Tag Archives: hipaa

Amazon Relational Database Service – Looking Back at 2017

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-relational-database-service-looking-back-at-2017/

The Amazon RDS team launched nearly 80 features in 2017. Some of them were covered in this blog, others on the AWS Database Blog, and the rest in What’s New or Forum posts. To wrap up my week, I thought it would be worthwhile to give you an organized recap. So here we go!

Certification & Security

Features

Engine Versions & Features

Regional Support

Instance Support

Price Reductions

And That’s a Wrap
I’m pretty sure that’s everything. As you can see, 2017 was quite the year! I can’t wait to see what the team delivers in 2018.

Jeff;

 

The Top 10 Most Downloaded AWS Security and Compliance Documents in 2017

Post Syndicated from Sara Duffer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/the-top-10-most-downloaded-aws-security-and-compliance-documents-in-2017/

AWS download logo

The following list includes the ten most downloaded AWS security and compliance documents in 2017. Using this list, you can learn about what other AWS customers found most interesting about security and compliance last year.

  1. AWS Security Best Practices – This guide is intended for customers who are designing the security infrastructure and configuration for applications running on AWS. The guide provides security best practices that will help you define your Information Security Management System (ISMS) and build a set of security policies and processes for your organization so that you can protect your data and assets in the AWS Cloud.
  2. AWS: Overview of Security Processes – This whitepaper describes the physical and operational security processes for the AWS managed network and infrastructure, and helps answer questions such as, “How does AWS help me protect my data?”
  3. Architecting for HIPAA Security and Compliance on AWS – This whitepaper describes how to leverage AWS to develop applications that meet HIPAA and HITECH compliance requirements.
  4. Service Organization Controls (SOC) 3 Report – This publicly available report describes internal AWS security controls, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy.
  5. Introduction to AWS Security –This document provides an introduction to AWS’s approach to security, including the controls in the AWS environment, and some of the products and features that AWS makes available to customers to meet your security objectives.
  6. AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency – This whitepaper covers techniques to mitigate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks.
  7. AWS: Risk and Compliance – This whitepaper provides information to help customers integrate AWS into their existing control framework, including a basic approach for evaluating AWS controls and a description of AWS certifications, programs, reports, and third-party attestations.
  8. Use AWS WAF to Mitigate OWASP’s Top 10 Web Application Vulnerabilities – AWS WAF is a web application firewall that helps you protect your websites and web applications against various attack vectors at the HTTP protocol level. This whitepaper outlines how you can use AWS WAF to mitigate the application vulnerabilities that are defined in the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Top 10 list of most common categories of application security flaws.
  9. Introduction to Auditing the Use of AWS – This whitepaper provides information, tools, and approaches for auditors to use when auditing the security of the AWS managed network and infrastructure.
  10. AWS Security and Compliance: Quick Reference Guide – By using AWS, you inherit the many security controls that we operate, thus reducing the number of security controls that you need to maintain. Your own compliance and certification programs are strengthened while at the same time lowering your cost to maintain and run your specific security assurance requirements. Learn more in this quick reference guide.

– Sara

Amazon QuickSight Update – Geospatial Visualization, Private VPC Access, and More

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-quicksight-update-geospatial-visualization-private-vpc-access-and-more/

We don’t often recognize or celebrate anniversaries at AWS. With nearly 100 services on our list, we’d be eating cake and drinking champagne several times a week. While that might sound like fun, we’d rather spend our working hours listening to customers and innovating. With that said, Amazon QuickSight has now been generally available for a little over a year and I would like to give you a quick update!

QuickSight in Action
Today, tens of thousands of customers (from startups to enterprises, in industries as varied as transportation, legal, mining, and healthcare) are using QuickSight to analyze and report on their business data.

Here are a couple of examples:

Gemini provides legal evidence procurement for California attorneys who represent injured workers. They have gone from creating custom reports and running one-off queries to creating and sharing dynamic QuickSight dashboards with drill-downs and filtering. QuickSight is used to track sales pipeline, measure order throughput, and to locate bottlenecks in the order processing pipeline.

Jivochat provides a real-time messaging platform to connect visitors to website owners. QuickSight lets them create and share interactive dashboards while also providing access to the underlying datasets. This has allowed them to move beyond the sharing of static spreadsheets, ensuring that everyone is looking at the same and is empowered to make timely decisions based on current data.

Transfix is a tech-powered freight marketplace that matches loads and increases visibility into logistics for Fortune 500 shippers in retail, food and beverage, manufacturing, and other industries. QuickSight has made analytics accessible to both BI engineers and non-technical business users. They scrutinize key business and operational metrics including shipping routes, carrier efficient, and process automation.

Looking Back / Looking Ahead
The feedback on QuickSight has been incredibly helpful. Customers tell us that their employees are using QuickSight to connect to their data, perform analytics, and make high-velocity, data-driven decisions, all without setting up or running their own BI infrastructure. We love all of the feedback that we get, and use it to drive our roadmap, leading to the introduction of over 40 new features in just a year. Here’s a summary:

Looking forward, we are watching an interesting trend develop within our customer base. As these customers take a close look at how they analyze and report on data, they are realizing that a serverless approach offers some tangible benefits. They use Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) as a data lake and query it using a combination of QuickSight and Amazon Athena, giving them agility and flexibility without static infrastructure. They also make great use of QuickSight’s dashboards feature, monitoring business results and operational metrics, then sharing their insights with hundreds of users. You can read Building a Serverless Analytics Solution for Cleaner Cities and review Serverless Big Data Analytics using Amazon Athena and Amazon QuickSight if you are interested in this approach.

New Features and Enhancements
We’re still doing our best to listen and to learn, and to make sure that QuickSight continues to meet your needs. I’m happy to announce that we are making seven big additions today:

Geospatial Visualization – You can now create geospatial visuals on geographical data sets.

Private VPC Access – You can now sign up to access a preview of a new feature that allows you to securely connect to data within VPCs or on-premises, without the need for public endpoints.

Flat Table Support – In addition to pivot tables, you can now use flat tables for tabular reporting. To learn more, read about Using Tabular Reports.

Calculated SPICE Fields – You can now perform run-time calculations on SPICE data as part of your analysis. Read Adding a Calculated Field to an Analysis for more information.

Wide Table Support – You can now use tables with up to 1000 columns.

Other Buckets – You can summarize the long tail of high-cardinality data into buckets, as described in Working with Visual Types in Amazon QuickSight.

HIPAA Compliance – You can now run HIPAA-compliant workloads on QuickSight.

Geospatial Visualization
Everyone seems to want this feature! You can now take data that contains a geographic identifier (country, city, state, or zip code) and create beautiful visualizations with just a few clicks. QuickSight will geocode the identifier that you supply, and can also accept lat/long map coordinates. You can use this feature to visualize sales by state, map stores to shipping destinations, and so forth. Here’s a sample visualization:

To learn more about this feature, read Using Geospatial Charts (Maps), and Adding Geospatial Data.

Private VPC Access Preview
If you have data in AWS (perhaps in Amazon Redshift, Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS), or on EC2) or on-premises in Teradata or SQL Server on servers without public connectivity, this feature is for you. Private VPC Access for QuickSight uses an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) for secure, private communication with data sources in a VPC. It also allows you to use AWS Direct Connect to create a secure, private link with your on-premises resources. Here’s what it looks like:

If you are ready to join the preview, you can sign up today.

Jeff;

 

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis Is Now a HIPAA Eligible Service and You Can Use It to Power Real-Time Healthcare Applications

Post Syndicated from Manan Goel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/now-you-can-use-amazon-elasticache-for-redis-a-hipaa-eligible-service-to-power-real-time-healthcare-applications/

HIPAA image

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis is now a HIPAA Eligible Service and has been added to the AWS Business Associate Addendum (BAA). This means you can use ElastiCache for Redis to help you power healthcare applications as well as process, maintain, and store protected health information (PHI). ElastiCache for Redis is a Redis-compatible, fully-managed, in-memory data store and cache in the cloud that provides sub-millisecond latency to power applications. Now you can use the speed, simplicity, and flexibility of ElastiCache for Redis to build secure, fast, and internet-scale healthcare applications.

ElastiCache for Redis with HIPAA eligibility is available for all current-generation instance node types and requires Redis engine version 3.2.6. You must ensure that nodes are configured to encrypt the data in transit and at rest, and to authenticate Redis commands before the engine executes them. See Architecting for HIPAA Security and Compliance on Amazon Web Services for information about how to configure Amazon HIPAA Eligible Services to store, process, and transmit PHI.

ElastiCache for Redis uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-512 symmetric keys to encrypt data on disk. The Redis backups stored in Amazon S3 are encrypted with server-side encryption (SSE) using AES-256 symmetric keys. ElastiCache for Redis uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) to encrypt data in transit. It uses the Redis AUTH token that you provide at the time of Redis cluster creation to authenticate the Redis commands coming from clients. The AUTH token is encrypted using AWS Key Management Service.

There is no additional charge for using ElastiCache for Redis clusters with HIPAA eligibility. To get started, see HIPAA Compliance for Amazon ElastiCache for Redis.

– Manan

New – AWS Direct Connect Gateway – Inter-Region VPC Access

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-aws-direct-connect-gateway-inter-region-vpc-access/

As I was preparing to write this post, I took a nostalgic look at the blog post I wrote when we launched AWS Direct Connect back in 2012. We created Direct Connect after our enterprise customers asked us to allow them to establish dedicated connections to an AWS Region in pursuit of enhanced privacy, additional data transfer bandwidth, and more predictable data transfer performance. Starting from one AWS Region and a single colo, Direct Connect is now available in every public AWS Region and accessible from dozens of colos scattered across the world (over 60 locations at last count). Our customers have taken to Direct Connect wholeheartedly and we have added features such as Link Aggregation, Amazon EFS support, CloudWatch monitoring, and HIPAA eligibility. In the past five weeks alone we have added Direct Connect locations in Houston (Texas), Vancouver (Canada), Manchester (UK), Canberra (Australia), and Perth (Australia).

Today we are making Direct Connect simpler and more powerful with the addition of the Direct Connect Gateway. We are also giving Direct Connect customers in any Region the ability to create public virtual interfaces that receive our global IP routes and enable access to the public endpoints for our services and updating the Direct Connect pricing model.

Let’s take a look at each one!

New Direct Connect Gateway
You can use the new Direct Connect Gateway to establish connectivity that spans Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs) spread across multiple AWS Regions. You no longer need to establish multiple BGP sessions for each VPC; this reduces your administrative workload as well as the load on your network devices.

This feature also allows you to connect to any of the participating VPCs from any Direct Connect location, further reducing your costs for making using AWS services on a cross-region basis.

Here is a diagram that illustrates the simplification that you can achieve with a Direct Connect Gateway (each “lock” icon represents a Virtual Private Gateway). Start with this:

And end up like this:

The VPCs that reference a particular Direct Connect Gateway must have IP address ranges that do not overlap. Today, the VPCs must all be in the same AWS account; we plan to make this more flexible in the future.

Each Gateway is a global object that exists across all of the public AWS Regions. All communication between the Regions via the Gateways takes place across the AWS network backbone.

Creating a Direct Connect Gateway
You can create a Direct Connect Gateway from the Direct Connect Console or by calling the CreateDirectConnectGateway function from your code. I’ll use the Console!

I open the Direct Connect Console and click on Direct Connect Gateways to get started:

The list is empty since I don’t have any Gateways yet. Click on Create Direct Connect Gateway to change that:

I give my Gateway a name, enter a private ASN for my network, then click on Create. The ASN (Autonomous System Number) must be in one of the ranges defined as private in RFC 6996:

My new Gateway will appear in the other AWS Regions within a moment or two:

I have a Direct Connect Connection in Ohio that I will use to create my VIF:

Now I create a private VIF that references the Gateway and the Connection:

It is ready to use within seconds:

I already have a pair of VPCs with non-overlapping CIDRs, and a Virtual Private Gateway attached to each one. Here are the VPCs (since this is a demo I’ll show both in the same Region for convenience):

And the Virtual Private Gateways:

I return to the Direct Connect Console and navigate to the Direct Connect Gateways. I select my Gateway and choose Associate Virtual Private Gateway from the Actions menu:

Then I select both of my Virtual Private Gateways and click on Associate:

If, as would usually be the case, my VPCs are in distinct AWS Regions, the same procedure would apply. For this blog post it was easier to show you the operations once rather than twice.

The Virtual Gateway association is complete within a minute or so (the state starts out as associating):

When the state transitions to associated, traffic can flow between your on-premises network and your VPCs, over your AWS Direct Connect connection, regardless of the AWS Regions where your VPCs reside.

Public Virtual Interfaces for Service Endpoints
You can now create Public Virtual Interfaces that will allow you to access AWS public service endpoints for AWS services running in any AWS Region (except AWS China Region) over Direct Connect. These interfaces receive (via BGP) Amazon’s global IP routes. You can create these interfaces in the Direct Connect Console; start by selecting the Public option:

After you create it you will need to associate it with a VPC.

Updated Pricing Model
In light of the ever-expanding number of AWS Regions and AWS Direct Connect locations, data transfer pricing is now based on the location of the Direct Connect and the source AWS Region. The new pricing is simpler that the older model which was based on AWS Direct Connect locations.

Now Available
This new feature is available today and you can start to use it right now. You can create and use Direct Connect Gateways at no charge; you pay the usual Direct Connect prices for port hours and data transfer.

Jeff;

 

98, 99, 100 CloudFront Points of Presence!

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/98-99-100-cloudfront-points-of-presence/

Nine years ago I showed you how you could Distribute Your Content with Amazon CloudFront. We launched CloudFront in 2008 with 14 Points of Presence and have been expanding rapidly ever since. Today I am pleased to announce the opening of our 100th Point of Presence, the fifth one in Tokyo and the sixth in Japan. With 89 Edge Locations and 11 Regional Edge Caches, CloudFront now supports traffic generated by millions of viewers around the world.

23 Countries, 50 Cities, and Growing
Those 100 Points of Presence span the globe, with sites in 50 cities and 23 countries. In the past 12 months we have expanded the size of our network by about 58%, adding 37 Points of Presence, including nine in the following new cities:

  • Berlin, Germany
  • Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  • Prague, Czech Republic
  • Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  • Munich, Germany
  • Vienna, Austria
  • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  • Zurich, Switzerland

We have even more in the works, including an Edge Location in the United Arab Emirates, currently planned for the first quarter of 2018.

Innovating for Our Customers
As I mentioned earlier, our network consists of a mix of Edge Locations and Regional Edge Caches. First announced at re:Invent 2016, the Regional Edge Caches sit between our Edge Locations and your origin servers, have even more memory than the Edge Locations, and allow us to store content close to the viewers for rapid delivery, all while reducing the load on the origin servers.

While locations are important, they are just a starting point. We continue to focus on security with the recent launch of our Security Policies feature and our announcement that CloudFront is a HIPAA-eligible service. We gave you more content-serving and content-generation options with the launch of [email protected], letting you run AWS Lambda functions close to your users.

We have also been working to accelerate the processing of cache invalidations and configuration changes. We now accept invalidations within milliseconds of the request and confirm that the request has been processed world-wide, typically within 60 seconds. This helps to ensure that your customers have access to fresh, timely content!

Visit our Getting Started with Amazon CloudFront page for sign-up information, tutorials, webinars, on-demand videos, office hours, and more.

Jeff;

 

AWS HIPAA Eligibility Update (October 2017) – Sixteen Additional Services

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hipaa-eligibility-post-update-october-2017-sixteen-additional-services/

Our Health Customer Stories page lists just a few of the many customers that are building and running healthcare and life sciences applications that run on AWS. Customers like Verge Health, Care Cloud, and Orion Health trust AWS with Protected Health Information (PHI) and Personally Identifying Information (PII) as part of their efforts to comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

Sixteen More Services
In my last HIPAA Eligibility Update I shared the news that we added eight additional services to our list of HIPAA eligible services. Today I am happy to let you know that we have added another sixteen services to the list, bringing the total up to 46. Here are the newest additions, along with some short descriptions and links to some of my blog posts to jog your memory:

Amazon Aurora with PostgreSQL Compatibility – This brand-new addition to Amazon Aurora allows you to encrypt your relational databases using keys that you create and manage through AWS Key Management Service (KMS). When you enable encryption for an Amazon Aurora database, the underlying storage is encrypted, as are automated backups, read replicas, and snapshots. Read New – Encryption at Rest for Amazon Aurora to learn more.

Amazon CloudWatch Logs – You can use the logs to monitor and troubleshoot your systems and applications. You can monitor your existing system, application, and custom log files in near real-time, watching for specific phrases, values, or patterns. Log data can be stored durably and at low cost, for as long as needed. To learn more, read Store and Monitor OS & Application Log Files with Amazon CloudWatch and Improvements to CloudWatch Logs and Dashboards.

Amazon Connect – This self-service, cloud-based contact center makes it easy for you to deliver better customer service at a lower cost. You can use the visual designer to set up your contact flows, manage agents, and track performance, all without specialized skills. Read Amazon Connect – Customer Contact Center in the Cloud and New – Amazon Connect and Amazon Lex Integration to learn more.

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis – This service lets you deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache that you can use to improve the performance of your applications. Each ElastiCache for Redis cluster publishes key performance metrics to Amazon CloudWatch. To learn more, read Caching in the Cloud with Amazon ElastiCache and Amazon ElastiCache – Now With a Dash of Redis.

Amazon Kinesis Streams – This service allows you to build applications that process or analyze streaming data such as website clickstreams, financial transactions, social media feeds, and location-tracking events. To learn more, read Amazon Kinesis – Real-Time Processing of Streaming Big Data and New: Server-Side Encryption for Amazon Kinesis Streams.

Amazon RDS for MariaDB – This service lets you set up scalable, managed MariaDB instances in minutes, and offers high performance, high availability, and a simplified security model that makes it easy for you to encrypt data at rest and in transit. Read Amazon RDS Update – MariaDB is Now Available to learn more.

Amazon RDS SQL Server – This service lets you set up scalable, managed Microsoft SQL Server instances in minutes, and also offers high performance, high availability, and a simplified security model. To learn more, read Amazon RDS for SQL Server and .NET support for AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Amazon RDS for Microsoft SQL Server – Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) to learn more.

Amazon Route 53 – This is a highly available Domain Name Server. It translates names like www.example.com into IP addresses. To learn more, read Moving Ahead with Amazon Route 53.

AWS Batch – This service lets you run large-scale batch computing jobs on AWS. You don’t need to install or maintain specialized batch software or build your own server clusters. Read AWS Batch – Run Batch Computing Jobs on AWS to learn more.

AWS CloudHSM – A cloud-based Hardware Security Module (HSM) for key storage and management at cloud scale. Designed for sensitive workloads, CloudHSM lets you manage your own keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs. To learn more, read AWS CloudHSM – Secure Key Storage and Cryptographic Operations and AWS CloudHSM Update – Cost Effective Hardware Key Management at Cloud Scale for Sensitive & Regulated Workloads.

AWS Key Management Service – This service makes it easy for you to create and control the encryption keys used to encrypt your data. It uses HSMs to protect your keys, and is integrated with AWS CloudTrail in order to provide you with a log of all key usage. Read New AWS Key Management Service (KMS) to learn more.

AWS Lambda – This service lets you run event-driven application or backend code without thinking about or managing servers. To learn more, read AWS Lambda – Run Code in the Cloud, AWS Lambda – A Look Back at 2016, and AWS Lambda – In Full Production with New Features for Mobile Devs.

[email protected] – You can use this new feature of AWS Lambda to run Node.js functions across the global network of AWS locations without having to provision or manager servers, in order to deliver rich, personalized content to your users with low latency. Read [email protected] – Intelligent Processing of HTTP Requests at the Edge to learn more.

AWS Snowball Edge – This is a data transfer device with 100 terabytes of on-board storage as well as compute capabilities. You can use it to move large amounts of data into or out of AWS, as a temporary storage tier, or to support workloads in remote or offline locations. To learn more, read AWS Snowball Edge – More Storage, Local Endpoints, Lambda Functions.

AWS Snowmobile – This is an exabyte-scale data transfer service. Pulled by a semi-trailer truck, each Snowmobile packs 100 petabytes of storage into a ruggedized 45-foot long shipping container. Read AWS Snowmobile – Move Exabytes of Data to the Cloud in Weeks to learn more (and to see some of my finest LEGO work).

AWS Storage Gateway – This hybrid storage service lets your on-premises applications use AWS cloud storage (Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon Glacier, and Amazon Elastic File System) in a simple and seamless way, with storage for volumes, files, and virtual tapes. To learn more, read The AWS Storage Gateway – Integrate Your Existing On-Premises Applications with AWS Cloud Storage and File Interface to AWS Storage Gateway.

And there you go! Check out my earlier post for a list of resources that will help you to build applications that comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

Jeff;

 

Catching Up on Some Recent AWS Launches and Publications

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/catching-up-on-some-recent-aws-launches-and-publications/

As I have noted in the past, the AWS Blog Team is working hard to make sure that you know about as many AWS launches and publications as possible, without totally burying you in content! As part of our balancing act, we will occasionally publish catch-up posts to clear our queues and to bring more information to your attention. Here’s what I have in store for you today:

  • Monitoring for Cross-Region Replication of S3 Objects
  • Tags for Spot Fleet Instances
  • PCI DSS Compliance for 12 More Services
  • HIPAA Eligibility for WorkDocs
  • VPC Resizing
  • AppStream 2.0 Graphics Design Instances
  • AMS Connector App for ServiceNow
  • Regtech in the Cloud
  • New & Revised Quick Starts

Let’s jump right in!

Monitoring for Cross-Region Replication of S3 Objects
I told you about cross-region replication for S3 a couple of years ago. As I showed you at the time, you simply enable versioning for the source bucket and then choose a destination region and bucket. You can check the replication status manually, or you can create an inventory (daily or weekly) of the source and destination buckets.

The Cross-Region Replication Monitor (CRR Monitor for short) solution checks the replication status of objects across regions and gives you metrics and failure notifications in near real-time.

To learn more, read the CRR Monitor Implementation Guide and then use the AWS CloudFormation template to Deploy the CRR Monitor.

Tags for Spot Instances
Spot Instances and Spot Fleets (collections of Spot Instances) give you access to spare compute capacity. We recently gave you the ability to enter tags (key/value pairs) as part of your spot requests and to have those tags applied to the EC2 instances launched to fulfill the request:

To learn more, read Tag Your Spot Fleet EC2 Instances.

PCI DSS Compliance for 12 More Services
As first announced on the AWS Security Blog, we recently added 12 more services to our PCI DSS compliance program, raising the total number of in-scope services to 42. To learn more, check out our Compliance Resources.

HIPAA Eligibility for WorkDocs
In other compliance news, we announced that Amazon WorkDocs has achieved HIPAA eligibility and PCI DSS compliance in all AWS Regions where WorkDocs is available.

VPC Resizing
This feature allows you to extend an existing Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) by adding additional blocks of addresses. This gives you more flexibility and should help you to deal with growth. You can add up to four secondary /16 CIDRs per VPC. You can also edit the secondary CIDRs by deleting them and adding new ones. Simply select the VPC and choose Edit CIDRs from the menu:

Then add or remove CIDR blocks as desired:

To learn more, read about VPCs and Subnets.

AppStream 2.0 Graphics Design Instances
Powered by AMD FirePro S7150x2 Server GPUs and equipped with AMD Multiuser GPU technology, the new Graphics Design instances for Amazon AppStream 2.0 will let you run and stream graphics applications more cost-effectively than ever. The instances are available in four sizes, with 2-16 vCPUs and 7.5 GB to 61 GB of memory.

To learn more, read Introducing Amazon AppStream 2.0 Graphics Design, a New Lower Costs Instance Type for Streaming Graphics Applications.

AMS Connector App for ServiceNow
AWS Managed Services (AMS) provides Infrastructure Operations Management for the Enterprise. Designed to accelerate cloud adoption, it automates common operations such as change requests, patch management, security and backup.

The new AMS integration App for ServiceNow lets you interact with AMS from within ServiceNow, with no need for any custom development or API integration.

To learn more, read Cloud Management Made Easier: AWS Managed Services Now Integrates with ServiceNow.

Regtech in the Cloud
Regtech (as I learned while writing this), is short for regulatory technology, and is all about using innovative technology such as cloud computing, analytics, and machine learning to address regulatory challenges.

Working together with APN Consulting Partner Cognizant, TABB Group recently published a thought leadership paper that explains why regulations and compliance pose huge challenges for our customers in the financial services, and shows how AWS can help!

New & Revised Quick Starts
Our Quick Starts team has been cranking out new solutions and making significant updates to the existing ones. Here’s a roster:

Alfresco Content Services (v2) Atlassian Confluence Confluent Platform Data Lake
Datastax Enterprise GitHub Enterprise Hashicorp Nomad HIPAA
Hybrid Data Lake with Wandisco Fusion IBM MQ IBM Spectrum Scale Informatica EIC
Magento (v2) Linux Bastion (v2) Modern Data Warehouse with Tableau MongoDB (v2)
NetApp ONTAP NGINX (v2) RD Gateway Red Hat Openshift
SAS Grid SIOS Datakeeper StorReduce SQL Server (v2)

And that’s all I have for today!

Jeff;

AWS HIPAA Eligibility Update (July 2017) – Eight Additional Services

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hipaa-eligibility-update-july-2017-eight-additional-services/

It is time for an update on our on-going effort to make AWS a great host for healthcare and life sciences applications. As you can see from our Health Customer Stories page, Philips, VergeHealth, and Cambia (to choose a few) trust AWS with Protected Health Information (PHI) and Personally Identifying Information (PII) as part of their efforts to comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

In May we announced that we added Amazon API Gateway, AWS Direct Connect, AWS Database Migration Service, and Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) to our list of HIPAA eligible services and discussed our how customers and partners are putting them to use.

Eight More Eligible Services
Today I am happy to share the news that we are adding another eight services to the list:

Amazon CloudFront can now be utilized to enhance the delivery and transfer of Protected Health Information data to applications on the Internet. By providing a completely secure and encryptable pathway, CloudFront can now be used as a part of applications that need to cache PHI. This includes applications for viewing lab results or imaging data, and those that transfer PHI from Healthcare Information Exchanges (HIEs).

AWS WAF can now be used to protect applications running on AWS which operate on PHI such as patient care portals, patient scheduling systems, and HIEs. Requests and responses containing encrypted PHI and PII can now pass through AWS WAF.

AWS Shield can now be used to protect web applications such as patient care portals and scheduling systems that operate on encrypted PHI from DDoS attacks.

Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration can now be used to accelerate the bulk transfer of large amounts of research, genetics, informatics, insurance, or payer/payment data containing PHI/PII information. Transfers can take place between a pair of AWS Regions or from an on-premises system and an AWS Region.

Amazon WorkSpaces can now be used by researchers, informaticists, hospital administrators and other users to analyze, visualize or process PHI/PII data using on-demand Windows virtual desktops.

AWS Directory Service can now be used to connect the authentication and authorization systems of organizations that use or process PHI/PII to their resources in the AWS Cloud. For example, healthcare providers operating hybrid cloud environments can now use AWS Directory Services to allow their users to easily transition between cloud and on-premises resources.

Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) can now be used to send notifications containing encrypted PHI/PII as part of patient care, payment processing, and mobile applications.

Amazon Cognito can now be used to authenticate users into mobile patient portal and payment processing applications that use PHI/PII identifiers for accounts.

Additional HIPAA Resources
Here are some additional resources that will help you to build applications that comply with HIPAA and HITECH:

Keep in Touch
In order to make use of any AWS service in any manner that involves PHI, you must first enter into an AWS Business Associate Addendum (BAA). You can contact us to start the process.

Jeff;

Analyze OpenFDA Data in R with Amazon S3 and Amazon Athena

Post Syndicated from Ryan Hood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/analyze-openfda-data-in-r-with-amazon-s3-and-amazon-athena/

One of the great benefits of Amazon S3 is the ability to host, share, or consume public data sets. This provides transparency into data to which an external data scientist or developer might not normally have access. By exposing the data to the public, you can glean many insights that would have been difficult with a data silo.

The openFDA project creates easy access to the high value, high priority, and public access data of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The data has been formatted and documented in consumer-friendly standards. Critical data related to drugs, devices, and food has been harmonized and can easily be called by application developers and researchers via API calls. OpenFDA has published two whitepapers that drill into the technical underpinnings of the API infrastructure as well as how to properly analyze the data in R. In addition, FDA makes openFDA data available on S3 in raw format.

In this post, I show how to use S3, Amazon EMR, and Amazon Athena to analyze the drug adverse events dataset. A drug adverse event is an undesirable experience associated with the use of a drug, including serious drug side effects, product use errors, product quality programs, and therapeutic failures.

Data considerations

Keep in mind that this data does have limitations. In addition, in the United States, these adverse events are submitted to the FDA voluntarily from consumers so there may not be reports for all events that occurred. There is no certainty that the reported event was actually due to the product. The FDA does not require that a causal relationship between a product and event be proven, and reports do not always contain the detail necessary to evaluate an event. Because of this, there is no way to identify the true number of events. The important takeaway to all this is that the information contained in this data has not been verified to produce cause and effect relationships. Despite this disclaimer, many interesting insights and value can be derived from the data to accelerate drug safety research.

Data analysis using SQL

For application developers who want to perform targeted searching and lookups, the API endpoints provided by the openFDA project are “ready to go” for software integration using a standard API powered by Elasticsearch, NodeJS, and Docker. However, for data analysis purposes, it is often easier to work with the data using SQL and statistical packages that expect a SQL table structure. For large-scale analysis, APIs often have query limits, such as 5000 records per query. This can cause extra work for data scientists who want to analyze the full dataset instead of small subsets of data.

To address the concern of requiring all the data in a single dataset, the openFDA project released the full 100 GB of harmonized data files that back the openFDA project onto S3. Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL. It’s a quick and easy way to answer your questions about adverse events and aspirin that does not require you to spin up databases or servers.

While you could point tools directly at the openFDA S3 files, you can find greatly improved performance and use of the data by following some of the preparation steps later in this post.

Architecture

This post explains how to use the following architecture to take the raw data provided by openFDA, leverage several AWS services, and derive meaning from the underlying data.

Steps:

  1. Load the openFDA /drug/event dataset into Spark and convert it to gzip to allow for streaming.
  2. Transform the data in Spark and save the results as a Parquet file in S3.
  3. Query the S3 Parquet file with Athena.
  4. Perform visualization and analysis of the data in R and Python on Amazon EC2.

Optimizing public data sets: A primer on data preparation

Those who want to jump right into preparing the files for Athena may want to skip ahead to the next section.

Transforming, or pre-processing, files is a common task for using many public data sets. Before you jump into the specific steps for transforming the openFDA data files into a format optimized for Athena, I thought it would be worthwhile to provide a quick exploration on the problem.

Making a dataset in S3 efficiently accessible with minimal transformation for the end user has two key elements:

  1. Partitioning the data into objects that contain a complete part of the data (such as data created within a specific month).
  2. Using file formats that make it easy for applications to locate subsets of data (for example, gzip, Parquet, ORC, etc.).

With these two key elements in mind, you can now apply transformations to the openFDA adverse event data to prepare it for Athena. You might find the data techniques employed in this post to be applicable to many of the questions you might want to ask of the public data sets stored in Amazon S3.

Before you get started, I encourage those who are interested in doing deeper healthcare analysis on AWS to make sure that you first read the AWS HIPAA Compliance whitepaper. This covers the information necessary for processing and storing patient health information (PHI).

Also, the adverse event analysis shown for aspirin is strictly for demonstration purposes and should not be used for any real decision or taken as anything other than a demonstration of AWS capabilities. However, there have been robust case studies published that have explored a causal relationship between aspirin and adverse reactions using OpenFDA data. If you are seeking research on aspirin or its risks, visit organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

Preparing data for Athena

For this walkthrough, you will start with the FDA adverse events dataset, which is stored as JSON files within zip archives on S3. You then convert it to Parquet for analysis. Why do you need to convert it? The original data download is stored in objects that are partitioned by quarter.

Here is a small sample of what you find in the adverse events (/drugs/event) section of the openFDA website.

If you were looking for events that happened in a specific quarter, this is not a bad solution. For most other scenarios, such as looking across the full history of aspirin events, it requires you to access a lot of data that you won’t need. The zip file format is not ideal for using data in place because zip readers must have random access to the file, which means the data can’t be streamed. Additionally, the zip files contain large JSON objects.

To read the data in these JSON files, a streaming JSON decoder must be used or a computer with a significant amount of RAM must decode the JSON. Opening up these files for public consumption is a great start. However, you still prepare the data with a few lines of Spark code so that the JSON can be streamed.

Step 1:  Convert the file types

Using Apache Spark on EMR, you can extract all of the zip files and pull out the events from the JSON files. To do this, use the Scala code below to deflate the zip file and create a text file. In addition, compress the JSON files with gzip to improve Spark’s performance and reduce your overall storage footprint. The Scala code can be run in either the Spark Shell or in an Apache Zeppelin notebook on your EMR cluster.

If you are unfamiliar with either Apache Zeppelin or the Spark Shell, the following posts serve as great references:

 

import scala.io.Source
import java.util.zip.ZipInputStream
import org.apache.spark.input.PortableDataStream
import org.apache.hadoop.io.compress.GzipCodec

// Input Directory
val inputFile = "s3://download.open.fda.gov/drug/event/2015q4/*.json.zip";

// Output Directory
val outputDir = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET HERE}/output/2015q4/";

// Extract zip files from 
val zipFiles = sc.binaryFiles(inputFile);

// Process zip file to extract the json as text file and save it
// in the output directory 
val rdd = zipFiles.flatMap((file: (String, PortableDataStream)) => {
    val zipStream = new ZipInputStream(file.2.open)
    val entry = zipStream.getNextEntry
    val iter = Source.fromInputStream(zipStream).getLines
    iter
}).map(.replaceAll("\s+","")).saveAsTextFile(outputDir, classOf[GzipCodec])

Step 2:  Transform JSON into Parquet

With just a few more lines of Scala code, you can use Spark’s abstractions to convert the JSON into a Spark DataFrame and then export the data back to S3 in Parquet format.

Spark requires the JSON to be in JSON Lines format to be parsed correctly into a DataFrame.

// Output Parquet directory
val outputDir = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET NAME}/output/drugevents"
// Input json file
val inputJson = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET NAME}/output/2015q4/*”
// Load dataframe from json file multiline 
val df = spark.read.json(sc.wholeTextFiles(inputJson).values)
// Extract results from dataframe
val results = df.select("results")
// Save it to Parquet
results.write.parquet(outputDir)

Step 3:  Create an Athena table

With the data cleanly prepared and stored in S3 using the Parquet format, you can now place an Athena table on top of it to get a better understanding of the underlying data.

Because the openFDA data structure incorporates several layers of nesting, it can be a complex process to try to manually derive the underlying schema in a Hive-compatible format. To shorten this process, you can load the top row of the DataFrame from the previous step into a Hive table within Zeppelin and then extract the “create  table” statement from SparkSQL.

results.createOrReplaceTempView("data")

val top1 = spark.sql("select * from data tablesample(1 rows)")

top1.write.format("parquet").mode("overwrite").saveAsTable("drugevents")

val show_cmd = spark.sql("show create table drugevents”).show(1, false)

This returns a “create table” statement that you can almost paste directly into the Athena console. Make some small modifications (adding the word “external” and replacing “using with “stored as”), and then execute the code in the Athena query editor. The table is created.

For the openFDA data, the DDL returns all string fields, as the date format used in your dataset does not conform to the yyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss[.f…] format required by Hive. For your analysis, the string format works appropriately but it would be possible to extend this code to use a Presto function to convert the strings into time stamps.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE  drugevents (
   companynumb  string, 
   safetyreportid  string, 
   safetyreportversion  string, 
   receiptdate  string, 
   patientagegroup  string, 
   patientdeathdate  string, 
   patientsex  string, 
   patientweight  string, 
   serious  string, 
   seriousnesscongenitalanomali  string, 
   seriousnessdeath  string, 
   seriousnessdisabling  string, 
   seriousnesshospitalization  string, 
   seriousnesslifethreatening  string, 
   seriousnessother  string, 
   actiondrug  string, 
   activesubstancename  string, 
   drugadditional  string, 
   drugadministrationroute  string, 
   drugcharacterization  string, 
   drugindication  string, 
   drugauthorizationnumb  string, 
   medicinalproduct  string, 
   drugdosageform  string, 
   drugdosagetext  string, 
   reactionoutcome  string, 
   reactionmeddrapt  string, 
   reactionmeddraversionpt  string)
STORED AS parquet
LOCATION
  's3://{YOUR TARGET BUCKET}/output/drugevents'

With the Athena table in place, you can start to explore the data by running ad hoc queries within Athena or doing more advanced statistical analysis in R.

Using SQL and R to analyze adverse events

Using the openFDA data with Athena makes it very easy to translate your questions into SQL code and perform quick analysis on the data. After you have prepared the data for Athena, you can begin to explore the relationship between aspirin and adverse drug events, as an example. One of the most common metrics to measure adverse drug events is the Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR). It is defined as:

PRR = (m/n)/( (M-m)/(N-n) )
Where
m = #reports with drug and event
n = #reports with drug
M = #reports with event in database
N = #reports in database

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage has the highest PRR of any reaction to aspirin when viewed in aggregate. One question you may want to ask is how the PRR has trended on a yearly basis for gastrointestinal haemorrhage since 2005.

Using the following query in Athena, you can see the PRR trend of “GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE” reactions with “ASPIRIN” since 2005:

with drug_and_event as 
(select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , reactionmeddrapt
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_drug_and_event 
from fda.drugevents
where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and medicinalproduct = 'ASPIRIN'
     and reactionmeddrapt= 'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'
group by reactionmeddrapt, rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') 
), reports_with_drug as 
(
select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_drug 
 from fda.drugevents 
 where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and medicinalproduct = 'ASPIRIN'
group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') 
), reports_with_event as 
(
   select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_event 
   from fda.drugevents
   where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and reactionmeddrapt= 'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'
   group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA')
), total_reports as 
(
   select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as total_reports 
   from fda.drugevents
   where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
   group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA')
)
select  drug_and_event.receipt_year, 
(1.0 * drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event/reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug)/ (1.0 * (reports_with_event.reports_with_event- drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event)/(total_reports.total_reports-reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug)) as prr
, drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event
, reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug
, reports_with_event.reports_with_event
, total_reports.total_reports
from drug_and_event
    inner join reports_with_drug on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = reports_with_drug.receipt_year   
    inner join reports_with_event on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = reports_with_event.receipt_year
    inner join total_reports on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = total_reports.receipt_year
order by  drug_and_event.receipt_year


One nice feature of Athena is that you can quickly connect to it via R or any other tool that can use a JDBC driver to visualize the data and understand it more clearly.

With this quick R script that can be run in R Studio either locally or on an EC2 instance, you can create a visualization of the PRR and Reporting Odds Ratio (RoR) for “GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE” reactions from “ASPIRIN” since 2005 to better understand these trends.

# connect to ATHENA
conn <- dbConnect(drv, '<Your JDBC URL>',s3_staging_dir="<Your S3 Location>",user=Sys.getenv(c("USER_NAME"),password=Sys.getenv(c("USER_PASSWORD"))

# Declare Adverse Event
adverseEvent <- "'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'"

# Build SQL Blocks
sqlFirst <- "SELECT rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year, count(DISTINCT safetyreportid) as event_count FROM fda.drugsflat WHERE rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') between '2005' and '2015'"
sqlEnd <- "GROUP BY rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') ORDER BY receipt_year"

# Extract Aspirin with adverse event counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND medicinalproduct ='ASPIRIN' AND reactionmeddrapt=",adverseEvent, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
aspirinAdverseCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Extract Aspirin counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND medicinalproduct ='ASPIRIN'", sqlEnd,sep=" ")
aspirinCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Extract adverse event counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND reactionmeddrapt=",adverseEvent, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
adverseCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# All Drug Adverse event Counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
allDrugCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Select correct rows
selAll =  allDrugCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year
selAspirin = aspirinCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year
selAdverse = adverseCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year

# Calculate Numbers
m <- c(aspirinAdverseCount$event_count)
n <- c(aspirinCount[selAspirin,2])
M <- c(adverseCount[selAdverse,2])
N <- c(allDrugCount[selAll,2])

# Calculate proptional reporting ratio
PRR = (m/n)/((M-m)/(N-n))

# Calculate reporting Odds Ratio
d = n-m
D = N-M
ROR = (m/d)/(M/D)

# Plot the PRR and ROR
g_range <- range(0, PRR,ROR)
g_range[2] <- g_range[2] + 3
yearLen = length(aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year)
axis(1,1:yearLen,lab=ax)
plot(PRR, type="o", col="blue", ylim=g_range,axes=FALSE, ann=FALSE)
axis(1,1:yearLen,lab=ax)
axis(2, las=1, at=1*0:g_range[2])
box()
lines(ROR, type="o", pch=22, lty=2, col="red")

As you can see, the PRR and RoR have both remained fairly steady over this time range. With the R Script above, all you need to do is change the adverseEvent variable from GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE to another type of reaction to analyze and compare those trends.

Summary

In this walkthrough:

  • You used a Scala script on EMR to convert the openFDA zip files to gzip.
  • You then transformed the JSON blobs into flattened Parquet files using Spark on EMR.
  • You created an Athena DDL so that you could query these Parquet files residing in S3.
  • Finally, you pointed the R package at the Athena table to analyze the data without pulling it into a database or creating your own servers.

If you have questions or suggestions, please comment below.


Next Steps

Take your skills to the next level. Learn how to optimize Amazon S3 for an architecture commonly used to enable genomic data analysis. Also, be sure to read more about running R on Amazon Athena.

 

 

 

 

 


About the Authors

Ryan Hood is a Data Engineer for AWS. He works on big data projects leveraging the newest AWS offerings. In his spare time, he enjoys watching the Cubs win the World Series and attempting to Sous-vide anything he can find in his refrigerator.

 

 

Vikram Anand is a Data Engineer for AWS. He works on big data projects leveraging the newest AWS offerings. In his spare time, he enjoys playing soccer and watching the NFL & European Soccer leagues.

 

 

Dave Rocamora is a Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services on the Open Data team. Dave is based in Seattle and when he is not opening data, he enjoys biking and drinking coffee outside.

 

 

 

 

Introducing the Self-Service Business Associate Addendum

Post Syndicated from Chad Woolf original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/introducing-the-self-service-business-associate-addendum/

HIPAA logo

Today, we made available a new feature in AWS Artifact (our auditing and compliance portal) that enables you to review, accept, and track the status of your Business Associate Addendum (BAA). With this new feature, you can accept the terms of a BAA online, and instantly designate an AWS account as a “HIPAA Account” for use with protected health information (PHI) under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). In addition, you can sign in to AWS Artifact to confirm that your account is designated as a HIPAA Account, and review the terms of the BAA for that account. If you are no longer using a designated HIPAA Account in connection with PHI, you can remove that designation using the AWS Artifact interface.

Today’s release addresses two key customer needs in particular: (1) the need to enter into a BAA quickly, and (2) the need to easily track and control whether an AWS account is designated as a HIPAA Account under a BAA.

The BAA is the first specialized industry agreement that AWS is making available online. We chose to launch with the BAA as a commitment to AWS customer organizations who are reinventing the way healthcare is researched and delivered with the cloud. Many AWS customers have great stories to tell as we work together to use technology to advance the healthcare industry.

If you already have a BAA with AWS, or if you are considering designing or migrating a new solution that will create, receive, maintain, or transmit PHI on AWS, you can use AWS Artifact to manage your HIPAA Accounts today. As with all AWS Artifact features, there are no additional fees for using AWS Artifact to review, accept, and manage BAAs online.

– Chad

AWS HIPAA Program Update – Dedicated Instances and Hosts Are No Longer Required

Post Syndicated from Craig Liebendorfer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/aws-hipaa-program-update-dedicated-instances-and-hosts-are-no-longer-required/

Over the years, we have seen tremendous growth in the use of the AWS Cloud for healthcare applications. Our customers and AWS Partner Network (APN) Partners who offer solutions that store, process, and transmit Protected Health Information (PHI) sign a Business Associate Addendum (BAA) with AWS. As part of the AWS HIPAA compliance program, customers and APN Partners must use a set of HIPAA Eligible Services for portions of their applications that store, process, and transmit PHI.

Recently, our HIPAA compliance program announced that those AWS customers and APN Partners who have signed a BAA with AWS are no longer required to use Amazon EC2 Dedicated Instances and Dedicated Hosts to store, process, or transmit PHI. To learn more about the announcement and some architectural optimizations you should consider making, see the full APN Blog post.

–  Craig

Four HIPAA Eligible Services Recently Added to the AWS Business Associate Agreement

Post Syndicated from Chad Woolf original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/four-hipaa-eligible-services-recently-added-to-the-aws-business-associate-agreement/

HIPAA logo

We are pleased to announce that the following four AWS services have been added in recent weeks to the AWS Business Associate Agreement (BAA):

As with all HIPAA Eligible Services covered under the BAA, Protected Health Information (PHI) must be encrypted while at rest or in transit. See Architecting for HIPAA Security and Compliance on Amazon Web Services, which explains how you can configure each AWS HIPAA Eligible Service to store, process, and transmit PHI.

For more details, see the full AWS Blog post.

– Chad

Roundup of AWS HIPAA Eligible Service Announcements

Post Syndicated from Ana Visneski original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/roundup-of-aws-hipaa-eligible-service-announcements/

At AWS we have had a number of HIPAA eligible service announcements. Patrick Combes, the Healthcare and Life Sciences Global Technical Leader at AWS, and Aaron Friedman, a Healthcare and Life Sciences Partner Solutions Architect at AWS, have written this post to tell you all about it.

-Ana


We are pleased to announce that the following AWS services have been added to the BAA in recent weeks: Amazon API Gateway, AWS Direct Connect, AWS Database Migration Service, and Amazon SQS. All four of these services facilitate moving data into and through AWS, and we are excited to see how customers will be using these services to advance their solutions in healthcare. While we know the use cases for each of these services are vast, we wanted to highlight some ways that customers might use these services with Protected Health Information (PHI).

As with all HIPAA-eligible services covered under the AWS Business Associate Addendum (BAA), PHI must be encrypted while at-rest or in-transit. We encourage you to reference our HIPAA whitepaper, which details how you might configure each of AWS’ HIPAA-eligible services to store, process, and transmit PHI. And of course, for any portion of your application that does not touch PHI, you can use any of our 90+ services to deliver the best possible experience to your users. You can find some ideas on architecting for HIPAA on our website.

Amazon API Gateway
Amazon API Gateway is a web service that makes it easy for developers to create, publish, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale. With PHI now able to securely transit API Gateway, applications such as patient/provider directories, patient dashboards, medical device reports/telemetry, HL7 message processing and more can securely accept and deliver information to any number and type of applications running within AWS or client presentation layers.

One particular area we are excited to see how our customers leverage Amazon API Gateway is with the exchange of healthcare information. The Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) specification will likely become the next-generation standard for how health information is shared between entities. With strong support for RESTful architectures, FHIR can be easily codified within an API on Amazon API Gateway. For more information on FHIR, our AWS Healthcare Competency partner, Datica, has an excellent primer.

AWS Direct Connect
Some of our healthcare and life sciences customers, such as Johnson & Johnson, leverage hybrid architectures and need to connect their on-premises infrastructure to the AWS Cloud. Using AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in many cases can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections.

In addition to a hybrid-architecture strategy, AWS Direct Connect can assist with the secure migration of data to AWS, which is the first step to using the wide array of our HIPAA-eligible services to store and process PHI, such as Amazon S3 and Amazon EMR. Additionally, you can connect to third-party/externally-hosted applications or partner-provided solutions as well as securely and reliably connect end users to those same healthcare applications, such as a cloud-based Electronic Medical Record system.

AWS Database Migration Service (DMS)
To date, customers have migrated over 20,000 databases to AWS through the AWS Database Migration Service. Customers often use DMS as part of their cloud migration strategy, and now it can be used to securely and easily migrate your core databases containing PHI to the AWS Cloud. As your source database remains fully operational during the migration with DMS, you minimize downtime for these business-critical applications as you migrate your databases to AWS. This service can now be utilized to securely transfer such items as patient directories, payment/transaction record databases, revenue management databases and more into AWS.

Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS)
Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) is a message queueing service for reliably communicating among distributed software components and microservices at any scale. One way that we envision customers using SQS with PHI is to buffer requests between application components that pass HL7 or FHIR messages to other parts of their application. You can leverage features like SQS FIFO to ensure your messages containing PHI are passed in the order they are received and delivered in the order they are received, and available until a consumer processes and deletes it. This is important for applications with patient record updates or processing payment information in a hospital.

Let’s get building!
We are beyond excited to see how our customers will use our newly HIPAA-eligible services as part of their healthcare applications. What are you most excited for? Leave a comment below.

Announcing 5 Partners That Have Achieved AWS Service Partner Status for AWS Service Catalog

Post Syndicated from Ana Visneski original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/announcing-5-partners-that-have-achieved-aws-service-partner-status-for-aws-service-catalog/

Allison Johnson from the AWS Marketplace wrote the guest post below to share some important APN news.

-Ana


At last November’s re:Invent, we announced the AWS Service Delivery Program to help AWS customers find partners in the AWS Partner Network (APN) with expertise in specific AWS services and skills.  Today we are adding Management Tools as a new Partner Solution to the Service Delivery program, and AWS Service Catalog is the first product to launch in that category.  APN Service Catalog partners help create catalogs of IT services that are approved by the customer’s organization for use on AWS.  With AWS Service Catalog, customers and APN partners can centrally manage commonly deployed IT services to help achieve consistent governance and meet compliance requirements while enabling users to self-provision approved services.

We have an enormous APN partner ecosystem, with thousands of consulting partners, and this program simplifies the process of finding partners experienced in implementing Service Catalog.  The consulting partners we are launching this program with today are BizCloud Experts, Cloudticity, Flux7, Logicworks, and Wipro.

The process our partners go through to achieve the Service Catalog designation is not easy.  All of the partners must have publicly referenceable customers using Service Catalog, and there is a technical review to ensure that they understand Service Catalog almost as well as our own Solution Architects do!

One common theme from all of the partner’s technical applications was the requirement to help their customers meet HIPAA compliance objectives.  HIPAA requires three essential components: 1) establishment of processes, 2) enforcement of processes, and 3) separation of roles.  Service Catalog helps with all three.  Using AWS CloudFormation templates, Service Catalog Launch constraints, and identity and access management (IAM) based permission to Service Catalog portfolios, partners are able to establish and strictly enforce a process for infrastructure delivery for their customers.  Separation of roles is achieved by using Service Catalog’s launch constraints and IAM, and our partners were able to create separation of roles such that developers were agile but were only allowed to do what their policies permitted them to.

Another common theme was the use of Service Catalog for self-service discovery and launch of AWS services.  Customers can navigate to the Service Catalog to view the dashboard of products available to them, and they are empowered to launch their own resources.

Customers also use Service Catalog for standardization and central management.  The customer’s service catalog manager can manage resource updates and changes via the Service Catalog dashboard.  Tags can be standardized across instances launched from the Service Catalog.

Below are visual diagrams of Service Catalog workflows created for two of BizCloud Expert’s customers.

Ready to learn more?  If you are an AWS customer looking for a consulting partner with Service Catalog expertise, click here for more information about our launch partners.  If you are a consulting partner and would like to apply for membership, contact us.

-Allison Johnson

 

AWS Hot Startups – March 2017

Post Syndicated from Ana Visneski original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hot-startups-march-2017/

As the madness of March rounds up, take a break from all the basketball and check out the cool startups Tina Barr brings you for this month!

-Ana


The arrival of spring brings five new startups this month:

  • Amino Apps – providing social networks for hundreds of thousands of communities.
  • Appboy – empowering brands to strengthen customer relationships.
  • Arterys – revolutionizing the medical imaging industry.
  • Protenus – protecting patient data for healthcare organizations.
  • Syapse – improving targeted cancer care with shared data from across the country.

In case you missed them, check out February’s hot startups here.

Amino Apps (New York, NY)
Amino Logo
Amino Apps was founded on the belief that interest-based communities were underdeveloped and outdated, particularly when it came to mobile. CEO Ben Anderson and CTO Yin Wang created the app to give users access to hundreds of thousands of communities, each of them a complete social network dedicated to a single topic. Some of the largest communities have over 1 million members and are built around topics like popular TV shows, video games, sports, and an endless number of hobbies and other interests. Amino hosts communities from around the world and is currently available in six languages with many more on the way.

Navigating the Amino app is easy. Simply download the app (iOS or Android), sign up with a valid email address, choose a profile picture, and start exploring. Users can search for communities and join any that fit their interests. Each community has chatrooms, multimedia content, quizzes, and a seamless commenting system. If a community doesn’t exist yet, users can create it in minutes using the Amino Creator and Manager app (ACM). The largest user-generated communities are turned into their own apps, which gives communities their own piece of real estate on members’ phones, as well as in app stores.

Amino’s vast global network of hundreds of thousands of communities is run on AWS services. Every day users generate, share, and engage with an enormous amount of content across hundreds of mobile applications. By leveraging AWS services including Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Amazon S3, Amazon SQS, and Amazon CloudFront, Amino can continue to provide new features to their users while scaling their service capacity to keep up with user growth.

Interested in joining Amino? Check out their jobs page here.

Appboy (New York, NY)
In 2011, Bill Magnuson, Jon Hyman, and Mark Ghermezian saw a unique opportunity to strengthen and humanize relationships between brands and their customers through technology. The trio created Appboy to empower brands to build long-term relationships with their customers and today they are the leading lifecycle engagement platform for marketing, growth, and engagement teams. The team recognized that as rapid mobile growth became undeniable, many brands were becoming frustrated with the lack of compelling and seamless cross-channel experiences offered by existing marketing clouds. Many of today’s top mobile apps and enterprise companies trust Appboy to take their marketing to the next level. Appboy manages user profiles for nearly 700 million monthly active users, and is used to power more than 10 billion personalized messages monthly across a multitude of channels and devices.

Appboy creates a holistic user profile that offers a single view of each customer. That user profile in turn powers contextual cross-channel messaging, lifecycle engagement automation, and robust campaign insights and optimization opportunities. Appboy offers solutions that allow brands to create push notifications, targeted emails, in-app and in-browser messages, news feed cards, and webhooks to enhance the user experience and increase customer engagement. The company prides itself on its interoperability, connecting to a variety of complimentary marketing tools and technologies so brands can build the perfect stack to enable their strategies and experiments in real time.

AWS makes it easy for Appboy to dynamically size all of their service components and automatically scale up and down as needed. They use an array of services including Elastic Load Balancing, AWS Lambda, Amazon CloudWatch, Auto Scaling groups, and Amazon S3 to help scale capacity and better deal with unpredictable customer loads.

To keep up with the latest marketing trends and tactics, visit the Appboy digital magazine, Relate. Appboy was also recently featured in the #StartupsOnAir video series where they gave insight into their AWS usage.

Arterys (San Francisco, CA)
Getting test results back from a physician can often be a time consuming and tedious process. Clinicians typically employ a variety of techniques to manually measure medical images and then make their assessments. Arterys founders Fabien Beckers, John Axerio-Cilies, Albert Hsiao, and Shreyas Vasanawala realized that much more computation and advanced analytics were needed to harness all of the valuable information in medical images, especially those generated by MRI and CT scanners. Clinicians were often skipping measurements and making assessments based mostly on qualitative data. Their solution was to start a cloud/AI software company focused on accelerating data-driven medicine with advanced software products for post-processing of medical images.

Arterys’ products provide timely, accurate, and consistent quantification of images, improve speed to results, and improve the quality of the information offered to the treating physician. This allows for much better tracking of a patient’s condition, and thus better decisions about their care. Advanced analytics, such as deep learning and distributed cloud computing, are used to process images. The first Arterys product can contour cardiac anatomy as accurately as experts, but takes only 15-20 seconds instead of the 45-60 minutes required to do it manually. Their computing cloud platform is also fully HIPAA compliant.

Arterys relies on a variety of AWS services to process their medical images. Using deep learning and other advanced analytic tools, Arterys is able to render images without latency over a web browser using AWS G2 instances. They use Amazon EC2 extensively for all of their compute needs, including inference and rendering, and Amazon S3 is used to archive images that aren’t needed immediately, as well as manage costs. Arterys also employs Amazon Route 53, AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon EC2 Container Service.

Check out this quick video about the technology that Arterys is creating. They were also recently featured in the #StartupsOnAir video series and offered a quick demo of their product.

Protenus (Baltimore, MD)
Protenus Logo
Protenus founders Nick Culbertson and Robert Lord were medical students at Johns Hopkins Medical School when they saw first-hand how Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems could be used to improve patient care and share clinical data more efficiently. With increased efficiency came a huge issue – an onslaught of serious security and privacy concerns. Over the past two years, 140 million medical records have been breached, meaning that approximately 1 in 3 Americans have had their health data compromised. Health records contain a repository of sensitive information and a breach of that data can cause major havoc in a patient’s life – namely identity theft, prescription fraud, Medicare/Medicaid fraud, and improper performance of medical procedures. Using their experience and knowledge from former careers in the intelligence community and involvement in a leading hedge fund, Nick and Robert developed the prototype and algorithms that launched Protenus.

Today, Protenus offers a number of solutions that detect breaches and misuse of patient data for healthcare organizations nationwide. Using advanced analytics and AI, Protenus’ health data insights platform understands appropriate vs. inappropriate use of patient data in the EHR. It also protects privacy, aids compliance with HIPAA regulations, and ensures trust for patients and providers alike.

Protenus built and operates its SaaS offering atop Amazon EC2, where Dedicated Hosts and encrypted Amazon EBS volume are used to ensure compliance with HIPAA regulation for the storage of Protected Health Information. They use Elastic Load Balancing and Amazon Route 53 for DNS, enabling unique, secure client specific access points to their Protenus instance.

To learn more about threats to patient data, read Hospitals’ Biggest Threat to Patient Data is Hiding in Plain Sight on the Protenus blog. Also be sure to check out their recent video in the #StartupsOnAir series for more insight into their product.

Syapse (Palo Alto, CA)
Syapse provides a comprehensive software solution that enables clinicians to treat patients with precision medicine for targeted cancer therapies — treatments that are designed and chosen using genetic or molecular profiling. Existing hospital IT doesn’t support the robust infrastructure and clinical workflows required to treat patients with precision medicine at scale, but Syapse centralizes and organizes patient data to clinicians at the point of care. Syapse offers a variety of solutions for oncologists that allow them to access the full scope of patient data longitudinally, view recommended treatments or clinical trials for similar patients, and track outcomes over time. These solutions are helping health systems across the country to improve patient outcomes by offering the most innovative care to cancer patients.

Leading health systems such as Stanford Health Care, Providence St. Joseph Health, and Intermountain Healthcare are using Syapse to improve patient outcomes, streamline clinical workflows, and scale their precision medicine programs. A group of experts known as the Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) reviews complex cases and evaluates patient data, documents notes, and disseminates treatment recommendations to the treating physician. Syapse also provides reports that give health system staff insight into their institution’s oncology care, which can be used toward quality improvement, business goals, and understanding variables in the oncology service line.

Syapse uses Amazon Virtual Private Cloud, Amazon EC2 Dedicated Instances, and Amazon Elastic Block Store to build a high-performance, scalable, and HIPAA-compliant data platform that enables health systems to make precision medicine part of routine cancer care for patients throughout the country.

Be sure to check out the Syapse blog to learn more and also their recent video on the #StartupsOnAir video series where they discuss their product, HIPAA compliance, and more about how they are using AWS.

Thank you for checking out another month of awesome hot startups!

-Tina Barr

 

How to Use Service Control Policies in AWS Organizations to Enforce Healthcare Compliance in Your AWS Account

Post Syndicated from Aaron Lima original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-use-service-control-policies-in-aws-organizations-to-enforce-healthcare-compliance-in-your-aws-account/

AWS customers with healthcare compliance requirements such as the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Good Laboratory, Clinical, and Manufacturing Practices (GxP) might want to control access to the AWS services their developers use to build and operate their GxP and HIPAA systems. For example, customers with GxP requirements might approve AWS as a supplier on the basis of AWS’s SOC certification and therefore want to ensure that only the services in scope for SOC are available to developers of GxP systems. Likewise, customers with HIPAA requirements might want to ensure that only AWS HIPAA Eligible Services are available to store and process protected health information (PHI). Now with AWS Organizations—policy-based management for multiple AWS accounts—you can programmatically control access to the services within your AWS accounts.

In this blog post, I show how to restrict an AWS account to HIPAA Eligible Services as well as explain why you should include additional supporting AWS services with service control policies (SCPs) in AWS Organizations. Although this example is HIPAA related, you can repurpose it for GxP, a database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) solutions, or other healthcare compliance requirements for which you want to control developers’ access to a specific scope of services.

Managing an account hierarchy with AWS Organizations

Let’s say I manage four AWS accounts: a Payer account, a Development account, a Corporate IT account, and a fourth account that contains PHI. In accordance with AWS’s Business Associate Agreement (BAA), I want to be sure that only AWS HIPAA Eligible Services are allowed in the fourth account along with supporting AWS services that help encrypt and control access to the account. The following diagram shows a logical view of the associated account structure.

Diagram showing the logical view of the account structure

As illustrated in the preceding diagram, Organizations allows me to create this account hierarchy between the four AWS accounts I manage. Before I proceed to show how to create and apply an SCP to the HIPAA account in this hierarchy, I’ll define some Organizations terminology that I use in this post:

  • Organization – A consolidated set of AWS accounts that you manage. For the preceding example, I have already created my organization and invited my accounts. For more information about creating an organization and inviting accounts, see AWS Organizations – Policy-Based Management for Multiple AWS Accounts.
  • Master account – The management hub for Organizations. This is where I invite existing accounts, create new accounts and manage my SCPs. I run all commands demonstrated in this post from this master account. This is also my payer account in the preceding account structure diagram.
  • Service control policy (SCP) – A set of controls that the organization’s master account can apply to the organization, selected OUs, and selected accounts. SCPs allow me to whitelist or blacklist services and actions that I can delegate to the users and roles in the account to which the SCPs are applied. The resultant security permissions for a user and role are the union of the permissions in an SCP and the permissions in an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policy. I refer to SCPs as a policy type in some of this post’s command-line arguments.
  • Organizational unit (OU) – A container for a set of AWS accounts. OUs can be arranged into a hierarchy that can be as many as five levels deep. The top of the hierarchy of OUs is also known as the administrative root. In the walkthrough, I create a HIPAA OU and apply my policy to that OU. I then move the account into the OU to have the policy applied. To manage the organization depicted above, I might create OUs for my Corporate IT account and my Development account.

To restrict services in the fourth account to HIPAA Eligible Services and required supporting services, I will show how to create and apply an SCP to the account with the following steps:

  1. Create a JSON document that lists HIPAA Eligible Services and supporting AWS services.
  2. Create an SCP with a JSON document.
  3. Create an OU for the HIPAA account, and move the account into the OU.
  4. Attach the SCP to the HIPAA OU.
  5. Verify which SCPs are attached to the HIPAA OU.
  6. Detach the default FullAWSAccess SCP from the OU.
  7. Verify SCP enforcement.

How to create and apply an SCP to an account

Let’s walk through the steps to create an SCP and apply it to an account. I can manage my organization by using the Organizations console, AWS CLI, or AWS API from my master account. For the purposes of this post, I will demonstrate the creation and application of an SCP to my account by using the AWS CLI.

1.  Create a JSON document that lists HIPAA Eligible Services and supporting AWS services

Creating an SCP will be familiar if you have experience writing an IAM policy because the grammar in crafting the policy is similar. I will create a JSON document that lists only the services I want to allow in my account, and I will use this JSON document to create my SCP via the command line. The SCP I create from this document allows all actions for all resources of the listed services, effectively turning on only these services in my account. I name the document HIPAAExample.json and save it to the directory from which I will demonstrate the CLI commands.

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Action": [
                 "dynamodb:*","rds:*","ec2:*","s3:*","elasticmapreduce:*",
                 "glacier:*","elasticloadbalancing:*", "cloudwatch:*",
                 "importexport:*", "cloudformation:*", "redshift:*",
                 "iam:*", "health:*", "config:*", "snowball:*",
                 "trustedadvisor:*", "kms:*", "apigateway:*",
                 "autoscaling:*", "directconnect:*",
	         "execute-api:*", "sts:*"
             ],
             "Effect": "Allow",
             "Resource": "*"
        }
    ]
}

Note that the SCP includes more than just the HIPAA Eligible Services.

Why include additional supporting services in a HIPAA SCP?

You can use any service in your account, but you can use only HIPAA Eligible Services to store and process PHI. Some services, such as IAM and AWS Key Management Service (KMS), can be used because these services do not directly store or process PHI, but they might still be needed for administrative and security purposes.

To those ends, I include the following supporting services in the SCP to help me with account administration and security:

  • Access controls – I include IAM to ensure that I can manage access to resources in the account. Though Organizations can limit whether a service is available, I still need the granularity of access control that IAM provides.
  • Encryption – I need a way to encrypt the data. The integration of AWS KMS with Amazon Redshift, Amazon RDS, and Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) helps with this security requirement.
  • Auditing – I also need to be able to demonstrate controls in practice, track changes, and discover any malicious activity in my account. You will note that AWS CloudTrail is not included in the SCP, which prohibits any mutating actions against CloudTrail from users within the account. However, when setting up the account, CloudTrail was set up to send logs to a logging account as recommended in AWS Multiple Account Security Strategy. The logs do not reside in the account, and no one has privileges to change the trail including root or administrators, which helps ensure the protection of the API logging of the account. This highlights how SCPs can be used to secure services in an account.
  • Automation – Automation can help me with my security controls as shown in How to Translate HIPAA Controls to AWS CloudFormation Templates: Part 3 of the Automating HIPAA Compliance Series; therefore, I consider including AWS CloudFormation as a way to ensure that applications deployed in the account adhere to my security and compliance policies. Auto Scaling also is an important service to include to help me scale to meet demand and control cost.
  • Monitoring and support – The remaining services in the SCP such as Amazon CloudWatch are needed to make sure that I can monitor the environment and have visibility into the health of the workloads and applications in my AWS account, helping me maintain operational control. AWS Trusted Advisor is a service that helps to make sure that my cloud environment is well architected.

Now that I have created my JSON document with the services that I will include and explained in detail why I include them, I can create my SCP.

2.  Create an SCP with a JSON document

I will now create the SCP via the CLI with the aws organizations create-policy command. Using the name parameter, I name the SCP and define that I am creating an SCP, both of which are required parameters. I then provide a brief description of the SCP and specify the location of the JSON document I created in Step 1.

aws organizations create-policy --name hipaa-example-policy --type SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY --description
 
"All HIPAA eligible services plus supporting AWS Services." --content file://./HIPAAExample.json

Output

{
    "policy": {
        "policySummary": {
            "type": "SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY",
            "arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:policy/o-kzceys2q4j/SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY/p-6ldl8bll",
            "name": "hipaa-example-policy",
            "awsManaged": false,
            "id": "p-6ldl8bll", "description": "All HIPAA eligible services and supporting AWS services."

I take note of the policy-id because I need it to attach the SCP to my OU in Step 4. Note: Throughout this post, fictitious placeholder values are shown for the purposes of demonstrating this post’s solution.

3.  Create an OU for the HIPAA account, and move the account into the OU

Grouping accounts by function will make it easier to manage the organization and apply policies across multiple accounts. In this step, I create an OU for the HIPAA account and move the target account into the OU. To create an OU, I need to know the ID for the parent object under which I will be placing the OU. In this case, I will place it under the root and need the ID for the root. To get the root ID, I run the list-roots command.

aws organizations list-roots

Output

{
    "Roots": [
        {
            "PolicyTypes": [
                {
                    "Status": "ENABLED", 
                    "Type": "SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY"
                }
            ], 
            "Id": "r-rth4", 
            "Arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:root/o-p9bx61i0h1/r-rth4", 
            "Name": "Root"
        }
    ]
}

With the root ID, I can proceed to create the OU under the root.

aws organizations create-organizational-unit --parent-id r-rth4 --name HIPAA-Accounts

Output

{
    "OrganizationalUnit": {
       "Id": "ou-rth4-ezo5wonz", 
        "Arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:ou/o-p9bx61i0h1/ou-rth4-ezo5wonz", 
        "Name": "HIPAA-Accounts"
    }
}

I take note of the OU ID in the output because I need it in the next command to move my target account. I will also need the root ID in the command because I am moving the target account from the root into the OU.

aws organizations move-account --account-id 098765432110 --source-parent-id r-rth4 --destination-parent-id 
ou-rth4-ezo5wonz

No Output

 

4.  Attach the SCP to the HIPAA OU

Even though you may have enabled All Features in your organization, you still need to enable SCPs at the root level of the organization to attach SCPs to objects. To do this in my case, I will run the enable-policy-type command and provide the root ID.

aws organizations enable-policy-type --root-id r-rth4 --policy-type SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY

Output

{
    "Root": {
        "PolicyTypes": [], 
        "Id": "r-rth4", 
        "Arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:root/o-p9bx61i0h1/r-rth4", 
        "Name": "Root"
    }
}

Now, I will attach the SCP to the OU by using the aws organizations attach-policy command. I must include the target-id, which is the OU ID noted in the previous step and the policy-id from the output of the command in Step 2.

aws organizations attach-policy --target-id ou-rth4-ezo5wonz --policy-id p-6ldl8bll

No Output

 

5.  Verify which SCPs are attached to the HIPAA OU

I will now verify which SCPs are attached to my account by using the aws organization list-policies-for-target command. I must provide the OU ID with the target-id parameter and then filter for SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY type.

aws organizations list-policies-for-target --target-id ou-rth4-ezo5wonz --filter SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY

Output

{
    "policies": [
        {
            "awsManaged": false,
            "arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:policy/o-kzceys2q4j/SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY/p-6ldl8bll",
            "id": "p-6ldl8bll",
            "description": "All HIPAA eligible services plus supporting AWS Services.",
            "name": "hipaa-example-policy",
            "type": "SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY"
        },
        {
            "awsManaged": true,
            "arn": "arn:aws:organizations::aws:policy/SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY/p-FullAWSAccess",
            "id": "p-FullAWSAccess",
            "description": "Allows access to every operation",
            "name": "FullAWSAccess",
            "type": "SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY"
        }
    ]
}

As the output shows, two SCPs are attached to this account. I want to detach the FullAWSAccess SCP so that the HIPAA SCP is properly in effect. The FullAWSAccess SCP is an Allow SCP that allows all AWS services. If I were to leave the default FullAWSAccess SCP in place, it would grant access to services I do not want to allow in my account. Detaching the FullAWSAccess SCP means that only the services I allow in the hipaa-example-policy are allowed in my account. Note that if I were to create a Deny SCP, the SCP would take precedence over an Allow SCP.

6.  Detach the default FullAWSAccess SCP from the OU

Before detaching the default FullAWSAccess SCP from my account, I run the aws workspaces describe-workspaces call from the Amazon WorkSpaces API. I am currently not running any WorkSpaces, so the output shows an empty list. However, I will test this again after I detach the FullAWSAccess SCP from my account and am left with only the HIPAA SCP attached to the account.

aws workspaces describe-workspaces

Output

{
    "Workspaces": []
}

In order to detach the FullAWSAccess SCP, I must run the aws organizations detach-policy command, providing it the policy-id and target-id of the OU.

aws organizations detach-policy --policy-id p-FullAWSAccess --target-id ou-rth4-ezo5wonz

No Output

 

If I rerun the list-policies-for-target command again, I see that only one SCP is attached to my account that allows HIPAA Eligible Services, as shown in the following output.

aws organizations list-policies-for-target --target-id ou-rth4-ezo5wonz --filter SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY

Output

 

{
    "policies": [
        {
            "name": "hipaa-example-policy",
            "arn": "arn:aws:organizations::012345678900:policy/o-kzceys2q4j/SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY/p-6ldl8bll",
            "description": "All HIPAA eligible services plus supporting AWS Services.",
            "awsManaged": false,
            "id": "p-6ldl8bll",
            "type": "SERVICE_CONTROL_POLICY"
        }
    ]
}

Now I can test and verify the enforcement of this SCP.

7.  Verify SCP enforcement

Previously, the administrator of the account had full access to all AWS services, including Amazon WorkSpaces. His IAM policy for Amazon WorkSpaces allows all actions for Amazon WorkSpaces. However, after I apply the HIPAA SCP to the account, this changes the effect of the IAM policy to deny all actions for Amazon WorkSpaces because it is not an allowed service.

The following screenshot of the IAM policy simulator shows which permissions are set for the administrator after I apply the HIPAA SCP. Also, note that the IAM policy simulator shows that the Deny permission is being denied by Organizations. Because the policy simulator is aware of the SCPs attached to an account, it is a good tool to use when troubleshooting or validating an SCP.

If I run the aws workspaces describe-workspaces call again as I did in Step 5, this time I receive an AccessDeniedException error, which validates that the HIPAA SCP is working because Amazon WorkSpaces is not an allowed service in the SCP.

aws workspaces describe-workspaces

Output

An error occurred (AccessDeniedException) when calling the DescribeWorkspaces operation: 
User: arn:aws:iam::098765432110:user/admin is not authorized to perform: workspaces:DescribeWorkspaces 
on resource: arn:aws:workspaces:us-east-1:098765432110:workspace/*

This completes the process of creating and applying an SCP to my account.

Summary

In this blog post, I have shown how to create an SCP and attach it to an OU to restrict an account to HIPAA Eligible Services and additional supporting services. I also showed how to create an OU, move an account into the OU, and then validate the SCP attached to the OU. For more information, see AWS Cloud Computing in Healthcare.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about or issues with implementing this solution, please start a new thread on the IAM forum.

– Aaron

In Case You Missed These: AWS Security Blog Posts from January, February, and March

Post Syndicated from Craig Liebendorfer original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/in-case-you-missed-these-aws-security-blog-posts-from-january-february-and-march/

Image of lock and key

In case you missed any AWS Security Blog posts published so far in 2017, they are summarized and linked to below. The posts are shown in reverse chronological order (most recent first), and the subject matter ranges from protecting dynamic web applications against DDoS attacks to monitoring AWS account configuration changes and API calls to Amazon EC2 security groups.

March

March 22: How to Help Protect Dynamic Web Applications Against DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53
Using a content delivery network (CDN) such as Amazon CloudFront to cache and serve static text and images or downloadable objects such as media files and documents is a common strategy to improve webpage load times, reduce network bandwidth costs, lessen the load on web servers, and mitigate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. AWS WAF is a web application firewall that can be deployed on CloudFront to help protect your application against DDoS attacks by giving you control over which traffic to allow or block by defining security rules. When users access your application, the Domain Name System (DNS) translates human-readable domain names (for example, www.example.com) to machine-readable IP addresses (for example, 192.0.2.44). A DNS service, such as Amazon Route 53, can effectively connect users’ requests to a CloudFront distribution that proxies requests for dynamic content to the infrastructure hosting your application’s endpoints. In this blog post, I show you how to deploy CloudFront with AWS WAF and Route 53 to help protect dynamic web applications (with dynamic content such as a response to user input) against DDoS attacks. The steps shown in this post are key to implementing the overall approach described in AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency and enable the built-in, managed DDoS protection service, AWS Shield.

March 21: New AWS Encryption SDK for Python Simplifies Multiple Master Key Encryption
The AWS Cryptography team is happy to announce a Python implementation of the AWS Encryption SDK. This new SDK helps manage data keys for you, and it simplifies the process of encrypting data under multiple master keys. As a result, this new SDK allows you to focus on the code that drives your business forward. It also provides a framework you can easily extend to ensure that you have a cryptographic library that is configured to match and enforce your standards. The SDK also includes ready-to-use examples. If you are a Java developer, you can refer to this blog post to see specific Java examples for the SDK. In this blog post, I show you how you can use the AWS Encryption SDK to simplify the process of encrypting data and how to protect your encryption keys in ways that help improve application availability by not tying you to a single region or key management solution.

March 21: Updated CJIS Workbook Now Available by Request
The need for guidance when implementing Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS)–compliant solutions has become of paramount importance as more law enforcement customers and technology partners move to store and process criminal justice data in the cloud. AWS services allow these customers to easily and securely architect a CJIS-compliant solution when handling criminal justice data, creating a durable, cost-effective, and secure IT infrastructure that better supports local, state, and federal law enforcement in carrying out their public safety missions. AWS has created several documents (collectively referred to as the CJIS Workbook) to assist you in aligning with the FBI’s CJIS Security Policy. You can use the workbook as a framework for developing CJIS-compliant architecture in the AWS Cloud. The workbook helps you define and test the controls you operate, and document the dependence on the controls that AWS operates (compute, storage, database, networking, regions, Availability Zones, and edge locations).

March 9: New Cloud Directory API Makes It Easier to Query Data Along Multiple Dimensions
Today, we made available a new Cloud Directory API, ListObjectParentPaths, that enables you to retrieve all available parent paths for any directory object across multiple hierarchies. Use this API when you want to fetch all parent objects for a specific child object. The order of the paths and objects returned is consistent across iterative calls to the API, unless objects are moved or deleted. In case an object has multiple parents, the API allows you to control the number of paths returned by using a paginated call pattern. In this blog post, I use an example directory to demonstrate how this new API enables you to retrieve data across multiple dimensions to implement powerful applications quickly.

March 8: How to Access the AWS Management Console Using AWS Microsoft AD and Your On-Premises Credentials
AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also known as AWS Microsoft AD, is a managed Microsoft Active Directory (AD) hosted in the AWS Cloud. Now, AWS Microsoft AD makes it easy for you to give your users permission to manage AWS resources by using on-premises AD administrative tools. With AWS Microsoft AD, you can grant your on-premises users permissions to resources such as the AWS Management Console instead of adding AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user accounts or configuring AD Federation Services (AD FS) with Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). In this blog post, I show how to use AWS Microsoft AD to enable your on-premises AD users to sign in to the AWS Management Console with their on-premises AD user credentials to access and manage AWS resources through IAM roles.

March 7: How to Protect Your Web Application Against DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon Route 53 and an External Content Delivery Network
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are attempts by a malicious actor to flood a network, system, or application with more traffic, connections, or requests than it is able to handle. To protect your web application against DDoS attacks, you can use AWS Shield, a DDoS protection service that AWS provides automatically to all AWS customers at no additional charge. You can use AWS Shield in conjunction with DDoS-resilient web services such as Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53 to improve your ability to defend against DDoS attacks. Learn more about architecting for DDoS resiliency by reading the AWS Best Practices for DDoS Resiliency whitepaper. You also have the option of using Route 53 with an externally hosted content delivery network (CDN). In this blog post, I show how you can help protect the zone apex (also known as the root domain) of your web application by using Route 53 to perform a secure redirect to prevent discovery of your application origin.

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February

February 27: Now Generally Available – AWS Organizations: Policy-Based Management for Multiple AWS Accounts
Today, AWS Organizations moves from Preview to General Availability. You can use Organizations to centrally manage multiple AWS accounts, with the ability to create a hierarchy of organizational units (OUs). You can assign each account to an OU, define policies, and then apply those policies to an entire hierarchy, specific OUs, or specific accounts. You can invite existing AWS accounts to join your organization, and you can also create new accounts. All of these functions are available from the AWS Management Console, the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), and through the AWS Organizations API.To read the full AWS Blog post about today’s launch, see AWS Organizations – Policy-Based Management for Multiple AWS Accounts.

February 23: s2n Is Now Handling 100 Percent of SSL Traffic for Amazon S3
Today, we’ve achieved another important milestone for securing customer data: we have replaced OpenSSL with s2n for all internal and external SSL traffic in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) commercial regions. This was implemented with minimal impact to customers, and multiple means of error checking were used to ensure a smooth transition, including client integration tests, catching potential interoperability conflicts, and identifying memory leaks through fuzz testing.

February 22: Easily Replace or Attach an IAM Role to an Existing EC2 Instance by Using the EC2 Console
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles enable your applications running on Amazon EC2 to use temporary security credentials. IAM roles for EC2 make it easier for your applications to make API requests securely from an instance because they do not require you to manage AWS security credentials that the applications use. Recently, we enabled you to use temporary security credentials for your applications by attaching an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance by using the AWS CLI and SDK. To learn more, see New! Attach an AWS IAM Role to an Existing Amazon EC2 Instance by Using the AWS CLI. Starting today, you can attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance from the EC2 console. You can also use the EC2 console to replace an IAM role attached to an existing instance. In this blog post, I will show how to attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance from the EC2 console.

February 22: How to Audit Your AWS Resources for Security Compliance by Using Custom AWS Config Rules
AWS Config Rules enables you to implement security policies as code for your organization and evaluate configuration changes to AWS resources against these policies. You can use Config rules to audit your use of AWS resources for compliance with external compliance frameworks such as CIS AWS Foundations Benchmark and with your internal security policies related to the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP), and other regimes. AWS provides some predefined, managed Config rules. You also can create custom Config rules based on criteria you define within an AWS Lambda function. In this post, I show how to create a custom rule that audits AWS resources for security compliance by enabling VPC Flow Logs for an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). The custom rule meets requirement 4.3 of the CIS AWS Foundations Benchmark: “Ensure VPC flow logging is enabled in all VPCs.”

February 13: AWS Announces CISPE Membership and Compliance with First-Ever Code of Conduct for Data Protection in the Cloud
I have two exciting announcements today, both showing AWS’s continued commitment to ensuring that customers can comply with EU Data Protection requirements when using our services.

February 13: How to Enable Multi-Factor Authentication for AWS Services by Using AWS Microsoft AD and On-Premises Credentials
You can now enable multi-factor authentication (MFA) for users of AWS services such as Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight and their on-premises credentials by using your AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Enterprise Edition) directory, also known as AWS Microsoft AD. MFA adds an extra layer of protection to a user name and password (the first “factor”) by requiring users to enter an authentication code (the second factor), which has been provided by your virtual or hardware MFA solution. These factors together provide additional security by preventing access to AWS services, unless users supply a valid MFA code.

February 13: How to Create an Organizational Chart with Separate Hierarchies by Using Amazon Cloud Directory
Amazon Cloud Directory enables you to create directories for a variety of use cases, such as organizational charts, course catalogs, and device registries. Cloud Directory offers you the flexibility to create directories with hierarchies that span multiple dimensions. For example, you can create an organizational chart that you can navigate through separate hierarchies for reporting structure, location, and cost center. In this blog post, I show how to use Cloud Directory APIs to create an organizational chart with two separate hierarchies in a single directory. I also show how to navigate the hierarchies and retrieve data. I use the Java SDK for all the sample code in this post, but you can use other language SDKs or the AWS CLI.

February 10: How to Easily Log On to AWS Services by Using Your On-Premises Active Directory
AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory (Enterprise Edition), also known as Microsoft AD, now enables your users to log on with just their on-premises Active Directory (AD) user name—no domain name is required. This new domainless logon feature makes it easier to set up connections to your on-premises AD for use with applications such as Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight, and it keeps the user logon experience free from network naming. This new interforest trusts capability is now available when using Microsoft AD with Amazon WorkSpaces and Amazon QuickSight Enterprise Edition. In this blog post, I explain how Microsoft AD domainless logon works with AD interforest trusts, and I show an example of setting up Amazon WorkSpaces to use this capability.

February 9: New! Attach an AWS IAM Role to an Existing Amazon EC2 Instance by Using the AWS CLI
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles enable your applications running on Amazon EC2 to use temporary security credentials that AWS creates, distributes, and rotates automatically. Using temporary credentials is an IAM best practice because you do not need to maintain long-term keys on your instance. Using IAM roles for EC2 also eliminates the need to use long-term AWS access keys that you have to manage manually or programmatically. Starting today, you can enable your applications to use temporary security credentials provided by AWS by attaching an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance. You can also replace the IAM role attached to an existing EC2 instance. In this blog post, I show how you can attach an IAM role to an existing EC2 instance by using the AWS CLI.

February 8: How to Remediate Amazon Inspector Security Findings Automatically
The Amazon Inspector security assessment service can evaluate the operating environments and applications you have deployed on AWS for common and emerging security vulnerabilities automatically. As an AWS-built service, Amazon Inspector is designed to exchange data and interact with other core AWS services not only to identify potential security findings but also to automate addressing those findings. Previous related blog posts showed how you can deliver Amazon Inspector security findings automatically to third-party ticketing systems and automate the installation of the Amazon Inspector agent on new Amazon EC2 instances. In this post, I show how you can automatically remediate findings generated by Amazon Inspector. To get started, you must first run an assessment and publish any security findings to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) topic. Then, you create an AWS Lambda function that is triggered by those notifications. Finally, the Lambda function examines the findings and then implements the appropriate remediation based on the type of issue.

February 6: How to Simplify Security Assessment Setup Using Amazon EC2 Systems Manager and Amazon Inspector
In a July 2016 AWS Blog post, I discussed how to integrate Amazon Inspector with third-party ticketing systems by using Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) and AWS Lambda. This AWS Security Blog post continues in the same vein, describing how to use Amazon Inspector to automate various aspects of security management. In this post, I show you how to install the Amazon Inspector agent automatically through the Amazon EC2 Systems Manager when a new Amazon EC2 instance is launched. In a subsequent post, I will show you how to update EC2 instances automatically that run Linux when Amazon Inspector discovers a missing security patch.

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January

January 30: How to Protect Data at Rest with Amazon EC2 Instance Store Encryption
Encrypting data at rest is vital for regulatory compliance to ensure that sensitive data saved on disks is not readable by any user or application without a valid key. Some compliance regulations such as PCI DSS and HIPAA require that data at rest be encrypted throughout the data lifecycle. To this end, AWS provides data-at-rest options and key management to support the encryption process. For example, you can encrypt Amazon EBS volumes and configure Amazon S3 buckets for server-side encryption (SSE) using AES-256 encryption. Additionally, Amazon RDS supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE). Instance storage provides temporary block-level storage for Amazon EC2 instances. This storage is located on disks attached physically to a host computer. Instance storage is ideal for temporary storage of information that frequently changes, such as buffers, caches, and scratch data. By default, files stored on these disks are not encrypted. In this blog post, I show a method for encrypting data on Linux EC2 instance stores by using Linux built-in libraries. This method encrypts files transparently, which protects confidential data. As a result, applications that process the data are unaware of the disk-level encryption.

January 27: How to Detect and Automatically Remediate Unintended Permissions in Amazon S3 Object ACLs with CloudWatch Events
Amazon S3 Access Control Lists (ACLs) enable you to specify permissions that grant access to S3 buckets and objects. When S3 receives a request for an object, it verifies whether the requester has the necessary access permissions in the associated ACL. For example, you could set up an ACL for an object so that only the users in your account can access it, or you could make an object public so that it can be accessed by anyone. If the number of objects and users in your AWS account is large, ensuring that you have attached correctly configured ACLs to your objects can be a challenge. For example, what if a user were to call the PutObjectAcl API call on an object that is supposed to be private and make it public? Or, what if a user were to call the PutObject with the optional Acl parameter set to public-read, therefore uploading a confidential file as publicly readable? In this blog post, I show a solution that uses Amazon CloudWatch Events to detect PutObject and PutObjectAcl API calls in near-real time and helps ensure that the objects remain private by making automatic PutObjectAcl calls, when necessary.

January 26: Now Available: Amazon Cloud Directory—A Cloud-Native Directory for Hierarchical Data
Today we are launching Amazon Cloud Directory. This service is purpose-built for storing large amounts of strongly typed hierarchical data. With the ability to scale to hundreds of millions of objects while remaining cost-effective, Cloud Directory is a great fit for all sorts of cloud and mobile applications.

January 24: New SOC 2 Report Available: Confidentiality
As with everything at Amazon, the success of our security and compliance program is primarily measured by one thing: our customers’ success. Our customers drive our portfolio of compliance reports, attestations, and certifications that support their efforts in running a secure and compliant cloud environment. As a result of our engagement with key customers across the globe, we are happy to announce the publication of our new SOC 2 Confidentiality report. This report is available now through AWS Artifact in the AWS Management Console.

January 18: Compliance in the Cloud for New Financial Services Cybersecurity Regulations
Financial regulatory agencies are focused more than ever on ensuring responsible innovation. Consequently, if you want to achieve compliance with financial services regulations, you must be increasingly agile and employ dynamic security capabilities. AWS enables you to achieve this by providing you with the tools you need to scale your security and compliance capabilities on AWS. The following breakdown of the most recent cybersecurity regulations, NY DFS Rule 23 NYCRR 500, demonstrates how AWS continues to focus on your regulatory needs in the financial services sector.

January 9: New Amazon GameDev Blog Post: Protect Multiplayer Game Servers from DDoS Attacks by Using Amazon GameLift
In online gaming, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks target a game’s network layer, flooding servers with requests until performance degrades considerably. These attacks can limit a game’s availability to players and limit the player experience for those who can connect. Today’s new Amazon GameDev Blog post uses a typical game server architecture to highlight DDoS attack vulnerabilities and discusses how to stay protected by using built-in AWS Cloud security, AWS security best practices, and the security features of Amazon GameLift. Read the post to learn more.

January 6: The Top 10 Most Downloaded AWS Security and Compliance Documents in 2016
The following list includes the 10 most downloaded AWS security and compliance documents in 2016. Using this list, you can learn about what other people found most interesting about security and compliance last year.

January 6: FedRAMP Compliance Update: AWS GovCloud (US) Region Receives a JAB-Issued FedRAMP High Baseline P-ATO for Three New Services
Three new services in the AWS GovCloud (US) region have received a Provisional Authority to Operate (P-ATO) from the Joint Authorization Board (JAB) under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP). JAB issued the authorization at the High baseline, which enables US government agencies and their service providers the capability to use these services to process the government’s most sensitive unclassified data, including Personal Identifiable Information (PII), Protected Health Information (PHI), Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI), criminal justice information (CJI), and financial data.

January 4: The Top 20 Most Viewed AWS IAM Documentation Pages in 2016
The following 20 pages were the most viewed AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) documentation pages in 2016. I have included a brief description with each link to give you a clearer idea of what each page covers. Use this list to see what other people have been viewing and perhaps to pique your own interest about a topic you’ve been meaning to research.

January 3: The Most Viewed AWS Security Blog Posts in 2016
The following 10 posts were the most viewed AWS Security Blog posts that we published during 2016. You can use this list as a guide to catch up on your blog reading or even read a post again that you found particularly useful.

January 3: How to Monitor AWS Account Configuration Changes and API Calls to Amazon EC2 Security Groups
You can use AWS security controls to detect and mitigate risks to your AWS resources. The purpose of each security control is defined by its control objective. For example, the control objective of an Amazon VPC security group is to permit only designated traffic to enter or leave a network interface. Let’s say you have an Internet-facing e-commerce website, and your security administrator has determined that only HTTP (TCP port 80) and HTTPS (TCP 443) traffic should be allowed access to the public subnet. As a result, your administrator configures a security group to meet this control objective. What if, though, someone were to inadvertently change this security group’s rules and enable FTP or other protocols to access the public subnet from any location on the Internet? That expanded access could weaken the security posture of your assets. Consequently, your administrator might need to monitor the integrity of your company’s security controls so that the controls maintain their desired effectiveness. In this blog post, I explore two methods for detecting unintended changes to VPC security groups. The two methods address not only control objectives but also control failures.

If you have questions about or issues with implementing the solutions in any of these posts, please start a new thread on the forum identified near the end of each post.

– Craig