the campaign, AWS IoT FleetWise automatically deploys the campaign to the listed vehicles. The AWS IoT FleetWise Edge Agent software doesn’t start collecting data until a running campaign is deployed to the vehicle. If you want to pause collecting data from vehicles connected to the campaign, on the Campaign summary page, choose Suspend. To resume collecting data from vehicles connected to the campaign, choose Resume.

Demo – Visualizing Vehicle Data
Here is a demo that aims to show how AWS IoT FleetWise can make it easy to collect vehicle data and use it to build visualizing applications. In this demo, you can simulate two kinds of vehicles, an NXP GoldBox powered by an Automotive Grade Linux distribution that runs the AWS IoT FleetWise agent as an AWS IoT Greengrass component or a completely virtual vehicle implemented as an AWS Graviton ARM-based Amazon EC2 instance. To learn more, see the getting started guide and source code in the GitHub repository.

The vehicle in CARLA Simulator can self-drive or be driven with a game steering wheel connected to your desktop. You can watch a live demo video.

Data is collected by AWS IoT FleetWise and stored in the Amazon Timestream table, and visualized on a Grafana Dashboard.

Customer and Partner Voices
During the preview period, we heard lots of feedback from our customers and partners in automotive industry such as automakers, fleet operators, and automotive suppliers.

For example, Hyundai Motor Group (HMG) is a global vehicle manufacturer that offers consumers a technology-rich lineup of cars, sport utility vehicles, and electrified vehicles. HMG has used AWS services, such as using Amazon SageMaker, to reduce its ML model training time for autonomous driving models.

Hae Young Kwon, vice president and head of the infotainment development group at HMG, said:

“As a leading global vehicle manufacturer, we have come to appreciate the breadth and depth of AWS services to help create new connected vehicle capabilities. With more data available from our expanding global fleet of connected cars, we look forward to leveraging AWS IoT FleetWise to discover how we can build more personalized ownership experiences for our customers.”

LG CNS is a global IT service provider and AWS Premier Consulting Partner that is transforming smart transportation services by building an advanced transportation system that is convenient and safe by maximizing the operational efficiency of multiple modes of transport, including buses, subways, taxis, railways, and airplanes.

Jae Seung Lee, vice president at LG CNS, said:

“At LG CNS, we are committed to advancing the technology that is powering the future of transportation. By using AWS IoT FleetWise, we are creating a new data platform that allows us to ingest, analyze, and simulate vehicle conditions in real-time. With these advanced insights, our customers can gain a better understanding of their vehicles and, as a result, improve decision-making about their fleets.”

Bridgestone is a global leader in tires and rubber building on its expertise to provide solutions for safe and sustainable mobility. Bridgestone has worked with AWS for several years to develop a system that delivers insights derived from the interaction between a tire and a vehicle using advanced machine learning capabilities on Amazon SageMaker.

Brian Goldstine, president of mobility solutions and fleet management at Bridgestone Americas Inc. said:

“Bridgestone has been working with AWS to transform the digital services we provide to our automotive manufacturer, fleet, and retail customers. We look forward to exploring how AWS IoT FleetWise will make it easier for our customers to collect detailed tire data, which can provide new insights for their products and applications.”

Renesas Electronics Corporation is a global leader in microcontrollers, analog, power, and system on chips (SoC) products. Renesas launched cellular-to-cloud IoT development platforms and its cloud development kits to run on AWS IoT Core and FreeRTOS.

Yusuke Kawasaki, director at Renesas Electronics Corporation, said:

“The volume of connected vehicle data is forecast to increase dramatically over the next few years, driven by new and evolving customer expectations. As a result, Renesas is focused on addressing the needs of automotive engineers facing increasing system complexity. Incorporating AWS IoT FleetWise into our vehicle gateway solution will enable our customers to enjoy our market-ready approach for large-scale data collection and accelerate their cloud development strategy. We look forward to further collaborating with AWS to provide a better and simpler development environment for our customers.”

By working with AWS IoT FleetWise Partners, you can take advantage of solutions to streamline your IoT projects, reduce the risk of your efforts, and accelerate time to value. To learn more how AWS accelerates the automotive industry’s digital transformation, see AWS for Automotive.

Now Available
AWS IoT FleetWise is now generally available in the US East (N. Virginia) and Europe (Frankfurt) Regions. You pay for the vehicles you have created and messages per vehicle per month. Additional services used alongside AWS IoT FleetWise, such as AWS IoT Core and Amazon Timestream, are billed separately. For more detail, see the AWS IoT FleetWise pricing page.

To learn more, see the AWS IoT FleetWise resources page including documentations, videos, and blog posts. Please send feedback to AWS re:Post for AWS IoT FleetWise or through your usual AWS support contacts.

Channy

New Report on IoT Security

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2022/09/new-report-on-iot-security.html

The Atlantic Council has published a report on securing the Internet of Things: “Security in the Billions: Toward a Multinational Strategy to Better Secure the IoT Ecosystem.” The report examines the regulatory approaches taken by four countries—the US, the UK, Australia, and Singapore—to secure home, medical, and networking/telecommunications devices. The report recommends that regulators should 1) enforce minimum security standards for manufacturers of IoT devices, 2) incentivize higher levels of security through public contracting, and 3) try to align IoT standards internationally (for example, international guidance on handling connected devices that stop receiving security updates).

This report looks to existing security initiatives as much as possible—both to leverage existing work and to avoid counterproductively suggesting an entirely new approach to IoT security—while recommending changes and introducing more cohesion and coordination to regulatory approaches to IoT cybersecurity. It walks through the current state of risk in the ecosystem, analyzes challenges with the current policy model, and describes a synthesized IoT security framework. The report then lays out nine recommendations for government and industry actors to enhance IoT security, broken into three recommendation sets: setting a baseline of minimally acceptable security (or “Tier 1”), incentivizing above the baseline (or “Tier 2” and above), and pursuing international alignment on standards and implementation across the entire IoT product lifecycle (from design to sunsetting). It also includes implementation guidance for the United States, Australia, UK, and Singapore, providing a clearer roadmap for countries to operationalize the recommendations in their specific jurisdictions—and push towards a stronger, more cohesive multinational approach to securing the IoT worldwide.

Note: One of the authors of this report was a student of mine at Harvard Kennedy School, and did this work with the Atlantic Council under my supervision.

Let’s Architect! Architecting for the edge

Post Syndicated from Luca Mezzalira original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/lets-architect-architecting-for-the-edge/

Edge computing comprises elements of geography and networking and brings computing closer to the end users of the application.

For example, using a content delivery network (CDN) such as AWS CloudFront can help video streaming providers reduce latency for distributing their material by taking advantage of caching at the edge. Another example might look like an Internet of Things (IoT) solution that helps a company run business logic in remote areas or with low latency.

IoT is a challenging field because there are multiple aspects to consider as architects, like hardware, protocols, networking, and software. All of these aspects must be designed to interact together and be fault tolerant.

In this edition of Let’s Architect!, we share resources that are helpful for teams that are approaching or expanding their workloads for edge computing We cover macro topics such as security, best practices for IoT, patterns for machine learning (ML), and scenarios with strict latency requirements.

Build Machine Learning at the edge applications

In Let’s Architect! Architecting for Machine Learning, we touched on some of the most relevant aspects to consider while putting ML into production. However, in many scenarios, you may also have specific constraints like latency or a lack of connectivity that require you to design a deployment at the edge.

This blog post considers a solution based on ML applied to agriculture, where a reliable connection to the Internet is not always available. You can learn from this scenario, which includes information from model training to deployment, to design your ML workflows for the edge. The solution uses Amazon SageMaker in the cloud to explore, train, package, and deploy the model to AWS IoT Greengrass, which is used for inference at the edge.

 High-level architecture of the components that reside on the farm and how they interact with the cloud environment

High-level architecture of the components that reside on the farm and how they interact with the cloud environment

Security at the edge

Security is one of the fundamental pillars described in the AWS Well-Architected Framework. In all organizations, security is a major concern both for the business and the technical stakeholders. It impacts the products they are building and the perception that customers have.

We covered security in Let’s Architect! Architecting for Security, but we didn’t focus specifically on edge technologies. This whitepaper shows approaches for implementing a security strategy at the edge, with a focus on describing how AWS services can be used. You can learn how to secure workloads designed for content delivery, as well as how to implement network protection to defend against DDoS attacks and protect your IoT solutions.

The AWS Well-Architected Tool is designed to help you review the state of your applications and workloads. It provides a central place for architectural best practices and guidance

The AWS Well-Architected Tool is designed to help you review the state of your applications and workloads. It provides a central place for architectural best practices and guidance

AWS Outposts High Availability Design and Architecture Considerations

AWS Outposts allows companies to run some AWS services on-premises, which may be crucial to comply with strict data residency or low latency requirements. With Outposts, you can deploy servers and racks from AWS directly into your data center.

This whitepaper introduces architectural patterns, anti-patterns, and recommended practices for building highly available systems based on Outposts. You will learn how to manage your Outposts capacity and use networking and data center facility services to set up highly available solutions. Moreover, you can learn from mental models that AWS engineers adopted to consider the different failure modes and the corresponding mitigations, and apply the same models to your architectural challenges.

An Outpost deployed in a customer data center and connected back to its anchor Availability Zone and parent Region

An Outpost deployed in a customer data center and connected back to its anchor Availability Zone and parent Region

AWS IoT Lens

The AWS Well-Architected Lenses are designed for specific industry or technology scenarios. When approaching the IoT domain, the AWS IoT Lens is a key resource to learn the best practices to adopt for IoT. This whitepaper breaks down the IoT workloads into the different subdomains (for example, communication, ingestion) and maps the AWS services for IoT with each specific challenge in the corresponding subdomain.

As architects and developers, we tend to automate and reduce the risk of human errors, so the IoT Lens Checklist is a great resource to review your workloads by following a structured approach.

Workload context checklist from the IoT Lens Checklist

Workload context checklist from the IoT Lens Checklist

See you next time!

Thanks for joining our discussion on architecting for the edge! See you in two weeks when we talk about database architectures on AWS.

Other posts in this series

Looking for more architecture content?

AWS Architecture Center provides reference architecture diagrams, vetted architecture solutions, Well-Architected best practices, patterns, icons, and more!

How Grillo Built a Low-Cost Earthquake Early Warning System on AWS

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/how-grillo-built-a-low-cost-earthquake-early-warning-system-on-aws/

It is estimated that 50 percent of the injuries caused when a high magnitude earthquake affects an area are because of falls or falling hazards. This means that most of these injuries could have been prevented if the population had a few seconds of warning to take cover. Grillo, a social impact enterprise focused on seismology, created a low-cost solution using AWS that senses earthquakes and alerts the population in real time about the dangers in the area.

Earthquakes can happen at any time, and there are two actions cities can take to mitigate the damages. First is structural refitting, that is, building structures that can resist earthquakes. This solution doesn’t apply to many areas because they require big investments. The second solution is to send an alert to the affected population before the shaking reaches them. Ten to sixty seconds can be enough time for people to take action by getting out of a building, taking cover, or turning off a dangerous machine.

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems provide rapid detection of earthquakes and alert people at risk. However, because of the hardware, infrastructure, and technology involved, traditional EEW systems can cost hundreds of millions of US dollars to deploy—a cost too high for most countries.

Andrés Meira was living in Haiti during the 2010 earthquake that claimed over 100,000 human lives and left many people homeless and injured. It is estimated that the earthquake affected three million people. He later moved to Mexico, where in 2017, he experienced another high-magnitude earthquake. As a result, Andrés founded Grillo to develop an accessible EEW system, and its solution has been operating successfully in Mexico since 2017.

Grillo developed a low-cost EEW system using sensors and cloud computing. This system uses off-the-shelf sensors that are placed in buildings near seismically active zones. Grillo sensors cost approximately $300 USD, compared to the traditional seismometers that cost around $10,000 USD. Because of these inexpensive sensors, Grillo can offer a higher density of sensors, which reduces the time needed to issue an alert and gives people more time for action. This benefits the population because higher density increases the accuracy of the location detection, reduces false positives, and reduces times to alert.

How sensors are placed

How Grillo sensors are placed

Grillo’s sensors transmit data to the cloud as the shaking is happening. The cloud platform Grillo built on AWS uses machine learning models that can determine and alert in almost real time, with an average latency of 2 to 3 seconds if an earthquake is happening, depending on the data sent by the different sensors. When the cloud platform detects earthquake risk, it sends alerts to nearby populations via a native phone application, IoT loudspeakers placed in populated areas, or by SMS.

Grillo data flow

How data flows from the shaking to the end users

OpenEEW
In addition, Grillo founded the OpenEEW initiative to enable EEW systems for millions of people who live in areas with earthquake risks. This features the sensor hardware schematics, firmware, dashboard, and other elements of the system as open source, with a permissive license for anyone to use freely.

In this initiative, they also share on the Registry of Open Data on AWS all the data produced from the sensors deployed in Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico, and Costa Rica for different organizations to learn from it and also to train machine learning models.

Low cost sensor

Low-cost sensor

Grillo in Haiti
Haiti ranks among the countries with the highest seismic risk in the world. Large magnitude earthquakes hit Haiti in 2020 and 2021. Currently, Grillo is working to establish their low-cost EEW system in southern Haiti, where most of the large seismic events in the past decade have occurred. This area is home to over three million people.

Over the course of 2021, Grillo installed over 100 sensors in Puerto Rico. And during 2022, they have focused on deploying sensors in the nationwide cell tower network of Haiti. Also during this year, they will calibrate the machine learning models with data from the new sensors in order to correctly predict when there is earthquake risk. Finally, they will develop an SMS alert system with Digicel, a local telecommunication company. Grillo plans to complete the deployment of the south Haiti EEW system by the end of 2022.

School in southern Haiti where alarm systems are placed

School in southern Haiti where alarm systems are placed

Learn more
Grillo partnered with the AWS Disaster Response team to achieve their goals. AWS helped Grillo to migrate their initial system to AWS and provided expert technical assistance on how to use Amazon SageMaker and AWS IoT services. AWS also provided credits to run the system and financial help to build the sensors.

Check the AWS Disaster Response page to learn more about the projects they are currently working on. And visit the Grillo home page to learn more about their EEW system.

Marcia

AWS Week in Review – August 1, 2022

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-august-1-2022/

AWS re:Inforce returned to Boston last week, kicking off with a keynote from Amazon Chief Security Officer Steve Schmidt and AWS Chief Information Security officer C.J. Moses:

Be sure to take some time to watch this video and the other leadership sessions, and to use what you learn to take some proactive steps to improve your security posture.

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that caught my eye last week:

AWS Wickr uses 256-bit end-to-end encryption to deliver secure messaging, voice, and video calling, including file sharing and screen sharing, across desktop and mobile devices. Each call, message, and file is encrypted with a new random key and can be decrypted only by the intended recipient. AWS Wickr supports logging to a secure, customer-controlled data store for compliance and auditing, and offers full administrative control over data: permissions, ephemeral messaging options, and security groups. You can now sign up for the preview.

AWS Marketplace Vendor Insights helps AWS Marketplace sellers to make security and compliance data available through AWS Marketplace in the form of a unified, web-based dashboard. Designed to support governance, risk, and compliance teams, the dashboard also provides evidence that is backed by AWS Config and AWS Audit Manager assessments, external audit reports, and self-assessments from software vendors. To learn more, read the What’s New post.

GuardDuty Malware Protection protects Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes from malware. As Danilo describes in his blog post, a malware scan is initiated when Amazon GuardDuty detects that a workload running on an EC2 instance or in a container appears to be doing something suspicious. The new malware protection feature creates snapshots of the attached EBS volumes, restores them within a service account, and performs an in-depth scan for malware. The scanner supports many types of file systems and file formats and generates actionable security findings when malware is detected.

Amazon Neptune Global Database lets you build graph applications that run across multiple AWS Regions using a single graph database. You can deploy a primary Neptune cluster in one region and replicate its data to up to five secondary read-only database clusters, with up to 16 read replicas each. Clusters can recover in minutes in the result of an (unlikely) regional outage, with a Recovery Point Objective (RPO) of 1 second and a Recovery Time Objective (RTO) of 1 minute. To learn a lot more and see this new feature in action, read Introducing Amazon Neptune Global Database.

Amazon Detective now Supports Kubernetes Workloads, with the ability to scale to thousands of container deployments and millions of configuration changes per second. It ingests EKS audit logs to capture API activity from users, applications, and the EKS control plane, and correlates user activity with information gleaned from Amazon VPC flow logs. As Channy notes in his blog post, you can enable Amazon Detective and take advantage of a free 30 day trial of the EKS capabilities.

AWS SSO is Now AWS IAM Identity Center in order to better represent the full set of workforce and account management capabilities that are part of IAM. You can create user identities directly in IAM Identity Center, or you can connect your existing Active Directory or standards-based identify provider. To learn more, read this post from the AWS Security Blog.

AWS Config Conformance Packs now provide you with percentage-based scores that will help you track resource compliance within the scope of the resources addressed by the pack. Scores are computed based on the product of the number of resources and the number of rules, and are reported to Amazon CloudWatch so that you can track compliance trends over time. To learn more about how scores are computed, read the What’s New post.

Amazon Macie now lets you perform one-click temporary retrieval of sensitive data that Macie has discovered in an S3 bucket. You can retrieve up to ten examples at a time, and use these findings to accelerate your security investigations. All of the data that is retrieved and displayed in the Macie console is encrypted using customer-managed AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) keys. To learn more, read the What’s New post.

AWS Control Tower was updated multiple times last week. CloudTrail Organization Logging creates an org-wide trail in your management account to automatically log the actions of all member accounts in your organization. Control Tower now reduces redundant AWS Config items by limiting recording of global resources to home regions. To take advantage of this change you need to update to the latest landing zone version and then re-register each Organizational Unit, as detailed in the What’s New post. Lastly, Control Tower’s region deny guardrail now includes AWS API endpoints for AWS Chatbot, Amazon S3 Storage Lens, and Amazon S3 Multi Region Access Points. This allows you to limit access to AWS services and operations for accounts enrolled in your AWS Control Tower environment.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Here are some other news items and customer stories that you may find interesting:

AWS Open Source News and Updates – My colleague Ricardo Sueiras writes a weekly open source newsletter and highlights new open source projects, tools, and demos from the AWS community. Read installment #122 here.

Growy Case Study – This Netherlands-based company is building fully-automated robot-based vertical farms that grow plants to order. Read the case study to learn how they use AWS IoT and other services to monitor and control light, temperature, CO2, and humidity to maximize yield and quality.

Journey of a Snap on Snapchat – This video shows you how a snapshot flows end-to-end from your camera to AWS, to your friends. With over 300 million daily active users, Snap takes advantage of Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS), Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon CloudFront, and many other AWS services, storing over 400 terabytes of data in DynamoDB and managing over 900 EKS clusters.

Cutting Cardboard Waste – Bin packing is almost certainly a part of every computer science curriculum! In the linked article from the Amazon Science site, you can learn how an Amazon Principal Research Scientist developed PackOpt to figure out the optimal set of boxes to use for shipments from Amazon’s global network of fulfillment centers. This is an NP-hard problem and the article describes how they build a parallelized solution that explores a multitude of alternative solutions, all running on AWS.

Upcoming Events
Check your calendar and sign up for these online and in-person AWS events:

AWS SummitAWS Global Summits – AWS Global Summits are free events that bring the cloud computing community together to connect, collaborate, and learn about AWS. Registrations are open for the following AWS Summits in August:

Imagine Conference 2022IMAGINE 2022 – The IMAGINE 2022 conference will take place on August 3 at the Seattle Convention Center, Washington, USA. It’s a no-cost event that brings together education, state, and local leaders to learn about the latest innovations and best practices in the cloud. You can register here.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

Jeff;

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

AWS IoT ExpressLink Now Generally Available – Quickly Develop Devices That Connect Securely to AWS Cloud

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-iot-expresslink-now-generally-available-quickly-develop-devices-that-connect-securely-to-aws-cloud/

At AWS re:Invent 2021, we introduced AWS IoT ExpressLink, software for partner-manufactured connectivity modules that makes it easier and faster for original equipment manufacturers to connect any type of product to the cloud, such as industrial sensors, small and large home appliances, irrigation systems, and medical devices.

Today we announce the general availability of AWS IoT ExpressLink and the related connectivity modules offered by AWS Partners, such as EspressifInfineon, and u-blox. The modules contain built-in cloud-connectivity software implementing AWS-mandated security requirements. Integrating these wireless modules into the hardware design of your device makes it faster and easier to securely connect Internet of Things (IoT) devices to the AWS Cloud and integrate with a range of AWS services.

Connecting devices to the AWS cloud requires developers to add tens of thousands of lines of new code to their processor of devices, which demands specialized skills. Merging this new code with their application code also requires a deep understanding of networking and cryptography to ensure the device is both functional and implementing AWS managed security requirements.

Some devices are too resource-constrained to support cloud connectivity, meaning their processors are too small or slow to handle the additional code. For example, a small piece of equipment, like a pool pump, may contain a tiny processor that is optimized to drive a particular type of motor but does not have the memory space or the performance necessary to handle both the motor and a cloud connection.

Modules with AWS IoT ExpressLink include simple codes required to connect the device to the cloud, thereby reducing the development cycle and accelerating time to market. To take the pool pump from the previous example, you can keep the tiny processor in the equipment, and delegate the heavy lifting of connecting to the cloud to AWS IoT ExpressLink, allowing the manufacturer to make the simple application software, and avoid costly redesign.

Modules with AWS IoT ExpressLink feature best practices for device-to-cloud connectivity and security as manufacturing partners incorporate AWS-mandated security requirements designed to help protect devices from remote attacks and to help achieve a secure connection to the AWS Cloud. These include the following provisioning and security procedures:

  • Cryptographically signed certificate with unique device ID.
  • Cryptographically secured boot based in a hardware root of trust.
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS v1.2 or higher) encryption of wireless network connections.
  • Encryption of all sensitive data stored on the module, both in transit and at rest.
  • Hardware root of trust for secrets storage and application code segregation.
  • Compliance with security regression test suite.
  • Verification of communication interfaces (Command Line Interface, Wi-Fi, BLE, or Cellular) against memory corruption attacks.
  • Support for cryptographically secured AWS IoT over-the-air (OTA) firmware updates to keep the devices up to date with new features and security patches.

AWS IoT ExpressLink natively integrates with AWS IoT services, such as AWS IoT Device Management, to help customers easily monitor and update their device fleets at scale.

How AWS IoT ExpressLink Works
I’ll explain how AWS IoT ExpressLink communicates with AWS partner modules and allows you to simply connect to the cloud.

For example, Infineon’s IFW56810 is a single-band Wi-Fi 4 connectivity module that provides a simple, secure solution for connecting products to AWS IoT cloud services. The IFW56810 module is preprogrammed with a tested secured firmware of AWS IoT ExpressLink implementation and supports an easy-to-use AWS IoT ExpressLink AT command interface for configuration.

To get started, connect the IFW956810 evaluation kit to the PC using either the Type-C connector or Type-A male to Type-C female cable. Run a serial terminal to communicate with the kit over USB by choosing the higher of the two enumerated COM ports on Windows with the following configuration. Once you open the serial terminal after configuring your setting, such as baudrate, type AT in the serial terminal. You should see a response OK.

You can also send AWS IoT ExpressLink commands as simple as CONNECT, SEND, and SUBSCRIBE to start communicating with the cloud. The device will translate these commands, make an MQTT connection, and send messages to AWS IoT Core.

Whether you are using a Wi-Fi or a cellular LTE-M module, you can make the most basic telemetry application that can be expressed in 10 lines of pseudo-code as follows.

int main()
{
    print("AT+CONNECT\n");
    while(1){
        print("AT+SEND data {\"A\"=%d}", getSensorA());
        delays(1);
    }
}

To learn more, visit the AWS IoT ExpressLink programmer’s guide.

Customer Stories
Many of our customers use AWS IoT ExpressLink to offload the complex but undifferentiated work required to securely connect devices to the AWS Cloud, which improves the developer experience by reducing the design effort, and helping them deliver product faster.

Cardinal Peak is a Colorado-based product engineering services company that reduces the risk of outsourcing an engineering project. Cardinal Peak specializes in developing connected products in multiple markets, including audio, video, security, health care and others. With design skills in hardware, electronics, embedded, cloud and end-user software, Cardinal Peak provides end-to-end design services for its clients.

Keegan Landreth, Embedded Software Engineer at Cardinal Peak said:

“AWS IoT ExpressLink allowed me to put together a WiFi-connected product demo sending sensor data to the cloud in a single afternoon! Secure networking for embedded systems has never been this easy. It’s an almost completely transparent interface between my application and AWS, as simple as printing data to a serial port. Being able to do OTA firmware updates through it is a huge value add-on. The best part is that I can reuse the same code to make a cellular version, which is unheard of!”

ēdn makes SmallGarden, cloud-powered indoor smart gardening products to let you easily grow plants providing light, water, nutrients, and heat as necessary at home.

Ryan Woltz, CEO of ēdn, said:

“We were looking for a quick and easy way to enable robust cloud capabilities for our indoor gardening product lines. However, from past experience, we knew that doing so adds significant risk in terms of time, money, and overall go-to-market execution. IoT device connectivity is complex, forcing our team to either outsource the development to a costly third party or allocate internal engineering resources, significantly delaying innovative features that differentiate our offerings in the market. Even a small misstep in the implementation of provisioning, security, or over-the-air functionality can set a product back months.

Now, thanks to u-blox’s hardware module with AWS IoT ExpressLink, we can enable secure and reliable cloud connectivity for our devices within days. This not only allows us to accelerate product development, but it ensures our engineering team remains focused on shipping leading-edge technologies that make nature accessible indoors.”

u-blox is an AWS Partner with a broad portfolio of chips, modules, and services. Harald Kroell, Product Manager at u-blox, said:

“At u-blox, with AWS IoT ExpressLink, we strengthen our Wi-Fi and LTE-M portfolio and bring silicon-to-cloud connectivity to the next level. By bridging our hardware and services with the AWS cloud, we progress on our mission to make businesses wirelessly connected and build solutions to last an IoT lifetime.

With the SARA-R5 and NORA-W2 modules with AWS IoT ExpressLink, customers can connect products with two different wireless technologies to AWS with a single homogeneous interface, which significantly reduces development effort. It also enables new business opportunities by lowering the barrier of connecting devices, which previously would have been too expensive to connect.”

To get started, order SARA-R5 Starter Kit and USB-NORA-W256AWS with its development kit user guide, including modules powered by AWS IoT ExpressLink.

AWS IoT ExpressLink Partners
As in the case of u-blox, two other AWS Partners, Infineon Technologies AG and Espressif Systems, have developed wireless modules that support a range of connectivity options, including Wi-Fi and cellular, and are powered by AWS IoT ExpressLink. All qualified devices in the AWS Partner Device Catalog are available for purchase from AWS Partners.

Infineon Technologies AG specializes in semiconductor solutions the goal of which is to make life easier, safer, and greener. Sivaram Trikutam, Vice President, Wi-Fi Product Line at Infineon Technologies, said:

“We’re excited to be working with AWS on the AIROC™ IFW56810 Cloud Connectivity Manager (CCM) solution supporting AWS IoT ExpressLink. With this plug-and-play solution, developers and engineers no longer need to create complex code or possess a wide range of technical competencies in Wi-Fi, embedded systems, antenna design, and cloud configuration.

Now, they can easily, quickly, and securely connect devices at scale to AWS, so they can focus on creating new revenue streams and getting to market faster. We are excited to work with our partner AWS on new business opportunities that help our customers meet their needs.”

Espressif Systems is a multinational, fabless semiconductor company with a strong focus on providing connectivity solutions to internet-connected devices. Amey Inamdar, Director of Technical Marketing, Espressif Systems, said:

“At Espressif, we continuously strive to provide secure, green, versatile, and cost-effective AIoT solutions with a focus on ease of use for our customers. The AWS IoT ExpressLink program fits well into that philosophy, providing a convenient AWS IoT connectivity.

It enables customers to seamlessly transform their offline product into a cloud-connected product by offloading the complexity to the module with AWS IoT ExpressLink, with reduced development costs and a faster time to market and hence lowering the barrier to entry to build secure connected devices. Espressif is proud to participate in this program with Espressif’s module with AWS IoT ExpressLink to provide secure and affordable AWS IoT connectivity.”

Order and Get Started Now
You can discover a range of Partner-provided modules with AWS IoT ExpressLink in the AWS Partner Device Catalog. Order your evaluation kits with AWS IoT ExpressLink today. The kit will include an application processor or will connect to compatible development platforms such as Arduino.

You can then immediately start sending telemetry data to the cloud through the simple AWS IoT ExpressLink serial interface. You can use sample codes for integrating an AWS IoT ExpressLink module into an application. These examples are intended to demonstrate how to perform the common operations for an IoT device.

To learn more, visit the product page. Please send feedback to AWS re:Post for AWS IoT ExpressLink or through your usual AWS support contacts.

Channy

Running AWS Lambda functions on AWS Outposts using AWS IoT Greengrass

Post Syndicated from Sheila Busser original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/running-aws-lambda-functions-on-aws-outposts-using-aws-iot-greengrass/

This blog post is written by Adam Imeson, Sr. Hybrid Edge Specialist Solution Architect.

Today, AWS customers can deploy serverless applications in AWS Regions using a variety of AWS services. Customers can also use AWS Outposts to deploy fully managed AWS infrastructure at virtually any datacenter, colocation space, or on-premises facility.

AWS Outposts extends the cloud by bringing AWS services to customers’ premises to support their hybrid and edge workloads. This post will describe how to deploy Lambda functions on an Outpost using AWS IoT Greengrass.

Consider a customer who has built an application that runs in an AWS Region and depends on AWS Lambda. This customer has a business need to enter a new geographic market, but the nearest AWS Region is not close enough to meet application latency or data residency requirements. AWS Outposts can help this customer extend AWS infrastructure and services to their desired geographic region. This blog post will explain how a customer can move their Lambda-dependent application to an Outpost.

Overview

In this walkthrough you will create a Lambda function that can run on AWS IoT Greengrass and deploy it on an Outpost. This architecture results in an AWS-native Lambda function running on the Outpost.

Architecture overview - Lambda functions on AWS Outposts

Deploying Lambda functions on Outposts rack

Prerequisites: Building a VPC

To get started, build a VPC in the same Region as your Outpost. You can do this with the create VPC option in the AWS console. The workflow allows you to set up a VPC with public and private subnets, an internet gateway, and NAT gateways as necessary. Do not consume all of the available IP space in the VPC with your subnets in this step, because you will still need to create Outposts subnets after this.

Now, build a subnet on your Outpost. You can do this by selecting your Outpost in the Outposts console and choosing Create Subnet in the drop-down Actions menu in the top right.

Confirm subnet details

Choose the VPC you just created and select a CIDR range for your new subnet that doesn’t overlap with the other subnets that are already in the VPC. Once you’ve created the subnet, you need to create a new subnet route table and associate it with your new subnet. Go into the subnet route tables section of the VPC console and create a new route table. Associate the route table with your new subnet. Add a 0.0.0.0/0 route pointing at your VPC’s internet gateway. This sets the subnet up as a public subnet, which for the purposes of this post will make it easier to access the instance you are about to build for Greengrass Core. Depending on your requirements, it may make more sense to set up a private subnet on your Outpost instead. You can also add a route pointing at your Outpost’s local gateway here. Although you won’t be using the local gateway during this walkthrough, adding a route to the local gateway makes it possible to trigger your Outpost-hosted Lambda function with on-premises traffic.

Create a new route table

Associate the route table with the new subnet

Add a 0.0.0.0/0 route pointing at your VPC’s internet gateway

Setup: Launching an instance to run Greengrass Core

Create a new EC2 instance in your Outpost subnet. As long as your Outpost has capacity for your desired instance type, this operation will proceed the same way as any other EC2 instance launch. You can check your Outpost’s capacity in the Outposts console or in Amazon CloudWatch:

I used a c5.large instance running Amazon Linux 2 with 20 GiB of Amazon EBS storage for this walkthough. You can pick a different instance size or a different operating system in accordance with your application’s needs and the AWS IoT Greengrass documentation. For the purposes of this tutorial, we assign a public IP address to the EC2 instance on creation.

Step 1: Installing the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software

Once your EC2 instance is up and running, you will need to install the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software on the instance. Follow the AWS IoT Greengrass documentation to do this. You will need to do the following:

  1. Ensure that your EC2 instance has appropriate AWS permissions to make AWS API calls. You can do this by attaching an instance profile to the instance, or by providing AWS credentials directly to the instance as environment variables, as in the Greengrass documentation.
  2. Log in to your instance.
  3. Install OpenJDK 11. For Amazon Linux 2, you can use sudo amazon-linux-extras install java-openjdk11 to do this.
  4. Create the default system user and group that runs components on the device, with
    sudo useradd —system —create-home ggc_user
    sudo groupadd —system ggc_group
  5. Edit the /etc/sudoers file with sudo visudosuch that the entry for the root user looks like root ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
  6. Enable cgroups and enable and mount the memory and devices cgroups. In Amazon Linux 2, you can do this with the grubby utility as follows:
    sudo grubby --args="cgroup_enable=memory cgroup_memory=1 systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=0" --update-kernel /boot/vmlinuz-$(uname -r)
  7. Type sudo reboot to reboot your instance with the cgroup boot parameters enabled.
  8. Log back in to your instance once it has rebooted.
  9. Use this command to download the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software to the instance:
    curl -s https://d2s8p88vqu9w66.cloudfront.net/releases/greengrass-nucleus-latest.zip > greengrass-nucleus-latest.zip
  10. Unzip the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software:
    unzip greengrass-nucleus-latest.zip -d GreengrassInstaller && rm greengrass-nucleus-latest.zip
  11. Run the following command to launch the installer. Replace each argument with appropriate values for your particular deployment, particularly the aws-region and thing-name arguments.
    sudo -E java -Droot="/greengrass/v2" -Dlog.store=FILE \
    -jar ./GreengrassInstaller/lib/Greengrass.jar \
    --aws-region region \
    --thing-name MyGreengrassCore \
    --thing-group-name MyGreengrassCoreGroup \
    --thing-policy-name GreengrassV2IoTThingPolicy \
    --tes-role-name GreengrassV2TokenExchangeRole \
    --tes-role-alias-name GreengrassCoreTokenExchangeRoleAlias \
    --component-default-user ggc_user:ggc_group \
    --provision true \
    --setup-system-service true \
    --deploy-dev-tools true
  12. You have now installed the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software on your EC2 instance. If you type sudo systemctl status greengrass.service then you should see output similar to this:

Step 2: Building and deploying a Lambda function

Now build a Lambda function and deploy it to the new Greengrass Core instance. You can find example local Lambda functions in the aws-greengrass-lambda-functions GitHub repository. This example will use the Hello World Python 3 function from that repo.

  1. Create the Lambda function. Go to the Lambda console, choose Create function, and select the Python 3.8 runtime:

  1. Choose Create function at the bottom of the page. Once your new function has been created, copy the code from the Hello World Python 3 example into your function:

  1. Choose Deploy to deploy your new function’s code.
  2. In the top right, choose Actions and select Publish new version. For this particular function, you would need to create a deployment package with the AWS IoT Greengrass SDK for the function to work on the device. I’ve omitted this step for brevity as it is not a main focus of this post. Please reference the Lambda documentation on deployment packages and the Python-specific deployment package docs if you want to pursue this option.

  1. Go to the AWS IoT Greengrass console and choose Components in the left-side pop-in menu.
  2. On the Components page, choose Create component, and then Import Lambda function. If you prefer to do this programmatically, see the relevant AWS IoT Greengrass documentation or AWS CloudFormation documentation.
  3. Choose your new Lambda function from the drop-down.

Create component

  1. Scroll to the bottom and choose Create component.
  2. Go to the Core devices menu in the left-side nav bar and select your Greengrass Core device. This is the Greengrass Core EC2 instance you set up earlier. Make a note of the core device’s name.

  1. Use the left-side nav bar to go to the Deployments menu. Choose Create to create a new deployment, which will place your Lambda function on your Outpost-hosted core device.
  2. Give the deployment a name and select Core device, providing the name of your core device. Choose Next.

  1. Select your Lambda function and choose Next.

  1. Choose Next again, on both the Configure components and Configure advanced settings On the last page, choose Deploy.

You should see a green message at the top of the screen indicating that your configuration is now being deployed.

Clean up

  1. Delete the Lambda function you created.
  2. Terminate the Greengrass Core EC2 instance.
  3. Delete the VPC.

Conclusion

Many customers use AWS Outposts to expand applications into new geographies. Some customers want to run Lambda-based applications on Outposts. This blog post shows how to use AWS IoT Greengrass to build Lambda functions which run locally on Outposts.

To learn more about Outposts, please contact your AWS representative and visit the Outposts homepage and documentation.

AWS Week In Review – May 23, 2022

Post Syndicated from Sébastien Stormacq original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-may-27-2022/

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

This is the right place to quickly learn about recent AWS news from last week, in just about five minutes or less. This week, I have collected a couple of news items that might be of interest to you, the IT professionals, developers, system administrators, or any type of builders that have their hands on the AWS console, the CLI, or that are writing code.

Last Week’s Launches
The launches that caught my attention last week are the following:

EC2 now supports NitroTPM and SecureBoot – A Trusted Platform Module is often a discrete chip in a computer where you can store secrets and release them to the operating system only when the system is in a known good state. You typically use TPM modules to store operating-system-level volume encryption keys, such as the ones used by BitLocker on Windows or LUKS. NitroTPM is a virtual TPM module available on selected instance families that allows you to deploy your workloads depending on TPM functionalities on EC2 instances.

Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling now backfills predictive scaling forecasts so you can quickly validate forecast accuracy. Auto Scaling Predictive Scaling is a capability of Auto Scaling that allows you to scale your fleet in and out based on observed usage patterns. It uses AI/ML to predict when your fleet needs more or less capacity. It allows you to scale a fleet in advance of the scaling event and have the fleet prepared at peak times. The new backfills shows you how predictive scaling would have scaled your fleet during the last 14 days. This allows you to quickly decide if the predictive scaling policy is accurate for your applications by comparing the demand and capacity forecasts against actual demand immediately after you create a predictive scaling policy.

AWS Backup adds support for two new managed file systems, Amazon FSx for OpenZFS and Amazon Fsx for NetApp ONTAP. These additions helps you meet your centralized data protection and regulatory compliance needs. You can now use AWS Backup’s policy-based capabilities to centrally protect Amazon FSx for NetApp ONTAP or Amazon Fsx for OpenZFS, along with the other AWS services for storage, database, and compute that AWS Backup supports.

AWS App Mesh now supports IPv6 AWS App Mesh is a service mesh that provides application-level networking to make it easy for your services to communicate with each other across multiple types of compute infrastructure. The new support for IPv6 allows you to support workloads running in IPv6 networks and to invoke App Mesh APIs over IPv6. This helps you meet IPv6 compliance requirements, and removes the need for complex networking configuration to handle address translation between IPv4 and IPv6.

Amazon Chime SDK now supports video background replacement and blur on iOS and Android. When you want to integrate audio and video call capabilities in your mobile applications, the Chime SDK is the easiest way to get started. It provides an easy-to-use API that uses the scalable and robust Amazon Chime backend to power your communications. For example, Slack is using Chime as backend for the communications in their apps. The Chime SDK client libraries for iOS and Android now include video background replacement and blur, which developers can use to reduce visual distractions and help increase visual privacy for mobile users on iOS and Android.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other updates and news that you may have missed:

Amazon Redshift: Ten years of continuous reinvention. This is an Amazon Redshift research paper that will be presented at a leading international forum for database researchers. The authors reflect on how far the first petabyte-scale cloud data warehouse has advanced since it was announced ten years ago.

Improve Your Security at the Edge with AWS IoT Services is a new blog post on the IoT channel. We understand the risks associated with operating at the edge and that you need additional capabilities to ensure that your data is protected. AWS IoT services can help you with end-to-end data protection, device security, and device identification to create the foundation of an expanded information security model and confidently operate at the edge.

AWS Open Source News and Updates – Ricardo Sueiras, my colleague from the AWS Developer Relation team, runs this newsletter. It brings you all the latest open-source projects, posts, and more. Read edition #113 here.

Upcoming AWS Events
CDK Day, on May 26 is a one-day fully virtual event dedicated to the AWS Cloud Development Kit. With four versions of the CDK released (AWS, Terraform, CDK8s, and Projen), we tought the CDK deserves its own full-fledged conference. We will take one day and showcase the brightest and best of CDK from across the whole product family. Let’s talk serverless, Kubernetes and multi-cloud all on the same day! CDK Day will take place on May 26, 2022 and will be fully virtual, live-streamed to our YouTube channel. Book your ticket now, it’s free.

The AWS Summit season is mostly over in Europe, but there are upcoming Summits in North America and the Asia Pacific Regions. Here are some virtual and in-person Summits that might be close to you:

More to come in July, August, and September.

You can register for re:MARS to get fresh ideas on topics such as machine learning, automation, robotics, and space. The conference will be in person in Las Vegas, June 21–24.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— seb

AWS Week in Review – May 16, 2022

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-may-16-2022/

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

I had been on the road for the last five weeks and attended many of the AWS Summits in Europe. It was great to talk to so many of you in person. The Serverless Developer Advocates are going around many of the AWS Summits with the Serverlesspresso booth. If you attend an event that has the booth, say “Hi 👋” to my colleagues, and have a coffee while asking all your serverless questions. You can find all the upcoming AWS Summits in the events section at the end of this post.

Last week’s launches
Here are some launches that got my attention during the previous week.

AWS Step Functions announced a new console experience to debug your state machine executions – Now you can opt-in to the new console experience of Step Functions, which makes it easier to analyze, debug, and optimize Standard Workflows. The new page allows you to inspect executions using three different views: graph, table, and event view, and add many new features to enhance the navigation and analysis of the executions. To learn about all the features and how to use them, read Ben’s blog post.

Example on how the Graph View looks

Example on how the Graph View looks

AWS Lambda now supports Node.js 16.x runtime – Now you can start using the Node.js 16 runtime when you create a new function or update your existing functions to use it. You can also use the new container image base that supports this runtime. To learn more about this launch, check Dan’s blog post.

AWS Amplify announces its Android library designed for Kotlin – The Amplify Android library has been rewritten for Kotlin, and now it is available in preview. This new library provides better debugging capacities and visibility into underlying state management. And it is also using the new AWS SDK for Kotlin that was released last year in preview. Read the What’s New post for more information.

Three new APIs for batch data retrieval in AWS IoT SiteWise – With this new launch AWS IoT SiteWise now supports batch data retrieval from multiple asset properties. The new APIs allow you to retrieve current values, historical values, and aggregated values. Read the What’s New post to learn how you can start using the new APIs.

AWS Secrets Manager now publishes secret usage metrics to Amazon CloudWatch – This launch is very useful to see the number of secrets in your account and set alarms for any unexpected increase or decrease in the number of secrets. Read the documentation on Monitoring Secrets Manager with Amazon CloudWatch for more information.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other launches and news that you may have missed:

IBM signed a deal with AWS to offer its software portfolio as a service on AWS. This allows customers using AWS to access IBM software for automation, data and artificial intelligence, and security that is built on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS.

Podcast Charlas Técnicas de AWS – If you understand Spanish, this podcast is for you. Podcast Charlas Técnicas is one of the official AWS podcasts in Spanish. This week’s episode introduces you to Amazon DynamoDB and shares stories on how different customers use this database service. You can listen to all the episodes directly from your favorite podcast app or the podcast web page.

AWS Open Source News and Updates – Ricardo Sueiras, my colleague from the AWS Developer Relation team, runs this newsletter. It brings you all the latest open-source projects, posts, and more. Read edition #112 here.

Upcoming AWS Events
It’s AWS Summits season and here are some virtual and in-person events that might be close to you:

You can register for re:MARS to get fresh ideas on topics such as machine learning, automation, robotics, and space. The conference will be in person in Las Vegas, June 21–24.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— Marcia

AWS IoT TwinMaker Is Now Generally Available

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-iot-twinmaker-is-now-generally-available/

Last year at AWS re:Invent 2021, we introduced the preview of AWS IoT TwinMaker, a new AWS IoT service that makes it faster and easier to create digital twins of real-world systems and use them to monitor and optimize industrial operations.

A digital twin is a living digital representation of an individual physical system that is dynamically updated with data to mimic the true structure, state, and behavior of the physical system in order to drive business outcomes. Digital twins can be applied to a wide variety of use cases spanning the entire lifecycle of a system or asset, such as buildings, factories, industrial equipment, and production lines.

Many of our customers are still early in their digital twins journey. They are working hard to connect their data across disparate sources and be able to contextually visualize that data in a dashboard or an immersive environment in order to unlock their business value and outcomes.

Today at AWS Summit San Francisco, we announce the general availability of AWS IoT TwinMaker with new features, improvements, and the availability in additional AWS Regions. AWS IoT TwinMaker provides the tools to build digital twins using existing data from multiple sources, create virtual representations of any physical environment, and combine existing 3D models with real-world data. With AWS IoT TwinMaker, you can now harness digital twins to create a holistic view of your operations faster and with less effort.

AWS IoT TwinMaker has capabilities for each stage of the digital twin building process: collecting data from diverse data sources using connectors (components), connecting to data where it lives to represent your digital twins, and combining existing 3D visual models with real-world data using a scene composition tool, and building web-based applications using a plug-in for Grafana and Amazon Managed Grafana that you can use to create dashboards.

For example, Cognizant’s 1Facility solution uses AWS IoT TwinMaker to help improve the building monitoring experience by reducing the time to troubleshoot a building issue via 3D visualization and aggregating data from multiple sources in a connected building. To learn about more use cases, visit AWS IoT TwinMaker Customers.

To get started with AWS IoT TwinMaker, refer to the step-by-step process for building your digital twin in Introducing AWS IoT TwinMaker. Also, you can test a fully built-out sample digital twin of a cookie factory complete with simulated data connectors from the GitHub repository. This sample code will guide you through the process of building a digital twin application and let you explore many of the features of AWS IoT TwinMaker.

New Features at the General Availability Launch
At this launch, we added some new features in AWS IoT TwinMaker:

Motion indicator – In preview, developers choose from two ways to represent data in a 3D scene: 1) tag, which can be used to bind an entity with a property and use simple rules to drive behavior like changing colors in near real time when certain conditions are met, and 2) model shader, used to change the color of the entire entity based on simple rules. Now there is a third option, motion indicator, to depict speed of motion in addition to tags (alerts) and color overlay (changing a model’s color).

There are three kinds of motion indicators for different use cases with different visuals, for example, LinearPlane (for conveyor belt), LinearCylinder (for tube), and CircularCylinder (for mixer). You can configure the motion speed and the background or foreground color of the indicator widget with either static values or with rules that will change according to different data input.

Scene templatization – With this new feature, all the data bindings such as for tags and model shaders are templatized. You can choose a template for the data binding in the console. For example, a tag can bind to each ${entityId}/${componentName}/AlarmStatus. When the operator selects the alarm for Mixer 1, the Mixer 3D Scene shows the information for Mixer 1; if the operator chooses Mixer 2, then the Mixer 3D Scene will show the information for Mixer 2.

More API improvements – We are making continuous improvements to user experience across the service based on usability feedback, including in AWS IoT TwinMaker APIs. Here are some API changes:

  • ExternalId filter – Added a new filter to ListEntities API to allow filtering by a property that is marked as isExternalId.
  • Timestamp precision – Added a new type to capture time in ISO 8601 format to support arbitrary timestamp precision like nanoseconds in data plane APIs.
  • New CREATE update type – Added new property update type CREATE to let users explicitly state the intent of the update in an entity. Previously, there were only UPDATE and DELETE.

More code samples – You can refer to more developer samples to get started with AWS IoT TwinMaker. These code packages, including new data connectors such as Snowflake, are distributed through our GitHub repository for the most common scenarios, with a goal to support and build a community of developers building digital twins with AWS IoT TwinMaker.

Now Available
AWS IoT TwinMaker is available in US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), Europe (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Singapore) Regions. Now, it is also available in Europe (Frankfurt) and Asia Pacific (Sydney) Regions.

As part of the AWS Free Tier, you can use up to 50 million data access API calls for free each month for your first 12 months using AWS. When your free usage expires, or if your application use exceeds the free tier, you simply pay the rates listed on the pricing page. To learn more about AWS IoT TwinMaker, refer to the product page and the documentation.

If you are looking for an AWS IoT TwinMaker partner to support your digital twin journey, visit the AWS IoT TwinMaker Partners page. Please send feedback to AWS re:Post for AWS IoT TwinMaker or through your usual AWS support contacts.

Channy

Using Radar to Read Body Language

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2022/03/using-radar-to-read-body-language.html

Yet another method of surveillance:

Radar can detect you moving closer to a computer and entering its personal space. This might mean the computer can then choose to perform certain actions, like booting up the screen without requiring you to press a button. This kind of interaction already exists in current Google Nest smart displays, though instead of radar, Google employs ultrasonic sound waves to measure a person’s distance from the device. When a Nest Hub notices you’re moving closer, it highlights current reminders, calendar events, or other important notifications.

Proximity alone isn’t enough. What if you just ended up walking past the machine and looking in a different direction? To solve this, Soli can capture greater subtleties in movements and gestures, such as body orientation, the pathway you might be taking, and the direction your head is facing — ­aided by machine learning algorithms that further refine the data. All this rich radar information helps it better guess if you are indeed about to start an interaction with the device, and what the type of engagement might be.

[…]

The ATAP team chose to use radar because it’s one of the more privacy-friendly methods of gathering rich spatial data. (It also has really low latency, works in the dark, and external factors like sound or temperature don’t affect it.) Unlike a camera, radar doesn’t capture and store distinguishable images of your body, your face, or other means of identification. “It’s more like an advanced motion sensor,” Giusti says. Soli has a detectable range of around 9 feet­ — less than most cameras­ — but multiple gadgets in your home with the Soli sensor could effectively blanket your space and create an effective mesh network for tracking your whereabouts in a home.

“Privacy-friendly” is a relative term.

These technologies are coming. They’re going to be an essential part of the Internet of Things.

Optimizing Your IoT Devices for Environmental Sustainability

Post Syndicated from Jonas Bürkel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/optimizing-your-iot-devices-for-environmental-sustainability/

To become more environmentally sustainable, customers commonly introduce Internet of Things (IoT) devices. These connected devices collect and analyze data from commercial buildings, factories, homes, cars, and other locations to measure, understand, and improve operational efficiency. (There will be an estimated 24.1 billion active IoT devices by 2030 according to Transforma Insights.)

IoT devices offer several efficiencies. However, you must consider their environmental impact when using them. Devices must be manufactured, shipped, and installed; they consume energy during operations; and they must eventually be disposed of. They are also a challenge to maintain—an expert may need physical access to the device to diagnose issues and update it. This is especially true for smaller and cheaper devices, because extended device support and ongoing enhancements are often not economically feasible, which results in more frequent device replacements.

When architecting a solution to tackle operational efficiency challenges with IoT, consider the devices’ impact on environmental sustainability. Think critically about the impact of the devices you deploy and work to minimize their overall carbon footprint. This post considers device properties that influence an IoT device’s footprint throughout its lifecycle and shows you how Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT services can help.

Architect for lean, efficient, and durable devices

So which device properties contribute towards minimizing environmental impact?

  • Lean devices use just the right amount of resources to do their job. They are designed, equipped, and built to use fewer resources, which reduces the impact of manufacturing and disposing them as well as their energy consumption. For example, electronic devices like smartphones use rare-earth metals in many of their components. These materials impact the environment when mined and disposed of. By reducing the amount of these materials used in your design, you can move towards being more sustainable.
  • Efficient devices lower their operational impact by using up-to-date and secure software and enhancements to code and data handling.
  • Durable devices remain in the field for a long time and still provide their intended function and value. They can adapt to changing business requirements and are able to recover from operational failure. The longer the device functions, the lower its carbon footprint will be. This is because device manufacturing, shipping, installing, and disposing will require relatively less effort.

In summary, deploy devices that efficiently use resources to bring business value for as long as possible. Finding the right tradeoff for your requirements allows you to improve operational efficiency while also maximizing your benefit on environmental sustainability.

High-level sustainable IoT architecture

Figure 1 shows building blocks that support sustainable device properties. Their main capabilities are:

  • Enabling remote device management
  • Allowing over-the-air (OTA) updates
  • Integrating with cloud services to access further processing capabilities while ensuring security of devices and data, at rest and in transit
Generic architecture for sustainable IoT devices

Figure 1. Generic architecture for sustainable IoT devices

Introducing AWS IoT Core and AWS IoT Greengrass to your architecture

Assuming you have an at least partially connected environment, the capabilities outlined in Figure 1 can be achieved by using mainly two AWS IoT services:

  • AWS IoT Core is a managed cloud platform that lets connected devices easily and securely interact with cloud applications and other devices.
  • AWS IoT Greengrass is an IoT open-source edge runtime and cloud service that helps you build, deploy, and manage device software.

Figure 2 shows how the building blocks introduced in Figure 1 translate to AWS IoT services.

AWS architecture for sustainable IoT devices

Figure 2. AWS architecture for sustainable IoT devices

Optimize your IoT devices for leanness and efficiency with AWS IoT Core

AWS IoT Core securely integrates IoT devices with other devices and the cloud. It allows devices to publish and subscribe to data in the cloud using device communication protocols. You can use this functionality to create event-driven data processing flows that can be integrated with additional services. For example, you can run machine learning inference, perform analytics, or interact with applications running on AWS.

According to a 451 Research report published in 2019, AWS can perform the same compute task with an 88% lower carbon footprint compared to the median of surveyed US enterprise data centers. More than two-thirds of this carbon reduction is attributable to more efficient servers and a higher server utilization. In 2021, 451 Research published similar reports for data centers in Asia Pacific and Europe.

AWS IoT Core offers this higher utilization and efficiency to edge devices in the following ways:

  • Non-latency critical, resource-intensive tasks can be run in the cloud where they can use managed services and be decommissioned when not in use.
  • Having less code on IoT devices also reduces maintenance efforts and attack surface while making it simpler to architect its software components for efficiency.
  • From a security perspective, AWS IoT Core protects and governs data exchange with the cloud in a central place. Each connected device must be credentialed to interact with AWS IoT. All traffic to and from AWS IoT is sent securely using Transport Layer Security (TLS) mutual authentication protocols. Services like AWS IoT Device Defender are available to analyze, audit, and monitor connected fleets of devices and cloud resources in AWS IoT at scale to detect abnormal behavior and mitigate security risks.

Customer Application:
Tibber, a Nordic energy startup, uses AWS IoT Core to securely exchange billions of messages per month about their clients’ real-time energy usage and aggregate data and perform analytics centrally. This allows them to keep their smart appliance lean and efficient while gaining access to scalable and more sustainable data processing capabilities.


Ensure device durability and longevity with AWS IoT Greengrass

Tasks like interacting with sensors or latency-critical computation must remain local. AWS IoT Greengrass, an edge runtime and cloud service, securely manages devices and device software, thereby enabling remote maintenance and secure OTA updates. It builds upon and extends the capabilities of AWS IoT Core and AWS IoT Device Management, which securely registers, organizes, monitors, and manages IoT devices.

AWS IoT Greengrass brings offline capabilities and simplifies the definition and distribution of business logic across Greengrass core devices. This allows for OTA updates of this business logic as well as the AWS IoT Greengrass Core software itself.

This is a distinctly different approach to what device manufacturers did in the past. Devices no longer need to be designed to run all code for one immutable purpose. Instead, they can be built to be flexible for potential future use cases, which ensures that business logic can be dynamically tweaked, maintained, and troubleshooted remotely when needed.

AWS IoT Greengrass does this using components. Components can represent applications, runtime installers, libraries, or any code that you would run on a device that are then distributed and managed through AWS IoT. Multiple AWS-provided components as well as the recently launched Greengrass Software Catalog extend the edge runtime’s default capabilities. The secure tunneling component, for example, establishes secure bidirectional communication with a Greengrass core device that is behind restricted firewalls, which can then be used for remote assistance and troubleshooting over SSH.

Conclusion

Historically, IoT devices were designed to stably and reliably serve one predefined purpose and were equipped for peak resource usage. However, as discussed in this post, to be sustainable, devices must now be lean, efficient, and durable. They must be manufactured, shipped, and installed once. From there, they should be able to be used flexibly for a long time. This way, they will consume less energy. Their smaller resource footprint and more efficient software allows organizations to improve operational efficiency but also fully realize their positive impact on emissions by minimizing devices’ carbon footprint throughout their lifecycle.

Ready to get started? Familiarize yourself with the topics of environmental sustainability and AWS IoT. Our AWS re:Invent 2021 Sustainability Attendee Guide covers this. When designing your IoT based solution, keep these device properties in mind. Follow the sustainability best practices described in the Sustainability Pillar of the AWS Well-Architected Framework.

Related information