Tag Archives: Price Reduction

Amazon Relational Database Service – Looking Back at 2017

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-relational-database-service-looking-back-at-2017/

The Amazon RDS team launched nearly 80 features in 2017. Some of them were covered in this blog, others on the AWS Database Blog, and the rest in What’s New or Forum posts. To wrap up my week, I thought it would be worthwhile to give you an organized recap. So here we go!

Certification & Security

Features

Engine Versions & Features

Regional Support

Instance Support

Price Reductions

And That’s a Wrap
I’m pretty sure that’s everything. As you can see, 2017 was quite the year! I can’t wait to see what the team delivers in 2018.

Jeff;

 

Some notes on Meltdown/Spectre

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original http://blog.erratasec.com/2018/01/some-notes-on-meltdownspectre.html

I thought I’d write up some notes.

You don’t have to worry if you patch. If you download the latest update from Microsoft, Apple, or Linux, then the problem is fixed for you and you don’t have to worry. If you aren’t up to date, then there’s a lot of other nasties out there you should probably also be worrying about. I mention this because while this bug is big in the news, it’s probably not news the average consumer needs to concern themselves with.

This will force a redesign of CPUs and operating systems. While not a big news item for consumers, it’s huge in the geek world. We’ll need to redesign operating systems and how CPUs are made.

Don’t worry about the performance hit. Some, especially avid gamers, are concerned about the claims of “30%” performance reduction when applying the patch. That’s only in some rare cases, so you shouldn’t worry too much about it. As far as I can tell, 3D games aren’t likely to see less than 1% performance degradation. If you imagine your game is suddenly slower after the patch, then something else broke it.

This wasn’t foreseeable. A common cliche is that such bugs happen because people don’t take security seriously, or that they are taking “shortcuts”. That’s not the case here. Speculative execution and timing issues with caches are inherent issues with CPU hardware. “Fixing” this would make CPUs run ten times slower. Thus, while we can tweek hardware going forward, the larger change will be in software.

There’s no good way to disclose this. The cybersecurity industry has a process for coordinating the release of such bugs, which appears to have broken down. In truth, it didn’t. Once Linus announced a security patch that would degrade performance of the Linux kernel, we knew the coming bug was going to be Big. Looking at the Linux patch, tracking backwards to the bug was only a matter of time. Hence, the release of this information was a bit sooner than some wanted. This is to be expected, and is nothing to be upset about.

It helps to have a name. Many are offended by the crassness of naming vulnerabilities and giving them logos. On the other hand, we are going to be talking about these bugs for the next decade. Having a recognizable name, rather than a hard-to-remember number, is useful.

Should I stop buying Intel? Intel has the worst of the bugs here. On the other hand, ARM and AMD alternatives have their own problems. Many want to deploy ARM servers in their data centers, but these are likely to expose bugs you don’t see on x86 servers. The software fix, “page table isolation”, seems to work, so there might not be anything to worry about. On the other hand, holding up purchases because of “fear” of this bug is a good way to squeeze price reductions out of your vendor. Conversely, later generation CPUs, “Haswell” and even “Skylake” seem to have the least performance degradation, so it might be time to upgrade older servers to newer processors.

Intel misleads. Intel has a press release that implies they are not impacted any worse than others. This is wrong: the “Meltdown” issue appears to apply only to Intel CPUs. I don’t like such marketing crap, so I mention it.


Statements from companies:

Amazon EC2 Price Reduction in the Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-ec2-price-reduction-in-the-asia-pacific-mumbai-region/

Whew – I am just getting back in to blogging after a quick recovery from AWS re:Invent!

I’m happy to start things off with yet another AWS price reduction, this one for four instance families in the Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region. Effective December 1, 2017 we are reducing prices for On-Demand and Reserved Instances as follows:

  • M4 – Up to 15%.
  • T2 – Up to 15%.
  • R4 – Up to 15%.
  • C4 – Up to 10%.

The pricing pages have been updated. Enjoy!

Jeff;

 

AWS IoT Update – Better Value with New Pricing Model

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-iot-update-better-value-with-new-pricing-model/

Our customers are using AWS IoT to make their connected devices more intelligent. These devices collect & measure data in the field (below the ground, in the air, in the water, on factory floors and in hospital rooms) and use AWS IoT as their gateway to the AWS Cloud. Once connected to the cloud, customers can write device data to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon DynamoDB, process data using Amazon Kinesis and AWS Lambda functions, initiate Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) push notifications, and much more.

New Pricing Model (20-40% Reduction)
Today we are making a change to the AWS IoT pricing model that will make it an even better value for you. Most customers will see a price reduction of 20-40%, with some receiving a significantly larger discount depending on their workload.

The original model was based on a charge for the number of messages that were sent to or from the service. This all-inclusive model was a good starting point, but also meant that some customers were effectively paying for parts of AWS IoT that they did not actually use. For example, some customers have devices that ping AWS IoT very frequently, with sparse rule sets that fire infrequently. Our new model is more fine-grained, with independent charges for each component (all prices are for devices that connect to the US East (Northern Virginia) Region):

Connectivity – Metered in 1 minute increments and based on the total time your devices are connected to AWS IoT. Priced at $0.08 per million minutes of connection (equivalent to $0.042 per device per year for 24/7 connectivity). Your devices can send keep-alive pings at 30 second to 20 minute intervals at no additional cost.

Messaging – Metered by the number of messages transmitted between your devices and AWS IoT. Pricing starts at $1 per million messages, with volume pricing falling as low as $0.70 per million. You may send and receive messages up to 128 kilobytes in size. Messages are metered in 5 kilobyte increments (up from 512 bytes previously). For example, an 8 kilobyte message is metered as two messages.

Rules Engine – Metered for each time a rule is triggered, and for the number of actions executed within a rule, with a minimum of one action per rule. Priced at $0.15 per million rules-triggered and $0.15 per million actions-executed. Rules that process a message in excess of 5 kilobytes are metered at the next multiple of the 5 kilobyte size. For example, a rule that processes an 8 kilobyte message is metered as two rules.

Device Shadow & Registry Updates – Metered on the number of operations to access or modify Device Shadow or Registry data, priced at $1.25 per million operations. Device Shadow and Registry operations are metered in 1 kilobyte increments of the Device Shadow or Registry record size. For example, an update to a 1.5 kilobyte Shadow record is metered as two operations.

The AWS Free Tier now offers a generous allocation of connection minutes, messages, triggered rules, rules actions, Shadow, and Registry usage, enough to operate a fleet of up to 50 devices. The new prices will take effect on January 1, 2018 with no effort on your part. At that time, the updated prices will be published on the AWS IoT Pricing page.

AWS IoT at re:Invent
We have an entire IoT track at this year’s AWS re:Invent. Here is a sampling:

We also have customer-led sessions from Philips, Panasonic, Enel, and Salesforce.

Jeff;

Now Available – Microsoft SQL Server 2017 for Amazon EC2

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/now-available-microsoft-sql-server-2017-for-amazon-ec2/

Microsoft SQL Server 2017 (launched just a few days ago) includes lots of powerful new features including support for graph databases, automatic database tuning, and the ability to create clusterless Always On Availability Groups. It can also be run on Linux and in Docker containers.

Run on EC2
I’m happy to announce that you can now launch EC2 instances that run Windows Server 2016 and four editions (Web, Express, Standard, and Enterprise) of SQL Server 2017. The AMIs (Amazon Machine Images) are available today in all AWS Regions and run on a wide variety of EC2 instance types, including the new x1e.32xlarge with 128 vCPUs and almost 4 TB of memory.

You can launch these instances from the AWS Management Console or through AWS Marketplace. Here’s what they look like in the console:

And in AWS Marketplace:

Licensing Options Galore
You have lots of licensing options for SQL Server:

Pay As You Go – This option works well if you would prefer to avoid buying licenses, are already running an older version of SQL Server, and want to upgrade. You don’t have to deal with true-ups, software compliance audits, or Software Assurance and you don’t need to make a long-term purchase. If you are running the Standard Edition of SQL Server, you also benefit from our recent price reduction, with savings of up to 52%.

License Mobility – This option lets your use your active Software Assurance agreement to bring your existing licenses to EC2, and allows you to run SQL Server on Windows or Linux instances.

Bring Your Own Licenses – This option lets you take advantage of your existing license investment while minimizing upgrade costs. You can run SQL Server on EC2 Dedicated Instances or EC2 Dedicated Hosts, with the potential to reduce operating costs by licensing SQL Server on a per-core basis. This option allows you to run SQL Server 2017 on EC2 Linux instances (SUSE, RHEL, and Ubuntu are supported) and also supports Docker-based environments running on EC2 Windows and Linux instances. To learn more about these options, read the Installation Guidance for SQL Server on Linux and Run SQL Server 2017 Container Image with Docker.

Learn More
To learn more about SQL Server 2017 and to explore your licensing options in depth, take a look at the SQL Server on AWS page.

If you need advice and guidance as you plan your migration effort, check out the AWS Partners who have qualified for the Microsoft Workloads competency and focus on database solutions.

Amazon RDS support for SQL Server 2017 is planned for November. This will give you a fully managed option.

Plan to join the AWS team at the PASS Summit (November 1-3 in Seattle) and at AWS re:Invent (November 27th to December 1st in Las Vegas).

Jeff;

PS – Special thanks to my colleague Tom Staab (Partner Solutions Architect) for his help with this post!

New – Per-Second Billing for EC2 Instances and EBS Volumes

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-per-second-billing-for-ec2-instances-and-ebs-volumes/

Back in the old days, you needed to buy or lease a server if you needed access to compute power. When we launched EC2 back in 2006, the ability to use an instance for an hour, and to pay only for that hour, was big news. The pay-as-you-go model inspired our customers to think about new ways to develop, test, and run applications of all types.

Today, services like AWS Lambda prove that we can do a lot of useful work in a short time. Many of our customers are dreaming up applications for EC2 that can make good use of a large number of instances for shorter amounts of time, sometimes just a few minutes.

Per-Second Billing for EC2 and EBS
Effective October 2nd, usage of Linux instances that are launched in On-Demand, Reserved, and Spot form will be billed in one-second increments. Similarly, provisioned storage for EBS volumes will be billed in one-second increments.

Per-second billing also applies to Amazon EMR and AWS Batch:

Amazon EMR – Our customers add capacity to their EMR clusters in order to get their results more quickly. With per-second billing for the EC2 instances in the clusters, adding nodes is more cost-effective than ever.

AWS Batch – Many of the batch jobs that our customers run complete in less than an hour. AWS Batch already launches and terminates Spot Instances; with per-second billing batch processing will become even more economical.

Some of our more sophisticated customers have built systems to get the most value from EC2 by strategically choosing the most advantageous target instances when managing their gaming, ad tech, or 3D rendering fleets. Per-second billing obviates the need for this extra layer of instance management, and brings the costs savings to all customers and all workloads.

While this will result in a price reduction for many workloads (and you know we love price reductions), I don’t think that’s the most important aspect of this change. I believe that this change will inspire you to innovate and to think about your compute-bound problems in new ways. How can you use it to improve your support for continuous integration? Can it change the way that you provision transient environments for your dev and test workloads? What about your analytics, batch processing, and 3D rendering?

One of the many advantages of cloud computing is the elastic nature of provisioning or deprovisioning resources as you need them. By billing usage down to the second we will enable customers to level up their elasticity, save money, and customers will be positioned to take advantage of continuing advances in computing.

Things to Know
This change is effective in all AWS Regions and will be effective October 2, for all Linux instances that are newly launched or already running. Per-second billing is not currently applicable to instances running Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions that have a separate hourly charge. There is a 1 minute minimum charge per-instance.

List prices and Spot Market prices are still listed on a per-hour basis, but bills are calculated down to the second, as is Reserved Instance usage (you can launch, use, and terminate multiple instances within an hour and get the Reserved Instance Benefit for all of the instances). Also, bills will show times in decimal form, like this:

The Dedicated Per Region Fee, EBS Snapshots, and products in AWS Marketplace are still billed on an hourly basis.

Jeff;

 

AWS Price Reduction – SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-price-reduction-sql-server-standard-edition-on-ec2/

I’m happy to be able to announce the 62nd AWS price reduction, this one for Microsoft SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2.

Many enterprise workloads run on Microsoft Windows, primarily on-premises or in corporate data centers. We believe that AWS is the best place to build, deploy, scale, and manage Windows applications due to the breadth of services that we provide, backed up by our global reach and our partner ecosystem. Customers like Adobe, Pitney Bowes, and DeVry University have all moved core production Windows Server workloads to AWS. Their applications run the gamut from SharePoint sites to custom .NET applications and SAP, and frequently use SQL Server.

Microsoft SQL Server on AWS runs on an EC2 Windows instance and can support your application development and migration efforts. It gives you control over every setting, just as you would have if you were running your relational database on-premises, with support for 32-bit and 64-bit versions.

Today we are reducing the On-Demand and Reserved Instance prices for Microsoft SQL Server Standard Edition on EC2 running on R4, M4, I3, and X1 instances by up to 52%, depending on instance type, size, and region. You can build and run enterprise-scale applications, massively scalable websites. and mobile applications even more cost-effectively than before.

Here are the largest price reductions for each region and instance type:

Region R4 M4 I3 X1
US East (Northern Virginia) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US East (Ohio) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US West (Oregon) -51% -29% -50% -52%
US West (Northern California) -51% -30% -50%
Canada (Central) -51% -51% -50% -44%
South America (São Paulo) -49% -30% -48%
EU (Ireland) -51% -29% -50% -51%
EU (Frankfurt) -51% -29% -50% -50%
EU (London) -51% -51% -50% -44%
Asia Pacific (Singapore) -51% -31% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Sydney) -51% -30% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) -51% -29% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Seoul)  -51% -31% -50% -50%
Asia Pacific (Mumbai)  -51% -33% -50% -50%

The new, lower prices for On-Demand instances are in effect as of July 1, 2017. The new pricing for Reserved Instances is in effect today.

Jeff;

 

EC2 Price Reductions – Reserved Instances & M4 Instances

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/ec2-price-reductions-reserved-instances-m4-instances/

As AWS grows, we continue to find ways to make it an even better value. We work with our suppliers to drive down costs while also finding ways to build hardware and software that is increasingly more efficient and cost-effective.

In addition to reducing our prices on a regular and frequent basis, we also give customers options that help them to optimize their use of AWS. For example, Reserved Instances (first launched in 2009) allow Amazon EC2 users to obtain a significant discount when compared to On-Demand Pricing, along with a capacity reservation when used in a specific Availability Zone.

Our customers use multiple strategies to purchase and manage their Reserved Instances. Some prefer to make an upfront payment and earn a bigger discount; some prefer to pay nothing upfront and get a smaller (yet still substantial) discount. In the middle, others are happiest with a partial upfront payment and a discount that falls in between the two other options. In order to meet this wide range of preferences we are adding 3 Year No Upfront Standard Reserved Instances for most of the current generation instance types. We are also reducing prices for No Upfront Reserved Instances, Convertible Reserved Instances, and General Purpose M4 instances (both On-Demand and Reserved Instances). This is our 61st AWS Price Reduction.

Here are the details (all changes and reductions are effective immediately):

New No Upfront Payment Option for 3 Year Standard RIs – We previously offered a no upfront payment option with a 1 year term for Standard RIs. Today, we are adding a No Upfront payment option with a 3 year term for C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2 Standard Reserved Instances.

Lower Prices for No Upfront Reserved Instances – We are lowering the prices for No Upfront 1 Year Standard and 3 Year Convertible Reserved Instances for the C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2 instance types by up to 17%, depending on instance type, operating system, and region.

Here are the average reductions for No Upfront Reserved Instances for Linux in several representative regions:

US East (Northern Virginia)
US West (Oregon)
EU (Ireland)
Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
Asia Pacific (Singapore)
C4 -11% -11% -10% -10% -9%
M4 -16% -16% -16% -16% -17%
R4 -10% -10% -10% -10% -10%

Lower Prices for Convertible Reserved Instances – Convertible Reserved Instances allow you to change the instance family and other parameters associated with the RI at any time; this allows you to adjust your RI inventory as your application evolves and your needs change. We are lowering the prices for 3 Year Convertible Reserved Instances by up to 21% for most of the current generation instances (C4, M4, R4, I3, P2, X1, and T2).

Here are the average reductions for Convertible Reserved Instances for Linux in several representative regions:

US East (Northern Virginia)
US West (Oregon)
EU (Ireland)
Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
Asia Pacific (Singapore)
C4 -13% -13% -5% -5% -11%
M4 -19% -19% -17% -15% -21%
R4 -15% -15% -15% -15% -15%

Similar reductions will go into effect for nearly all of the other regions as well.

Lower Prices for M4 Instances – We are lowering the prices for M4 Linux instances by up to 7%.

Visit the EC2 Reserved Instance Pricing Page and the EC2 Pricing Page, or consult the AWS Price List API for all of the new prices.

Learn More
The following blog posts contain additional information about some of the improvements that we have made to the EC2 Reserved Instance model:

You can also read AWS Pricing and the Reserved Instances FAQ to learn more.

Jeff;

Backblaze B2 Drops Download Price By 60%

Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/b2-drops-download-pricing/

B2 Costs 60% Less

We are thrilled to announce that, effective immediately, we are reducing the price of Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage downloads from $0.05 to $0.02 per GB. What’s more, the first gigabyte of data downloaded each day is still free.

Backblaze has always aimed to make storing data astonishingly easy and affordable. This price reduction applies immediately to all existing and new customers, and there are no tiers or minimums required to get this pricing. It’s automatic, and it starts today.

Why Does This Matter?

It makes cloud storage useful for more people.

B2 is already known for being reliable, easy-to-use, and affordable – our storage pricing is ¼ that of S3. This allows you to save more thorough backups, keep longer archives, store large data sets needed for machine learning and much more. Reducing the price of downloading data lowers the total cost of using cloud storage. This makes cloud storage a viable solution for organizations where it previously didn’t make financial sense.

For example, Vintage Aerial has over 50 years’ worth of aerial photography of rural America. It’s an American treasure. They scanned and digitized the photos and needed a place to cost effectively store the hi-res image files they would send to their customers. Before B2, the other cloud storage options were simply too expensive, leaving Vintage Aerial in the unenviable position of trying to figure out which of their assets they could offer for sale online. But, as Vintage Aerial CEO Fritz Byers says, “because of B2’s pricing, reliability, and service levels, Vintage Aerial is now able to offer and monetize our complete catalog of over 20 million pictures to anyone that’s interested.”

Today’s reduction in download pricing opens another opportunity for Vintage Aerial – downloading high-res photos as previews to its customers. Customers will soon be able to see in detail what they’re getting and zoom in to request specific parts of photos. B2 is empowering Vintage Aerial to provide new functionality that dramatically improves the customer experience and expands the company’s market.

It gives you access to your data when you need it.

Backblaze B2 removes the need to choose between cost and access when it comes to storing your data in the cloud. When you store data in the cloud, you expect to be able to retrieve it at some point. Some services make it expensive to restore data or place time lag impediments to data access to reduce their cost. That reduces the usefulness of your data. If you need to recover all your data quickly from an archive or backup or want to make your data available in real-time, you don’t want to wait, and you don’t want to be shocked at the price tag.

It ensures that your data is yours.

When it’s expensive to get data out, you feel like your cloud storage provider is holding your files hostage. You can’t switch providers or move data back on-site. Part of Backblaze B2 being easy is ensuring that you can do what you want, when you want, with your information. Reducing the price of downloads ensures you can feel comfortable knowing your data is yours.

It’s another reason for third party applications to integrate with B2.

Many organizations already manage their data backups, archives, and workflows using third party applications that have integrated with B2 Cloud Storage. Applications like CloudBerry, Synology CloudSync, Retrospect, Cantemo, axle Video, CatDV and many others have added B2 support in their products; over the next few months, Transmit and QNAP will release their integrations as well.

For applications that have integrated with B2, users not only get the lowest cost storage but the lowest cost download bandwidth as well. For application providers, integrating B2 offers a differentiated service for their users. If you use an application that doesn’t use B2 Cloud Storage, ask the application provider to add B2 and mention the application in the comments below.

It reduces your bill.

Regardless of how you use B2, the download price reduction matters because it lowers your bill. And a lower bill means you can lower your cost and increase your margins, or lower your prices – each of which makes business better.

How does this compare?

Not only is Backblaze B2 storage 1/4th the price of Amazon S3, Google Cloud, or Azure, but our download pricing is now as little as 1/4th their price as well.

Pricing Tier Backblaze B2 Amazon S3 Microsoft Azure Google Cloud
First 1 TB $0.02 $0.09 $0.09 $0.12
Next 9 TB $0.02 $0.09 $0.09 $0.11
Next 40 TB $0.02 $0.085 $0.09 $0.08
Next 100 TB $0.02 $0.07 $0.07 $0.08
Next 350 TB+ $0.02 $0.05 $0.05 $0.08

Using the chart above, let’s compute a few examples of download costs…

Data Backblaze B2 Amazon S3 Microsoft Azure Google Cloud
1 terabyte $20 $90 $90 $120
10 terabytes $200 $900 $900 $1,200
50 terabytes $1,000 $4,300 $4,500 $4,310
500 terabytes $10,000 $28,800 $29,000 $40,310
Not only is Backblaze B2 pricing dramatically lower cost, it’s also simple. One price for any amount of data downloaded to anywhere. In comparison, to compute the cost of downloading 500 TB of data with S3 you start with the following formula: (($0.09 * 10) + ($0.085 * 40) + ($0.07 * 100) + ($0.05 * 350)) * 1,000. Want to see this comparison for the amount of data you manage? Use our cloud storage calculator.

How did we do this?

Easy, we just lowered the price.

We’ve been reducing the cost of cloud storage for a decade, building and open-sourcing our Storage Pods, developing our Vaults, and more. As a result, we know a fair bit about storing data cost efficiently.

When we announced B2 Cloud Storage, we weren’t totally sure how individuals and companies would use bandwidth, and so we priced it competitively within the market. With a year and a half of B2 usage (and a decade of related experience storing customer data), we’ve determined the patterns are sufficiently stable that we can sustainably reduce our pricing.

To sum up our pricing, downloading data costs $0.02/GB, with the first gigabyte downloaded each day being free. Storage costs are $0.005/GB per month with the first 10 gigabytes being free. We have just one pricing tier so you get the best price we can offer from the start.

Our aim has always been to provide a great service at a fair price. While we’re certainly proud to be the low-cost leader in the space, we’re much happier that we can help customers to be more effective in their businesses.

Enjoy the service, and I’d love to hear in the comments what this price reduction means for you.

The post Backblaze B2 Drops Download Price By 60% appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

New T2.Xlarge and T2.2Xlarge Instances

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-t2-xlarge-and-t2-2xlarge-instances/

AWS customers love the cost-effective, burst-based model that they get when they use T2 instances. These customers use T2 instances to run general purpose workloads such as web servers, development environments, continuous integration servers, test environments, and small databases. These instances provide a generous amount of baseline performance and the ability to automatically and transparently scale up to full-core processing power on an as-needed basis (refer back to New Low Cost EC2 Instances with Burstable Performance if this is news to you).

Today we are adding two new larger T2 instance sizes – t2.xlarge with 16 GiB of memory and t2.2xlarge with 32 GiB of memory. These new sizes enable customers to benefit from price and performance of the T2 burst model for applications with larger resource requirements  (this is the third time that we have expanded the range of t2 instances; we added t2.large instances last June and t2.nano instances last December).

Here are the specs for all of the sizes of T2 instances (the prices reflect the most recent EC2 Price Reduction):

Name vCPUs Baseline Performance Platform Memory (GiB) CPU Credits / Hour Price / Hour
(Linux)
t2.nano 1 5% 32-bit or 64-bit 0.5 3  $0.0059
t2.micro 1 10% 32-bit or 64-bit 1 6  $0.012
t2.small 1 20% 32-bit or 64-bit 2 12  $0.023
t2.medium 2 40% 32-bit or 64-bit 4 24  $0.047
t2.large 2 60% 64-bit 8 36  $0.094
t2.xlarge 4 90% 64-bit 16 54  $0.188
t2.2xlarge 8 135% 64-bit 32 81  $0.376

Here are a couple of ways that you might be able to move existing workloads to the new instances:

  • t2.large workloads can scale up to t2.xlarge or t2.xlarge in order to gain access to more memory.
  • Intermittent c4.2xlarge workloads can move to t2.xlarge at a significant cost reduction, with similar burst performance.
  • Intermittent m4.xlarge workloads can move to t2.xlarge at s slight cost reduction, and higher burst performance.

The new instances are available today as On-Demand & Reserved Instances in all AWS regions.

Jeff;

 

AWS Storage Update – S3 & Glacier Price Reductions + Additional Retrieval Options for Glacier

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-storage-update-s3-glacier-price-reductions/

Back in 2006, we launched S3 with a revolutionary pay-as-you-go pricing model, with an initial price of 15 cents per GB per month. Over the intervening decade, we reduced the price per GB by 80%, launched S3 in every AWS Region, and enhanced the original one-size-fits-all model with user-driven features such as web site hosting, VPC integration, and IPv6 support, while adding new storage options including S3 Infrequent Access.

Because many AWS customers archive important data for legal, compliance, or other reasons and reference it only infrequently, we launched Glacier in 2012, and then gave you the ability to transition data between S3, S3 Infrequent Access, and Glacier by using lifecycle rules.

Today I have two big pieces of news for you: we are reducing the prices for S3 Standard Storage and for Glacier storage. We are also introducing additional retrieval options for Glacier.

S3 & Glacier Price Reduction
As long-time AWS customers already know, we work relentlessly to reduce our own costs, and to pass the resulting savings along in the form of a steady stream of AWS Price Reductions.

We are reducing the per-GB price for S3 Standard Storage in most AWS regions, effective December 1, 2016. The bill for your December usage will automatically reflect the new, lower prices. Here are the new prices for Standard Storage:

Regions 0-50 TB
($ / GB / Month)
51 – 500 TB
($ / GB / Month)
500+ TB
($ / GB / Month)
  • US East (Northern Virginia)
  • US East (Ohio)
  • US West (Oregon)
  • EU (Ireland)

(Reductions range from 23.33% to 23.64%)

 $0.0230 $0.0220 $0.0210
  • US West (Northern California)

(Reductions range from 20.53% to 21.21%)

 $0.0260 $0.0250 $0.0240
  • EU (Frankfurt)

(Reductions range from 24.24% to 24.38%)

 $0.0245 $0.0235 $0.0225
  • Asia Pacific (Singapore)
  • Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
  • Asia Pacific (Sydney)
  • Asia Pacific (Seoul)
  • Asia Pacific (Bombay)

(Reductions range from 16.36% to 28.13%)

 $0.0250 $0.0240 $0.0230

As you can see from the table above, we are also simplifying the pricing model by consolidating six pricing tiers into three new tiers.

We are also reducing the price of Glacier storage in most AWS Regions. For example, you can now store 1 GB for 1 month in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), or EU (Ireland) Regions for just $0.004 (less than half a cent) per month, a 43% decrease. For reference purposes, this amount of storage cost $0.010 when we launched Glacier in 2012, and $0.007 after our last Glacier price reduction (a 30% decrease).

The lower pricing is a direct result of the scale that comes about when our customers trust us with trillions of objects, but it is just one of the benefits. Based on the feedback that I get when we add new features, the real value of a cloud storage platform is the rapid, steady evolution. Our customers often tell me that they love the fact that we anticipate their needs and respond with new features accordingly.

New Glacier Retrieval Options
Many AWS customers use Amazon Glacier as the archival component of their tiered storage architecture. Glacier allows them to meet compliance requirements (either organizational or regulatory) while allowing them to use any desired amount of cloud-based compute power to process and extract value from the data.

Today we are enhancing Glacier with two new retrieval options for your Glacier data. You can now pay a little bit more to expedite your data retrieval. Alternatively, you can indicate that speed is not of the essence and pay a lower price for retrieval.

We launched Glacier with a pricing model for data retrieval that was based on the amount of data that you had stored in Glacier and the rate at which you retrieved it. While this was an accurate reflection of our own costs to provide the service, it was somewhat difficult to explain. Today we are replacing the rate-based retrieval fees with simpler per-GB pricing.

Our customers in the Media and Entertainment industry archive their TV footage to Glacier. When an emergent situation calls for them to retrieve a specific piece of footage, minutes count and they want fast, cost-effective access to the footage. Healthcare customers are looking for rapid, “while you wait” access to archived medical imagery and genome data; photo archives and companies selling satellite data turn out to have similar requirements. On the other hand, some customers have the ability to plan their retrievals ahead of time, and are perfectly happy to get their data in 5 to 12 hours.

Taking all of this in to account, you can now select one of the following options for retrieving your data from Glacier (The original rate-based retrieval model is no longer applicable):

Standard retrieval is the new name for what Glacier already provides, and is the default for all API-driven retrieval requests. You get your data back in a matter of hours (typically 3 to 5), and pay $0.01 per GB along with $0.05 for every 1,000 requests.

Expedited retrieval addresses the need for “while you wait access.” You can get your data back quickly, with retrieval typically taking 1 to 5 minutes.  If you store (or plan to store) more than 100 TB of data in Glacier and need to make infrequent, yet urgent requests for subsets of your data, this is a great model for you (if you have less data, S3’s Infrequent Access storage class can be a better value). Retrievals cost $0.03 per GB and $0.01 per request.

Retrieval generally takes between 1 and 5 minutes, depending on overall demand. If you need to get your data back in this time frame even in rare situations where demand is exceptionally high, you can provision retrieval capacity. Once you have done this, all Expedited retrievals will automatically be served via your Provisioned capacity. Each unit of Provisioned capacity costs $100 per month and ensures that you can perform at least 3 Expedited Retrievals every 5 minutes, with up to 150 MB/second of retrieval throughput.

Bulk retrieval is a great fit for planned or non-urgent use cases, with retrieval typically taking 5 to 12 hours at a cost of $0.0025 per GB (75% less than for Standard Retrieval) along with $0.025 for every 1,000 requests. Bulk retrievals are perfect when you need to retrieve large amounts of data within a day, and are willing to wait a few extra hours in exchange for a very significant discount.

If you do not specify a retrieval option when you call InitiateJob to retrieve an archive, a Standard Retrieval will be initiated. Your existing jobs will continue to work as expected, and will be charged at the new rate.

To learn more, read about Data Retrieval in the Glacier FAQ.

As always, I am thrilled to be able to share this news with you, and I hope that you are equally excited!

Jeff;

 

AWS Price Reduction – CloudWatch Custom Metrics

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-price-reduction-cloudwatch-custom-metrics/

Back in 2011 I introduced you to Custom Metrics for CloudWatch and showed you how to publish them from your applications and scripts. At that time, the first ten custom metrics were free of charge and additional metrics were $0.50 per metric per month, regardless of the number of metrics that you published.

Today, I am happy to announce a price change and a quantity discount for CloudWatch custom metrics. Based on the number of metrics that you publish every month, you can realize savings of up to 96%. Here is the new pricing for the US East (Northern Virginia) Region (the first ten custom metrics are still free of charge):

Tier From To Price Per Metric
Per Month
Discount Over
Current Price
First 10,000 Metrics 10 10,000 $0.30 40%
Next 240,000 Metrics 10,001 250,000 $0.10 80%
Next 750,000 Metrics 250,001 1,000,000 $0.05 90%
All Remaining Metrics 1,000,001 $0.02 96%

The new prices will take effect on December 1, 2016 with no effort on your part. At that time, the updated prices will be published on the CloudWatch Pricing page.

By the way, if you are using CloudWatch Metrics, be sure to take advantage of other recently announced features such as Extended Metrics Retention, the CloudWatch Plugin for Collectd, CloudWatch Dashboards, and the new Metrics-to-Logs navigation feature.

Jeff;

 

New for Amazon Simple Queue Service – FIFO Queues with Exactly-Once Processing & Deduplication

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-for-amazon-simple-queue-service-fifo-queues-with-exactly-once-delivery-deduplication/

As the very first member of the AWS family of services, Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) has certainly withstood the test of time!  Back in 2004, we described it as a “reliable, highly scalable hosted queue for buffering messages between distributed application components.” Over the years, we have added many features including a dead letter queue, 256 KB payloads, SNS integration, long polling, batch operations, a delay queue, timers, CloudWatch metrics, and message attributes.

New FIFO Queues
Today we are making SQS even more powerful and flexible with support for FIFO (first-in, first-out) queues. We are rolling out this new type of queue in two regions now, and plan to make it available in many others in early 2017.

These queues are designed to guarantee that messages are processed exactly once, in the order that they are sent, and without duplicates. We expect that FIFO queues will be of particular value to our financial services and e-commerce customers,  and to those who use messages to update database tables. Many of these customers have systems that depend on receiving messages in the order that they were sent.

FIFO ordering means that, if you send message A, wait for a successful response, and then send message B, message B will be enqueued after message A, and then delivered accordingly. This ordering does not apply if you make multiple SendMessage calls in parallel. It does apply to the individual messages within a call to SendMessageBatch, and across multiple consecutive calls to SendMessageBatch.

Exactly-once processing applies to both single-consumer and multiple-consumer scenarios. If you use FIFO queues in a multiple-consumer environment, you can configure your queue to make messages visible to other consumers only after the current message has been deleted or the visibility timeout expires. In this scenario, at most one consumer will actively process messages; the other consumers will be waiting until the first consumer finishes or fails.

Duplicate messages can sometimes occur when a networking issue outside of SQS prevents the message sender from learning the status of an action and causes the sender to retry the call. FIFO queues use multiple strategies to detect and eliminate duplicate messages. In addition to content-based deduplication, you can include a MessageDeduplicationId when you call SendMessage for a FIFO queue. The ID can be up to 128 characters long, and, if present, takes higher precedence than content-based deduplication.

When you call SendMessage for a FIFO queue, you can now include a MessageGroupId. Messages that belong to the same group (as indicated by the ID) are processed in order, allowing you to create and process multiple, ordered streams within a single queue and to use multiple consumers while keeping data from multiple groups distinct and ordered.

You can create standard queues (the original queue type) or the new FIFO queues using the CreateQueue function, the create-queue command, or the AWS Management Console. The same API functions apply to both types of queues, but you cannot convert one queue type into the other.

Although the same API calls apply to both queue types, the newest AWS SDKs and SQS clients provide some additional functionality. This includes automatic, idempotent retries of failed ReceiveMessage calls.

Individual FIFO queues can handle up to 300 send, receive, or delete requests per second.

Some SQS Resources
Here are some resources to help you to learn more about SQS and the new FIFO queues:

If you’re coming to Las Vegas for AWS re:Invent and would like to hear more about how AWS customer Capital One is making use of SQS and FIFO queues, register and plan to attend ENT-217, Migrating Enterprise Messaging to the Cloud on Wednesday, November 30 at 3:30 PM.

Available Now
FIFO queues are available now in all the US East (Ohio) and US West (Oregon) regions and you can start using them today. If you are running in US East (Northern Virginia) and want to give them a try, you can create them in US East (Ohio) and take advantage of the no-cost, low-latency connectivity between the regions.

As part of today’s launch, we are also reducing the price for standard queues by 20%. For the updated pricing, take a look at the SQS Pricing page.

Jeff;

 

EC2 Price Reduction (C4, M4, and T2 Instances)

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/ec2-price-reduction-c4-m4-and-t2-instances/

I am happy to be able to announce that an EC2 price reduction will go in to effect on December 1, 2016, just in time to make your holiday season just a little bit more cheerful! Our engineering investments, coupled with our scale and our time-tested ability to manage our capacity, allow us to identify and pass on the cost savings to you.

We are reducing the On-Demand, Reserved Instance (Standard and Convertible) and Dedicated Host prices for C4, M4, and T2 instances by up to 25%, depending on region and platform (Linux, RHEL, SUSE, Windows, and so forth):

  • C4 – Reductions of up to 5% in US East (Northern Virginia) and EU (Ireland) and 20% in Asia Pacific (Mumbai) and Asia Pacific (Sydney).
  • M4  – Reductions of up to 10% in US East (Northern Virginia), EU (Ireland), and EU (Frankfurt) and 25% in Asia Pacific (Singapore).
  • T2 – Reductions of up to 10% in US East (Northern Virginia) and 25% in Asia Pacific (Singapore).

As always, you do not need to take any action in order to benefit from the reduction in On-Demand prices. If you are using billing alerts or our newly revised budget feature, you may want to consider revising your thresholds downward as appropriate.

Jeff

PS – By my count, this is our 53rd price reduction.

EC2 Reserved Instance Update – Convertible RIs and Regional Benefit

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/ec2-reserved-instance-update-convertible-ris-and-regional-benefit/

We launched EC2 Reserved Instances almost eight years ago. The model that we originated in 2009 provides you with two separate benefits: capacity reservations and a significant discount on the use of specific instances in an Availability Zone. Over time, based on customer feedback, we have refined the model and made additional options available including Scheduled Reserved Instances, the ability to Modify Reserved Instances Reservations, and the ability to buy and sell Reserved Instances (RIs) on the Reserved Instance Marketplace.

Today we are enhancing the Reserved Instance model once again. Here’s what we are launching:

Regional Benefit -Many customers have told us that the discount is more important than the capacity reservation, and that they would be willing to trade it for increased flexibility. Starting today, you can choose to waive the capacity reservation associated with Standard RI, run your instance in any AZ in the Region, and have your RI discount automatically applied.

Convertible Reserved Instances -Convertible RIs give you even more flexibility and offer a significant discount (typically 45% compared to On-Demand). They allow you to change the instance family and other parameters associated with a Reserved Instance at any time. For example, you can convert C3 RIs to C4 RIs to take advantage of a newer instance type, or convert C4 RIs to M4 RIs if your application turns out to need more memory. You can also use Convertible RIs to take advantage of EC2 price reductions over time.

Let’s take a closer look…

Regional Benefit
Reserved Instances (either Standard or Convertible) can now be set to automatically apply across all Availability Zones in a region. The regional benefit automatically applies your RIs to instances across all Availability Zones in a region, broadening the application of your RI discounts. When this benefit is used, capacity is not reserved since the selection of an Availability Zone is required to provide a capacity reservation. In dynamic environments where you frequently launch, use, and then terminate instances this new benefit will expand your options and reduce the amount of time you spend seeking optimal alignment between your RIs and your instances. In horizontally scaled architectures using instances launched via Auto Scaling and connected via Elastic Load Balancing, this new benefit can be of considerable value.

After you click on Purchase Reserved Instances in the AWS Management Console, clicking on Search will display RI’s that have this new benefit:

You can check Only show offerings that reserve capacity if you want to shop for RIs that apply to a single Availability Zone and also reserve capacity:

Convertible RIs
Perhaps you, like many of our customers, purchase RIs to benefit from the best pricing for their workloads. However, if you don’t have a good understanding of your long-term requirements you may be able to make use of our new Convertible RI. If your needs change, you simply exchange your Convertible Reserved Instances for other ones. You can change into Convertible RIs that have a new instance type, operating system, or tenancy without resetting the term. Also, there’s no fee for making an exchange and you can do so as often as you like.

When you make the exchange, you must acquire new RIs that are of equal or greater value than those you started with; in some cases you’ll need to make a true-up payment in order to balance the books. The exchange process is based on the list value of each Convertible RI; this value is simply the sum of all payments you’ll make over the remaining term of the original RI.

You can shop for a Convertible RI by making sure that the Offering Class to Convertible before clicking on Search:

The Convertible RIs offer capacity assurance, are typically priced at a 45% discount when compared to On-Demand, and are available for all current EC2 instance types on a three year term. All three payment options (No Upfront, Partial Upfront, and All Upfront) are available.

Available Now
All of the purchasing and exchange options that I described above can be accessed from the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell, or the Reserved Instance APIs (DescribeReservedInstances, PurchaseReservedInstances, ModifyReservedInstances, and so forth).

Convertible RIs and the regional benefit are available in all public AWS Regions, excluding AWS GovCloud (US) and China (Beijing), which are coming soon.


Jeff;

 

Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) Update – Snapshot Price Reduction & More PIOPS/GiB

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-elastic-block-store-ebs-update-snapshot-price-reduction-more-piopsgib/

Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) makes it easy for you to create persistent block level storage volumes and attach them to your EC2 instances. Among many other features, EBS allows you to provision SSD-backed volumes with the desired level of performance (Provisioned IOPS or PIOPS) and to create snapshot backups either manually or programmatically.

Today I would like to tell you about some improvements and changes that we are making to both of these features. We are increasing the number of IOPS that you can provision per GB of storage and we are reducing the price of snapshot storage by 47%. Together, these changes make EBS more powerful and even more economical.

More PIOPS per GiB
We introduced the concept of Provisioned IOPS back in 2012 (read my post, Fast Forward – Provisioned IOPS for EBS Volumes, to learn more). With Provisioned IOPS, you can dial in the precise level of performance that you need for each EBS volume. The number of PIOPS that you can configure is a function of the volume size; the larger the volume, the more PIOPS you can configure, up to a per-volume maximum of 20,000 PIOPS.

Until now, you could provision up to 30 IOPS per GiB of SSD-backed storage. Now, you can provision up to 50 IOPS per GiB for new EBS volumes (a 66% increase). As has always been the case, Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) volumes are designed to deliver within 10% of the provisioned IOPS performance 99.9% of the time in a given year (read the EBS Performance FAQ to learn more).

Some AWS customers create small EBS volumes that are intended to run extremely “hot”, maxing out the available PIOPS either occasionally or continuously. With this change, these small, hot volumes can be considerably smaller while still delivering the same level of performance. For example, if you need 20,000 PIOPS you can create a 400 GiB volume instead of a 667 GiB volume:

This change applies to all newly created SSD-backed volumes in all commercial AWS Regions.

Snapshot Price Reduction
We are reducing the prices for EBS snapshots by 47% for all AWS Regions.

With this change, snapshots are even more economical! As a result, you can take backups more frequently in order to reduce recovery time after human errors. If you are not making backups of your EBS volumes on a regular basis, now is a good time to start!

This price reduction is retroactive to August 1, 2016 and will be applied automatically; it also applies to snapshots of Gateway-Cached volumes that are used with the AWS Storage Gateway.

Join our Team
If you are a developer, development manager, or product manager and would like to build systems like this, please visit the EBS Jobs page.


Jeff;