Tag Archives: design

Connecting the Invisibles to Design Seamless Experiences

Post Syndicated from Grab Tech original https://engineering.grab.com/connecting-the-invisibles-to-design-seamless-experiences

Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian Man
Leonardo Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man (Source: Public Doman @Wikicommons)

Before we begin, what is service design anyway?

In the world of design jargon, meet “service design”. Unlike other objectives in design to simplify and clarify, service design is not about building singular touchpoints. Rather, it is about bringing ease and harmony into large and often complex ecosystems.

Think of the human body. There are organ systems such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems. These systems perform key functions that we see and feel everyday, like breathing, moving, and feeling.

Service design serves as the connective tissue that brings the amazing systems together to work in harmony. Much of the work done by the service design team at Grab revolves around connecting online experiences to the offline world, connecting challenges across a complex ecosystem, and enabling effective collaboration across cross-functional teams.

Connecting online experiences to the offline world

We explore holistic experiences by visualizing the connections across features, both through the online-offline as well as internal-external interactions. At Grab, we have a collection of (very cool!) features that many teams have worked hard to build. However, equally important is how a person arrives from feature to feature seamlessly, from the app to their physical experiences, as well as how our internal teams at Grab support and execute behind-the-scenes throughout our various systems.

For example, placing an order on GrabFood requires much more work than sending information to the merchant through the Grab app. How might Grab

  • allocate drivers effectively,
  • support unhappy paths with our customer support team,
  • resolve discrepancies in our operations teams, and
  • store this data in a system that can continue to expand for future uses to come?
Connecting online experiences to the offline world

Connecting challenges across a complex ecosystem

Sometimes, as designers, we might get too caught up in solving problems through a singular lens, and overlook how it affects the rest of the system. Meanwhile, many problems are part of a connected network. Changing one part of the problem can potentially affect other parts of the network.

Considering those connections, or the “stuff in between”, makes service design a holistic practice – crossing boundaries between teams in search of a root cause, and considering how treating one problem might affect other parts of the network.

  • If this happens, then what?
  • Which point in the system is easiest to fix and has the greatest impact?

For example, if we want to introduce a feature for drivers to report restaurant closings, how might Grab

  • Ensure the report is accurate?
  • Deal with accidental closings or fraud?
  • Use that data for our operations team to make decisions?
  • Let drivers know when their report has led to a successful action?
  • Last but not least, is this the easiest point in the system to fix restaurant opening inaccuracies, or should this be tackled through an operational fix?
Connecting challenges across a complex ecosystem

Facilitating effective collaborations in cross-functional teams

Finally, we believe in the power of a participatory design process to unlock meaningful, customer-centric solutions. Working on the “stuff in between” often puts the service design team in the thick of alignment of priorities, creation of a common vision, and coherent action plans. Achieving this requires solid facilitation and processes for cross-team collaboration.

  • Who are the right stakeholders and how do we engage?
  • How does an initiative affect stakeholders, and how can they contribute?
  • How can we create visual processes that allow diverse stakeholders to have a shared understanding and co-create solutions?
Facilitating effective collaborations in cross-functional teams

What’s the ultimate goal? A Harmonious Backstage for a Delightful Customer Experience

By facilitating cross-functional collaborations and espousing a whole-of-Grab approach, the service design team at Grab helps to connect the dots in an interconnected ‘super-app’ service ecosystem. By empathising with our users, and having a deep understanding of how different parts of the Grab ecosystem affect one another, we hope to unleash the full power of Grab to deliver maximum value and delight to serve our users.

Why you should organise an immersion trip for your next project

Post Syndicated from Grab Tech original https://engineering.grab.com/why-you-should-organise-an-immersion-trip-for-your-next-project

Sherizan Sheikh is a Design Lead at Grab Ventures, an incubation arm that looks at experiences beyond ride-hailing, for example, groceries, healthcare and autonomous deliveries.

Grab Ventures is where exciting initiatives are birthed in Grab. From strategic partnerships like GrabFresh, Grab’s first on-demand grocery delivery service, to exploratory concepts such as on-demand e-scooter rentals, there has never been a more exciting time to be in this unique space.

Cover GrabFresh

 

In my role as Design Lead for Grab Ventures, I juggle between both sides of the coin and whether it’s a partnership or exploratory concept, I ask myself:

“How do I know who my customers are, and what are their pain points?”

So I like to answer that question by starting with traditional research methods like desktop research and surveys, just to name a few. At Grab, it’s usually not enough to answer those questions.

That said, I find that some of the best insights are formed from immersion trips.

In one sentence, an immersion trip is getting deeply involved in a user’s life by understanding him or her through observation and conversation.

Our CEO, Anthony Tan, picking items for a customer, on an immersion trip.
Our CEO, Anthony Tan, picking items for a customer, on an immersion trip.

 

For designers and researchers in Singapore, it plucks you out of your everyday reality and drops you into someone else’s, somewhere else, where 99.9% of the time, everything you expect and anticipate gets thrown out in a matter of minutes. I’ve trained myself to switch my mindset, go back to basics, and learn (or relearn) everything I need to know about the country I’d be visiting even if I’ve been there countless times.

Fun fact: In 2018, I spent about 100 days in Indonesia. That means roughly 30% of 2018 was spent on the ground, observing, shadowing, interviewing people (and getting stuck in traffic) and loving it.

Why immersions?

Understanding one’s country, culture and her people is something that gets me excited as I continuously build empathy visit upon a visit, interview after interview.

I remembered one time during an immersion trip, we interviewed locals at different supermarkets to learn and understand their motivations: why they prefer to visit the supermarket vs purchasing them online. One of our hypotheses was that the key motivator for Indonesians to buy groceries online must be down to convenience. We were wrong.

It boiled down to 2 key factors.

1) Freshness: We found out that many of the locals still felt the need to touch and feel the products before they buy. There were many instances where they felt the need to touch the fresh produce on the shelves, cutting off a piece of fruit or even poking the eyes of the fish to check its freshness.

Oranges

 

2) Price: The de-facto for most locals as they are price-sensitive. Every decision was made with the price tag in mind. They are willing to travel far, spend the time to go through the traffic just to get to the wet or supermarket that offers the lowest prices and value for money. Through observations, while shadowing at a local wet market, we also found something interesting. Most of the wet market vendors are getting WhatsApp messages from their regular customers seeking fresh produce and making orders. The transactions were mostly via e-wallets or bank transfers. The vendors then packed them and get bike drivers to help with the delivery. I couldn’t have gotten this valuable information if I was just sitting at my desk.

An immersion trip is an excellent opportunity to learn about our customers and the meaning behind their behaviours. There is only so much we can learn from white papers and reports. As soon as you are in the same environment as your users, seeing your users do everyday errands or acts, like grocery shopping or hopping on a bike, feeling their frustrations and experiencing them yourself, you’ll get so much more fruitful and valuable insights to help shape your next product. (Or even, improve an existing one!)

My colleagues trying to blend in.
My colleagues trying to blend in.

 

Now that I’ve sold you on this idea, here are some tips on how to plan and execute effective immersion trips, share your findings and turn them into actionable insights for your team and stakeholders.

Pro tip #1 – Generate a hypothesis

Generating a hypothesis is a valuable exercise. It enables you to focus on the “wants vs. needs” and to validate your assumptions beyond desktop research. Be sure to get your core team members together, including Business, Ops and Tech, to generate a hypothesis. I’ll give an example below.

Pro tip #2 – Have short immersion days with a debrief at the end for everyone

Scheduling really depends on your project. I have planned for trips that are from a few hours to up to fourteen days long. Be sure not to have too many locations in a single day and spread them out evenly in case there are unexpected roadblocks such as traffic jams that might contribute to rushed research.

Do include Brief and Debrief sessions into your schedule. I’d recommend shorter immersion days so that you have enough energy left for the critical Debrief session at the end of the day. The structure should be kept very simple with focus of collating ALL observations from the contextual inquiries you did into writing. It’s actually up to you how you structure your document.

Be prepared for the unexpected.
Be prepared for the unexpected.

 

Pro tip #3 – Recce locations beforehand

Once you’ve nailed down the locations, it is essential for you to get a local resident to recce the places first. In Southeast Asia, more often than so would you realise that information found online is unreliable and misleading, so doing a physical recce will save you a lot of time.

I had experienced a few time-wasting incidents when we did not expect specific locations to be what was intended. For example, while on our grocery-run, we wanted to visit a local wet market that opens only very early in the morning. We got up at 5 am, drove about 1.5 hours and only to realize the wet market is not open to the public and we eventually got chased out by the security guards.

Pro tip #4 – Never assume a customer’s journey

(even though you’ve experienced it before as a customer)

One of the most important processes throughout a product life cycle is to understand a customer’s journey. It’s particularly important to understand the journey if we are not familiar with the actual environment. Take our GrabFresh service as an example. It’s a complex journey that happens behind the scenes. Desktop research might not be enough to fully validate the journey hence, an immersion trip that allows you to be on the field will ensure you go through the lifecycle of the entire process to observe and note all the phases that happen in the real environment.

GrabFresh user journey

 

Pro tip #5 – Be 100% sure of your open-ended, non-leading questions that will validate your hypothesis.

This part is an essential piece to the quality of your immersion outcome. Not spending enough time crafting or vetting the questions thoroughly might end up with skewed insights and could jeopardise your entire immersion. Please be sure your questions links up with your hypothesis and provide backup questions to support your assumptions.

For example, don’t suggest answers in questions.

Bad: “Why do you like this supermarket? Cheap? Convenient?”

Good: “Tell me why you chose this particular supermarket?”

Pro tip #6 – Break into smaller groups of 2 to 3. Dress comfortably and like a local. Keep your expensive belongings out of sight.

During my recent trip, I visited a lot of places that unknowingly had very tight security. One of the mistakes I made was going as a group of 6 (foreign-looking, and – okay –  maybe a little touristy with our appearances and expensive gadgets).

Out of nowhere, once we started approaching customers for interviews, and snapping photos with our cameras and phones, we could see the security teams walking towards us. Unfortunately, we were asked to leave the premises when we could not provide a permit.

As luck would have it, we eyed a few customers and approached them when they were further away from the original location. Success!

Pro tip #7 – Find translators with people skills and interview experience.

Most of my immersion trips are overseas, where English is not the main language. I get annoyed at myself for not being able to interview non-English speaking customers. Having seasoned, outgoingtranslators does help a lot! If you feel awkward standing around waiting for a translated answer, feel free to step away and let the translator interview the customer without feeling pressured. Be sure it’s all recorded for transcription later.

Insights + Action plan= Strategy

Findings are significant, it’s the basis of everything that you do while you are in immersion. But what’s more important is the ability to connect those dots and extract value from them. It’s similar to how we can amass tons of raw data but entirely pointless if nothing is done with it.

A good strategy usually comes from good insights that are actionable.

For example, we found out that a % of customers that we interviewed did not know that GrabFresh has a pool of professional shoppers who pick grocery items for customers. Their impression was that a driver would receive their order, drive to the location, get out of their vehicle and go into the store to do the picking. That’s not right. It hinders customers from making their first purchase through the app.

Observing a personal shopper interacting with Grab driver-partner.
Observing a personal shopper interacting with Grab driver-partner.

 

So, in this case, our hypothesis was: if customers are aware of personal shoppers, the number of orders will increase.

This opinion was a shared one that may have had an impact on our business. So we needed to take this back to the team, look at the data, brainstorm, and come up with a great strategy to improve the perception and its impact on our business (whether good or bad).

Wrapping Up

After a full immersion, it is always important to ask each and every member of some of these questions:

“What went well? What did you learn?”

“What can be improved? If you could change one thing, what would it be?”

I’d usually document them and have a reflection for myself so that I can pick up what worked, what didn’t and continue to improve for my next immersion trip.

Following the Double Diamond framework, immersion trips are part of the “Discover”phase where we gather customer insights. Typically, I follow up with a Design sprint workshop where we start framing the problems. This is where we have a session where experts and researchers share their domain knowledge and research insights uncovered from various methodologies including immersions.

Then, hopefully, we will have some actionable changes that we can execute confidently.

So, good luck, bring some sunblock and see you on the ground!

If you’d like to connect with Sherizan, you can find him on LinkedIn.

Recipe for building a widget: How we helped to “peak-shift” demand by helping passengers understand travel trends

Post Syndicated from Grab Tech original https://engineering.grab.com/peak-shift-demand-travel-trends

Credits: Photo by rawpixel on Unsplash

 

Stuck in traffic in a Grab ride? Pass the time by opening your Grab app and checking out the Feed – just scroll down! You’ll find widgets for games, polls, videos, news and even food recommendations!

Beyond serving your everyday needs, we want to provide our users with information that is interesting, useful and relevant. That’s why we’re always coming up with new widgets.

Building each widget takes close collaboration across multiple different teams – from Product Management to Design, Engineering, Behavioral Science, and Data Science and Analytics. Sounds like a lot of people, doesn’t it? But you’ll be surprised to hear that this behind-the-scenes collaboration works rapidly, usually in the span of one month! Which means we’re often moving from ideation phase to product release in just a few weeks.

Travel Trends Widget

This fast-and-furious process is anchored on one word – “customer-centric”. And that’s how it all began with our  “Travel Trends Widget” – a widget that provides passengers with an overview of historical supply and demand trends for their current location and nearby time periods.

Because we had so much fun developing this widget, we wanted to write a blog post to share with you what we did and how we did it!

Inspiration: Where it all started

Transport demand can be rather lumpy. Owing to organic patterns (e.g. office hours), a lot of passengers tend to request for cars around the same time. In periods like this, the increase in demand could outpace the arrival of driver supply, increasing the waiting time for passengers.

Our goal at Grab is to make sure people get a ride when they want it and at the price they want, so we got to thinking about how we can ease this friction by leveraging our treasure trove – Big Data! – to help our passengers better plan their trips.

As we were looking at the data, we noticed that there is a seasonality to demand and supply: at certain times and days, imbalances appear, peak and disappear, and the process repeats itself. Studies say that humans in general, unless shown a compelling reason or benefit for change, are habitual beings subject to inertia. So we set out to achieve exactly that: To create a widget to surface information to our passengers that may help them alter their decisions on when they choose to book a ride, thereby redistributing some of the present peak demands to periods just before and after peak – also known as “peak shifting the demand”!

While this widget is the first-of-its-kind in the ride-hailing industry, “peak-shifting” was actually coined and introduced long ago!

London Transport Museum Trends

As you can see from this post from the London Transport Museum (Source: Transport for London), London tube tried peak-shifting long before anyone else: Original Ad from 1928 displayed on the left, and Ad from 2015 displayed on the right, comparing the trends to 1928.

Trends from a hotel in Beijing

You may also have seen something similar at the last hotel you stayed at. Notice here a poster in an elevator at a Beijing hotel, announcing the best times to eat breakfast in comfort and avoid the crowd. (Photo credits to Prashant, our Product Manager, who saw this on holiday.)

To apply “peak-shifting” and help our users better plan their trips, we decided to dig in and leverage our data. It was way more complex than we had initially thought, as market conditions could be different on different days. This meant that  generic statements like “5PM-8PM are peak hours and prices will be hight” would not hold true. Contrary to general perception, we observed that even during peak hours, there are buckets of time when there is no surge or low surge.

For instance, plot 1 and plot 2 below shows how a typical Monday and Tuesday surge looks like in a given month respectively. One of the key insights is that the surge trends during peak hour is different on Monday from Tuesday. It reinforces our initial hypothesis that every day is unique.

So we used machine learning techniques to build a forecasting widget which can help our users and give them the power to plan their trips beforehand. This widget is able to provide the pricing trends for the next 2 hours. So with a bit of flexibility, riders can ride the tide!

Grab trends

So how exactly does this widget work?!

Historical trends for Monday

It pulls together historically observed imbalances between supply and demand, for the consumer’s current location and nearby time periods. Aggregated data is displayed to consumers in easily interpreted visualisations, so that they can plan to leave at times when there are more supply, and with potentially more savings for fares.

How did we build the widget? Loop, agile working process, POC & workstream

Widget-building is an agile, collaborative, and simultaneous process. First, we started the process with analysis from Product Analytics team, pulling out data on traffic trends, surge patterns, and behavioral insights of both passengers and drivers in Singapore.

When we noticed the existence of seasonality for each day of the week, we came up with more precise analytical and business questions to dig deeper into the data. Upon verification of hypotheses, we decided that we will build a widget.

Then joined the Behavioural Science, UX (User Experience) Design and the Product Management teams, who started giving shape to the problem we are solving. Our Behavioural Scientists shared their expertise on how information, suggestions and choices should be presented to enable easy assimilation and beneficial action. Daily whiteboarding breakouts, endless back-and forth conversations, and a healthy amount of challenge-and-accept culture ensured that we distilled the idea down to its core. We then presented the relevant information with just the right level of detail, and with the right amount of messaging, to allow users to take the intended action i.e. shift his/her demand outside of peak periods if possible.

Our amazing regional Copywriting team then swung in to put our intent into words in 7 different languages for our users across South-East Asia. Simultaneously, our UX designers and Full-stack Engineers started exploring the best visual components to communicate data on time trends to users. More on this later, but suffice to say that plenty of ideas were explored and discarded in a collaborative process, which aimed to create something that’s intuitive and engaging while being robust and scalable to work across all types of devices.

While these designs made their way up to engineering, the Data Science team worked on finding the most rigorous method to deduce the historical trend of surge across all our cities and areas, and time periods within them. There were discussions on how to best store and update this data reliably so that the widget itself can access it with great performance.

Soon after, we went into the development process, and voila! We had the first iteration of the widget ready on our staging (internal testing) servers in just 2 weeks! This prototype was opened up to the core team for influx of feedback.

And just two weeks later, the widget made its way to our Singapore and Jakarta Feeds, accessible to the world at large! Feedback from our users started pouring in almost immediately (thanks to the rich feedback functionality that comes with each widget), ranging from great to sometimes not-so-great, and we listened to all of it with a keen ear! And thus began a new cycle of iterations and continuous improvement, more of which we will share in a subsequent post.

In the trenches with the creators: How multiple teams got together to make this come true

Various disciplines within our cross functional team came together to whip out this widget by quipping their expertise to the end product.

Using Behavioural Science to simplify choices and design good outcomes

Behavioural Science helped to explore many facets of consumer behaviour in order to plan and design the widget: understanding how consumers think and conceptualizing a widget that can be easily understood and used by the consumers.

While fares are governed entirely by market conditions, it’s important for us to explain the economics to customers. As a customer-centric company, we aim to make the consumers feel like they own their decisions, which they can take based on full information. And this is the role of Behavioral Scientists at Grab!

In guiding the customers through the information, Behavioural Science team had the following three objectives in mind while building this Travel Trends widget:

  1. Offer transparency on the fares: By exposing our historic surge levels for a 4 hour period, we wanted to ensure that the passenger is aware of the surge levels and does not treat the fare as a nasty shock.
  2. Give information that helps them plan: By showing them surge levels for the future 2 hours, we wanted to help customers who have the flexibility, plan for a better time, hence, giving them the power to decide based on transparent information.
  3. Provide helpful tips: Every bar gives users tips on the conditions at that time and the immediate future. For instance, a low surge bar, followed by a high surge bar gives the tip “Psst… Leave now, It might get busy later!”, helping people understand the graph better and nudging them to take an action. If you are interested in saving fares, may we suggest tapping around all the bars to reveal the secret pro-tips?

Designing interfaces that lead to consumer success by abstracting complexity

Design team is the one behind the colors and shapes that make up the widget that you see and interact with! The team took inspiration from Google’s Popular Times.

Source/Credits: Google Live Popular Times
Source/Credits: Google Live Popular Times

 

Right from the offset, our content and product teams were keen to surface additional information and actions with each bar to keep the widget interactive and useful. One of the early challenges was to arrive at the right gesture that invites the user to interact and intuitively navigate the bars on the widget but also does not conflict with other gestures (eg scrolling and scrubbing) that the user was pre-trained to perform on the feed. We found out that tapping was simultaneously an unused and yet intuitive gesturethat we could use for interaction with the bars.

We then went into rounds of iteration on the visual design of the widget. In this process, multiple stakeholders were involved ranging from Product to Content to Engineering. We had to overcome a number of constraints i.e. the limited canvas of a widget and the context of a user when she is exploring the feed. By re-using existing libraries and components, we managed to keep the development light and ship something fast.

GrabCar trends near you

Dozens of revisions and four iterations later, we landed with a design that we felt equipped the feature for its user-facing goal, and did so in a manner which was aesthetically appealing!

And finally we managed to deliver on the feature’s goal, by surfacing just the right detail of information in a manner that is intuitive yet effective to peak-shift demand.  

Bringing all of this to fruition through high performance engineering

Our Development Engineering team was in charge of developing the widget and making it available to our users in just a few weeks’ time – materialising the work of the other teams.

One of their challenges was to find the best way to process the vast amount of data (millions of database entries) so it can be visualized simply as bar charts. Grab’s engineers had to achieve this while making sure performance is as resilient as possible.

There were two options in doing this:

a) Fetch the data directly from the DB for each API call; or

b) Store the data in an in-memory data structure on a timely basis, so when a user calls the API will no longer have to hit the DB.

After considering that this feature will likely expect a lot of traffic thus high QPS, we decided that the former option would be too costly. Ultimately, we chose the latter option since it is more performant and more scalable.

At the frontend, the challenge was to cater to the intricate request from our designers. We use chart libraries to increase our development speed, and not all of the requirements were readily supported by these libraries.

For instance, let’s say this library makes visualising charts easy, but not so much for customising them. If designers wanted to have an average line in a dotted form, the library did not support this so easily. Also, the moving arrow pointers as you move between bar chart, changing colors of the bars changes when clicked – all required countless CSS tweaks.

CSS tweak on trends widget
CSS tweak on trends widget

Closing the product loop with user feedback and data driven insights

One of the most crucial parts of launching any product is to ensure that customers are engaging with the widget and finding it useful.

To understand what customers think about the widget, whether they find it useful and whether it is helping them to plan better,  we delved into the huge mine of clickstream data.

User feedback on the trends widget

We found that 1 in 3 users who make a booking everyday interact with the widget. And of these people, more than 70% users have given positive rating for the widget. This validates our initial hypothesis that if given an option, our customers will love the freedom to plan their trips and inculcate more transparent ecosystem.

These users also indicate the things they like most about the widget. 61% of users gave positive rating for usefulness, 20% were impressed by the design (Kudos to our fantastic designer Ajmal!!) and 13% for usability.

Tweet about the widget

Beyond internal data, our widget made some rounds on social media channels. For Example, here is screenshot of what our users have to say on Twitter.

We closely track these metrics on user engagement and feedback to ensure that we keep improving and coming up with new iterations which helps us to serve our customers in a better way.

Conclusion

We hope you enjoyed reading about how we went from ideation, through iterations to a finished widget in the hands of the user, all in 1 month! Many hands helped along the way. If you are interested in joining this hyper-proactive problem-solving team, please check out Grab’s career site!

And if you have feedback for us, we are here to listen! While we cannot be happier to see some positive reaction from the public, we are also thrilled to hear your suggestions and advice. Please leave us a memo using the Widget’s comment function!

Epilogue

We just released an upgrade to this widget which allows users to set reminders and be notified about availability of good fares in a time period of their choosing. We will keep a watch and come knocking! Go ahead, find the widget on your Grab feed, set a reminder and save on fares on your next ride!

Build your own weather station with our new guide!

Post Syndicated from Richard Hayler original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/build-your-own-weather-station/

One of the most common enquiries I receive at Pi Towers is “How can I get my hands on a Raspberry Pi Oracle Weather Station?” Now the answer is: “Why not build your own version using our guide?”

Build Your Own weather station kit assembled

Tadaaaa! The BYO weather station fully assembled.

Our Oracle Weather Station

In 2016 we sent out nearly 1000 Raspberry Pi Oracle Weather Station kits to schools from around the world who had applied to be part of our weather station programme. In the original kit was a special HAT that allows the Pi to collect weather data with a set of sensors.

The original Raspberry Pi Oracle Weather Station HAT – Build Your Own Raspberry Pi weather station

The original Raspberry Pi Oracle Weather Station HAT

We designed the HAT to enable students to create their own weather stations and mount them at their schools. As part of the programme, we also provide an ever-growing range of supporting resources. We’ve seen Oracle Weather Stations in great locations with a huge differences in climate, and they’ve even recorded the effects of a solar eclipse.

Our new BYO weather station guide

We only had a single batch of HATs made, and unfortunately we’ve given nearly* all the Weather Station kits away. Not only are the kits really popular, we also receive lots of questions about how to add extra sensors or how to take more precise measurements of a particular weather phenomenon. So today, to satisfy your demand for a hackable weather station, we’re launching our Build your own weather station guide!

Build Your Own Raspberry Pi weather station

Fun with meteorological experiments!

Our guide suggests the use of many of the sensors from the Oracle Weather Station kit, so can build a station that’s as close as possible to the original. As you know, the Raspberry Pi is incredibly versatile, and we’ve made it easy to hack the design in case you want to use different sensors.

Many other tutorials for Pi-powered weather stations don’t explain how the various sensors work or how to store your data. Ours goes into more detail. It shows you how to put together a breadboard prototype, it describes how to write Python code to take readings in different ways, and it guides you through recording these readings in a database.

Build Your Own Raspberry Pi weather station on a breadboard

There’s also a section on how to make your station weatherproof. And in case you want to move past the breadboard stage, we also help you with that. The guide shows you how to solder together all the components, similar to the original Oracle Weather Station HAT.

Who should try this build

We think this is a great project to tackle at home, at a STEM club, Scout group, or CoderDojo, and we’re sure that many of you will be chomping at the bit to get started. Before you do, please note that we’ve designed the build to be as straight-forward as possible, but it’s still fairly advanced both in terms of electronics and programming. You should read through the whole guide before purchasing any components.

Build Your Own Raspberry Pi weather station – components

The sensors and components we’re suggesting balance cost, accuracy, and easy of use. Depending on what you want to use your station for, you may wish to use different components. Similarly, the final soldered design in the guide may not be the most elegant, but we think it is achievable for someone with modest soldering experience and basic equipment.

You can build a functioning weather station without soldering with our guide, but the build will be more durable if you do solder it. If you’ve never tried soldering before, that’s OK: we have a Getting started with soldering resource plus video tutorial that will walk you through how it works step by step.

Prototyping HAT for Raspberry Pi weather station sensors

For those of you who are more experienced makers, there are plenty of different ways to put the final build together. We always like to hear about alternative builds, so please post your designs in the Weather Station forum.

Our plans for the guide

Our next step is publishing supplementary guides for adding extra functionality to your weather station. We’d love to hear which enhancements you would most like to see! Our current ideas under development include adding a webcam, making a tweeting weather station, adding a light/UV meter, and incorporating a lightning sensor. Let us know which of these is your favourite, or suggest your own amazing ideas in the comments!

*We do have a very small number of kits reserved for interesting projects or locations: a particularly cool experiment, a novel idea for how the Oracle Weather Station could be used, or places with specific weather phenomena. If have such a project in mind, please send a brief outline to [email protected], and we’ll consider how we might be able to help you.

The post Build your own weather station with our new guide! appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Flight Sim Company Threatens Reddit Mods Over “Libelous” DRM Posts

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/flight-sim-company-threatens-reddit-mods-over-libellous-drm-posts-180604/

Earlier this year, in an effort to deal with piracy of their products, flight simulator company FlightSimLabs took drastic action by installing malware on customers’ machines.

The story began when a Reddit user reported something unusual in his download of FlightSimLabs’ A320X module. A file – test.exe – was being flagged up as a ‘Chrome Password Dump’ tool, something which rang alarm bells among flight sim fans.

As additional information was made available, the story became even more sensational. After first dodging the issue with carefully worded statements, FlightSimLabs admitted that it had installed a password dumper onto ALL users’ machines – whether they were pirates or not – in an effort to catch a particular software cracker and launch legal action.

It was an incredible story that no doubt did damage to FlightSimLabs’ reputation. But the now the company is at the center of a new storm, again centered around anti-piracy measures and again focused on Reddit.

Just before the weekend, Reddit user /u/walkday reported finding something unusual in his A320X module, the same module that caused the earlier controversy.

“The latest installer of FSLabs’ A320X puts two cmdhost.exe files under ‘system32\’ and ‘SysWOW64\’ of my Windows directory. Despite the name, they don’t open a command-line window,” he reported.

“They’re a part of the authentication because, if you remove them, the A320X won’t get loaded. Does someone here know more about cmdhost.exe? Why does FSLabs give them such a deceptive name and put them in the system folders? I hate them for polluting my system folder unless, of course, it is a dll used by different applications.”

Needless to say, the news that FSLabs were putting files into system folders named to make them look like system files was not well received.

“Hiding something named to resemble Window’s “Console Window Host” process in system folders is a huge red flag,” one user wrote.

“It’s a malware tactic used to deceive users into thinking the executable is a part of the OS, thus being trusted and not deleted. Really dodgy tactic, don’t trust it and don’t trust them,” opined another.

With a disenchanted Reddit userbase simmering away in the background, FSLabs took to Facebook with a statement to quieten down the masses.

“Over the past few hours we have become aware of rumors circulating on social media about the cmdhost file installed by the A320-X and wanted to clear up any confusion or misunderstanding,” the company wrote.

“cmdhost is part of our eSellerate infrastructure – which communicates between the eSellerate server and our product activation interface. It was designed to reduce the number of product activation issues people were having after the FSX release – which have since been resolved.”

The company noted that the file had been checked by all major anti-virus companies and everything had come back clean, which does indeed appear to be the case. Nevertheless, the critical Reddit thread remained, bemoaning the actions of a company which probably should have known better than to irritate fans after February’s debacle. In response, however, FSLabs did just that once again.

In private messages to the moderators of the /r/flightsim sub-Reddit, FSLabs’ Marketing and PR Manager Simon Kelsey suggested that the mods should do something about the thread in question or face possible legal action.

“Just a gentle reminder of Reddit’s obligations as a publisher in order to ensure that any libelous content is taken down as soon as you become aware of it,” Kelsey wrote.

Noting that FSLabs welcomes “robust fair comment and opinion”, Kelsey gave the following advice.

“The ‘cmdhost.exe’ file in question is an entirely above board part of our anti-piracy protection and has been submitted to numerous anti-virus providers in order to verify that it poses no threat. Therefore, ANY suggestion that current or future products pose any threat to users is absolutely false and libelous,” he wrote, adding:

“As we have already outlined in the past, ANY suggestion that any user’s data was compromised during the events of February is entirely false and therefore libelous.”

Noting that FSLabs would “hate for lawyers to have to get involved in this”, Kelsey advised the /r/flightsim mods to ensure that no such claims were allowed to remain on the sub-Reddit.

But after not receiving the response he would’ve liked, Kelsey wrote once again to the mods. He noted that “a number of unsubstantiated and highly defamatory comments” remained online and warned that if something wasn’t done to clean them up, he would have “no option” than to pass the matter to FSLabs’ legal team.

Like the first message, this second effort also failed to have the desired effect. In fact, the moderators’ response was to post an open letter to Kelsey and FSLabs instead.

“We sincerely disagree that you ‘welcome robust fair comment and opinion’, demonstrated by the censorship on your forums and the attempted censorship on our subreddit,” the mods wrote.

“While what you do on your forum is certainly your prerogative, your rules do not extend to Reddit nor the r/flightsim subreddit. Removing content you disagree with is simply not within our purview.”

The letter, which is worth reading in full, refutes Kelsey’s claims and also suggests that critics of FSLabs may have been subjected to Reddit vote manipulation and coordinated efforts to discredit them.

What will happen next is unclear but the matter has now been placed in the hands of Reddit’s administrators who have agreed to deal with Kelsey and FSLabs’ personally.

It’s a little early to say for sure but it seems unlikely that this will end in a net positive for FSLabs, no matter what decision Reddit’s admins take.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

When Joe Public Becomes a Commercial Pirate, a Little Knowledge is Dangerous

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/joe-public-becomes-commercial-pirate-little-knowledge-dangerous-180603/

Back in March and just a few hours before the Anthony Joshua v Joseph Parker fight, I got chatting with some fellow fans in the local pub. While some were intending to pay for the fight, others were going down the Kodi route.

Soon after the conversation switched to IPTV. One of the guys had a subscription and he said that his supplier would be along shortly if anyone wanted a package to watch the fight at home. Of course, I was curious to hear what he had to say since it’s not often this kind of thing is offered ‘offline’.

The guy revealed that he sold more or less exclusively on eBay and called up the page on his phone to show me. The listing made interesting reading.

In common with hundreds of similar IPTV subscription offers easily findable on eBay, the listing offered “All the sports and films you need plus VOD and main UK channels” for the sum of just under £60 per year, which is fairly cheap in the current market. With a non-committal “hmmm” I asked a bit more about the guy’s business and surprisingly he was happy to provide some details.

Like many people offering such packages, the guy was a reseller of someone else’s product. He also insisted that selling access to copyrighted content is OK because it sits in a “gray area”. It’s also easy to keep listings up on eBay, he assured me, as long as a few simple rules are adhered to. Right, this should be interesting.

First of all, sellers shouldn’t be “too obvious” he advised, noting that individual channels or channel lists shouldn’t be listed on the site. Fair enough, but then he said the most important thing of all is to have a disclaimer like his in any listing, written as follows:

“PLEASE NOTE EBAY: THIS IS NOT A DE SCRAMBLER SERVICE, I AM NOT SELLING ANY ILLEGAL CHANNELS OR CHANNEL LISTS NOR DO I REPRESENT ANY MEDIA COMPANY NOR HAVE ACCESS TO ANY OF THEIR CONTENTS. NO TRADEMARK HAS BEEN INFRINGED. DO NOT REMOVE LISTING AS IT IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH EBAY POLICIES.”

Apparently, this paragraph is crucial to keeping listings up on eBay and is the equivalent of kryptonite when it comes to deflecting copyright holders, police, and Trading Standards. Sure enough, a few seconds with Google reveals the same wording on dozens of eBay listings and those offering IPTV subscriptions on external platforms.

It is, of course, absolutely worthless but the IPTV seller insisted otherwise, noting he’d sold “thousands” of subscriptions through eBay without any problems. While a similar logic can be applied to garlic and vampires, a second disclaimer found on many other illicit IPTV subscription listings treads an even more bizarre path.

“THE PRODUCTS OFFERED CAN NOT BE USED TO DESCRAMBLE OR OTHERWISE ENABLE ACCESS TO CABLE OR SATELLITE TELEVISION PROGRAMS THAT BYPASSES PAYMENT TO THE SERVICE PROVIDER. RECEIVING SUBSCRIPTION/BASED TV AIRTIME IS ILLEGAL WITHOUT PAYING FOR IT.”

This disclaimer (which apparently no sellers displaying it have ever read) seems to be have been culled from the Zgemma site, which advertises a receiving device which can technically receive pirate IPTV services but wasn’t designed for the purpose. In that context, the disclaimer makes sense but when applied to dedicated pirate IPTV subscriptions, it’s absolutely ridiculous.

It’s unclear why so many sellers on eBay, Gumtree, Craigslist and other platforms think that these disclaimers are useful. It leads one to the likely conclusion that these aren’t hardcore pirates at all but regular people simply out to make a bit of extra cash who have received bad advice.

What is clear, however, is that selling access to thousands of otherwise subscription channels without permission from copyright owners is definitely illegal in the EU. The European Court of Justice says so (1,2) and it’s been backed up by subsequent cases in the Netherlands.

While the odds of getting criminally prosecuted or sued for reselling such a service are relatively slim, it’s worrying that in 2018 people still believe that doing so is made legal by the inclusion of a paragraph of text. It’s even more worrying that these individuals apparently have no idea of the serious consequences should they become singled out for legal action.

Even more surprisingly, TorrentFreak spoke with a handful of IPTV suppliers higher up the chain who also told us that what they are doing is legal. A couple claimed to be protected by communication intermediary laws, others didn’t want to go into details. Most stopped responding to emails on the topic. Perhaps most tellingly, none wanted to go on the record.

The big take-home here is that following some important EU rulings, knowingly linking to copyrighted content for profit is nearly always illegal in Europe and leaves people open for targeting by copyright holders and the authorities. People really should be aware of that, especially the little guy making a little extra pocket money on eBay.

Of course, people are perfectly entitled to carry on regardless and test the limits of the law when things go wrong. At this point, however, it’s probably worth noting that IPTV provider Ace Hosting recently handed over £600,000 rather than fight the Premier League (1,2) when they clearly had the money to put up a defense.

Given their effectiveness, perhaps they should’ve put up a disclaimer instead?

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Randomly generated, thermal-printed comics

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/random-comic-strip-generation-vomit-comic-robot/

Python code creates curious, wordless comic strips at random, spewing them from the thermal printer mouth of a laser-cut body reminiscent of Disney Pixar’s WALL-E: meet the Vomit Comic Robot!

The age of the thermal printer!

Thermal printers allow you to instantly print photos, data, and text using a few lines of code, with no need for ink. More and more makers are using this handy, low-maintenance bit of kit for truly creative projects, from Pierre Muth’s tiny PolaPi-Zero camera to the sound-printing Waves project by Eunice Lee, Matthew Zhang, and Bomani McClendon (and our own Secret Santa Babbage).

Vomiting robots

Interaction designer and developer Cadin Batrack, whose background is in game design and interactivity, has built the Vomit Comic Robot, which creates “one-of-a-kind comics on demand by processing hand-drawn images through a custom software algorithm.”

The robot is made up of a Raspberry Pi 3, a USB thermal printer, and a handful of LEDs.

Comic Vomit Robot Cadin Batrack's Raspberry Pi comic-generating thermal printer machine

At the press of a button, Processing code selects one of a set of Cadin’s hand-drawn empty comic grids and then randomly picks images from a library to fill in the gaps.

Vomit Comic Robot Cadin Batrack's Raspberry Pi comic-generating thermal printer machine

Each image is associated with data that allows the code to fit it correctly into the available panels. Cadin says about the concept behing his build:

Although images are selected and placed randomly, the comic panel format suggests relationships between elements. Our minds create a story where there is none in an attempt to explain visuals created by a non-intelligent machine.

The Raspberry Pi saves the final image as a high-resolution PNG file (so that Cadin can sell prints on thick paper via Etsy), and a Python script sends it to be vomited up by the thermal printer.

Comic Vomit Robot Cadin Batrack's Raspberry Pi comic-generating thermal printer machine

For more about the Vomit Comic Robot, check out Cadin’s blog. If you want to recreate it, you can find the info you need in the Imgur album he has put together.

We ❤ cute robots

We have a soft spot for cute robots here at Pi Towers, and of course we make no exception for the Vomit Comic Robot. If, like us, you’re a fan of adorable bots, check out Mira, the tiny interactive robot by Alonso Martinez, and Peeqo, the GIF bot by Abhishek Singh.

Mira Alfonso Martinez Raspberry Pi

The post Randomly generated, thermal-printed comics appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Recording lost seconds with the Augenblick blink camera

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/augenblick-camera/

Warning: a GIF used in today’s blog contains flashing images.

Students at the University of Bremen, Germany, have built a wearable camera that records the seconds of vision lost when you blink. Augenblick uses a Raspberry Pi Zero and Camera Module alongside muscle sensors to record footage whenever you close your eyes, producing a rather disjointed film of the sights you miss out on.

Augenblick blink camera recording using a Raspberry Pi Zero

Blink and you’ll miss it

The average person blinks up to five times a minute, with each blink lasting 0.5 to 0.8 seconds. These half-seconds add up to about 30 minutes a day. What sights are we losing during these minutes? That is the question asked by students Manasse Pinsuwan and René Henrich when they set out to design Augenblick.

Blinking is a highly invasive mechanism for our eyesight. Every day we close our eyes thousands of times without noticing it. Our mind manages to never let us wonder what exactly happens in the moments that we miss.

Capturing lost moments

For Augenblick, the wearer sticks MyoWare Muscle Sensor pads to their face, and these detect the electrical impulses that trigger blinking.

Augenblick blink camera recording using a Raspberry Pi Zero

Two pads are applied over the orbicularis oculi muscle that forms a ring around the eye socket, while the third pad is attached to the cheek as a neutral point.

Biology fact: there are two muscles responsible for blinking. The orbicularis oculi muscle closes the eye, while the levator palpebrae superioris muscle opens it — and yes, they both sound like the names of Harry Potter spells.

The sensor is read 25 times a second. Whenever it detects that the orbicularis oculi is active, the Camera Module records video footage.

Augenblick blink recording using a Raspberry Pi Zero

Pressing a button on the side of the Augenblick glasses set the code running. An LED lights up whenever the camera is recording and also serves to confirm the correct placement of the sensor pads.

Augenblick blink camera recording using a Raspberry Pi Zero

The Pi Zero saves the footage so that it can be stitched together later to form a continuous, if disjointed, film.

Learn more about the Augenblick blink camera

You can find more information on the conception, design, and build process of Augenblick here in German, with a shorter explanation including lots of photos here in English.

And if you’re keen to recreate this project, our free project resource for a wearable Pi Zero time-lapse camera will come in handy as a starting point.

The post Recording lost seconds with the Augenblick blink camera appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Google’s Chrome Web Store Spammed With Dodgy ‘Pirate’ Movie Links

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/googles-chrome-web-store-spammed-with-dodgy-pirate-movie-links-180527/

Launched in 2010, Google’s Chrome Store is the go-to place for people looking to pimp their Chrome browser.

Often referred to as apps and extensions, the programs offered by the platform run in Chrome and can perform a dazzling array of functions, from improving security and privacy, to streaming video or adding magnet links to torrent sites.

Also available on the Chrome Store are themes, which can be installed locally to change the appearance of the Chrome browser.

While there are certainly plenty to choose from, some additions to the store over the past couple of months are not what most people have come to expect from the add-on platform.

Free movies on Chrome’s Web Store?

As the image above suggests, unknown third parties appear to be exploiting the Chrome Store’s ‘theme’ section to offer visitors access to a wide range of pirate movies including Black Panther, Avengers: Infinity War and Rampage.

When clicking through to the page offering Ready Player One, for example, users are presented with a theme that apparently allows them to watch the movie online in “Full HD Online 4k.”

Of course, the whole scheme is a dubious scam which eventually leads users to Vioos.co, a platform that tries very hard to give the impression of being a pirate streaming portal but actually provides nothing of use.

Nothing to see here

In fact, as soon as one clicks the play button on movies appearing on Vioos.co, visitors are re-directed to another site called Zumastar which asks people to “create a free account” to “access unlimited downloads & streaming.”

“With over 20 million titles, Zumastar is your number one entertainment resource. Join hundreds of thousands of satisfied members and enjoy the hottest movies,” the site promises.

With this kind of marketing, perhaps we should think about this offer for a second. Done. No thanks.

In extended testing, some visits to Vioos.co resulted in a redirection to EtnaMedia.net, a domain that was immediately blocked by MalwareBytes due to suspected fraud. However, after allowing the browser to make the connection, TF was presented with another apparent subscription site.

We didn’t follow through with a sign-up but further searches revealed upset former customers complaining of money being taken from their credit cards when they didn’t expect that to happen.

Quite how many people have signed up to Zumastar or EtnaMedia via this convoluted route from Google’s Chrome Store isn’t clear but a worrying number appear to have installed the ‘themes’ (if that’s what they are) offered on each ‘pirate movie’ page.

At the time of writing the ‘free Watch Rampage Online Full Movie’ ‘theme’ has 2,196 users, the “Watch Avengers Infinity War Full Movie” variant has 974, the ‘Watch Ready Player One 2018 Full HD’ page has 1,031, and the ‘Watch Black Panther Online Free 123putlocker’ ‘theme’ has more than 1,800. Clearly, a worrying number of people will click and install just about anything.

We haven’t tested the supposed themes to see what they do but it’s a cast-iron guarantee that they don’t offer the movies displayed and there’s always a chance they’ll do something awful. As a rule of thumb, it’s nearly always wise to steer clear of anything with “full movie” in the title, they can rarely be trusted.

Finally, those hoping to get some guidance on quality from the reviews on the Chrome Store will be bitterly disappointed.

Garbage reviews, probably left by the scammers

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Security and Human Behavior (SHB 2018)

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/05/security_and_hu_7.html

I’m at Carnegie Mellon University, at the eleventh Workshop on Security and Human Behavior.

SHB is a small invitational gathering of people studying various aspects of the human side of security, organized each year by Alessandro Acquisti, Ross Anderson, and myself. The 50 or so people in the room include psychologists, economists, computer security researchers, sociologists, political scientists, neuroscientists, designers, lawyers, philosophers, anthropologists, business school professors, and a smattering of others. It’s not just an interdisciplinary event; most of the people here are individually interdisciplinary.

The goal is to maximize discussion and interaction. We do that by putting everyone on panels, and limiting talks to 7-10 minutes. The rest of the time is left to open discussion. Four hour-and-a-half panels per day over two days equals eight panels; six people per panel means that 48 people get to speak. We also have lunches, dinners, and receptions — all designed so people from different disciplines talk to each other.

I invariably find this to be the most intellectually stimulating conference of my year. It influences my thinking in many different, and sometimes surprising, ways.

This year’s program is here. This page lists the participants and includes links to some of their work. As he does every year, Ross Anderson is liveblogging the talks. (Ross also maintains a good webpage of psychology and security resources.)

Here are my posts on the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth SHB workshops. Follow those links to find summaries, papers, and occasionally audio recordings of the various workshops.

Next year, I’ll be hosting the event at Harvard.

Replacing macOS Server with Synology NAS

Post Syndicated from Roderick Bauer original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/replacing-macos-server-with-synology-nas/

Synology NAS boxes backed up to the cloud

Businesses and organizations that rely on macOS server for essential office and data services are facing some decisions about the future of their IT services.

Apple recently announced that it is deprecating a significant portion of essential network services in macOS Server, as they described in a support statement posted on April 24, 2018, “Prepare for changes to macOS Server.” Apple’s note includes:

macOS Server is changing to focus more on management of computers, devices, and storage on your network. As a result, some changes are coming in how Server works. A number of services will be deprecated, and will be hidden on new installations of an update to macOS Server coming in spring 2018.

The note lists the services that will be removed in a future release of macOS Server, including calendar and contact support, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name Services (DNS), mail, instant messages, virtual private networking (VPN), NetInstall, Web server, and the Wiki.

Apple assures users who have already configured any of the listed services that they will be able to use them in the spring 2018 macOS Server update, but the statement ends with links to a number of alternative services, including hosted services, that macOS Server users should consider as viable replacements to the features it is removing. These alternative services are all FOSS (Free and Open-Source Software).

As difficult as this could be for organizations that use macOS server, this is not unexpected. Apple left the server hardware space back in 2010, when Steve Jobs announced the company was ending its line of Xserve rackmount servers, which were introduced in May, 2002. Since then, macOS Server has hardly been a prominent part of Apple’s product lineup. It’s not just the product itself that has lost some luster, but the entire category of SMB office and business servers, which has been undergoing a gradual change in recent years.

Some might wonder how important the news about macOS Server is, given that macOS Server represents a pretty small share of the server market. macOS Server has been important to design shops, agencies, education users, and small businesses that likely have been on Macs for ages, but it’s not a significant part of the IT infrastructure of larger organizations and businesses.

What Comes After macOS Server?

Lovers of macOS Server don’t have to fear having their Mac minis pried from their cold, dead hands quite yet. Installed services will continue to be available. In the fall of 2018, new installations and upgrades of macOS Server will require users to migrate most services to other software. Since many of the services of macOS Server were already open-source, this means that a change in software might not be required. It does mean more configuration and management required from those who continue with macOS Server, however.

Users can continue with macOS Server if they wish, but many will see the writing on the wall and look for a suitable substitute.

The Times They Are A-Changin’

For many people working in organizations, what is significant about this announcement is how it reflects the move away from the once ubiquitous server-based IT infrastructure. Services that used to be centrally managed and office-based, such as storage, file sharing, communications, and computing, have moved to the cloud.

In selecting the next office IT platforms, there’s an opportunity to move to solutions that reflect and support how people are working and the applications they are using both in the office and remotely. For many, this means including cloud-based services in office automation, backup, and business continuity/disaster recovery planning. This includes Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Infrastructure as a Service (Saas, PaaS, IaaS) options.

IT solutions that integrate well with the cloud are worth strong consideration for what comes after a macOS Server-based environment.

Synology NAS as a macOS Server Alternative

One solution that is becoming popular is to replace macOS Server with a device that has the ability to provide important office services, but also bridges the office and cloud environments. Using Network-Attached Storage (NAS) to take up the server slack makes a lot of sense. Many customers are already using NAS for file sharing, local data backup, automatic cloud backup, and other uses. In the case of Synology, their operating system, Synology DiskStation Manager (DSM), is Linux based, and integrates the basic functions of file sharing, centralized backup, RAID storage, multimedia streaming, virtual storage, and other common functions.

Synology NAS box

Synology NAS

Since DSM is based on Linux, there are numerous server applications available, including many of the same ones that are available for macOS Server, which shares conceptual roots with Linux as it comes from BSD Unix.

Synology DiskStation Manager Package Center screenshot

Synology DiskStation Manager Package Center

According to Ed Lukacs, COO at 2FIFTEEN Systems Management in Salt Lake City, their customers have found the move from macOS Server to Synology NAS not only painless, but positive. DSM works seamlessly with macOS and has been faster for their customers, as well. Many of their customers are running Adobe Creative Suite and Google G Suite applications, so a workflow that combines local storage, remote access, and the cloud, is already well known to them. Remote users are supported by Synology’s QuickConnect or VPN.

Business continuity and backup are simplified by the flexible storage capacity of the NAS. Synology has built-in backup to Backblaze B2 Cloud Storage with Synology’s Cloud Sync, as well as a choice of a number of other B2-compatible applications, such as Cloudberry, Comet, and Arq.

Customers have been able to get up and running quickly, with only initial data transfers requiring some time to complete. After that, management of the NAS can be handled in-house or with the support of a Managed Service Provider (MSP).

Are You Sticking with macOS Server or Moving to Another Platform?

If you’re affected by this change in macOS Server, please let us know in the comments how you’re planning to cope. Are you using Synology NAS for server services? Please tell us how that’s working for you.

The post Replacing macOS Server with Synology NAS appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

C is to low level

Post Syndicated from Robert Graham original https://blog.erratasec.com/2018/05/c-is-too-low-level.html

I’m in danger of contradicting myself, after previously pointing out that x86 machine code is a high-level language, but this article claiming C is a not a low level language is bunk. C certainly has some problems, but it’s still the closest language to assembly. This is obvious by the fact it’s still the fastest compiled language. What we see is a typical academic out of touch with the real world.

The author makes the (wrong) observation that we’ve been stuck emulating the PDP-11 for the past 40 years. C was written for the PDP-11, and since then CPUs have been designed to make C run faster. The author imagines a different world, such as where CPU designers instead target something like LISP as their preferred language, or Erlang. This misunderstands the state of the market. CPUs do indeed supports lots of different abstractions, and C has evolved to accommodate this.


The author criticizes things like “out-of-order” execution which has lead to the Spectre sidechannel vulnerabilities. Out-of-order execution is necessary to make C run faster. The author claims instead that those resources should be spent on having more slower CPUs, with more threads. This sacrifices single-threaded performance in exchange for a lot more threads executing in parallel. The author cites Sparc Tx CPUs as his ideal processor.

But here’s the thing, the Sparc Tx was a failure. To be fair, it’s mostly a failure because most of the time, people wanted to run old C code instead of new Erlang code. But it was still a failure at running Erlang.

Time after time, engineers keep finding that “out-of-order”, single-threaded performance is still the winner. A good example is ARM processors for both mobile phones and servers. All the theory points to in-order CPUs as being better, but all the products are out-of-order, because this theory is wrong. The custom ARM cores from Apple and Qualcomm used in most high-end phones are so deeply out-of-order they give Intel CPUs competition. The same is true on the server front with the latest Qualcomm Centriq and Cavium ThunderX2 processors, deeply out of order supporting more than 100 instructions in flight.

The Cavium is especially telling. Its ThunderX CPU had 48 simple cores which was replaced with the ThunderX2 having 32 complex, deeply out-of-order cores. The performance increase was massive, even on multithread-friendly workloads. Every competitor to Intel’s dominance in the server space has learned the lesson from Sparc Tx: many wimpy cores is a failure, you need fewer beefy cores. Yes, they don’t need to be as beefy as Intel’s processors, but they need to be close.

Even Intel’s “Xeon Phi” custom chip learned this lesson. This is their GPU-like chip, running 60 cores with 512-bit wide “vector” (sic) instructions, designed for supercomputer applications. Its first version was purely in-order. Its current version is slightly out-of-order. It supports four threads and focuses on basic number crunching, so in-order cores seems to be the right approach, but Intel found in this case that out-of-order processing still provided a benefit. Practice is different than theory.

As an academic, the author of the above article focuses on abstractions. The criticism of C is that it has the wrong abstractions which are hard to optimize, and that if we instead expressed things in the right abstractions, it would be easier to optimize.

This is an intellectually compelling argument, but so far bunk.

The reason is that while the theoretical base language has issues, everyone programs using extensions to the language, like “intrinsics” (C ‘functions’ that map to assembly instructions). Programmers write libraries using these intrinsics, which then the rest of the normal programmers use. In other words, if your criticism is that C is not itself low level enough, it still provides the best access to low level capabilities.

Given that C can access new functionality in CPUs, CPU designers add new paradigms, from SIMD to transaction processing. In other words, while in the 1980s CPUs were designed to optimize C (stacks, scaled pointers), these days CPUs are designed to optimize tasks regardless of language.

The author of that article criticizes the memory/cache hierarchy, claiming it has problems. Yes, it has problems, but only compared to how well it normally works. The author praises the many simple cores/threads idea as hiding memory latency with little caching, but misses the point that caches also dramatically increase memory bandwidth. Intel processors are optimized to read a whopping 256 bits every clock cycle from L1 cache. Main memory bandwidth is orders of magnitude slower.

The author goes onto criticize cache coherency as a problem. C uses it, but other languages like Erlang don’t need it. But that’s largely due to the problems each languages solves. Erlang solves the problem where a large number of threads work on largely independent tasks, needing to send only small messages to each other across threads. The problems C solves is when you need many threads working on a huge, common set of data.

For example, consider the “intrusion prevention system”. Any thread can process any incoming packet that corresponds to any region of memory. There’s no practical way of solving this problem without a huge coherent cache. It doesn’t matter which language or abstractions you use, it’s the fundamental constraint of the problem being solved. RDMA is an important concept that’s moved from supercomputer applications to the data center, such as with memcached. Again, we have the problem of huge quantities (terabytes worth) shared among threads rather than small quantities (kilobytes).

The fundamental issue the author of the the paper is ignoring is decreasing marginal returns. Moore’s Law has gifted us more transistors than we can usefully use. We can’t apply those additional registers to just one thing, because the useful returns we get diminish.

For example, Intel CPUs have two hardware threads per core. That’s because there are good returns by adding a single additional thread. However, the usefulness of adding a third or fourth thread decreases. That’s why many CPUs have only two threads, or sometimes four threads, but no CPU has 16 threads per core.

You can apply the same discussion to any aspect of the CPU, from register count, to SIMD width, to cache size, to out-of-order depth, and so on. Rather than focusing on one of these things and increasing it to the extreme, CPU designers make each a bit larger every process tick that adds more transistors to the chip.

The same applies to cores. It’s why the “more simpler cores” strategy fails, because more cores have their own decreasing marginal returns. Instead of adding cores tied to limited memory bandwidth, it’s better to add more cache. Such cache already increases the size of the cores, so at some point it’s more effective to add a few out-of-order features to each core rather than more cores. And so on.

The question isn’t whether we can change this paradigm and radically redesign CPUs to match some academic’s view of the perfect abstraction. Instead, the goal is to find new uses for those additional transistors. For example, “message passing” is a useful abstraction in languages like Go and Erlang that’s often more useful than sharing memory. It’s implemented with shared memory and atomic instructions, but I can’t help but think it couldn’t better be done with direct hardware support.

Of course, as soon as they do that, it’ll become an intrinsic in C, then added to languages like Go and Erlang.

Summary

Academics live in an ideal world of abstractions, the rest of us live in practical reality. The reality is that vast majority of programmers work with the C family of languages (JavaScript, Go, etc.), whereas academics love the epiphanies they learned using other languages, especially function languages. CPUs are only superficially designed to run C and “PDP-11 compatibility”. Instead, they keep adding features to support other abstractions, abstractions available to C. They are driven by decreasing marginal returns — they would love to add new abstractions to the hardware because it’s a cheap way to make use of additional transitions. Academics are wrong believing that the entire system needs to be redesigned from scratch. Instead, they just need to come up with new abstractions CPU designers can add.

Working with the Scout Association on digital skills for life

Post Syndicated from Philip Colligan original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/working-with-scout-association-digital-skills-for-life/

Today we’re launching a new partnership between the Scouts and the Raspberry Pi Foundation that will help tens of thousands of young people learn crucial digital skills for life. In this blog post, I want to explain what we’ve got planned, why it matters, and how you can get involved.

This is personal

First, let me tell you why this partnership matters to me. As a child growing up in North Wales in the 1980s, Scouting changed my life. My time with 2nd Rhyl provided me with countless opportunities to grow and develop new skills. It taught me about teamwork and community in ways that continue to shape my decisions today.

As my own kids (now seven and ten) have joined Scouting, I’ve seen the same opportunities opening up for them, and like so many parents, I’ve come back to the movement as a volunteer to support their local section. So this is deeply personal for me, and the same is true for many of my colleagues at the Raspberry Pi Foundation who in different ways have been part of the Scouting movement.

That shouldn’t come as a surprise. Scouting and Raspberry Pi share many of the same values. We are both community-led movements that aim to help young people develop the skills they need for life. We are both powered by an amazing army of volunteers who give their time to support that mission. We both care about inclusiveness, and pride ourselves on combining fun with learning by doing.

Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi started life in 2008 as a response to the problem that too many young people were growing up without the skills to create with technology. Our goal is that everyone should be able to harness the power of computing and digital technologies, for work, to solve problems that matter to them, and to express themselves creatively.

In 2012 we launched our first product, the world’s first $35 computer. Just six years on, we have sold over 20 million Raspberry Pi computers and helped kickstart a global movement for digital skills.

The Raspberry Pi Foundation now runs the world’s largest network of volunteer-led computing clubs (Code Clubs and CoderDojos), and creates free educational resources that are used by millions of young people all over the world to learn how to create with digital technologies. And lots of what we are able to achieve is because of partnerships with fantastic organisations that share our goals. For example, through our partnership with the European Space Agency, thousands of young people have written code that has run on two Raspberry Pi computers that Tim Peake took to the International Space Station as part of his Mission Principia.

Digital makers

Today we’re launching the new Digital Maker Staged Activity Badge to help tens of thousands of young people learn how to create with technology through Scouting. Over the past few months, we’ve been working with the Scouts all over the UK to develop and test the new badge requirements, along with guidance, project ideas, and resources that really make them work for Scouting. We know that we need to get two things right: relevance and accessibility.

Relevance is all about making sure that the activities and resources we provide are a really good fit for Scouting and Scouting’s mission to equip young people with skills for life. From the digital compass to nature cameras and the reinvented wide game, we’ve had a lot of fun thinking about ways we can bring to life the crucial role that digital technologies can play in the outdoors and adventure.

Compass Coding with Raspberry Pi

We are beyond excited to be launching a new partnership with the Raspberry Pi Foundation, which will help tens of thousands of young people learn digital skills for life.

We also know that there are great opportunities for Scouts to use digital technologies to solve social problems in their communities, reflecting the movement’s commitment to social action. Today we’re launching the first set of project ideas and resources, with many more to follow over the coming weeks and months.

Accessibility is about providing every Scout leader with the confidence, support, and kit to enable them to offer the Digital Maker Staged Activity Badge to their young people. A lot of work and care has gone into designing activities that require very little equipment: for example, activities at Stages 1 and 2 can be completed with a laptop without access to the internet. For the activities that do require kit, we will be working with Scout Stores and districts to make low-cost kit available to buy or loan.

We’re producing accessible instructions, worksheets, and videos to help leaders run sessions with confidence, and we’ll also be planning training for leaders. We will work with our network of Code Clubs and CoderDojos to connect them with local sections to organise joint activities, bringing both kit and expertise along with them.




Get involved

Today’s launch is just the start. We’ll be developing our partnership over the next few years, and we can’t wait for you to join us in getting more young people making things with technology.

Take a look at the brand-new Raspberry Pi resources designed especially for Scouts, to get young people making and creating right away.

The post Working with the Scout Association on digital skills for life appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

EC2 Instance Update – C5 Instances with Local NVMe Storage (C5d)

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/ec2-instance-update-c5-instances-with-local-nvme-storage-c5d/

As you can see from my EC2 Instance History post, we add new instance types on a regular and frequent basis. Driven by increasingly powerful processors and designed to address an ever-widening set of use cases, the size and diversity of this list reflects the equally diverse group of EC2 customers!

Near the bottom of that list you will find the new compute-intensive C5 instances. With a 25% to 50% improvement in price-performance over the C4 instances, the C5 instances are designed for applications like batch and log processing, distributed and or real-time analytics, high-performance computing (HPC), ad serving, highly scalable multiplayer gaming, and video encoding. Some of these applications can benefit from access to high-speed, ultra-low latency local storage. For example, video encoding, image manipulation, and other forms of media processing often necessitates large amounts of I/O to temporary storage. While the input and output files are valuable assets and are typically stored as Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) objects, the intermediate files are expendable. Similarly, batch and log processing runs in a race-to-idle model, flushing volatile data to disk as fast as possible in order to make full use of compute resources.

New C5d Instances with Local Storage
In order to meet this need, we are introducing C5 instances equipped with local NVMe storage. Available for immediate use in 5 regions, these instances are a great fit for the applications that I described above, as well as others that you will undoubtedly dream up! Here are the specs:

Instance NamevCPUsRAMLocal StorageEBS BandwidthNetwork Bandwidth
c5d.large24 GiB1 x 50 GB NVMe SSDUp to 2.25 GbpsUp to 10 Gbps
c5d.xlarge48 GiB1 x 100 GB NVMe SSDUp to 2.25 GbpsUp to 10 Gbps
c5d.2xlarge816 GiB1 x 225 GB NVMe SSDUp to 2.25 GbpsUp to 10 Gbps
c5d.4xlarge1632 GiB1 x 450 GB NVMe SSD2.25 GbpsUp to 10 Gbps
c5d.9xlarge3672 GiB1 x 900 GB NVMe SSD4.5 Gbps10 Gbps
c5d.18xlarge72144 GiB2 x 900 GB NVMe SSD9 Gbps25 Gbps

Other than the addition of local storage, the C5 and C5d share the same specs. Both are powered by 3.0 GHz Intel Xeon Platinum 8000-series processors, optimized for EC2 and with full control over C-states on the two largest sizes, giving you the ability to run two cores at up to 3.5 GHz using Intel Turbo Boost Technology.

You can use any AMI that includes drivers for the Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) and NVMe; this includes the latest Amazon Linux, Microsoft Windows (Server 2008 R2, Server 2012, Server 2012 R2 and Server 2016), Ubuntu, RHEL, SUSE, and CentOS AMIs.

Here are a couple of things to keep in mind about the local NVMe storage:

Naming – You don’t have to specify a block device mapping in your AMI or during the instance launch; the local storage will show up as one or more devices (/dev/nvme*1 on Linux) after the guest operating system has booted.

Encryption – Each local NVMe device is hardware encrypted using the XTS-AES-256 block cipher and a unique key. Each key is destroyed when the instance is stopped or terminated.

Lifetime – Local NVMe devices have the same lifetime as the instance they are attached to, and do not stick around after the instance has been stopped or terminated.

Available Now
C5d instances are available in On-Demand, Reserved Instance, and Spot form in the US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon), EU (Ireland), US East (Ohio), and Canada (Central) Regions. Prices vary by Region, and are just a bit higher than for the equivalent C5 instances.

Jeff;

PS – We will be adding local NVMe storage to other EC2 instance types in the months to come, so stay tuned!

UK soldiers design Raspberry Pi bomb disposal robot

Post Syndicated from Helen Lynn original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/uk-soldiers-design-raspberry-pi-bomb-disposal-robot/

Three soldiers in the British Army have used a Raspberry Pi to build an autonomous robot, as part of their Foreman of Signals course.

Meet The Soldiers Revolutionising Bomb Disposal

Three soldiers from Blandford Camp have successfully designed and built an autonomous robot as part of their Foreman of Signals Course at the Dorset Garrison.

Autonomous robots

Forces Radio BFBS carried a story last week about Staff Sergeant Jolley, Sergeant Rana, and Sergeant Paddon, also known as the “Project ROVER” team. As part of their Foreman of Signals training, their task was to design an autonomous robot that can move between two specified points, take a temperature reading, and transmit the information to a remote computer. The team comments that, while semi-autonomous robots have been used as far back as 9/11 for tasks like finding people trapped under rubble, nothing like their robot and on a similar scale currently exists within the British Army.

The ROVER buggy

Their build is named ROVER, which stands for Remote Obstacle aVoiding Environment Robot. It’s a buggy that moves on caterpillar tracks, and it’s tethered; we wonder whether that might be because it doesn’t currently have an on-board power supply. A demo shows the robot moving forward, then changing its path when it encounters an obstacle. The team is using RealVNC‘s remote access software to allow ROVER to send data back to another computer.

Applications for ROVER

Dave Ball, Senior Lecturer in charge of the Foreman of Signals course, comments that the project is “a fantastic opportunity for [the team] to, even only halfway through the course, showcase some of the stuff they’ve learnt and produce something that’s really quite exciting.” The Project ROVER team explains that the possibilities for autonomous robots like this one are extensive: they include mine clearance, bomb disposal, and search-and-rescue campaigns. They point out that existing semi-autonomous hardware is not as easy to program as their build. In contrast, they say, “with the invention of the Raspberry Pi, this has allowed three very inexperienced individuals to program a robot very capable of doing these things.”

We make Raspberry Pi computers because we want building things with technology to be as accessible as possible. So it’s great to see a project like this, made by people who aren’t techy and don’t have a lot of computing experience, but who want to solve a problem and see that the Pi is an affordable and powerful tool that can help.

The post UK soldiers design Raspberry Pi bomb disposal robot appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

AWS IoT 1-Click – Use Simple Devices to Trigger Lambda Functions

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-iot-1-click-use-simple-devices-to-trigger-lambda-functions/

We announced a preview of AWS IoT 1-Click at AWS re:Invent 2017 and have been refining it ever since, focusing on simplicity and a clean out-of-box experience. Designed to make IoT available and accessible to a broad audience, AWS IoT 1-Click is now generally available, along with new IoT buttons from AWS and AT&T.

I sat down with the dev team a month or two ago to learn about the service so that I could start thinking about my blog post. During the meeting they gave me a pair of IoT buttons and I started to think about some creative ways to put them to use. Here are a few that I came up with:

Help Request – Earlier this month I spent a very pleasant weekend at the HackTillDawn hackathon in Los Angeles. As the participants were hacking away, they occasionally had questions about AWS, machine learning, Amazon SageMaker, and AWS DeepLens. While we had plenty of AWS Solution Architects on hand (decked out in fashionable & distinctive AWS shirts for easy identification), I imagined an IoT button for each team. Pressing the button would alert the SA crew via SMS and direct them to the proper table.

Camera ControlTim Bray and I were in the AWS video studio, prepping for the first episode of Tim’s series on AWS Messaging. Minutes before we opened the Twitch stream I realized that we did not have a clean, unobtrusive way to ask the camera operator to switch to a closeup view. Again, I imagined that a couple of IoT buttons would allow us to make the request.

Remote Dog Treat Dispenser – My dog barks every time a stranger opens the gate in front of our house. While it is great to have confirmation that my Ring doorbell is working, I would like to be able to press a button and dispense a treat so that Luna stops barking!

Homes, offices, factories, schools, vehicles, and health care facilities can all benefit from IoT buttons and other simple IoT devices, all managed using AWS IoT 1-Click.

All About AWS IoT 1-Click
As I said earlier, we have been focusing on simplicity and a clean out-of-box experience. Here’s what that means:

Architects can dream up applications for inexpensive, low-powered devices.

Developers don’t need to write any device-level code. They can make use of pre-built actions, which send email or SMS messages, or write their own custom actions using AWS Lambda functions.

Installers don’t have to install certificates or configure cloud endpoints on newly acquired devices, and don’t have to worry about firmware updates.

Administrators can monitor the overall status and health of each device, and can arrange to receive alerts when a device nears the end of its useful life and needs to be replaced, using a single interface that spans device types and manufacturers.

I’ll show you how easy this is in just a moment. But first, let’s talk about the current set of devices that are supported by AWS IoT 1-Click.

Who’s Got the Button?
We’re launching with support for two types of buttons (both pictured above). Both types of buttons are pre-configured with X.509 certificates, communicate to the cloud over secure connections, and are ready to use.

The AWS IoT Enterprise Button communicates via Wi-Fi. It has a 2000-click lifetime, encrypts outbound data using TLS, and can be configured using BLE and our mobile app. It retails for $19.99 (shipping and handling not included) and can be used in the United States, Europe, and Japan.

The AT&T LTE-M Button communicates via the LTE-M cellular network. It has a 1500-click lifetime, and also encrypts outbound data using TLS. The device and the bundled data plan is available an an introductory price of $29.99 (shipping and handling not included), and can be used in the United States.

We are very interested in working with device manufacturers in order to make even more shapes, sizes, and types of devices (badge readers, asset trackers, motion detectors, and industrial sensors, to name a few) available to our customers. Our team will be happy to tell you about our provisioning tools and our facility for pushing OTA (over the air) updates to large fleets of devices; you can contact them at [email protected].

AWS IoT 1-Click Concepts
I’m eager to show you how to use AWS IoT 1-Click and the buttons, but need to introduce a few concepts first.

Device – A button or other item that can send messages. Each device is uniquely identified by a serial number.

Placement Template – Describes a like-minded collection of devices to be deployed. Specifies the action to be performed and lists the names of custom attributes for each device.

Placement – A device that has been deployed. Referring to placements instead of devices gives you the freedom to replace and upgrade devices with minimal disruption. Each placement can include values for custom attributes such as a location (“Building 8, 3rd Floor, Room 1337”) or a purpose (“Coffee Request Button”).

Action – The AWS Lambda function to invoke when the button is pressed. You can write a function from scratch, or you can make use of a pair of predefined functions that send an email or an SMS message. The actions have access to the attributes; you can, for example, send an SMS message with the text “Urgent need for coffee in Building 8, 3rd Floor, Room 1337.”

Getting Started with AWS IoT 1-Click
Let’s set up an IoT button using the AWS IoT 1-Click Console:

If I didn’t have any buttons I could click Buy devices to get some. But, I do have some, so I click Claim devices to move ahead. I enter the device ID or claim code for my AT&T button and click Claim (I can enter multiple claim codes or device IDs if I want):

The AWS buttons can be claimed using the console or the mobile app; the first step is to use the mobile app to configure the button to use my Wi-Fi:

Then I scan the barcode on the box and click the button to complete the process of claiming the device. Both of my buttons are now visible in the console:

I am now ready to put them to use. I click on Projects, and then Create a project:

I name and describe my project, and click Next to proceed:

Now I define a device template, along with names and default values for the placement attributes. Here’s how I set up a device template (projects can contain several, but I just need one):

The action has two mandatory parameters (phone number and SMS message) built in; I add three more (Building, Room, and Floor) and click Create project:

I’m almost ready to ask for some coffee! The next step is to associate my buttons with this project by creating a placement for each one. I click Create placements to proceed. I name each placement, select the device to associate with it, and then enter values for the attributes that I established for the project. I can also add additional attributes that are peculiar to this placement:

I can inspect my project and see that everything looks good:

I click on the buttons and the SMS messages appear:

I can monitor device activity in the AWS IoT 1-Click Console:

And also in the Lambda Console:

The Lambda function itself is also accessible, and can be used as-is or customized:

As you can see, this is the code that lets me use {{*}}include all of the placement attributes in the message and {{Building}} (for example) to include a specific placement attribute.

Now Available
I’ve barely scratched the surface of this cool new service and I encourage you to give it a try (or a click) yourself. Buy a button or two, build something cool, and let me know all about it!

Pricing is based on the number of enabled devices in your account, measured monthly and pro-rated for partial months. Devices can be enabled or disabled at any time. See the AWS IoT 1-Click Pricing page for more info.

To learn more, visit the AWS IoT 1-Click home page or read the AWS IoT 1-Click documentation.

Jeff;