Tag Archives: Raspberry Pi 4

Get VMWare on Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/get-vmware-on-raspberry-pi/

Hacking apart a sweet, innocent Raspberry Pi – who would do such a thing? Network Chuck, that’s who. But he has a very cool reason for it so, we’ll let him off the hook.

Subscribe to Network Chuck on YouTube

He’s figured out how to install VMware ESXi on Raspberry Pi, and he’s sharing the step-by-step process with you because he loves you. And us. We think. We hope.

Get cutting

In a nutshell, Chuck hacks apart a Raspberry Pi, turning it into three separate computers, each running different software at the same time. He’s a wizard.

Our poor sweet baby 😮

VMware is cool because it’s Virtual Machine software big companies use on huge servers, but you can deploy it on one of our tiny devices and learn how to use it in the comfort of your own home if you follow Chuck’s instructions.

Raspberry Pi cut into three pieces with labels showing how powerful each bit is and what it's capable of
Useful labels explaining which bit of Raspberry Pi is capable of what

What do you need?

Make sure you’re up to date

So easy, it only takes 40 seconds to explain

Firstly, you need to make sure you’re running the latest version of Raspberry Pi OS. Chuck uses Raspberry Pi Imager to do this, and the video above shows you how to do the same.

Format your SD card

Network Chuck removing SD card from Raspberry Pi 4
It’s teeny, but powerful

Then you’ll need to format your SD card ready for VMware ESXi. This can be done with Raspberry Pi Imager too. You’ll need to download these two things:

Chuck is the kind of good egg who walks you through how to do this on screen at this point in the project video.

VMware installation

Then you’ll need to create the VMWare Installer to install the actual software. It’s at this point your USB flash drive takes centre stage. Here’s everything you’ll need:

And this is the point in the video at which Chuck walks you through the process.

Once that’s all done, stick your USB flash drive into your Raspberry Pi and get going. You need to be quick off the mark for this bit – there’s some urgent Escape key pressing required, but don’t worry, Chuck walks you through everything.

Create a VM and expand your storage

Once you’ve followed all those steps, you will be up, running, and ready to go. The installation process only takes up the first 15 minutes of Chuck’s project video, and he spends the rest of his time walking you through creating your first VM and adding more storage.

Top job, Chuck.

Keep up with Chuck

Network Chuck holding a Raspberry Pi 4 next to his broadcasting microphone
Fun fact: Raspberry Pi 4 is the same length as Network Chuck’s beard

Network Chuck live-streams every Monday on his YouTube channel, and you can follow him on Twitter too.

There’s also the brilliant networkchuck.com.

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Smart Fairy Tale

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/smart-fairy-tale/

This is creepy, and we love it. OK, it’s not REALLY creepy, it’s just that some people have an aversion to dolls that appear to move of their own accord, due to a disturbing childhood experience — but enough about me.

Smart Fairy Tale is a whimsical, unique community project created by Berlin-based installation artist Niklas Roy and interaction designer Felix Fisgus.

Using a smartphone app, viewers determine which way a ball travels through transparent pipes, and depending on which light barriers the ball interrupts on its journey, various toys are animated to tell different stories.

The server of the installation is a Raspberry Pi 4. Via its GPIO pins, it controls the track switches and releases the ball.

Raspberry Pi 4 mounted onto plastic with the installation's servo and all the microcontrollers
Raspberry Pi 4 tucked in the top right-hand corner, mounted together with the router. Photo courtesy of Niklas’ project page

The apparatus is full of toys donated by residents of Wolfsburg, Germany. The artists wanted local people to not only be able to operate the mechanical piece, but also to have a hand in creating it. Each animatronic toy is made as a separate module, controlled by its own Arduino Nano.

Smart Fairy Tale can be remotely controlled by viewers who want to check in on the toys they gifted to the installation, and by any other curious people elsewhere in the world.

A phone using the app to control the installation. The installation is out of focus in the background
The app in action. Photo from Felix’s project page.

Better yet, the stories the toys tell were devised by local school students. The artists showed the gifted toys to a few elementary school classes, and the students drew several stories featuring toys they liked. The makers then programmed the toys to match what the drawings said they could do. A servo here, a couple of LEDs there, and the students’ stories were brought to life.

Some drawings local children made suggesting storylines for each of the gifted toys
Some of the storylines drawn by local children. Photo courtesy of Felix’s project page.

So what kind of stories did Wolfsburg’s finest come up with? One of the creators explains:

“There were a lot of scenes to interpret, like the blow-up love story, the chemtrail conspiracy, and the fossil fuel disaster, which culminates in a major traffic jam. The latter one even involved a laboratory for breeding synthetic dinosaurs by the use of renewable energies.”

Felix Fisgus

We LOVE it. Don’t tell me this isn’t creepy though…

WHY DO YOU HAUNT MY DREAMS???

You’ll find tonnes of extra technical specs and images in the project posts on both Felix and Niklas‘ websites.

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Classify your trash with Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/classify-your-trash-with-raspberry-pi/

Maker Jen Fox took to hackster.io to share a Raspberry Pi–powered trash classifier that tells you whether the trash in your hand is recyclable, compostable, or just straight-up garbage.

Jen reckons this project is beginner-friendly, as you don’t need any code to train the machine learning model, just a little to load it on Raspberry Pi. It’s also a pretty affordable build, costing less than $70 including a Raspberry Pi 4.

“Haz waste”?!

Hardware:

  • Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
  • Raspberry Pi Camera Module
  • Adafruit push button
  • Adafruit LEDs
Watch Jen giving a demo of her creation

Software

The code-free machine learning model is created using Lobe, a desktop tool that automatically trains a custom image classifier based on what objects you’ve shown it.

The image classifier correctly guessing it has been shown a bottle cap

Training the image classifier

Basically, you upload a tonne of photos and tell Lobe what object each of them shows. Jen told the empty classification model which photos were of compostable waste, which were of recyclable and items, and which were of garbage or bio-hazardous waste. Of course, as Jen says, “the more photos you have, the more accurate your model is.”

Loading up Raspberry Pi

Birds eye view of Raspberry Pi 4 with a camera module connected
The Raspberry Pi Camera Module attached to Raspberry Pi 4

As promised, you only need a little bit of code to load the image classifier onto your Raspberry Pi. The Raspberry Pi Camera Module acts as the image classifier’s “eyes” so Raspberry Pi can find out what kind of trash you hold up for it.

The push button and LEDs are wired up to the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins, and they work together with the camera and light up according to what the image classifier “sees”.

Here’s the fritzing diagram showing how to wire the push button and LEDS to the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins

You’ll want to create a snazzy case so your trash classifier looks good mounted on the wall. Kate cut holes in a cardboard box to make sure that the camera could “see” out, the user can see the LEDs, and the push button is accessible. Remember to leave room for Raspberry Pi’s power supply to plug in.

Jen’s hand-painted case mounted to the wall, having a look at a plastic bag

Jen has tonnes of other projects on her Hackster profile — check out the micro:bit Magic Wand.

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Hire Raspberry Pi as a robot sous-chef in your kitchen

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/hire-raspberry-pi-as-a-robot-sous-chef-in-your-kitchen/

Design Engineering student Ben Cobley has created a Raspberry Pi–powered sous-chef that automates the easier pan-cooking tasks so the head chef can focus on culinary creativity.

Ben named his invention OnionBot, as the idea came to him when looking for an automated way to perfectly soften onions in a pan while he got on with the rest of his dish. I have yet to manage to retrieve onions from the pan before they blacken so… *need*.

OnionBot robotic sous-chef set up in a kitchen
The full setup (you won’t need a laptop while you’re cooking, so you’ll have counter space)

A Raspberry Pi 4 Model B is the brains of the operation, with a Raspberry Pi Touch Display showing the instructions, and a Raspberry Pi Camera Module keeping an eye on the pan.

OnionBot robotic sous-chef hardware mounted on a board
Close up of the board-mounted hardware and wiring

Ben’s affordable solution is much better suited to home cooking than the big, expensive robotic arms used in industry. Using our tiny computer also allowed Ben to create something that fits on a kitchen counter.

OnionBot robotic sous-chef hardware list

What can OnionBot do?

  • Tells you on-screen when it is time to advance to the next stage of a recipe
  • Autonomously controls the pan temperature using PID feedback control
  • Detects when the pan is close to boiling over and automatically turns down the heat
  • Reminds you if you haven’t stirred the pan in a while
OnionBot robotic sous-chef development stages
Images from Ben’s blog on DesignSpark

How does it work?

A thermal sensor array suspended above the stove detects the pan temperature, and the Raspberry Pi Camera Module helps track the cooking progress. A servo motor controls the dial on the induction stove.

Screenshot of the image classifier of OnionBot robotic sous-chef
Labelling images to train the image classifier

No machine learning expertise was required to train an image classifier, running on Raspberry Pi, for Ben’s robotic creation; you’ll see in the video that the classifier is a really simple drag-and-drop affair.

Ben has only taught his sous-chef one pasta dish so far, and we admire his dedication to carbs.

Screenshot of the image classifier of OnionBot robotic sous-chef
Training the image classifier to know when you haven’t stirred the pot in a while

Ben built a control panel for labelling training images in real time and added labels at key recipe milestones while he cooked under the camera’s eye. This process required 500–1000 images per milestone, so Ben made a LOT of pasta while training his robotic sous-chef’s image classifier.

Diagram of networked drivers and devices in OnionBot robotic sous-chef

Ben open-sourced this project so you can collaborate to suggest improvements or teach your own robot sous-chef some more dishes. Here’s OnionBot on GitHub.

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Raspberry Pi High Quality security camera

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-high-quality-security-camera/

DJ from the element14 community shows you how to build a red-lensed security camera in the style of Portal 2 using the Raspberry Pi High Quality Camera.

The finished camera mounted on the wall

Portal 2 is a puzzle platform game developed by Valve — a “puzzle game masquerading as a first-person shooter”, according to Forbes.

DJ playing with the Raspberry Pi High Quality Camera

Kit list

No code needed!

DJ was pleased to learn that you don’t need to write any code to make your own security camera, you can just use a package called motionEyeOS. All you have to do is download the motionEyeOS image, pop the flashed SD card into your Raspberry Pi, and you’re pretty much good to go.

Dj got everything set up on a 5″ screen attached to the Raspberry Pi

You’ll find that the default resolution is 640×480, so it will show up as a tiny window on your monitor of choice, but that can be amended.

Simplicity

While this build is very simple electronically, the 20-part 3D-printed shell is beautiful. A Raspberry Pi is positioned on a purpose-built platform in the middle of the shell, connected to the Raspberry Pi High Quality Camera, which sits at the front of that shell, peeking out.

All the 3D printed parts ready to assemble

The 5V power supply is routed through the main shell into the base, which mounts the build to the wall. In order to keep the Raspberry Pi cool, DJ made some vent holes in the lens of the shell. The red LED is routed out of the side and sits on the outside body of the shell.

Magnetising

Raspberry Pi 4 (centre) and Raspberry Pi High Quality Camera (right) sat inside the 3D printed shell

This build is also screwless: the halves of the shell have what look like screw holes along the edges, but they are actually 3mm neodymium magnets, so assembly and repair is super easy as everything just pops on and off.

The final picture (that’s DJ!)

You can find all the files you need to recreate this build, or you can ask DJ a question, at element14.com/presents.

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Scroll text across your face mask with NeoPixel and Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/scroll-text-across-your-face-mask-with-neopixel-and-raspberry-pi/

Have you perfected your particular combination of ‘eye widening then squinting’ to let people know you’re smiling at them behind your mask? Or do you need help expressing yourself from this text-scrolling creation by Caroline Dunn?

The mask running colourful sample code

What’s it made of?

The main bits of hardware need are a Raspberry Pi 3 or Raspberry Pi 4 or Raspberry Pi Zero W (or a Zero WH with pre-soldered GPIO header if you don’t want to do soldering yourself), and an 8×8 Flexible NeoPixel Matrix with individually addressable LEDs. The latter is a two-dimensional grid of NeoPixels, all controlled via a single microcontroller pin.

Raspberry Pi and the NeoPixel Matrix (bottom left) getting wired up

The NeoPixel Matrix is attached to a cloth face that which has a second translucent fabric layer. The translucent layer is to sew your Raspberry Pi project to, the cloth layer underneath is a barrier for germs.

You’ll need a separate 5V power source for the NeoPixel Matrix. Caroline used a 5V power bank, which involved some extra fiddling with cutting up and stripping an old USB cable. You may want to go for a purpose-made traditional power supply for ease.

Running the text

To prototype, Caroline connected the Raspberry Pi computer to the NeoPixel Matrix via a breadboard and some jumper wires. At this stage of your own build, you check everything is working by running this sample code from Adafruit, which should get your NeoPixel Matrix lighting up like a rainbow.

The internal website on the left

Once you’ve got your project up and running, you can ditch the breadboard and wires and set up the key script, app.py, to run on boot.

Going mobile

To change the text scrolling across your mask, you use the internal website that’s part of Caroline’s code.

And for a truly mobile solution, you can access the internal website via mobile phone by hooking up your Raspberry Pi using your phone’s hotspot functionality. Then you can alter the scrolling text while you’re out and about.

Caroline wearing the 32×8 version

Caroline also created a version of her project using a 32×8 Neopixel Matrix, which fits on the across the headband of larger plastic face visors.

If you want to make this build for yourself, you’d do well to start with the very nice in-depth walkthrough Caroline created. It’s only three parts; you’ll be fine.

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Build an e-paper to-do list with Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/build-an-e-paper-to-do-list-with-raspberry-pi/

James Bruxton (or @xrobotosuk on Instagram) built an IoT-controlled e-paper message board using Raspberry Pi. Updating it is easy: just edit a Google sheet, and the message board will update with the new data.

Harnessing Google power

This smart message board uses e-paper, which has very low power consumption. Combining this with the Google Docs API (which allows you to write code to read and write to Google Docs) and Raspberry Pi makes it possible to build a message board that polls a Google Sheet and updates whenever there’s new data. This guide helped James write the Google Docs API code.

We’ll do #4 for you, James!

Why e-paper?

James’s original plan was to hook up his Raspberry Pi to a standard monitor and use Google Docs so people could update the display via mobile app. However, a standard monitor consumes a lot of power, due to its backlight, and if you set it to go into sleep mode, people would just walk past it and not see updates to the list unless they remember to wake the device up.

Raspberry Pi wearing its blue e-paper HAT on the left, which connects to the display on the right via a ribbon cable

Enter e-paper (the same stuff used for Kindle devices), which only consumes power when it’s updating. Once you’ve got the info you want on the e-paper, you can even disconnect it entirely from your power source and the screen will still display whatever the least update told it to. James’s top tip for your project: go for the smallest e-paper display possible, as those things are expensive. He went with this one, which comes with a HAT for Raspberry Pi and a ribbon cable to connect the two.

The display disconnected from any power and still clearly readable

The HAT has an adaptor for plugging into the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins, and a breakout header for the SPI pins. James found it’s not as simple as enabling the SPI on his Raspberry Pi and the e-paper display springing to life: you need a bit of code to enable the SPI display to act as the main display for the Raspberry Pi. Luckily, the code for this is on the wiki of Waveshare, the producer of HAT and display James used for this project.

Making it pretty

A 3D-printed case, which looks like a classic photo frame but with a hefty in-built stand to hold it up and provide enough space for the Raspberry Pi to sit on, is home to James’s finished smart to-do list. The e-paper is so light and thin it can just be sticky-taped into the frame.

The roomy frame stand

James’s creation is powered by Raspberry Pi 4, but you don’t need that much power, and he’s convinced you’ll be fine with any Raspberry Pi model that has 40 GPIO pins.

Extra points for this maker, as he’s put all the CAD files and code you’ll need to make your own e-paper message board on GitHub.

If you’re into e-paper stuff but are wedded to your handwritten to-do lists, then why not try building this super slow movie player instead? The blog squad went *nuts* for it when we posted it last month.

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Ultrasonically detect bats with Raspberry Pi

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/ultrasonically-detect-bats-with-raspberry-pi/

Welcome to October, the month in which spiderwebs become decor and anything vaguely gruesome is considered ‘seasonal’. Such as bats. Bats are in fact cute, furry creatures, but as they are part of the ‘Halloweeny animal’ canon, I have a perfect excuse to sing their praises.

baby bats in a row wrapped up like human babies
SEE? Baby bats wrapped up cute like baby humans

Tegwyn Twmffat was tasked with doing a bat survey on a derelict building, and they took to DesignSpark to share their Raspberry Pi–powered solution.

UK law protects nesting birds and roosting bats, so before you go knocking buildings down, you need a professional to check that no critters will be harmed in the process.

The acoustic signature of an echo-locating brown long-eared bat

The problem with bats, compared to birds, is they are much harder to spot and have a tendency to hang out in tiny wall cavities. Enter this big ultrasonic microphone.

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B provided the RAM needed for this build

After the building was declared safely empty of bats, Tegwyn decided to keep hold of the expensive microphone (the metal tube in the image above) and have a crack at developing their own auto-classification system to detect which type of bats are about.

How does it work?

The ultrasonic mic picks up the audio data using an STM M0 processor and streams it to Raspberry Pi via USB. Raspberry Pi runs Alsa driver software and uses the bash language to receive the data.

Tegwyn turned to the open-source GTK software to process the audio data

It turns out there are no publicly available audio records of bats, so Tegwyn took to their own back garden and found 6 species to record. And with the help of a few other bat enthusiasts, they cobbled together an audio dataset of 9 of the 17 bat species found in the UK!

Tegwyn’s original post about their project features a 12-step walkthrough, as well as all the code and commands you’ll need to build your own system. And here’s the GitHub repository, where you can check for updates.

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Raspberry Pi powered e-paper display takes months to show a movie

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-powered-e-paper-display-takes-months-to-show-a-movie/

We loved the filmic flair of Tom Whitwell‘s super slow e-paper display, which takes months to play a film in full.

Living art

His creation plays films at about two minutes of screen time per 24 hours, taking a little under three months for a 110-minute film. Psycho played in a corner of his dining room for two months. The infamous shower scene lasted a day and a half.

Tom enjoys the opportunity for close study of iconic filmmaking, but you might like this project for the living artwork angle. How cool would this be playing your favourite film onto a plain wall somewhere you can see it throughout the day?

The Raspberry Pi wearing its e-Paper HAT

Four simple steps

Luckily, this is a relatively simple project – no hardcore coding, no soldering required – with just four steps to follow if you’d like to recreate it:

  1. Get the Raspberry Pi working in headless mode without a monitor, so you can upload files and run code
  2. Connect to an e-paper display via an e-paper HAT (see above image; Tom is using this one) and install the driver code on the Raspberry Pi
  3. Use Tom’s code to extract frames from a movie file, resize and dither those frames, display them on the screen, and keep track of progress through the film
  4. Find some kind of frame to keep it all together (Tom went with a trusty IKEA number)
Living artwork: the Psycho shower scene playing alongside still artwork in Tom’s home

Affordably arty

The entire build cost £120 in total. Tom chose a 2GB Raspberry Pi 4 and a NOOBS 64gb SD Card, which he bought from Pimoroni, one of our approved resellers. NOOBS included almost all the libraries he needed for this project, which made life a lot easier.

His original post is a dream of a comprehensive walkthrough, including all the aforementioned code.

2001: A Space Odyssey would take months to play on Tom’s creation

Head to the comments section with your vote for the creepiest film to watch in ultra slow motion. I came over all peculiar imaging Jaws playing on my living room wall for months. Big bloody mouth opening slooooowly (pales), big bloody teeth clamping down slooooowly (heart palpitations). Yeah, not going to try that. Sorry Tom.

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Raspberry Pi enables world’s smallest iMac

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-enables-worlds-smallest-imac/

This project goes a step further than most custom-made Raspberry Pi cases: YouTuber Michael Pick hacked a Raspberry Pi 4 and stuffed it inside this Apple lookalike to create the world’s smallest ‘iMac’.

Michael designed and 3D printed this miniature ‘iMac’ with what he calls a “gently modified” Raspberry Pi 4 at the heart. Everything you see is hand-painted and -finished to achieve an authentic, sleek Apple look.

This is “gentle modification” we just mentioned

Even after all that power tool sparking, this miniature device is capable of playing Minecraft at 1000 frames per second. Michael was set on making the finished project as thin as possible, so he had to slice off a couple of his Raspberry Pi’s USB ports and the Ethernet socket to make everything fit inside the tiny, custom-made case. This hacked setup leaves you with Bluetooth and wireless internet connections, which, as Michael explains in the build video, “if you’re a Mac user, that’s all you’re ever going to need.”

We love watching 3D printer footage set to relaxed elevator music

This teeny yet impactful project has even been featured on forbes.com, and that’s where we learned how the tightly packed tech manages to work in such a restricted space:

“A wireless dongle is plugged into one of the remaining USB ports to ensure it’s capable of connecting to a wireless keyboard and mouse, and a low-profile ribbon cable is used to connect the display to the Raspberry Pi. Careful crimping of cables and adapters ensures the mini iMac can be powered from a USB-C extension cable that feeds in under the screen, while the device also includes a single USB 2 port.”

Barry Collins | forbes.com

The maker also told forbes.com that this build was inspired by an iRaspbian software article from tech writer Barry Collins. iRaspbian puts a Mac-like interface — including Dock, Launcher and even the default macOS wallpaper — on top of a Linux distro. We guess Michael just wanted the case to match the content, hey?

Check out Michael’s YouTube channel for more inexplicably cool builds, such as a one billion volt Thor hammer.

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It’s a brand-new NODE Mini Server!

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/its-a-brand-new-node-mini-server/

NODE has long been working to create open-source resources to help more people harness the decentralised internet, and their easily 3D-printed designs are perfect to optimise your Raspberry Pi.

NODE wanted to take advantage of the faster processor and up to 8GB RAM on Raspberry Pi 4 when it came out last year. Now that our tiny computer is more than capable of being used as as a general Linux desktop system, the NODE Mini Server version 3 has been born.

As for previous versions of NODE’s Mini Server, one of their main goals for this new iteration was to package Raspberry Pi in a way which makes it a little easier to use as a regular mini server or computer. In other words, it’s put inside a neat little box with all the ports accessible on one side.

Black is incredibly slimming

Slimmer and simpler

The latest design is simplified compared to previous versions. Everything lives in a 92mm × 92mm enclosure that isn’t much thicker than Raspberry Pi itself.

The slimmed-down new case comprises a single 3D-printed piece and a top cover made from a custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) that has four brass-threaded inserts soldered into the corners, giving you a simple way to screw everything together.

The custom PCB cover

What are the new features?

Another goal for version 3 NODE’s Mini Server was to include as much modularity as possible. That’s why this new mini server requires no modifications to the Raspberry Pi itself, thanks to a range of custom-designed adapter boards. How to take advantage of all these new features is explained at this point in NODE’s YouTube video.

Ooh, shiny and new and new and shiny

Just like for previous versions, all the files and a list of the components you need to create your own Mini Server are available for free on the NODE website.

Leave comments on NODE’s YouTube video if you’d like to create and sell your own Mini Server kits or pre-made servers. NODE is totally open to showcasing any add-ons or extras you come up with yourself.

Looking ahead, making the Mini Server stackable and improving fan circulation is next on NODE’s agenda.

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Nandu’s lockdown Raspberry Pi robot project

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/nandus-lockdown-raspberry-pi-robot-project/

Nandu Vadakkath was inspired by a line-following robot built (literally) entirely from salvage materials that could wait patiently and purchase beer for its maker in Tamil Nadu, India. So he set about making his own, but with the goal of making it capable of slightly more sophisticated tasks.

“Robot, can you play a song?”

Hardware

Robot comes when called, and recognises you as its special human

Software

Nandu had ambitious plans for his robot: navigation, speech and listening, recognition, and much more were on the list of things he wanted it to do. And in order to make it do everything he wanted, he incorporated a lot of software, including:

Robot shares Nandu’s astrological chart
  • Python 3
  • virtualenv, a tool for creating isolating virtual Python environments
  • the OpenCV open source computer vision library
  • the spaCy open source natural language processing library
  • the TensorFlow open source machine learning platform
  • Haar cascade algorithms for object detection
  • A ResNet neural network with the COCO dataset for object detection
  • DeepSpeech, an open source speech-to-text engine
  • eSpeak NG, an open source speech synthesiser
  • The MySQL database service

So how did Nandu go about trying to make the robot do some of the things on his wishlist?

Context and intents engine

The engine uses spaCy to analyse sentences, classify all the elements it identifies, and store all this information in a MySQL database. When the robot encounters a sentence with a series of possible corresponding actions, it weighs them to see what the most likely context is, based on sentences it has previously encountered.

Getting to know you

The robot has been trained to follow Nandu around but it can get to know other people too. When it meets a new person, it takes a series of photos and processes them in the background, so it learns to remember them.

Nandu's home made robot
There she blows!

Speech

Nandu didn’t like the thought of a basic robotic voice, so he searched high and low until he came across the MBROLA UK English voice. Have a listen in the videos above!

Object and people detection

The robot has an excellent group photo function: it looks for a person, calculates the distance between the top of their head and the top of the frame, then tilts the camera until this distance is about 60 pixels. This is a lot more effort than some human photographers put into getting all of everyone’s heads into the frame.

Nandu has created a YouTube channel for his robot companion, so be sure to keep up with its progress!

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Atomic TV | The MagPi 97

Post Syndicated from Lucy Hattersley original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/atomic-tv-the-magpi-97/

Nothing on television worth watching? Ryan Cochran’s TV set is just as visually arresting when it’s turned off, as David Crookes reports in the latest issue of the MagPi magazine, out now.

Flat-screen televisions, with their increasingly thin bezels, are designed to put the picture front and centre. Go back a few decades, however, and a number of TVs were made to look futuristic – some even sported space age designs resembling astronaut helmets or flying saucers sat upon elaborate stands. They were quirky and hugely fun.

Maker Ryan Cochran’s project evokes such memories of the past. “I have a passion for vintage modern design and early NASA aesthetics, and I wanted to make something which would merge the two into an art piece that could fit on my shelf,” he recalls. “The first thing I could think of was a small television.” And so the idea for the Atomic TV came into being.

Made of wood and using spare tech parts left over from a couple of past projects, it’s a television that’s as compelling to look at when it’s turned off as when it’s playing videos on a loop. “My main concern was fit and finish,” he says. “I didn’t want this thing to look amateurish at all. I wanted it to look like a professionally built prototype from 1968.”

Turn on

Before he began planning the look of the project, Ryan wanted to make sure everything would connect. “The parts sort of drove the direction of the project, so the first thing I did was mock everything up without a cabinet to make sure everything worked together,” he says.

This posed some problems. “The display is 12 volts, and I would have preferred to simplify things by using one of the 5-volt displays on the market, but I had what I had, so I figured a way to make it work,” Ryan explains, discovering the existence of a dual 5 V-12 V power supply.

With a Raspberry Pi 4 computer, the LCD display, a driver board, and a pair of USB speakers borrowed from his son all firmly in hand, he worked on a way of controlling the volume and connected everything up.

“Power comes in and goes to an on/off switch,” he begins. “From there, it goes to the dual voltage power supply with the 12 V running the display and the 5 V running Raspberry Pi 4 and the small amp for the speakers. Raspberry Pi runs Adafruit’s Video Looper script and pulls videos from a USB thumb drive. It’s really simple, and there are no physical controls other than on/off switch and volume.”

Tune in

The bulk of the work came with the making of the project’s housing. “I wanted to nod the cap to Tom Sachs, an artist who does a lot of work I admire and my main concern was fit and finish,” Ryan reveals.

He filmed the process from start to end, showing the intricate work involved, including a base created from a cake-stand and a red-and-white panel for the controls. To ensure the components wouldn’t overheat, a fan was also included.

“The television runs 24/7 and it spends 99 percent of its time on mute,” says Ryan. “It’s literally just moving art that sits on my shelf playing my favourite films and video clips and, every now and then, I’ll look over, notice a scene I love, and turn up the volume to watch for a few minutes. It’s a great way to relax your brain and escape reality every now and then.”

Get The MagPi magazine issue 97 — out today

The MagPi magazine is out now, available in print from the Raspberry Pi Press onlinestore, your local newsagents, and the Raspberry Pi Store, Cambridge.

You can also download the PDF directly from the MagPi magazine website.

Subscribers to the MagPi for 12 months get a free Adafruit Circuit Playground, or can choose from one of our other subscription offers, including this amazing limited-time offer of three issues and a book for only £10!

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New twist on Raspberry Pi experimental resin 3D printer

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/new-twist-on-raspberry-pi-experimental-resin-3d-printer/

Element14’s Clem previously built a giant Raspberry Pi-powered resin-based 3D printer and here, he’s flipped the concept upside down.

The new Raspberry Pi 4 8GB reduces slicing times and makes for a more responsive GUI on this experimental 3D printer. Let’s take a look at what Clem changed and how…

The previous iteration of his build was “huge”, mainly because the only suitable screen Clem had to hand was a big 4K monitor. This new build flips the previous concept upside down by reducing the base size and the amount of resin needed.

Breaking out of the axis

To resize the project effectively, Clem came out of an X,Y axis and into Z, reducing the surface area but still allowing for scaling up, well, upwards! The resized, flipped version of this project also reduces the cost (resin is expensive stuff) and makes the whole thing more portable than a traditional, clunky 3D printer.

Look how slim and portable it is!

How it works

Now for the brains of the thing: nanodlip is free (but not open source) software which Clem ran on a Raspberry Pi 4. Using an 8GB Raspberry Pi will get you faster slicing times, so go big if you can.

A 5V and 12V switch volt power supply sorts out the Nanotec stepper motor. To get the signal from the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins to the stepper driver and to the motor, the pins are configured in nanodlp; Clem has shared his settings if you’d like to copy them (scroll down on this page to find a ‘Resources’ zip file just under the ‘Bill of Materials’ list).

Raspberry Pi working together with the display

For the display, there’s a Midas screen and an official Raspberry Pi 7″ Touchscreen Display, both of which work perfectly with nanodlip.

At 9:15 minutes in to the project video, Clem shows you around Fusion 360 and how he designed, printed, assembled, and tested the build’s engineering.

A bit of Fusion 360

Experimental resin

Now for the fancy, groundbreaking bit: Clem chose very specialised photocentric, high-tensile daylight resin so he can use LEDs with a daylight spectrum. This type of resin also has a lower density, so the liquid does not need to be suspended by surface tension (as in traditional 3D printers), rather it floats because of its own buoyancy. This way, you’ll need less resin to start with, and you’ll waste less too whenever you make a mistake. At 13:30 minutes into the project video, Clem shares the secret of how you achieve an ‘Oversaturated Solution’ in order to get your resin to float.

Now for the science bit…

Materials

It’s not perfect but, if Clem’s happy, we’re happy.

Join the conversation on YouTube if you’ve got an idea that could improve this unique approach to building 3D printers.

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Raspberry Pi won’t let your watched pot boil

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-wont-let-your-watched-pot-boil/

One of our favourite YouTubers, Harrison McIntyre, decided to make the aphorism “a watched pot never boils” into reality. They modified a tabletop burner with a Raspberry Pi so that it will turn itself off if anyone looks at it.

In this project, the Raspberry Pi runs facial detection using a USB camera. If the Raspberry Pi finds a face, it deactivates the burner, and vice versa.

There’s a snag, in that the burner runs off 120 V AC and the Raspberry Pi runs off 5 V DC, so you can’t just power the burner through the Raspberry Pi. Harrison got round this problem using a relay switch, and beautifully explains how a relay manages to turn a circuit off and on without directly interfacing with the circuit at the two minute mark of this video.

The Raspberry Pi working through the switchable plug with the burner

Harrison sourced a switchable plug bar which uses a relay to turn its own switches on and off. Plug the burner and the Raspberry Pi into that and, hey presto, you’ve got them working together via a relay.

The six camera setup

Things get jazzy at the four minute 30 second mark. At this point, Harrison decides to upgrade his single camera situation, and rig up six USB cameras to make sure that no matter where you are when you you look at the burner, the Raspberry Pi will always see your face and switch it off.

Inside the switchable plug

Harrison’s multiple-camera setup proved a little much for the Raspberry Pi 3B he had to hand for this project, so he goes on to explain how he got a bit of extra processing power using a different desktop and an Arduino. He recommends going for a Raspberry Pi 4 if you want to try this at home.

Kit list:

  • Raspberry Pi 4
  • Tabletop burner
  • USB cameras or rotating camera
  • Switchable plug bar
  • All of this software
It’s not just a saying anymore, thanks to Harrison

And the last great thing about this project is that you could invert the process to create a safety mechanism, meaning you wouldn’t be able to wander away from your cooking and leave things to burn.

We also endorse Harrison’s advice to try this with an electric burner and most definitely not a gas one; those things like to go boom if you don’t play with them properly.

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Raspberry Pi prayer reminder clock

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-prayer-reminder-clock/

One of our Approved Resellers in the Netherlands, Daniël from Raspberry Store, shared this Raspberry Pi–powered prayer reminder with us. It’s a useful application one of his customers made using a Raspberry Pi purchased from Daniël’s store.

As a Raspberry Pi Official Reseller, I love to see how customers use Raspberry Pi to create innovative products. Spying on bird nests, streaming audio to several locations, using them as a menu in a restaurant, or in a digital signage-solution… just awesome. But a few weeks ago, a customer showed me a new usage of Raspberry Pi: a prayer clock for mosques.

Made by Mawaqit, this is a narrowcasting solution with a Raspberry Pi at its heart and can be used on any browser or smartphone.

Hardware

This project is simple in hardware terms. You just need Raspberry Pi 3 or Raspberry Pi 4, a TV screen, and a HDMI cable.

If you do not have an internet connection, you’ll also need an RTC clock

With the HDMI cable, Raspberry Pi can broadcast the clock — plus other useful info like the weather, or a reminder to silence your phone — on a wall in the mosque. Awesome! So simple, and yet I have not seen a solution like this before, despite Mawaqit’s application now being used in 51 countries and over 4609 mosques. And, last I checked, it has more than 185,000 active users!

How to build it

You’ll need to install the pre-configured system image and flash the mawaqit.xz system image onto your Raspberry Pi’s SD card.

There are then two options: connected and offline. If you set yourself up using the connected option, you’ll be able to remotely control the app from your smartphone or any computer and tablet, which will be synchronised across all the screens connected to Raspberry Pi. You can also send messages and announcements. The latest updates from Mawaqit will install automatically.

That’s a little RTC on the right

If you need to choose the offline option and you’re not able to use the internet at your mosque, it’s important to equip your Raspberry Pi with RTC, because Raspberry Pi can’t keep time by itself.

All the software, bits of command line code, and step-by-step guidance you’ll need are available on this web page.

These figures update on the Mawaqit site

Open source for all

The Mawaqit project is free of charge, and the makers actually prohibit harnessing it for any monetary gain. The makers even created an API for you to create your own extentions — how great is that? So, if you want your own prayer clock for in a mosque, school, or just at home, take a look at Mawaqit.net.

Anyone with the language skills please head to YouTube and provide community translations for this walkthrough video

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Travel the world with a retro musical phone

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/travel-the-world-with-a-retro-musical-phone/

This rotary phone features a built-in Raspberry Pi that communicates with radiooooo.com (a musical time machine) and an Arduino working behind the map to control the selection of the country. Just pick up the phone, choose a country and a decade, and listen to some great music!

How does it work?

The Raspberry Pi:

  • Plays music through radiooooo.com
  • Detects when the handset is picked up/put down
  • Detects the numbers that are dialled in

The Arduino:

  • Detects which country is selected on the map (via jack connectors)
  • Sends the info to the Raspberry Pi over serial

We saw this project on hackster.io and loved how maker Caroline Buttet dug into the finer detail of an old-fashioned rotary phone’s pick-up/put-down mechanism, as well as how the phone knows which numbers you’re dialling. She goes into more detail about that aspect in the second build video, above.

An audio jack being plugged into a world map mounted on a board

Some countries have a jack pin -- this is how you select the music

Other bits you’ll need

As well as a Raspberry Pi 4 and Arduino UNO, you’ll need a world map (obviously) and something to mount it on which can be drilled into. This is because the jack pins you can see in the image above need to poke out of different countries.

Caroline’s grandma donated the old rotary phone she used for this project. You should be able to pick one up from a second-hand shop or, if you can get a new handset made in the retro style online.

The shopping list for this build also includes: jumper wires; audio/video cable assembly; LED, breadboard; jack socket 3-pin; resistors

A simplified visual representation of how everything works

In her original post, Caroline explains in detail how to connect the rotary phone’s switches to the pins on your Raspberry Pi, how to build in audio sockets on the board you glue your map to, how to run the necessary Python script from the command line, and what a Chrome extension to use to make radiooooo.com work with your Raspberry Pi.

The Raspberry Pi inside the rotary phone

And yes, Caroline is one of those most magical of makers who deposits all the code needed for this build on GitHub!

And here’s the Arduino mounted onto the back of the map, with the audio jacks taped up to the holes drilled into different countries

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Deep learning cat prey detector

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/deep-learning-cat-prey-detector/

We’ve all been able to check on our kitties’ outdoor activities for a while now, thanks to motion-activated cameras. And the internet’s favourite cat flap even live-tweets when it senses paws through the door.

A nightvision image of a cat approaching a cat flap with a mouse in its mouth

“Did you already make dinner? I stopped on the way home to pick this up for you.”

But what’s eluded us “owners” of felines up until now is the ability to stop our furry companions from bringing home mauled presents we neither want nor asked for.

A cat flap bouncer powered by deep learning

Now this Raspberry Pi–powered machine learning build, shared by reddit user u/eee_bume, can help us out: at its heart, there’s a convolutional neural network cascade that detects whether a cat is trying to enter a cat flap with something in its maw. (No word from the creators on how many half-consumed rodents the makers had to dispose of while training the machine learning model.)

The neural network first detects the whole cat in an image; then it hones in on the cat’s maw. Image classification is performed to detect whether there is anything in or around the maw. If the network thinks the cat is trying to smuggle caught contraband into the house, it’s a “no” from this virtual door bouncer.

The system runs on Raspberry Pi 4 with an infrared camera at an average detection rate of  around 1 FPS. The PC-Val value, representing the certainty of the prey classification => prey/no_prey certainty threshold, is 0.5.

The home made set up including small camera lights and sensors

The infrared camera setup, powered by Raspberry Pi

How to get enough training data

This project formed Nicolas Baumann’s and Michael Ganz’s spring semester thesis at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. One of the problems they ran into while trying to train their device is that cats are only expected to enter the cat flap carrying prey 3% of the time, which leads to a largely imbalanced classification problem. It would have taken a loooong time if they had just waited for Nicolas and Michael’s pets to bring home enough decomposing gifts.

Lots of different cats faces close up, some with prey in their mouths, some without

The cutest mugshots you ever did see

To get around this, they custom-built a scalable image data gathering network to simplify and maximise the collection of training data. It features multiple distributed Camera Nodes (CN), a centralised main archive, and a custom labeling tool. As a result of the data gathering network, 40GB of training data have been amassed.

What is my cat eating?!

The makers also took the time to train their neural network to classify different types of prey. So far, it recognises mice, lizards, slow-worms, and birds.

Infrared shots of one cat while the camera decides if it has prey in its mouth or not

“Come ooooon, it’s not even a *whole* mouse, let me in!”

It’s still being tweaked, but at the moment the machine learning model correctly detects when a cat has prey in its mouth 93% of the time. But it still falsely accuses kitties 28% of the time. We’ll leave it to you to decide whether your feline companion will stand for that kind of false positive rate, or whether it’s more than your job’s worth.

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Website hosting on Raspberry Pi 4 with Mythic Beasts

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/website-hosting-on-raspberry-pi-4-with-mythic-beasts/

Here’s Mythic Beast’s Pete Stevens to talk about how we run the Raspberry Pi website on Raspberry Pis, and how Mythic Beasts can run your site on Raspberry Pis too!

Rent a Raspberry Pi

In late 2016, Mythic Beasts launched a Raspberry Pi cloud, allowing you to rent a Raspberry Pi 3 as a service.

Raspberry Pi 4 is a much more capable computer, with more than twice the performance and, crucially, four times the memory. We were so excited by it, we bet Eben Upton a beer that we could host the launch site for Raspberry Pi 4 on Raspberry Pi 4. We’d demonstrated that it was just about possible to run a normal day on a cluster of eight Raspberry Pi 3s, but launch day is a bit more exciting — tens of millions rather than a million visitors.

Eben, being a fool supremely confident in the work that his team had done, took the bet and let us. On Thursday 20 June 2019, he dropped off eighteen 4GB RAM Raspberry Pi 4 computers that had previously been used in testing. We set about configuring them to replace all the web servers that run the Raspberry Pi blog.

  • 14× Dynamic Web server (PHP/Apache)
  • 2× Static webserver (Apache, flat files)
  • 2× Memcache (in memory store to accelerate web serving)

We started the build on Friday 21 June. We immediately ran into our first ‘chicken and egg’ problem. The Raspberry Pi web servers are built from Puppet, based (at the time) on Debian Jessie. Raspberry Pi 4’s release OS was a not-yet-released version of Debian Buster, which at the time wasn’t supported by Puppet. In conjunction with Greg Annandale at the Raspberry Pi Foundation, we created a Puppet build that would run on Raspberry Pi 4, updated the configuration from Jessie to Buster (newer Apache/PHP), and did some testing.

A rack of Raspberry Pis and a mess of wires connecting them
The enclosures were built to accommodate a larger PoE HAT, which is why this doesn’t stand up beautifully neatly.

We have pre-built enclosures from our Raspberry Pi 3 cloud. We followed the same approach using Power over Ethernet to provide power and data to each Raspberry Pi 4. This dramatically reduces the cabling and complexity of the setup. Late on Friday 21, just over 24 hours after we started, we moved the hastily constructed Raspberry Pi 4 setup to Sovereign House, a key Mythic Beasts data centre and one of the best-connected buildings in Europe.

Over the course of a few hours, we gradually moved the entire production load from the existing virtual servers to the Raspberry Pi 4 cloud and every page from the blog was being served directly off Raspberry Pi 4. We left it for two days to bed in before the real test: launch day.

The launch was almost perfectly smooth. The Raspberry Pi cluster coped fine with the tens of millions of users. However, the Raspberry Pi cluster and website is fronted by Cloudflare, which provides acceleration for static resources and protects the site from denial of service. Unfortunately, they had a two-hour outage in the middle of the launch thanks to a misconfigured internet optimiser run by a customer of Verizon. So the Raspberry Pi 4 cluster had a long lunch break wondering where all the users had gone.

We ran the website on the Raspberry Pi 4 cluster for over a month before reverting back to the usual virtual server-based environment. We’d proved that RaspberryPi 4 would make an awesome hosting platform.

Commercialising Raspberry Pi 4 as a service

We were already running Raspberry Pi 3 as a service for many customers (e.g. PiWheels, which builds Python packages for Raspberry Pi), and being able spin up Raspberry Pi 3 on demand is incredibly useful.

At launch, Raspberry Pi 4 wasn’t suitable. We rely on network boot in order to be able to remotely re-image Raspberry Pi. SD cards just aren’t very reliable; visiting the data centre for manual intervention on every SD card failure is not only expensive in time, but also means we’d have to maintain physical access to every Raspberry Pi 4 in our cloud. Netboot means that we just build large enclosures of 108 Raspberry Pis and seal them in, as they will never require physical attention. If one fails — and we’ve not yet seen one fail — we can shut it down and take it out of our database.

For Raspberry Pi 4 we had to wait for network booting to be a reality. We had access to beta firmware in November 2019 and built a sample Raspberry Pi 4 network boot setup. We then had to integrate it into our management code, build Raspberry Pi 4–compatible operating system images, and enhance our billing to cope with multiple models and by-the-hour billing. Then we had to do a file server and network upgrade: serving lots of machines with true gigabit needs more ‘oomph’ than the 100Mbps of Raspberry Pi 3. This also all needed to be backward-compatible so as not to break the existing Raspberry Pi 3 users. On 17 June 2020 we launched, and Raspberry Pi 4 is now ready to order in our cloud.

Is it any good?

Yes. Raspberry Pi is twice as fast as the same-sized instances in AWS, for a quarter of the price. Just see for yourself:

Raspberry Pi 4a1.largemg6.medium
Spec4 cores @ 1.5GHz
4GB RAM
2 cores
4GB RAM
1 core
4GB RAM
Monthly price£8.63$45.35
(~£36.09)
$34.69
(~ £27.61)
Requests per second1075257
Mean requests per second457ms978ms868ms
99th percentile request time791ms1247ms1056ms

But what about 8GB and 64-bit Raspberry Pi OS?

That sounds like a jolly nice idea. Keep watching the Mythic Beasts blog for updates.

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Raspberry Pi–powered robot farmers

Post Syndicated from Ashley Whittaker original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/raspberry-pi-powered-robot-farmers/

We love seeing Raspberry Pi being used to push industry forward. Here’s an example of how our tiny computers are making an impact in agriculture. 

Directed Machines is a small company on a mission to remove pollution and minimise human labour in land care. Their focus is to do more with less, so the affordable power of our robust computers matches perfectly with their goals.

You’ll find a Raspberry Pi 4 at the heart of their solar-powered, autonomous, electric tractors called Land Care Robots.

Here are a few of the robot’s specs:

  • 30KW / 42HP peak power
  • 1400 ft.lb torque
  • 400W bi-facial, high-efficiency solar panel for 10KWh energy storage
  • 50″(W)×80″(L) with zero turn
  • Dual color and depth (distance measuring) cameras, accelerometer, magnetic compass, and GPS
  • 4G/3G/2G modem for self-update/telemetry publish/map downloads and WiFi, allowing direct control from smartphone or PC
  • Multiple autonomy modes, area coverage, and way-point navigation
  • Follow mode, person or peer robot, using wearable tag, depth sensors and motion control using smartphone touch/tilt, combined with obstacle avoidance

Directed Machine’s COO Wayne Pearson explains: “Rather than opting for the most advanced components (often the simplest solution), we endeavour to find affordable, easily sourced components. We then enable these components to accomplish more by ensuring efficient uses of compute/memory resources through our software stack, which we built from the ground up.”

“All in all,” Wayne continues, “this approach helps minimise unnecessarily inflated component costs (as well as the corresponding complexities) from being passed along to our customers — which keeps our prices lower and enables rapid field repair/maintenance.”

Here’s a practical example of that. This is a custom HAT Directed Machine’s ‘Electrical Engineering Guy’ Chris Doughty shared on LinkedIn. It was specially created to expand the functionality of the Raspberry Pi 4s they were using:

The HAT includes:

• 7-port USB 2.0 hub (six ports off-board) with individual port-power control
• 5A of 5.45V power to keep Pi running stable with high-current peripherals
• 9-axis IMU LSM9DS1
• Precision ‘M8P’ UBLOX GNSS receiver (capable of supporting RTK) SMA connection for external GPS antenna including DC for LNA
• 7–15V DC input to support automotive and accessory-port applications • Connects to standard Raspberry Pi 3 and 4 via pin-header and standoffs

Directed Machine’s founder George Chrysanthakopoulos shared the video at the top of this post on LinkedIn to demonstrate how the land care robots see the world while autonomously navigating. The combined power of Raspberry Pi 4 and their own built-from-the-ground software stack lets the robots see dual depth and colour streams at 15Hz. This is all made possible with a cheap GPS plus an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for just $15 combined.


With a base price of the Land Care Robot is in the thousands, we’re not suggesting you should pick up one for your back garden — cutting the lawn is a childhood chore for the ages. But, for industry, the robot is a fine example of how businesses are using Raspberry Pi to cut both cost and environmental impact.

Also see Liz’s favourite project, the Cucumber Counter, and the popular CNC FarmBot, for more examples of ‘Down on the farm with Raspberry Pi’.

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