Tag Archives: Amazon OpenSearch Service

Ingest and analyze your data using Amazon OpenSearch Service with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion

Post Syndicated from Sharmila Shanmugam original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/ingest-and-analyze-your-data-using-amazon-opensearch-service-with-amazon-opensearch-ingestion/

In today’s data-driven world, organizations are continually confronted with the task of managing extensive volumes of data securely and efficiently. Whether it’s customer information, sales records, or sensor data from Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the importance of handling and storing data at scale with ease of use is paramount.

A common use case that we see amongst customers is to search and visualize data. In this post, we show how to ingest CSV files from Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) into Amazon OpenSearch Service using the Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion feature and visualize the ingested data using OpenSearch Dashboards.

OpenSearch Service is a fully managed, open source search and analytics engine that helps you with ingesting, searching, and analyzing large datasets quickly and efficiently. OpenSearch Service enables you to quickly deploy, operate, and scale OpenSearch clusters. It continues to be a tool of choice for a wide variety of use cases such as log analytics, real-time application monitoring, clickstream analysis, website search, and more.

OpenSearch Dashboards is a visualization and exploration tool that allows you to create, manage, and interact with visuals, dashboards, and reports based on the data indexed in your OpenSearch cluster.

Visualize data in OpenSearch Dashboards

Visualizing the data in OpenSearch Dashboards involves the following steps:

  • Ingest data – Before you can visualize data, you need to ingest the data into an OpenSearch Service index in an OpenSearch Service domain or Amazon OpenSearch Serverless collection and define the mapping for the index. You can specify the data types of fields and how they should be analyzed; if nothing is specified, OpenSearch Service automatically detects the data type of each field and creates a dynamic mapping for your index by default.
  • Create an index pattern – After you index the data into your OpenSearch Service domain, you need to create an index pattern that enables OpenSearch Dashboards to read the data stored in the domain. This pattern can be based on index names, aliases, or wildcard expressions. You can configure the index pattern by specifying the timestamp field (if applicable) and other settings that are relevant to your data.
  • Create visualizations – You can create visuals that represent your data in meaningful ways. Common types of visuals include line charts, bar charts, pie charts, maps, and tables. You can also create more complex visualizations like heatmaps and geospatial representations.

Ingest data with OpenSearch Ingestion

Ingesting data into OpenSearch Service can be challenging because it involves a number of steps, including collecting, converting, mapping, and loading data from different data sources into your OpenSearch Service index. Traditionally, this data was ingested using integrations with Amazon Data Firehose, Logstash, Data Prepper, Amazon CloudWatch, or AWS IoT.

The OpenSearch Ingestion feature of OpenSearch Service introduced in April 2023 makes ingesting and processing petabyte-scale data into OpenSearch Service straightforward. OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed, serverless data collector that allows you to ingest, filter, enrich, and route data to an OpenSearch Service domain or OpenSearch Serverless collection. You configure your data producers to send data to OpenSearch Ingestion, which automatically delivers the data to the domain or collection that you specify. You can configure OpenSearch Ingestion to transform your data before delivering it.

OpenSearch Ingestion scales automatically to meet the requirements of your most demanding workloads, helping you focus on your business logic while abstracting away the complexity of managing complex data pipelines. It’s powered by Data Prepper, an open source streaming Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) tool that can filter, enrich, transform, normalize, and aggregate data for downstream analysis and visualization.

OpenSearch Ingestion uses pipelines as a mechanism that consists of three major components:

  • Source – The input component of a pipeline. It defines the mechanism through which a pipeline consumes records.
  • Processors – The intermediate processing units that can filter, transform, and enrich records into a desired format before publishing them to the sink. The processor is an optional component of a pipeline.
  • Sink – The output component of a pipeline. It defines one or more destinations to which a pipeline publishes records. A sink can also be another pipeline, which allows you to chain multiple pipelines together.

You can process data files written in S3 buckets in two ways: by processing the files written to Amazon S3 in near real time using Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS), or with the scheduled scans approach, in which you process the data files in batches using one-time or recurring scheduled scan configurations.

In the following section, we provide an overview of the solution and guide you through the steps to ingest CSV files from Amazon S3 into OpenSearch Service using the S3-SQS approach in OpenSearch Ingestion. Additionally, we demonstrate how to visualize the ingested data using OpenSearch Dashboards.

Solution overview

The following diagram outlines the workflow of ingesting CSV files from Amazon S3 into OpenSearch Service.


The workflow comprises the following steps:

  1. The user uploads CSV files into Amazon S3 using techniques such as direct upload on the AWS Management Console or AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or through the Amazon S3 SDK.
  2. Amazon SQS receives an Amazon S3 event notification as a JSON file with metadata such as the S3 bucket name, object key, and timestamp.
  3. The OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline receives the message from Amazon SQS, loads the files from Amazon S3, and parses the CSV data from the message into columns. It then creates an index in the OpenSearch Service domain and adds the data to the index.
  4. Lastly, you create an index pattern and visualize the ingested data using OpenSearch Dashboards.

OpenSearch Ingestion provides a serverless ingestion framework to effortlessly ingest data into OpenSearch Service with just a few clicks.


Make sure you meet the following prerequisites:

Create an SQS queue

Amazon SQS offers a secure, durable, and available hosted queue that lets you integrate and decouple distributed software systems and components. Create a standard SQS queue and provide a descriptive name for the queue, then update the access policy by navigating to the Amazon SQS console, opening the details of your queue, and editing the policy on the Advanced tab.

The following is a sample access policy you could use for reference to update the access policy:

  "Version": "2008-10-17",
  "Id": "example-ID",
  "Statement": [
      "Sid": "example-statement-ID",
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Principal": {
        "Service": "s3.amazonaws.com"
      "Action": "SQS:SendMessage",
      "Resource": "<SQS_QUEUE_ARN>"

SQS FIFO (First-In-First-Out) queues aren’t supported as an Amazon S3 event notification destination. To send a notification for an Amazon S3 event to an SQS FIFO queue, you can use Amazon EventBridge.


Create an S3 bucket and enable Amazon S3 event notification

Create an S3 bucket that will be the source for CSV files and enable Amazon S3 notifications. The Amazon S3 notification invokes an action in response to a specific event in the bucket. In this workflow, whenever there in an event of type S3:ObjectCreated:*, the event sends an Amazon S3 notification to the SQS queue created in the previous step. Refer to Walkthrough: Configuring a bucket for notifications (SNS topic or SQS queue) to configure the Amazon S3 notification in your S3 bucket.


Create an IAM policy for the OpenSearch Ingest pipeline

Create an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policy for the OpenSearch pipeline with the following permissions:

  • Read and delete rights on Amazon SQS
  • GetObject rights on Amazon S3
  • Describe domain and ESHttp rights on your OpenSearch Service domain

The following is an example policy:

  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": "es:DescribeDomain",
      "Resource": "<OPENSEARCH_SERVICE_DOMAIN_ENDPOINT>:domain/*"
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": "es:ESHttp*",
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": "s3:GetObject",
      "Resource": "<S3_BUCKET_ARN>/*"
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": [
      "Resource": "<SQS_QUEUE_ARN>"


Create an IAM role and attach the IAM policy

A trust relationship defines which entities (such as AWS accounts, IAM users, roles, or services) are allowed to assume a particular IAM role. Create an IAM role for the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline (osis-pipelines.amazonaws.com), attach the IAM policy created in the previous step, and add the trust relationship to allow OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines to write to domains.


Configure an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline

A pipeline is the mechanism that OpenSearch Ingestion uses to move data from its source (where the data comes from) to its sink (where the data goes). OpenSearch Ingestion provides out-of-the-box configuration blueprints to help you quickly set up pipelines without having to author a configuration from scratch. Set up the S3 bucket as the source and OpenSearch Service domain as the sink in the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline with the following blueprint:

version: '2'
      acknowledgments: true
      notification_type: sqs
      compression: automatic
          #header_destination: <column_names>
        queue_url: <SQS_QUEUE_URL>
        region: <AWS_REGION>
        sts_role_arn: <STS_ROLE_ARN>
    - csv:
        column_names_source_key: column_names
          - row_id
          - order_id
          - order_date
          - date_key
          - contact_name
          - country
          - city
          - region
          - sub_region
          - customer
          - customer_id
          - industry
          - segment
          - product
          - license
          - sales
          - quantity
          - discount
          - profit
    - convert_entry_type:
        key: sales
        type: double
    - convert_entry_type:
        key: profit
        type: double
    - convert_entry_type:
        key: discount
        type: double
    - convert_entry_type:
        key: quantity
        type: integer
    - date:
          - key: order_date
              - MM/dd/yyyy
        destination: order_date_new
    - opensearch:
        index: csv-ingest-index
          sts_role_arn: <STS_ROLE_ARN>
          region: <AWS_REGION>

On the OpenSearch Service console, create a pipeline with the name my-pipeline. Keep the default capacity settings and enter the preceding pipeline configuration in the Pipeline configuration section.

Update the configuration setting with the previously created IAM roles to read from Amazon S3 and write into OpenSearch Service, the SQS queue URL, and the OpenSearch Service domain endpoint.


Validate the solution

To validate this solution, you can use the dataset SaaS-Sales.csv. This dataset contains transaction data from a software as a service (SaaS) company selling sales and marketing software to other companies (B2B). You can initiate this workflow by uploading the SaaS-Sales.csv file to the S3 bucket. This invokes the pipeline and creates an index in the OpenSearch Service domain you created earlier.

Follow these steps to validate the data using OpenSearch Dashboards.

First, you create an index pattern. An index pattern is a way to define a logical grouping of indexes that share a common naming convention. This allows you to search and analyze data across all matching indexes using a single query or visualization. For example, if you named your indexes csv-ingest-index-2024-01-01 and csv-ingest-index-2024-01-02 while ingesting the monthly sales data, you can define an index pattern as csv-* to encompass all these indexes.


Next, you create a visualization.  Visualizations are powerful tools to explore and analyze data stored in OpenSearch indexes. You can gather these visualizations into a real time OpenSearch dashboard. An OpenSearch dashboard provides a user-friendly interface for creating various types of visualizations such as charts, graphs, maps, and dashboards to gain insights from data.

You can visualize the sales data by industry with a pie chart with the index pattern created in the previous step. To create a pie chart, update the metrics details as follows on the Data tab:

  • Set Metrics to Slice
  • Set Aggregation to Sum
  • Set Field to sales


To view the industry-wise sales details in the pie chart, add a new bucket on the Data tab as follows:

  • Set Buckets to Split Slices
  • Set Aggregation to Terms
  • Set Field to industry.keyword


You can visualize the data by creating more visuals in the OpenSearch dashboard.


Clean up

When you’re done exploring OpenSearch Ingestion and OpenSearch Dashboards, you can delete the resources you created to avoid incurring further costs.


In this post, you learned how to ingest CSV files efficiently from S3 buckets into OpenSearch Service with the OpenSearch Ingestion feature in a serverless way without requiring a third-party agent. You also learned how to analyze the ingested data using OpenSearch dashboard visualizations. You can now explore extending this solution to build OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines to load your data and derive insights with OpenSearch Dashboards.

About the Authors

Sharmila Shanmugam is a Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services. She is passionate about solving the customers’ business challenges with technology and automation and reduce the operational overhead. In her current role, she helps customers across industries in their digital transformation journey and build secure, scalable, performant and optimized workloads on AWS.

Harsh Bansal is an Analytics Solutions Architect with Amazon Web Services. In his role, he collaborates closely with clients, assisting in their migration to cloud platforms and optimizing cluster setups to enhance performance and reduce costs. Before joining AWS, he supported clients in leveraging OpenSearch and Elasticsearch for diverse search and log analytics requirements.

Rohit Kumar works as a Cloud Support Engineer in the Support Engineering team at Amazon Web Services. He focuses on Amazon OpenSearch Service, offering guidance and technical help to customers, helping them create scalable, highly available, and secure solutions on AWS Cloud. Outside of work, Rohit enjoys watching or playing cricket. He also loves traveling and discovering new places. Essentially, his routine revolves around eating, traveling, cricket, and repeating the cycle.

Optimize storage costs in Amazon OpenSearch Service using Zstandard compression

Post Syndicated from Sarthak Aggarwal original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/optimize-storage-costs-in-amazon-opensearch-service-using-zstandard-compression/

This post is co-written with Praveen Nischal and Mulugeta Mammo from Intel.

Amazon OpenSearch Service is a managed service that makes it straightforward to secure, deploy, and operate OpenSearch clusters at scale in the AWS Cloud. In an OpenSearch Service domain, the data is managed in the form of indexes. Based on the usage pattern, an OpenSearch cluster may have one or more indexes, and their shards are spread across the data nodes in the cluster. Each data node has a fixed disk size and the disk usage is dependent on the number of index shards stored on the node. Each index shard may occupy different sizes based on its number of documents. In addition to the number of documents, one of the important factors that determine the size of the index shard is the compression strategy used for an index.

As part of an indexing operation, the ingested documents are stored as immutable segments. Each segment is a collection of various data structures, such as inverted index, block K dimensional tree (BKD), term dictionary, or stored fields, and these data structures are responsible for retrieving the document faster during the search operation. Out of these data structures, stored fields, which are largest fields in the segment, are compressed when stored on the disk and based on the compression strategy used, the compression speed and the index storage size will vary.

In this post, we discuss the performance of the Zstandard algorithm, which was introduced in OpenSearch v2.9, amongst other available compression algorithms in OpenSearch.

Importance of compression in OpenSearch

Compression plays a crucial role in OpenSearch, because it significantly impacts the performance, storage efficiency and overall usability of the platform. The following are some key reasons highlighting the importance of compression in OpenSearch:

  1. Storage efficiency and cost savings OpenSearch often deals with vast volumes of data, including log files, documents, and analytics datasets. Compression techniques reduce the size of data on disk, leading to substantial cost savings, especially in cloud-based and/or distributed environments.
  2. Reduced I/O operations Compression reduces the number of I/O operations required to read or write data. Fewer I/O operations translate into reduced disk I/O, which is vital for improving overall system performance and resource utilization.
  3. Environmental impact By minimizing the storage requirements and reduced I/O operations, compression contributes to a reduction in energy consumption and a smaller carbon footprint, which aligns with sustainability and environmental goals.

When configuring OpenSearch, it’s essential to consider compression settings carefully to strike the right balance between storage efficiency and query performance, depending on your specific use case and resource constraints.

Core concepts

Before diving into various compression algorithms that OpenSearch offers, let’s look into three standard metrics that are often used while comparing compression algorithms:

  1. Compression ratio The original size of the input compared with the compressed data, expressed as a ratio of 1.0 or greater
  2. Compression speed The speed at which data is made smaller (compressed), expressed in MBps of input data consumed
  3. Decompression speed The speed at which the original data is reconstructed from the compressed data, expressed in MBps

Index codecs

OpenSearch provides support for codecs that can be used for compressing the stored fields. Until OpenSearch 2.7, OpenSearch provided two codecs or compression strategies: LZ4 and Zlib. LZ4 is analogous to best_speed because it provides faster compression but a lesser compression ratio (consumes more disk space) when compared to Zlib. LZ4 is used as the default compression algorithm if no explicit codec is specified during index creation and is preferred by most because it provides faster indexing and search speeds though it consumes relatively more space than Zlib. Zlib is analogous to best_compression because it provides a better compression ratio (consumes less disk space) when compared to LZ4, but it takes more time to compress and decompress, and therefore has higher latencies for indexing and search operations. Both LZ4 and Zlib codecs are part of the Lucene core codecs.

Zstandard codec

The Zstandard codec was introduced in OpenSearch as an experimental feature in version 2.7, and it provides Zstandard-based compression and decompression APIs. The Zstandard codec is based on JNI binding to the Zstd native library.

Zstandard is a fast, lossless compression algorithm aimed at providing a compression ratio comparable to Zlib but with faster compression and decompression speed comparable to LZ4. The Zstandard compression algorithm is available in two different modes in OpenSearch: zstd and zstd_no_dict. For more details, see Index codecs.

Both codec modes aim to balance compression ratio, index, and search throughput. The zstd_no_dict option excludes a dictionary for compression at the expense of slightly larger index sizes.

With the recent OpenSearch 2.9 release, the Zstandard codec has been promoted from experimental to mainline, making it suitable for production use cases.

Create an index with the Zstd codec

You can use the index.codec during index creation to create an index with the Zstd codec. The following is an example using the curl command (this command requires the user to have necessary privileges to create an index):

# Creating an index
curl -XPUT "http://localhost:9200/your_index" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
  "settings": {
    "index.codec": "zstd"

Zstandard compression levels

With Zstandard codecs, you can optionally specify a compression level using the index.codec.compression_level setting, as shown in the following code. This setting takes integers in the [1, 6] range. A higher compression level results in a higher compression ratio (smaller storage size) with a trade-off in speed (slower compression and decompression speeds lead to higher indexing and search latencies). For more details, see Choosing a codec.

# Creating an index
curl -XPUT "http://localhost:9200/your_index" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
  "settings": {
    "index.codec": "zstd",
    "index.codec.compression_level": 2

Update an index codec setting

You can update the index.codec and index.codec.compression_level settings any time after the index is created. For the new configuration to take effect, the index needs to be closed and reopened.

You can update the setting of an index using a PUT request. The following is an example using curl commands.

Close the index:

# Close the index 
curl -XPOST "http://localhost:9200/your_index/_close"

Update the index settings:

# Update the index.codec and codec.compression_level setting
curl -XPUT "http://localhost:9200/your_index/_settings" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d' 
  "index": {
    "codec": "zstd_no_dict", 
    "codec.compression_level": 3 

Reopen the index:

# Reopen the index
curl -XPOST "http://localhost:9200/your_index/_open"

Changing the index codec settings doesn’t immediately affect the size of existing segments. Only new segments created after the update will reflect the new codec setting. To have consistent segment sizes and compression ratios, it may be necessary to perform a reindexing or other indexing processes like merges.

Benchmarking compression performance of compression in OpenSearch

To understand the performance benefits of Zstandard codecs, we carried out a benchmark exercise.


The server setup was as follows:

  1. Benchmarking was performed on an OpenSearch cluster with a single data node which acts as both data and coordinator node and with a dedicated cluster_manager node.
  2. The instance type for the data node was r5.2xlarge and the cluster_manager node was r5.xlarge, both backed by an Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume of type GP3 and size 100GB.

Benchmarking was set up as follows:

  1. The benchmark was run on a single node of type c5.4xlarge (sufficiently large to avoid hitting client-side resource constraints) backed by an EBS volume of type GP3 and size 500GB.
  2. The number of clients was 16 and bulk size was 1024
  3. The workload was nyc_taxis

The index setup was as follows:

  1. Number of shards: 1
  2. Number of replicas: 0


From the experiments, zstd provides a better compression ratio compared to Zlib (best_compression) with a slight gain in write throughput and with similar read latency as LZ4 (best_speed). zstd_no_dict provides 14% better write throughput than LZ4 (best_speed) and a slightly lower compression ratio than Zlib (best_compression).

The following table summarizes the benchmark results.


Although Zstd provides the best of both worlds (compression ratio and compression speed), it has the following limitations:

  1. Certain queries that fetch the entire stored fields for all the matching documents may observe an increase in latency. For more information, see Changing an index codec.
  2. You can’t use the zstd and zstd_no_dict compression codecs for k-NN or Security Analytics indexes.


Zstandard compression provides a good balance between storage size and compression speed, and is able to tune the level of compression based on the use case. Intel and the OpenSearch Service team collaborated on adding Zstandard as one of the compression algorithms in OpenSearch. Intel contributed by designing and implementing the initial version of compression plugin in open-source which was released in OpenSearch v2.7 as experimental feature. OpenSearch Service team worked on further improvements, validated the performance results and integrated it into the OpenSearch server codebase where it was released in OpenSearch v2.9 as a generally available feature.

If you would want to contribute to OpenSearch, create a GitHub issue and share your ideas with us. We would also be interested in learning about your experience with Zstandard in OpenSearch Service. Please feel free to ask more questions in the comments section.

About the Authors

Praveen Nischal is a Cloud Software Engineer, and leads the cloud workload performance framework at Intel.

Mulugeta Mammo is a Senior Software Engineer, and currently leads the OpenSearch Optimization team at Intel.

Akash Shankaran is a Software Architect and Tech Lead in the Xeon software team at Intel. He works on pathfinding opportunities, and enabling optimizations for data services such as OpenSearch.

Sarthak Aggarwal is a Software Engineer at Amazon OpenSearch Service. He has been contributing towards open-source development with indexing and storage performance as a primary area of interest.

Prabhakar Sithanandam is a Principal Engineer with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He primarily works on the scalability and performance aspects of OpenSearch.

AWS Weekly Roundup: New AWS Heroes, Amazon API Gateway, Amazon Q and more (June 10, 2024)

Post Syndicated from Donnie Prakoso original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-new-aws-heroes-amazon-api-gateway-amazon-q-and-more-june-10-2024/

In the last AWS Weekly Roundup, Channy reminded us on how life has ups and downs. It’s just how life is. But, that doesn’t mean that we should do it alone. Farouq Mousa, AWS Community Builder, is fighting brain cancer and Allen Helton, AWS Serverless Hero, his daughter is fighting leukemia.

If you have a moment, please visit their campaign pages and give your support.

Meanwhile, we’ve just finished a few AWS Summits in India, Korea and also Thailand. As always, I had so much fun working together at Developer Lounge with AWS Heroes, AWS Community Builders, and AWS User Group leaders. Here’s a photo from everyone here.

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that caught my attention last week:

Welcome, new AWS Heroes! — Last week, we just announced new cohort for AWS Heroes, worldwide group of AWS experts who go above and beyond to share knowledge and empower their communities.

Amazon API Gateway increased integration timeout limit — If you’re using Regional REST APIs and private REST APIs in Amazon API Gateway, now you can increase the integration timeout limit greater than 29 seconds. This allows you to run various workloads requiring longer timeouts.

Amazon Q offers inline completion in the command line — Now, Amazon Q Developer provides real-time AI-generated code suggestions as you type in your command line. As a regular command line interface (CLI) user, I’m really excited about this.

New common control library in AWS Audit Manager — This announcement helps you to save time when mapping enterprise controls into AWS Audit Manager. Check out Danilo’s post where he elaborated how that you can simplify risk and complicance assessment with the new common control library.

Amazon Inspector container image scanning for Amazon CodeCatalyst and GitHub actions — If you need to integrate your CI/CD with software vulnerabilities checking, you can use Amazon Inspector. Now, with this native integration in GitHub actions and Amazon CodeCatalyst, it streamlines your development pipeline process.

Ingest streaming data with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion and Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka — With this new capability, now you can build more efficient data pipelines for your complex analytics use cases. Now, you can seamlessly index the data from your Amazon MSK Serverless clusters in Amazon OpenSearch service.

Amazon Titan Text Embeddings V2 now available in Amazon Bedrock Knowledge Base — You now can embed your data into a vector database using Amazon Titan Text Embeddings V2. This will be helpful for you to retrieve relevant information for various tasks.

Max tokens 8,192
Languages 100+ in pre-training
Fine-tuning supported No
Normalization supported Yes
Vector size 256, 512, 1,024 (default)

From Community.aws
Here’s my 3 personal favorites posts from community.aws:

Upcoming AWS events
Check your calendars and sign up for these AWS and AWS Community events:

  • AWS Summits — Join free online and in-person events that bring the cloud computing community together to connect, collaborate, and learn about AWS. Register in your nearest city: Japan (June 20), Washington, DC (June 26–27), and New York (July 10).

  • AWS re:Inforce — Join us for AWS re:Inforce (June 10–12) in Philadelphia, PA. AWS re:Inforce is a learning conference focused on AWS security solutions, cloud security, compliance, and identity. Connect with the AWS teams that build the security tools and meet AWS customers to learn about their security journeys.

  • AWS Community Days — Join community-led conferences that feature technical discussions, workshops, and hands-on labs led by expert AWS users and industry leaders from around the world: Midwest | Columbus (June 13), Sri Lanka (June 27), Cameroon (July 13), New Zealand (August 15), Nigeria (August 24), and New York (August 28).

You can browse all upcoming in-person and virtual events.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Weekly Roundup!


This post is part of our Weekly Roundup series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Modernize your data observability with Amazon OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3

Post Syndicated from Joshua Bright original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/modernize-your-data-observability-with-amazon-opensearch-service-zero-etl-integration-with-amazon-s3/

We are excited to announce the general availability of Amazon OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) for domains running 2.13 and above. The integration is new way for customers to query operational logs in Amazon S3 and Amazon S3-based data lakes without needing to switch between tools to analyze operational data. By querying across OpenSearch Service and S3 datasets, you can evaluate multiple data sources to perform forensic analysis of operational and security events. The new integration with OpenSearch Service supports AWS’s zero-ETL vision to reduce the operational complexity of duplicating data or managing multiple analytics tools by enabling you to directly query your operational data, reducing costs and time to action.

OpenSearch is an open source, distributed search and analytics suite derived from Elasticsearch 7.10. OpenSearch Service currently has tens of thousands of active customers with hundreds of thousands of clusters under management processing hundreds of trillions of requests per month.

Amazon S3 is an object storage service offering industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance. Organizations of all sizes and industries can store and protect any amount of data for virtually any use case, such as data lakes, cloud-centered applications, and mobile apps. With cost-effective storage classes and user-friendly management features, you can optimize costs, organize data, and configure fine-tuned access controls to meet specific business, organizational, and compliance requirements. Let’s dig into this exciting new feature for OpenSearch Service.

Benefits of using OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3

OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3 allows you to use the rich analytics capabilities of OpenSearch Service SQL and PPL directly on infrequently queried data stored outside of OpenSearch Service in Amazon S3. It also integrates with other OpenSearch integrations so you can install prepackaged queries and visualizations to analyze your data, making it straightforward to quickly get started.

The following diagram illustrates how OpenSearch Service unlocks value stored in infrequently queried logs from popular AWS log types.

You can use OpenSearch Service direct queries to query data in Amazon S3. OpenSearch Service provides a direct query integration with Amazon S3 as a way to analyze operational logs in Amazon S3 and data lakes based in Amazon S3 without having to switch between services. You can now analyze data in cloud object stores and simultaneously use the operational analytics and visualizations of OpenSearch Service.

Many customers currently use Amazon S3 to store event data for their solutions. For operational analytics, Amazon S3 is typically used as a destination for VPC Flow Logs, Amazon S3 Access Logs, AWS Load Balancer Logs, and other event sources from AWS services. Customers also store data directly from application events in Amazon S3 for compliance and auditing needs. The durability and scalability of Amazon S3 makes it an obvious data destination for many customers that want a longer-term storage or archival option at a cost-effective price point.

Bringing data from these sources into OpenSearch Service stored in hot and warm storage tiers may be prohibitive due to the size and volume of the events being generated. For some of these event sources that are stored into OpenSearch Service indexes, the volume of queries run against the data doesn’t justify the cost to continue to store them in their cluster. Previously, you would pick and choose which event sources you brought in for ingestion into OpenSearch Service based on the storage provisioned in your cluster. Access to other data meant using different tools such as Amazon Athena to view the data on Amazon S3.

For a real-world example, let’s see how using the new integration benefited Arcesium.

“Arcesium provides advanced cloud-native data, operations, and analytics capabilities for the financial services industry. Our software platform processes many millions of transactions a day, emitting large volumes of log and audit records along the way. The volume of log data we needed to process, store, and analyze was growing exponentially given our retention and compliance needs. Amazon OpenSearch Service’s new zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3 is helping our business scale by allowing us to analyze infrequently queried logs already stored in Amazon S3 instead of incurring the operational expense of maintaining large and costly online OpenSearch clusters or building ad hoc ingestion pipelines.”

– Kyle George, SVP & Global Head of Infrastructure at Arcesium.

With direct queries with Amazon S3, you no longer need to build complex extract, transform, and load (ETL) pipelines or incur the expense of duplicating data in both OpenSearch Service and Amazon S3 storage.

Fundamental concepts

After configuring a direct query connection, you’ll need to create tables in the AWS Glue Data Catalog using the OpenSearch Service Query Workbench. The direct query connection relies on the metadata in Glue Data Catalog tables to query data stored in Amazon S3. Note that tables created by AWS Glue crawlers or Athena are not currently supported.

By combining the structure of Data Catalog tables, SQL indexing techniques, and OpenSearch Service indexes, you can accelerate query performance, unlock advanced analytics capabilities, and contain querying costs. Below are a few examples of how you can accelerate your data:

  • Skipping indexes – You ingest and index only the metadata of the data stored in Amazon S3. When you query a table with a skipping index, the query planner references the index and rewrites the query to efficiently locate the data, instead of scanning all partitions and files. This allows the skipping index to quickly narrow down the specific location of the stored data that’s relevant to your analysis.
  • Materialized views – With materialized views, you can use complex queries, such as aggregations, to power dashboard visualizations. Materialized views ingest a small amount of your data into OpenSearch Service storage.
  • Covering indexes – With a covering index, you can ingest data from a specified column in a table. This is the most performant of the three indexing types. Because OpenSearch Service ingests all data from your desired column, you get better performance and can perform advanced analytics. OpenSearch Service creates a new index from the covering index data. You can use this new index for dashboard visualizations and other OpenSearch Service functionality, such as anomaly detection or geospatial capabilities.

As new data comes in to your S3 bucket, you can configure a refresh interval for your materialized views and covering indexes to provide local access to the most current data on Amazon S3.

Solution overview

Let’s take a test drive using VPC Flow Logs as your source! As mentioned before, many AWS services emit logs to Amazon S3. VPC Flow Logs is a feature of Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) that enables you to capture information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in your VPC. For this walkthrough, you perform the following steps:

  1. Create an S3 bucket if you don’t already have one available.
  2. Enable VPC Flow Logs using an existing VPC that can generate traffic and store the logs as Parquet on Amazon S3.
  3. Verify the logs exist in your S3 bucket.
  4. Set up a direct query connection to the Data Catalog and the S3 bucket that has your data.
  5. Install the integration for VPC Flow Logs.

Create an S3 bucket

If you have an existing S3 bucket, you can reuse that bucket by creating a new folder inside of the bucket. If you need to create a bucket, navigate to the Amazon S3 console and create an Amazon S3 bucket with a name that is suitable for your organization.

Enable VPC Flow Logs

Complete the following steps to enable VPC Flow Logs:

  1. On the Amazon VPC console, choose a VPC that has application traffic that can generate logs.
  2. On the Flow Logs tab, choose Create flow log.
  3. For Filter, choose ALL.
  4. Set Maximum aggregation interval to 1 minute.
  5. For Destination, choose Send to an Amazon S3 bucket and provide the S3 bucket ARN from the bucket you created earlier.
  6. For Log record format, choose Custom format and select Standard attributes.

For this post, we don’t select any of the Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) attributes because they’re not implemented with OpenSearch integrations as of this writing.

  1. For Log file format, choose Parquet.
  2. For Hive-compatible S3 prefix, choose Enable.
  3. Set Partition logs by time to every 1 hour (60 minutes).

Validate you are receiving logs in your S3 bucket

Navigate to the S3 bucket you created earlier to see that data is streaming into your S3 bucket. If you drill down and navigate the directory structure, you find that the logs are delivered in an hourly folder and emitted every minute.

Now that you have VPC Flow Logs flowing into an S3 bucket, you need to set up a connection between your data on Amazon S3 and your OpenSearch Service domain.

Set up a direct query data source

In this step, you create a direct query data source which uses Glue Data Catalog tables and your Amazon S3 data. The action creates all the necessary infrastructure to give you access to the Hive metastore (databases and tables in Glue Data Catalog and the data housed in Amazon S3 for the bucket and folder combination you want the data source to have access to. It will also wire in all the appropriate permissions with the Security plugin’s fine-grained access control so you don’t have to worry about permissions to get started.

Complete the following steps to set up your direct query data source:

  1. On the OpenSearch Service domain, choose Domains in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose your domain.
  3. On the Connections tab, choose Create new connection.
  4. For Name, enter a name without dashes, such as zero_etl_walkthrough.
  5. For Description, enter a descriptive name.
  6. For Data source type, choose Amazon S3 with AWS Glue Data Catalog.
  7. For IAM role, if this is your first time, let the direct query setup take care of the permissions by choosing Create a new role. You can edit it later based on your organization’s compliance and security needs. For this post, we name the role zero_etl_walkthrough.
  8. For S3 buckets, use the one you created.
  9. Do not select the check box to grant access to all new and existing buckets.
  10. For Checkpoint S3 bucket, use the same bucket you created. The checkpoint folders get created for you automatically.
  11. For AWS Glue tables, because you don’t have anything that you have created in the Data Catalog, enable Grant access to all existing and new tables.

The VPC Flow Logs OpenSearch integration will create resources in the Data Catalog, and you will need access to pick those resources up.

  1. Choose Create.

Now that the initial setup is complete, you can install the OpenSearch integration for VPC Flow Logs.

Install the OpenSearch integration for VPC Flow Logs

The integrations plugin contains a wide variety of prebuilt dashboards, visualizations, mapping templates, and other resources that make visualizing and working with data generated by your sources simpler. The integration for Amazon VPC installs a variety of resources to view your VPC Flow Logs data as it sits in Amazon S3.

In this section, we show you how to make sure you have the most up-to-date integration packages for installation. We then show you how to install the OpenSearch integration. In most cases, you will have the latest integrations such as VPC Flow Logs, NGINX, HA Proxy, or Amazon S3 (access logs) at the time of the release of a minor or major version. However, OpenSearch is an open source community-led project, and you can expect that there will be version changes and new integrations not yet included with your current deployment.

Verify the latest version of the OpenSearch integration for Amazon VPC

You may have upgraded from earlier versions of OpenSearch Service to OpenSearch Service version 2.13. Let’s confirm that your deployment matches what is present in this post.

On OpenSearch Dashboards, navigate to the Integrations tab and choose Amazon VPC. You will see a release version for the integration.

Confirm that you have version 1.1.0 or higher. If your deployment doesn’t have it, you can install the latest version of the integration from the OpenSearch catalog. Complete the following steps:

  1. Navigate to the OpenSearch catalog.
  2. Choose Amazon VPC Flow Logs.
  3. Download the 1.1.0 Amazon VPC Integration file from the repository folder labeled amazon_vpc_flow_1.1.0.
  4. In the OpenSearch Dashboard’s Dashboard Management plugin, choose Saved objects.
  5. Choose Import and browse your local folders.
  6. Import the downloaded file.

The file contains all the necessary objects to create an integration. After it’s installed, you can proceed to the steps to set up the Amazon VPC OpenSearch integration.

Set up the OpenSearch integration for Amazon VPC

Let’s jump in and install the integration:

  1. In OpenSearch Dashboards, navigate to the Integrations tab.
  2. Choose the Amazon VPC integration.
  3. Confirm the version is 1.1.0 or higher and choose Set Up.
  4. For Display Name, keep the default.
  5. For Connection Type, choose S3 Connection.
  6. For Data Source, choose the direct query connection alias you created in prior steps. In this post, we use zero_etl_walkthrough.
  7. For Spark Table Name, keep the prepopulated value of amazon_vpc_flow.
  8. For S3 Data Location, enter the S3 URI of your log folder created by VPC Flow Logs set up in the prior steps. In this post, we use s3://zero-etl-walkthrough/AWSLogs/.

S3 bucket names are globally unique, and you may want to consider using bucket names that conform to your company’s compliance guidance. UUIDs plus a descriptive name are good options to guarantee uniqueness.

  1. For S3 Checkpoint Location, enter the S3 URI of your checkpoint folder which you define. Checkpoints store metadata for the direct query feature. Make sure you pick any empty or unused path in the bucket you choose. In this post, we use s3://zero-etl-walkthrough/CP/, which is in the same bucket we created earlier.
  2. Select Queries (recommended) and Dashboards and Visualizations for Flint Integrations using live queries.

You get a message that states “Setting Up the Integration – this can take several minutes.” This particular integration sets up skipping indexes and materialized views on top of your data in Amazon S3. The materialized view aggregates the data into a backing index that occupies a significantly smaller data footprint in your cluster compared to ingesting all the data and building visualizations on top of it.

When the Amazon VPC integration installation is complete, you have a broad variety of assets to play with. If you navigate to the installed integrations, you will find queries, visualizations, and other assets that can help you jumpstart your data exploration using data sitting on Amazon S3. Let’s look at the dashboard that gets installed for this integration.

I love it! How much does it cost?

With OpenSearch Service direct queries, you only pay for the resources consumed by your workload. OpenSearch Service charges for only the compute needed to query your external data as well as maintain optional indexes in OpenSearch Service. The compute capacity is measured in OpenSearch Compute Units (OCUs). If no queries or indexing activities are active, no OCUs are consumed. The following table contains sample compute prices based on searching HTTP logs in IAD.

Data scanned per query (GB) OCU price per query (USD)
1-10 $0.026
100 $0.24
1000 $1.35

Because the price is based on the OCUs used per query, this solution is tailored for infrequently queried data. If your users query data often, it makes more sense to fully ingest into OpenSearch Service and take advantage of storage optimization techniques such as using OR1 instances or UltraWarm.

OCUs consumed by zero-ETL integrations will be populated in AWS Cost Explorer. This will be at the account level. You can account for OCU usage at the account level and set thresholds and alerts when thresholds have been crossed. The format of the usage type to filter on in Cost Explorer is RegionCode-DirectQueryOCU (OCU-hours). You can create a budget using AWS Budgets and configure an alert to be notified when DirectQueryOCU (OCU-Hours) usage meets the threshold you set. You can also optionally use an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic with an AWS Lambda function as a target to turn off a data source when a threshold criterion is met.


Now that you have a high-level understanding of the direct query connection feature, OpenSearch integrations, and how the OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3 works, you should consider using the feature as part of your organization’s toolset. With OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3, you now have a new tool for event analysis. You can bring hot data into OpenSearch Service for near real-time analysis and alerting. For the infrequently queried, larger data, mainly used for post-event analysis and correlation, you can query that data on Amazon S3 without moving the data. The data stays in Amazon S3 for cost-effective storage, and you access that data as needed without building additional infrastructure to move the data into OpenSearch Service for analysis.

For more information, refer to Working with Amazon OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3.

About the authors

Joshua Bright is a Senior Product Manager at Amazon Web Services. Joshua leads data lake integration initiatives within the OpenSearch Service team. Outside of work, Joshua enjoys listening to birds while walking in nature.

Kevin Fallis is an Principal Specialist Search Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services. His passion is to help customers leverage the correct mix of AWS services to achieve success for their business goals. His after-work activities include family, DIY projects, carpentry, playing drums, and all things music.

Sam Selvan
is a Principal Specialist Solution Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service.

Implement a full stack serverless search application using AWS Amplify, Amazon Cognito, Amazon API Gateway, AWS Lambda, and Amazon OpenSearch Serverless

Post Syndicated from Anand Komandooru original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/implement-a-full-stack-serverless-search-application-using-aws-amplify-amazon-cognito-amazon-api-gateway-aws-lambda-and-amazon-opensearch-serverless/

Designing a full stack search application requires addressing numerous challenges to provide a smooth and effective user experience. This encompasses tasks such as integrating diverse data from various sources with distinct formats and structures, optimizing the user experience for performance and security, providing multilingual support, and optimizing for cost, operations, and reliability.

Amazon OpenSearch Serverless is a powerful and scalable search and analytics engine that can significantly contribute to the development of search applications. It allows you to store, search, and analyze large volumes of data in real time, offering scalability, real-time capabilities, security, and integration with other AWS services. With OpenSearch Serverless, you can search and analyze a large volume of data without having to worry about the underlying infrastructure and data management. An OpenSearch Serverless collection is a group of OpenSearch indexes that work together to support a specific workload or use case. Collections have the same kind of high-capacity, distributed, and highly available storage volume that’s used by provisioned Amazon OpenSearch Service domains, but they remove complexity because they don’t require manual configuration and tuning. Each collection that you create is protected with encryption of data at rest, a security feature that helps prevent unauthorized access to your data. OpenSearch Serverless also supports OpenSearch Dashboards, which provides an intuitive interface for analyzing data.

OpenSearch Serverless supports three primary use cases:

  • Time series – The log analytics workloads that focus on analyzing large volumes of semi-structured, machine-generated data in real time for operational, security, user behavior, and business insights
  • Search – Full-text search that powers applications in your internal networks (content management systems, legal documents) and internet-facing applications, such as ecommerce website search and content search
  • Vector search – Semantic search on vector embeddings that simplifies vector data management and powers machine learning (ML) augmented search experiences and generative artificial intelligence (AI) applications, such as chatbots, personal assistants, and fraud detection

In this post, we walk you through a reference implementation of a full-stack cloud-centered serverless text search application designed to run using OpenSearch Serverless.

Solution overview

The following services are used in the solution:

  • AWS Amplify is a set of purpose-built tools and features that enables frontend web and mobile developers to quickly and effortlessly build full-stack applications on AWS. These tools have the flexibility to use the breadth of AWS services as your use cases evolve. This solution uses the Amplify CLI to build the serverless movie search web application. The Amplify backend is used to create resources such as the Amazon Cognito user pool, API Gateway, Lambda function, and Amazon S3 storage.
  • Amazon API Gateway is a fully managed service that makes it straightforward for developers to create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale. We use API Gateway as a “front door” for the movie search application for searching movies.
  • AWS CloudFront accelerates the delivery of web content such as static and dynamic web pages, video streams, and APIs to users across the globe by caching content at edge locations closer to the end-users. This solution uses CloudFront with Amazon S3 to deliver the search application user interface to the end users.
  • Amazon Cognito makes it straightforward for adding authentication, user management, and data synchronization without having to write backend code or manage any infrastructure. We use Amazon Cognito for creating a user pool so the end-user can log in to the movie search application through Amazon Cognito.
  • AWS Lambda is a serverless, event-driven compute service that lets you run code for virtually any type of application or backend service without provisioning or managing servers. Our solution uses a Lambda function to query OpenSearch Serverless. API Gateway forwards all requests to the Lambda function to serve up the requests.
  • Amazon OpenSearch Serverless is a serverless option for OpenSearch Service. In this post, you use common methods for searching documents in OpenSearch Service that improve the search experience, such as request body searches using domain-specific language (DSL) for queries. The query DSL lets you specify the full range of OpenSearch search options, including pagination and sorting the search results. Pagination and sorting are implemented on the server side using DSL as part of this implementation.
  • Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance. The solution uses Amazon S3 as storage for storing movie trailers.
  • AWS WAF helps protects web applications from attacks by allowing you to configure rules that allow, block, or monitor (count) web requests based on conditions that you define. We use AWS WAF to allow access to the movie search app from only IP addresses on an allow list.

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.

The workflow includes the following steps:

  1. The end-user accesses the CloudFront and Amazon S3 hosted movie search web application from their browser or mobile device.
  2. The user signs in with their credentials.
  3. A request is made to an Amazon Cognito user pool for a login authentication token, and a token is received for a successful sign-in request.
  4. The search application calls the search API method with the token in the authorization header to API Gateway. API Gateway is protected by AWS WAF to enforce rate limiting and implement allow and deny lists.
  5. API Gateway passes the token for validation to the Amazon Cognito user pool. Amazon Cognito validates the token and sends a response to API Gateway.
  6. API Gateway invokes the Lambda function to process the request.
  7. The Lambda function queries OpenSearch Serverless and returns the metadata for the search.
  8. Based on metadata, content is returned from Amazon S3 to the user.

In the following sections, we walk you through the steps to deploy the solution, ingest data, and test the solution.


Before you get started, make sure you complete the following prerequisites:

  1. Install Nodejs latest LTS version.
  2. Install and configure the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI).
  3. Install awscurl for data ingestion.
  4. Install and configure the Amplify CLI. At the end of configuration, you should successfully set up the new user using the amplify-dev user’s AccessKeyId and SecretAccessKey in your local machine’s AWS profile.
  5. Amplify users need additional permissions in order to deploy AWS resources. Complete the following steps to create a new inline AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policy and attach it to the user:
    • On the IAM console, choose Users in the navigation pane.
    • Choose the user amplify-dev.
    • On the Permissions tab, choose the Add permissions dropdown menu, then choose Inline policy.
    • In the policy editor, choose JSON.

You should see the default IAM statement in JSON format.

This environment name needs to be used when performing amplify init when bringing up the backend. The actions in the IAM statement are largely open (*) but restricted or limited by the target resources; this is done to satisfy the maximum inline policy length (2,048 characters).

    • Enter the updated JSON into the policy editor, then choose Next.
    • For Policy name, enter a name (for this post, AddionalPermissions-Amplify).
    • Choose Create policy.

You should now see the new inline policy attached to the user.

Deploy the solution

Complete the following steps to deploy the solution:

  1. Clone the repository to a new folder on your desktop using the following command:
    git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/amazon-opensearchserverless-searchapp.git

  2. Deploy the movie search backend.
  3. Deploy the movie search frontend.

Ingest data

To ingest the sample movie data into the newly created OpenSearch Serverless collection, complete the following steps:

  • On the OpenSearch Service console, choose Ingestion: Pipelines in the navigation pane.
  • Choose the pipeline movie-ingestion and locate the ingestion URL.

  • Replace the ingestion endpoint and Region in the following snippet and run the awscurl command to save data into the collection:
awscurl --service osis --region <region> \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d "@project_assets/movies-data.json" \

You should see a 200 OK response.

  • On the Amazon S3 console, open the trailer S3 bucket (created as part of the backend deployment.
  • Upload some movie trailers.


Make sure the file name matches the ID field in sample movie data (for example, tt1981115.mp4, tt0800369.mp4, and tt0172495.mp4). Uploading a trailer with ID tt0172495.mp4 is used as the default trailer for all movies, without having to upload one for each movie.

Test the solution

Access the application using the CloudFront distribution domain name. You can find this by opening the CloudFront console, choosing the distribution, and copying the distribution domain name into your browser.

Sign up for application access by entering your user name, password, and email address. The password should be at least eight characters in length, and should include at least one uppercase character and symbol.

Sign Up

After you’re logged in, you’re redirected to the Movie Finder home page.

Home Page

You can search using a movie name, actor, or director, as shown in the following example. The application returns results using OpenSearch DSL.

Search Results

If there’s a large number of search results, you can navigate through them using the pagination option at the bottom of the page. For more information about how the application uses pagination, see Paginating search results.


You can choose movie tiles to get more details and watch the trailer if you took the optional step of uploading a movie trailer.

Movie Details

You can sort the search results using the Sort by feature. The application uses the sort functionality within OpenSearch.


There are many more DSL search patterns that allow for intricate searches. See Query DSL for complete details.

Monitoring OpenSearch Serverless

Monitoring is an important part of maintaining the reliability, availability, and performance of OpenSearch Serverless and your other AWS services. AWS provides Amazon CloudWatch and AWS CloudTrail to monitor OpenSearch Serverless, report when something is wrong, and take automatic actions when appropriate. For more information, see Monitoring Amazon OpenSearch Serverless.

Clean up

To avoid unnecessary charges, clean up the solution implementation by running the following command at the project root folder you created using the git clone command during deployment:

amplify delete

You can also clean up the solution by deleting the AWS CloudFormation stack you deployed as part of the setup. For instructions, see Deleting a stack on the AWS CloudFormation console.


In this post, we implemented a full-stack serverless search application using OpenSearch Serverless. This solution seamlessly integrates with various AWS services, such as Lambda for serverless computing, API Gateway for constructing RESTful APIs, IAM for robust security, Amazon Cognito for streamlined user management, and AWS WAF for safeguarding the web application against threats. By adopting a serverless architecture, this search application offers numerous advantages, including simplified deployment processes and effortless scalability, with the benefits of a managed infrastructure.

With OpenSearch Serverless, you get the same interactive millisecond response times as OpenSearch Service with the simplicity of a serverless environment. You pay only for what you use by automatically scaling resources to provide the right amount of capacity for your application without impacting performance and scale as needed. You can use OpenSearch Serverless and this reference implementation to build your own full-stack text search application.

About the Authors

Anand Komandooru is a Principal Cloud Architect at AWS. He joined AWS Professional Services organization in 2021 and helps customers build cloud-native applications on AWS cloud. He has over 20 years of experience building software and his favorite Amazon leadership principle is “Leaders are right a lot“.

Rama Krishna Ramaseshu is a Senior Application Architect at AWS. He joined AWS Professional Services in 2022 and with close to two decades of experience in application development and software architecture, he empowers customers to build well architected solutions within the AWS cloud. His favorite Amazon leadership principle is “Learn and Be Curious”.

Sachin Vighe is a Senior DevOps Architect at AWS. He joined AWS Professional Services in 2020, and specializes in designing and architecting solutions within the AWS cloud to guide customers through their DevOps and Cloud transformation journey. His favorite leadership principle is “Customer Obsession”.

Molly Wu is an Associate Cloud Developer at AWS. She joined AWS Professional Services in 2023 and specializes in assisting customers in building frontend technologies in AWS cloud. Her favorite leadership principle is “Bias for Action”.

Andrew Yankowsky is a Security Consultant at AWS. He joined AWS Professional Services in 2023, and helps customers build cloud security capabilities and follow security best practices on AWS. His favorite leadership principle is “Earn Trust”.

Build a decentralized semantic search engine on heterogeneous data stores using autonomous agents

Post Syndicated from Dhaval Shah original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/build-a-decentralized-semantic-search-engine-on-heterogeneous-data-stores-using-autonomous-agents/

Large language models (LLMs) such as Anthropic Claude and Amazon Titan have the potential to drive automation across various business processes by processing both structured and unstructured data. For example, financial analysts currently have to manually read and summarize lengthy regulatory filings and earnings transcripts in order to respond to Q&A on investment strategies. LLMs could automate the extraction and summarization of key information from these documents, enabling analysts to query the LLM and receive reliable summaries. This would allow analysts to process the documents to develop investment recommendations faster and more efficiently. Anthropic Claude and other LLMs on Amazon Bedrock can bring new levels of automation and insight across many business functions that involve both human expertise and access to knowledge spread across an organization’s databases and content repositories.

Amazon Bedrock is a fully managed service that offers a choice of high-performing foundation models (FMs) from leading AI companies like AI21 Labs, Anthropic, Cohere, Meta, Stability AI, and Amazon via a single API, along with a broad set of capabilities you need to build generative AI applications with security, privacy, and responsible AI.

In this post, we show how to build a Q&A bot with RAG (Retrieval Augmented Generation). RAG uses data sources like Amazon Redshift and Amazon OpenSearch Service to retrieve documents that augment the LLM prompt. For getting data from Amazon Redshift, we use the Anthropic Claude 2.0 on Amazon Bedrock, summarizing the final response based on pre-defined prompt template libraries from LangChain. To get data from Amazon OpenSearch Service, we chunk, and convert the source data chunks to vectors using Amazon Titan Text Embeddings model.

For client interaction we use Agent Tools based on ReAct. A ReAct prompt consists of few-shot task-solving trajectories, with human-written text reasoning traces and actions, as well as environment observations in response to actions. In this example, we use ReAct for zero-shot training to generate responses to fit in a pre-defined template. The additional information is concatenated as context with the original input prompt and fed to the text generator which produces the final output. This makes RAG adaptive for situations where facts could evolve over time.

Solution overview

Our solution demonstrates how financial analysts can use generative artificial intelligence (AI) to adapt their investment recommendations based on financial reports and earnings transcripts with RAG to use LLMs to generate factual content.

The hybrid architecture uses multiple databases and LLMs, with foundation models from Amazon Bedrock for data source identification, SQL generation, and text generation with results. In the following architecture, Steps 1 and 2 represent data ingestion to be done by data engineering in batch mode. Steps 3, 4, and 5 are the queries and response formation.

The following diagram shows a more detailed view of the Q&A processing chain. The user asks a question, and LangChain queries the Redshift and OpenSearch Service data stores for relevant information to build the prompt. It sends the prompt to the Anthropic Claude on Amazon Bedrock model, and returns the response.

The details of each step are as follows:

  1. Populate the Amazon Redshift Serverless data warehouse with company stock information stored in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Redshift Serverless is a fully functional data warehouse holding data tables maintained in real time.
  2. Load the unstructured data from your S3 data lake to OpenSearch Service to create an index to store and perform semantic search. The LangChain library loads knowledge base documents, splits the documents into smaller chunks, and uses Amazon Titan to generate embeddings for chunks.
  3. The client submits a question via an interface like a chatbot or website.
  4. You will create multiple steps to transform a user query passed from Amazon SageMaker Notebook to execute API calls to LLMs from Amazon Bedrock. Use LLM-based Agents to generate SQL from Text and then validate if query is relevant to data warehouse tables. If yes, run query to extract information. The LangChain library calls Amazon Titan embeddings to generate a vector for the user’s question. It calls OpenSearch vector search to get similar documents.
  5. LangChain calls Anthropic Claude on Amazon Bedrock model with the additional, retrieved knowledge as context, to generate an answer for the question. It returns generated content to client

In this deployment, you will choose Amazon Redshift Serverless, use Anthropic Claude 2.0  model on Amazon Bedrock and Amazon Titan Text Embeddings model. Overall spend for the deployment will be directly proportional to number of input/output tokens for Amazon Bedrock models, Knowledge base volume, usage hours and so on.

To deploy the solution, you need two datasets: SEC Edgar Annual Financial Filings and Stock pricing data. To join these datasets for analysis, you need to choose Stock Symbol as the join key. The provided AWS CloudFormation template deploys the datasets required for this post, along with the SageMaker notebook.


To follow along with this post, you should have an AWS account with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user credentials to deploy AWS services.

Deploy the chat application using AWS CloudFormation

To deploy the resources, complete the following steps:

  1. Deploy the following CloudFormation template to create your stack in the us-east-1 AWS Region.The stack will deploy an OpenSearch Service domain, Redshift Serverless endpoint, SageMaker notebook, and other services like VPC and IAM roles that you will use in this post. The template sets a default user name password for the OpenSearch Service domain, and sets up a Redshift Serverless admin. You can choose to modify them or use the default values.
  2. On the AWS CloudFormation console, navigate to the stack you created.
  3. On the Outputs tab, choose the URL for SageMakerNotebookURL to open the notebook.
  4. In Jupyter, choose semantic-search-with-amazon-opensearch, thenblog, then the LLM-Based-Agentfolder.
  5. Open the notebook Generative AI with LLM based autonomous agents augmented with structured and unstructured data.ipynb.
  6. Follow the instructions in the notebook and run the code sequentially.

Run the notebook

There are six major sections in the notebook:

  • Prepare the unstructured data in OpenSearch Service – Download the SEC Edgar Annual Financial Filings dataset and convert the company financial filing document into vectors with Amazon Titan Text Embeddings model and store the vector in an Amazon OpenSearch Service vector database.
  • Prepare the structured data in a Redshift database – Ingest the structured data into your Amazon Redshift Serverless table.
  • Query the unstructured data in OpenSearch Service with a vector search – Create a function to implement semantic search with OpenSearch Service. In OpenSearch Service, match the relevant company financial information to be used as context information to LLM. This is unstructured data augmentation to the LLM.
  • Query the structured data in Amazon Redshift with SQLDatabaseChain – Use the LangChain library LLM text to SQL to query company stock information stored in Amazon Redshift. The search result will be used as context information to the LLM.
  • Create an LLM-based ReAct agent augmented with data in OpenSearch Service and Amazon Redshift – Use the LangChain library to define a ReAct agent to judge whether the user query is stock- or investment-related. If the query is stock related, the agent will query the structured data in Amazon Redshift to get the stock symbol and stock price to augment context to the LLM. The agent also uses semantic search to retrieve relevant financial information from OpenSearch Service to augment context to the LLM.
  • Use the LLM-based agent to generate a final response based on the template used for zero-shot training – The following is a sample user flow for a stock price recommendation for the query, “Is ABC a good investment choice right now.”

Example questions and responses

In this section, we show three example questions and responses to test our chatbot.

Example 1: Historical data is available

In our first test, we explore how the bot responds to a question when historical data is available. We use the question, “Is [Company Name] a good investment choice right now?” Replace [Company Name] with a company you want to query.

This is a stock-related question. The company stock information is in Amazon Redshift and the financial statement information is in OpenSearch Service. The agent will run the following process:

  1. Determine if this is a stock-related question.
  2. Get the company name.
  3. Get the stock symbol from Amazon Redshift.
  4. Get the stock price from Amazon Redshift.
  5. Use semantic search to get related information from 10k financial filing data from OpenSearch Service.
response = zero_shot_agent("\n\nHuman: Is {company name} a good investment choice right now? \n\nAssistant:")

The output may look like the following:

Final Answer: Yes, {company name} appears to be a good investment choice right now based on the stable stock price, continued revenue and earnings growth, and dividend payments. I would recommend investing in {company name} stock at current levels.

You can view the final response from the complete chain in your notebook.

Example 2: Historical data is not available

In this next test, we see how the bot responds to a question when historical data is not available. We ask the question, “Is Amazon a good investment choice right now?”

This is a stock-related question. However, there is no Amazon stock price information in the Redshift table. Therefore, the bot will answer “I cannot provide stock analysis without stock price information.” The agent will run the following process:

  1. Determine if this is a stock-related question.
  2. Get the company name.
  3. Get the stock symbol from Amazon Redshift.
  4. Get the stock price from Amazon Redshift.
response = zero_shot_agent("\n\nHuman: Is Amazon a good investment choice right now? \n\nAssistant:")

The output looks like the following:

Final Answer: I cannot provide stock analysis without stock price information.

Example 3: Unrelated question and historical data is not available

For our third test, we see how the bot responds to an irrelevant question when historical data is not available. This is testing for hallucination. We use the question, “What is SageMaker?”

This is not a stock-related query. The agent will run the following process:

  1. Determine if this is a stock-related question.
response = zero_shot_agent("\n\nHuman: What is SageMaker? \n\nAssistant:")

The output looks like the following:

Final Answer: What is SageMaker? is not a stock related query.

This was a simple RAG-based ReAct chat agent analyzing the corpus from different data stores. In a realistic scenario, you might choose to further enhance the response with restrictions or guardrails for input and output like filtering harsh words for robust input sanitization, output filtering, conversational flow control, and more. You may also want to explore the programmable guardrails to LLM-based conversational systems.

Clean up

To clean up your resources, delete the CloudFormation stack llm-based-agent.


In this post, you explored how LLMs play a part in answering user questions. You looked at a scenario for helping financial analysts. You could employ this methodology for other Q&A scenarios, like supporting insurance use cases, by quickly contextualizing claims data or customer interactions. You used a knowledge base of structured and unstructured data in a RAG approach, merging the data to create intelligent chatbots. You also learned how to use autonomous agents to help provide responses that are contextual and relevant to the customer data and limit irrelevant and inaccurate responses.

Leave your feedback and questions in the comments section.


About the Authors

Dhaval Shah is a Principal Solutions Architect with Amazon Web Services based out of New York, where he guides global financial services customers to build highly secure, scalable, reliable, and cost-efficient applications on the cloud. He brings over 20 years of technology experience on Software Development and Architecture, Data Engineering, and IT Management.

Soujanya Konka is a Senior Solutions Architect and Analytics specialist at AWS, focused on helping customers build their ideas on cloud. Expertise in design and implementation of Data platforms. Before joining AWS, Soujanya has had stints with companies such as HSBC & Cognizant

Jon Handler is a Senior Principal Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services based in Palo Alto, CA. Jon works closely with OpenSearch and Amazon OpenSearch Service, providing help and guidance to a broad range of customers who have search and log analytics workloads that they want to move to the AWS Cloud. Prior to joining AWS, Jon’s career as a software developer included 4 years of coding a large-scale, ecommerce search engine. Jon holds a Bachelor of the Arts from the University of Pennsylvania, and a Master of Science and a PhD in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence from Northwestern University.

Jianwei Li is a Principal Analytics Specialist TAM at Amazon Web Services. Jianwei provides consultant service for customers to help customer design and build modern data platform. Jianwei has been working in big data domain as software developer, consultant and tech leader.

Hrishikesh Karambelkar is a Principal Architect for Data and AIML with AWS Professional Services for Asia Pacific and Japan. He is proactively engaged with customers in APJ region to enable enterprises in their Digital Transformation journey on AWS Cloud in the areas of Generative AI, machine learning and Data, Analytics, Previously, Hrishikesh has authored books on enterprise search, biig data and co-authored research publications in the areas of Enterprise Search and AI-ML.

AWS Weekly Roundup – LlamaIndex support for Amazon Neptune, force AWS CloudFormation stack deletion, and more (May 27, 2024)

Post Syndicated from Antje Barth original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-llamaindex-support-for-amazon-neptune-force-aws-cloudformation-stack-deletion-and-more-may-27-2024/

Last week, Dr. Matt Wood, VP for AI Products at Amazon Web Services (AWS), delivered the keynote at the AWS Summit Los Angeles. Matt and guest speakers shared the latest advancements in generative artificial intelligence (generative AI), developer tooling, and foundational infrastructure, showcasing how they come together to change what’s possible for builders. You can watch the full keynote on YouTube.

AWS Summit LA 2024 keynote

Announcements during the LA Summit included two new Amazon Q courses as part of Amazon’s AI Ready initiative to provide free AI skills training to 2 million people globally by 2025. The courses are part of the Amazon Q learning plan. But that’s not all that happened last week.

Last week’s launches
Here are some launches that got my attention:

LlamaIndex support for Amazon Neptune — You can now build Graph Retrieval Augmented Generation (GraphRAG) applications by combining knowledge graphs stored in Amazon Neptune and LlamaIndex, a popular open source framework for building applications with large language models (LLMs) such as those available in Amazon Bedrock. To learn more, check the LlamaIndex documentation for Amazon Neptune Graph Store.

AWS CloudFormation launches a new parameter called DeletionMode for the DeleteStack API — You can use the AWS CloudFormation DeleteStack API to delete your stacks and stack resources. However, certain stack resources can prevent the DeleteStack API from successfully completing, for example, when you attempt to delete non-empty Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets. The DeleteStack API can enter into the DELETE_FAILED state in such scenarios. With this launch, you can now pass FORCE_DELETE_STACK value to the new DeletionMode parameter and delete such stacks. To learn more, check the DeleteStack API documentation.

Mistral Small now available in Amazon Bedrock — The Mistral Small foundation model (FM) from Mistral AI is now generally available in Amazon Bedrock. This a fast-follow to our recent announcements of Mistral 7B and Mixtral 8x7B in March, and Mistral Large in April. Mistral Small, developed by Mistral AI, is a highly efficient large language model (LLM) optimized for high-volume, low-latency language-based tasks. To learn more, check Esra’s post.

New Amazon CloudFront edge location in Cairo, Egypt — The new AWS edge location brings the full suite of benefits provided by Amazon CloudFront, a secure, highly distributed, and scalable content delivery network (CDN) that delivers static and dynamic content, APIs, and live and on-demand video with low latency and high performance. Customers in Egypt can expect up to 30 percent improvement in latency, on average, for data delivered through the new edge location. To learn more about AWS edge locations, visit CloudFront edge locations.

Amazon OpenSearch Service zero-ETL integration with Amazon S3 — This Amazon OpenSearch Service integration offers a new efficient way to query operational logs in Amazon S3 data lakes, eliminating the need to switch between tools to analyze data. You can get started by installing out-of-the-box dashboards for AWS log types such as Amazon VPC Flow Logs, AWS WAF Logs, and Elastic Load Balancing (ELB). To learn more, check out the Amazon OpenSearch Service Integrations page and the Amazon OpenSearch Service Developer Guide.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS news
Here are some additional news items and a Twitch show that you might find interesting:

AWS Build On Generative AIBuild On Generative AI — Now streaming every Thursday, 2:00 PM US PT on twitch.tv/aws, my colleagues Tiffany and Mike discuss different aspects of generative AI and invite guest speakers to demo their work. Check out show notes and the full list of episodes on community.aws.

Amazon Bedrock Studio bootstrapper script — We’ve heard your feedback! To everyone who struggled setting up the required AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles and permissions to get started with Amazon Bedrock Studio: You can now use the Bedrock Studio bootstrapper script to automate the creation of the permissions boundary, service role, and provisioning role.

Upcoming AWS events
Check your calendars and sign up for these AWS events:

AWS SummitsAWS Summits — It’s AWS Summit season! Join free online and in-person events that bring the cloud computing community together to connect, collaborate, and learn about AWS. Register in your nearest city: Dubai (May 29), Bangkok (May 30), Stockholm (June 4), Madrid (June 5), and Washington, DC (June 26–27).

AWS re:InforceAWS re:Inforce — Join us for AWS re:Inforce (June 10–12) in Philadelphia, PA. AWS re:Inforce is a learning conference focused on AWS security solutions, cloud security, compliance, and identity. Connect with the AWS teams that build the security tools and meet AWS customers to learn about their security journeys.

AWS Community DaysAWS Community Days — Join community-led conferences that feature technical discussions, workshops, and hands-on labs led by expert AWS users and industry leaders from around the world: Midwest | Columbus (June 13), Sri Lanka (June 27), Cameroon (July 13), New Zealand (August 15), Nigeria (August 24), and New York (August 28).

You can browse all upcoming in-person and virtual events.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Weekly Roundup!

— Antje

This post is part of our Weekly Roundup series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Introducing blueprint discovery and other UI enhancements for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion

Post Syndicated from Jagadish Kumar original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/introducing-blueprint-discovery-and-other-ui-enhancements-for-amazon-opensearch-ingestion/

Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed serverless pipeline that allows you to ingest, filter, transform, enrich, and route data to an Amazon OpenSearch Service domain or Amazon OpenSearch Serverless collection. OpenSearch Ingestion is capable of ingesting data from a wide variety of sources and has a rich ecosystem of built-in processors to take care of your most complex data transformation needs.

In this post, we walk you through the new UI enhancements and blueprint discovery features that are now available with OpenSearch Ingestion for a richer user experience.

Blueprint discovery

Rather than create a pipeline definition from scratch, you can use configuration blueprints, which are preconfigured templates for common ingestion scenarios such as trace analytics or Apache logs. Configuration blueprints help you provision pipelines without having to author a configuration from scratch.

With the older interface, you had to scroll through a dropdown menu of all the available blueprints and couldn’t filter the blueprints using search. OpenSearch Ingestion now offers a new UI that enables searching for blueprints using full-text search on the AWS Management Console, helping you discover all the sources that you can ingest data from into OpenSearch Service.

When you create a new pipeline on the OpenSearch Service console, you’re presented with a new catalog page. You now have a top-down view of all the sources and sinks supported by OpenSearch Ingestion. The blueprints are listed as tiles with icons and are grouped together thematically.

The new catalog has a navigation menu that lists the blueprints, grouped by use case or the service that you want to ingest data from. You can either search for a blueprint or choose the shortcuts in the navigation pane. For example, if you’re building a pipeline to perform a zero-ETL integration with Amazon DynamoDB, you can either search for DynamoDB, choose ZeroETL under Use case in the navigation pane, or choose DynamoDB under Service.

Customized getting started guide

After you choose your blueprint, you’re directed to the Pipeline settings and configuration page. The new UI for blueprints offers a customized getting started guide for each source, detailing key steps in setting up a successful end-to-end integration. The guide on this page will change depending on the blueprint you chose for your pipeline.

The pipeline configuration is pre-filled with a template that you can modify with your specific sources, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles, and sinks. For example, if you chose the Zero-ETL with DocumentDB blueprint, the getting started guide will provide information on setting up a DocumentDB collection, permissions, and destination.

Support for JSON pipeline configuration

As part of the visual overhaul, OpenSearch Ingestion now offers support for specifying the pipeline configuration in JSON format on the console in addition to the existing YAML support. You can now view the configurations in JSON format in addition to the YAML format and edit them in place.

Although YAML is more human readable, it’s whitespace sensitive and is often challenging when copy/pasting from text editors. The JSON pipeline configuration allows you to confidently copy and paste configurations from your text or code editors without having to worry about formatting errors due to inconsistent whitespace. In addition, you can now make any edits in place with JSON configuration and the changes will be propagated to the YAML automatically.

Availability and pricing

These features are available in all commercial AWS Regions where OpenSearch Ingestion is currently available.

Ingestion-OCUs remain at the same price of $0.24 cents per hour. OCUs are billed on an hourly basis with per-minute granularity. You can control the costs OCUs incur by configuring maximum OCUs that a pipeline is allowed to scale.


In this post, we showed you the new blueprint discovery and other UI enhancements for OpenSearch Ingestion. Refer to Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion to learn about other capabilities provided by OpenSearch Ingestion to build scalable pipelines for your OpenSearch data ingestion needs.

About the author

Jagadish Kumar (Jag) is a Senior Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS focused on Amazon OpenSearch Service. He is deeply passionate about Data Architecture and helps customers build analytics solutions at scale on AWS.

Sam Selvan
is a Principal Specialist Solution Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service.

AVB accelerates search in LINQ with Amazon OpenSearch Service

Post Syndicated from Patrick Duffy original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/avb-accelerates-search-in-linq-with-amazon-opensearch-service/

This post is co-written with Mike Russo from AVB Marketing.

AVB Marketing delivers custom digital solutions for their members across a wide range of products. LINQ, AVB’s proprietary product information management system, empowers their appliance, consumer electronics, and furniture retailer members to streamline the management of their product catalog.

A key challenge for AVB’s members is the ability to retrieve, sort, and search through product data, which is crucial for sales activities within their stores. Floor sales use AVB’s Hub, a custom in-store customer relationship management (CRM) product, which relies on LINQ. Initially, searches from Hub queried LINQ’s Microsoft SQL Server database hosted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), with search times averaging 3 seconds, leading to reduced adoption and negative feedback.

In this post, we share how AVB reduced their average search time from 3 seconds to 300 milliseconds in LINQ by adopting Amazon OpenSearch Service while processing 14.5 million record updates daily.

Overview of solution

To meet the demands of their users, the LINQ team set a goal to reduce search time response to under 2 seconds while supporting retrieval of over 60 million product data records. Additionally, the team aimed to reduce operational costs, reduce administrative overhead, and scale the solution to meet demand, especially during peak retail periods. Over a 6-month period, the team evaluated multiple architecture options, eventually moving forward with a solution using OpenSearch Service, Amazon EventBridge, AWS Lambda, Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS), and AWS Step Functions.

During implementation, the LINQ team worked with OpenSearch Service specialists to optimize the OpenSearch Service cluster configuration to maximize performance and optimize cost of the solution. Following the best practices section of the OpenSearch Service Developer Guide, AVB selected an optimal cluster configuration with three dedicated cluster manager nodes and six data nodes, across three Availability Zones, while keeping shard size between 10–30 GiB.

Updates to the primary LINQ database come from various sources, including partner APIs for manufacturer metadata updates, LINQ’s frontend, and LINQ PowerTools. A Lambda function reads the updates from change data capture (CDC) tables on a schedule, which sends the updated records to a Step Functions workflow. This workflow prepares and indexes the record into OpenSearch Service in JSON format, allowing for individual customizations of the record on a per-customer basis. The LINQ team exposes access to the OpenSearch Service index through a search API hosted on Amazon EC2. The following figure outlines the solution.

Overview of the solution

AVB developed the LINQ Product Data Search solution with the expertise of a diverse team including software engineers and database administrators. Despite their limited experience with AWS, they set a timeline to complete the project in 6 months. AVB had several goals for this new workload, including search APIs to support in-store sales floor associates’ ability to quickly find products based on customer requirements, scalability to support future growth, and real-time analytics to support AVB’s needs around understanding their data.

AVB split this project into three key phases:

  • Research and development
  • Proof of concept
  • Implementation and iteration

Research and development

AVB’s LINQ team received a task to identify the most efficient solution to expedite product searches across AVB’s suite of software products. The team completed a comprehensive evaluation of various technologies and techniques to meet their requirements, including a close examination of various NoSQL databases and caching mechanisms. Following this exploration, AVB selected OpenSearch Service, an open source, distributed search and analytics suite, for use in a proof of concept. AVB chose OpenSearch Service for its powerful search capabilities, including full-text search and complex query support, as well as its ability to integrate seamlessly with other AWS services.

Proof of concept

In the proof of concept phase, the AVB team focused on validating the effectiveness of their chosen technology stack, with a particular emphasis on data loading and synchronization processes. This was essential to achieve real-time data consistency with their primary system of record to provide correct and up-to-date information to floor sales agents. A significant part of this phase involved the innovative process of data flattening, a technique crucial for managing complex product data.

For example, let’s explore a use case of a refrigerator listed in the SQL Server database. This product is linked to several related tables: one for basic details like model number and manufacturer, another for pricing, and another for features such as energy efficiency and capacity. The original database stores elements separately but connected through relational keys. The following figure provides an example data schema of the SQL Server database.

Microsoft SQL Server Schema

To enhance search capabilities in OpenSearch Service, the team merged all these disparate data elements into a single, comprehensive JSON document. This document includes both standard manufacturer details and member-specific customizations, like special pricing or additional features. This results in an optimized record for each product for quick and efficient search in OpenSearch Service. The following figure shows the data schema in OpenSearch Service.

Amazon OpenSearch Service Schema

Transforming relational data into a consolidated, searchable format allowed the LINQ team to ingest the data into OpenSearch Service. In the proof of concept, AVB shifted to updating data by using reference IDs, which are directly linked to the primary IDs of the product records or their relational entities in the SQL database. This approach allows updates to be executed independently and asynchronously. Crucially, it supports non-first in, first out (FIFO) processing models, which are vital in high-scale environments susceptible to data discrepancies like drops or replays. By using reference IDs, the system fetches the most current data for each entity at the time a change occurs, ensuring that the latest data is always used when processed. This method maintains data integrity by preventing outdated data from superseding newer information, thereby keeping the database accurate and current. A noteworthy technique used in the proof of concept was index aliases, allowing for zero downtime re-indexes for adding new fields or fixing bugs. AVB built robust performance monitoring and alerts using Amazon CloudWatch and Splunk, which enabled swift identification of issues.

The proof of concept improved search relevance by flattening relational data, which improved indexing and queryability. This restructuring reduced search response latency to 300 milliseconds, which was well under the 2-second goal set for this proof of concept. With this successful proof of concept demonstrating the effectiveness of the architectural approach, AVB moved on to the next phase of implementation and iteration.

Implementation and iteration

With AVB exceeding their initial goal of reducing search latency to under 2 seconds, the team then adopted an iterative approach to implement the complete solution, with a series of deployments designed to make data available in OpenSearch Service from different business verticals. Each business vertical has records consisting of different attributes, and this incremental approach allowed AVB to bring in and inspect data to make sure the documents in OpenSearch Service are what the team expected. Each deployment focused on specific data categories and included refinements to the indexing process from lessons learned in prior deployments. AVB also places a strong emphasis on cost optimization and security of the solution, and deployed OpenSearch Service into a private VPC to allow strict access control. Access to the new search capabilities is controlled through their Hub product using a middleware service provided by LINQ’s API. AVB uses robust API keys and tokens to provide API security to the new search product. This systematic progression meant that the completed LINQ Product Data Search catalog met AVB’s speed and accuracy requirements.


In this post, you learned how AVB reduced their average search time from 3 seconds to 300 milliseconds in LINQ by adopting OpenSearch Service while processing 14.5 million record updates daily, resulting in a 500% increase in adoption by AVB’s internal teams. Tim Hatfield, AVB Marketing’s VP of Engineering, reflected on the project and stated, “By partnering with AWS, we’ve not only supercharged Hub’s search speeds but also forged a cost-efficient foundation for LINQ’s future, where swift searches translate into reduced operating costs and maintain the competitive edge in retail technology.”

To get started with OpenSearch Service, see Getting started with Amazon OpenSearch Service.

About the Authors

Mike RussoMike Russo is a Director of Software Engineering at AVB Marketing. He leads the software delivery for AVB’s e-commerce and product catalog solutions. Outside work, Mike enjoys spending time with his family and playing basketball.

Patrick Duffy is a Senior Solutions Architect in the at AWS. He is passionate about raising awareness and increasing security of AWS workloads. Outside work, he loves to travel and try new cuisines, and you may match up against him in a game on Magic Arena.

Amazon DocumentDB zero-ETL integration with Amazon OpenSearch Service is now available

Post Syndicated from Kaarthiik Thota original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/amazon-documentdb-zero-etl-integration-with-amazon-opensearch-service-is-now-available/

Today, we are announcing the general availability of Amazon DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility) zero-ETL integration with Amazon OpenSearch Service.

Amazon DocumentDB provides native text search and vector search capabilities. With Amazon OpenSearch Service, you can perform advanced search analytics, such as fuzzy search, synonym search, cross-collection search, and multilingual search, on Amazon DocumentDB data.

Zero-ETL integration simplifies your architecture for advanced search analytics. It frees you from performing undifferentiated heavy lifting tasks and the costs associated with building and managing data pipeline architecture and data synchronization between the two services.

In this post, we show you how to configure zero-ETL integration of Amazon DocumentDB with OpenSearch Service using Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion. It involves performing a full load of Amazon DocumentDB data and continuously streaming the latest data to Amazon OpenSearch Service using change streams. For other ingestion methods, see documentation.

Solution overview

At a high level, this solution involves the following steps:

  1. Enable change streams on the Amazon DocumentDB collections.
  2. Create the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline.
  3. Load sample data on the Amazon DocumentDB cluster.
  4. Verify the data in OpenSearch Service.


To implement this solution, you need the following prerequisites:

Zero-ETL will perform an initial full load of your collection by doing a collection scan on the primary instance of your Amazon DocumentDB cluster, which may take several minutes to complete depending on the size of the data, and you may notice elevated resource consumption on your cluster.

Enable change streams on the Amazon DocumentDB collections

Amazon DocumentDB change stream events comprise a time-ordered sequence of data changes due to inserts, updates, and deletes on your data. We use these change stream events to transmit data changes from the Amazon DocumentDB cluster to the OpenSearch Service domain.

Change streams are disabled by default; you can enable them at the individual collection level, database level, or cluster level. To enable change streams on your collections, complete the following steps:

  1. Connect to Amazon DocumentDB using mongo shell.
  2. Enable change streams on your collection with the following code. For this post, we use the Amazon DocumentDB database inventory and collection product:
    db.adminCommand({modifyChangeStreams: 1,
        database: "inventory",
        collection: "product", 
        enable: true});

If you have more than one collection for which you want to stream data into OpenSearch Service, enable change streams for each collection. If you want to enable it at the database or cluster level, see Enabling Change Streams.

It’s recommended to enable change streams for only the required collections.

Create an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline

OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed data collector that delivers real-time log and trace data to OpenSearch Service domains. OpenSearch Ingestion is powered by the open source data collector Data Prepper. Data Prepper is part of the open source OpenSearch project.

With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can filter, enrich, transform, and deliver your data for downstream analysis and visualization. OpenSearch Ingestion is serverless, so you don’t need to worry about scaling your infrastructure, operating your ingestion fleet, and patching or updating the software.

For a comprehensive overview of OpenSearch Ingestion, visit Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion, and for more information about the Data Prepper open source project, visit Data Prepper.

To create an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline, complete the following steps:

  1. On the OpenSearch Service console, choose Pipelines in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Create pipeline.
  3. For Pipeline name, enter a name (for example, zeroetl-docdb-to-opensearch).
  4. Set up pipeline capacity for compute resources to automatically scale your pipeline based on the current ingestion workload.
  5. Input the minimum and maximum Ingestion OpenSearch Compute Units (OCUs). In this example, we use the default pipeline capacity settings of minimum 1 Ingestion OCU and maximum 4 Ingestion OCUs.

Each OCU is a combination of approximately 8 GB of memory and 2 vCPUs that can handle an estimated 8 GiB per hour. OpenSearch Ingestion supports up to 96 OCUs, and it automatically scales up and down based on your ingest workload demand.

  1. Choose the configuration blueprint and under Use case in the navigation pane, choose ZeroETL.
  2. Select Zero-ETL with DocumentDB to build the pipeline configuration.

This pipeline is a combination of a source part from the Amazon DocumentDB settings and a sink part for OpenSearch Service.

You must set multiple AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles (sts_role_arn) with the necessary permissions to read data from the Amazon DocumentDB database and collection and write to an OpenSearch Service domain. This role is then assumed by OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines to make sure the right security posture is always maintained when moving the data from source to destination. To learn more, see Setting up roles and users in Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion.

You need one OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline per Amazon DocumentDB collection.

version: "2"
      acknowledgments: true
      host: "<<docdb-2024-01-03-20-31-17.cluster-abcdef.us-east-1.docdb.amazonaws.com>>"
      port: 27017
        username: ${{aws_secrets:secret:username}}
        password: ${{aws_secrets:secret:password}}
        sts_role_arn: "<<arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Example-Role>>"
      s3_bucket: "<<bucket-name>>"
      s3_region: "<<bucket-region>>" 
      # optional s3_prefix for Opensearch ingestion to write the records
      # s3_prefix: "<<path_prefix>>"
        # collection format: <databaseName>.<collectionName>
        - collection: "<<databaseName.collectionName>>"
          export: true
          stream: true
    - opensearch:
        # REQUIRED: Provide an AWS OpenSearch endpoint
        hosts: [ "<<https://search-mydomain-1a2a3a4a5a6a7a8a9a0a9a8a7a.us-east-1.es.amazonaws.com>>" ]
        index: "<<index_name>>"
        index_type: custom
        document_id: "${getMetadata(\"primary_key\")}"
        action: "${getMetadata(\"opensearch_action\")}"
        # DocumentDB record creation or event timestamp
        document_version: "${getMetadata(\"document_version\")}"
        document_version_type: "external"
          # REQUIRED: Provide a Role ARN with access to the domain. This role should have a trust relationship with osis-pipelines.amazonaws.com
          sts_role_arn: "<<arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Example-Role>>"
          # Provide the region of the domain.
          region: "<<us-east-1>>"
          # Enable the 'serverless' flag if the sink is an Amazon OpenSearch Serverless collection
          # serverless: true
          # serverless_options:
            # Specify a name here to create or update network policy for the serverless collection
            # network_policy_name: "network-policy-name"
        # Secret name or secret ARN
        secret_id: "<<my-docdb-secret>>"
        region: "<<us-east-1>>"
        sts_role_arn: "<<arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Example-Role>>"
        refresh_interval: PT1H 

Provide the following parameters from the blueprint:

  • Amazon DocumentDB endpoint – Provide your Amazon DocumentDB cluster endpoint.
  • Amazon DocumentDB collection – Provide your Amazon DocumentDB database name and collection name in the format dbname.collection within the col­­­­­lections section. For example, inventory.product.
  • s3_bucket – Provide your S3 bucket name along with the AWS Region and S3 prefix. This will be used temporarily to hold the data from Amazon DocumentDB for data synchronization.
  • OpenSearch hosts – Provide the OpenSearch Service domain endpoint for the host and provide the preferred index name to store the data.
  • secret_id – Provide the ARN for the secret for the Amazon DocumentDB cluster along with its Region.
  • sts_role_arn – Provide the ARN for the IAM role that has permissions for the Amazon Document DB cluster, S3 bucket, and OpenSearch Service domain.

To learn more, see Creating Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines.

  1. After entering all the required values, validate the pipeline configuration for any errors.
  2. When designing a production workload, deploy your pipeline within a VPC. Choose your VPC, subnets, and security groups. Also select Attach to VPC and choose the corresponding VPC CIDR range.

The security group inbound rule should have access to the Amazon DocumentDB port. For more information, refer to Securing Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines within a VPC.

Load sample data on the Amazon DocumentDB cluster

Complete the following steps to load the sample data:

  1. Connect to your Amazon DocumentDB cluster.
  2. Insert some documents into the collection product in the inventory database by running the following commands. For creating and updating documents on Amazon DocumentDB, refer to Working with Documents.
    use inventory;
          "Item":"Ultra GelPen",
          "Item":"Poster Paint",
          "Item":"Spray Paint",

Verify the data in OpenSearch Service

You can use the OpenSearch Dashboards dev console to search for the synchronized items within a few seconds. For more information, see Creating and searching for documents in Amazon OpenSearch Service.

To verify the change data capture (CDC), run the following command to update the OnHand and MinOnHand fields for the existing document item Ultra GelPen in the product collection:

   "Item":"Ultra GelPen"

Verify the CDC for the update to the document for the item Ultra GelPen on the OpenSearch Service index.

Monitor the CDC pipeline

You can monitor the state of the pipelines by checking the status of the pipeline on the OpenSearch Service console. Additionally, you can use Amazon CloudWatch to provide real-time metrics and logs, which lets you set up alerts in case of a breach of user-defined thresholds.

Clean up

Make sure you clean up unwanted AWS resources created during this post in order to prevent additional billing for these resources. Follow these steps to clean up your AWS account:

  1. On the OpenSearch Service console, choose Domains under Managed clusters in the navigation pane.
  2. Select the domain you want to delete and choose Delete.
  3. Choose Pipelines under Ingestion in the navigation pane.
  4. Select the pipeline you want to delete and on the Actions menu, choose Delete.
  5. On the Amazon S3 console, select the S3 bucket and choose Delete.


In this post, you learned how to enable zero-ETL integration between Amazon DocumentDB change data streams and OpenSearch Service. To learn more about zero-ETL integrations available with other data sources, see Working with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline integrations.

About the Authors

Praveen Kadipikonda is a Senior Analytics Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS based out of Dallas. He helps customers build efficient, performant, and scalable analytic solutions. He has worked with building databases and data warehouse solutions for over 15 years.

Kaarthiik Thota is a Senior Amazon DocumentDB Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS based out of London. He is passionate about database technologies and enjoys helping customers solve problems and modernize applications using NoSQL databases. Before joining AWS, he worked extensively with relational databases, NoSQL databases, and business intelligence technologies for over 15 years.

Muthu Pitchaimani is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics o f networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.

Analyze more demanding as well as larger time series workloads with Amazon OpenSearch Serverless 

Post Syndicated from Satish Nandi original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/analyze-more-demanding-as-well-as-larger-time-series-workloads-with-amazon-opensearch-serverless/

In today’s data-driven landscape, managing and analyzing vast amounts of data, especially logs, is crucial for organizations to derive insights and make informed decisions. However, handling this data efficiently presents a significant challenge, prompting organizations to seek scalable solutions without the complexity of infrastructure management.

Amazon OpenSearch Serverless lets you run OpenSearch in the AWS Cloud, without worrying about scaling infrastructure. With OpenSearch Serverless, you can ingest, analyze, and visualize your time-series data. Without the need for infrastructure provisioning, OpenSearch Serverless simplifies data management and enables you to derive actionable insights from extensive repositories.

We recently announced a new capacity level of 10TB for Time-series data per account per Region, which includes one or more indexes within a collection. With the support for larger datasets, you can unlock valuable operational insights and make data-driven decisions to troubleshoot application downtime, improve system performance, or identify fraudulent activities.

In this post, we discuss this new capability and how you can analyze larger time series datasets with OpenSearch Serverless.

10TB Time-series data size support in OpenSearch Serverless

The compute capacity for data ingestion and search or query in OpenSearch Serverless is measured in OpenSearch Compute Units (OCUs). These OCUs are shared among various collections, each containing one or more indexes within the account. To accommodate larger datasets, OpenSearch Serverless now supports up to 200 OCUs per account per AWS Region, each for indexing and search respectively, doubling from the previous limit of 100. You configure the maximum OCU limits on search and indexing independently to manage costs. You can also monitor real-time OCU usage with Amazon CloudWatch metrics to gain a better perspective on your workload’s resource consumption.

Dealing with larger data and analysis needs more memory and CPU. With 10TB data size support, OpenSearch Serverless is introducing vertical scaling up to eight times of 1-OCU systems. For example, the OpenSearch Serverless will deploy a larger system equivalent of eight 1-OCU systems. The system will use hybrid of horizontal and vertical scaling to address the needs of the workloads. There are improvements to shard reallocation algorithm to reduce the shard movement during heat remediation, vertical scaling, or routine deployment.

In our internal testing for 10TB Time-series data, we set the Max OCU to 48 for Search and 48 for Indexing. We set the data retention for 5 days using data lifecycle policies, and set the deployment type to “Enable redundancy” making sure the data is replicated across Availability Zones . This will lead to 12_24 hours of data in hot storage (OCU disk memory) and the rest in Amazon Simple Service (Amazon S3) storage. We observed the average ingestion achieved was 2.3 TiB per day with an average ingestion performance of 49.15 GiB per OCU per day, reaching a max of 52.47 GiB per OCU per day and a minimum of 32.69 Gib per OCU per day in our testing. The performance depends on several aspects, like document size, mapping, and other parameters, which may or may not have a variation for your workload.

Set max OCU to 200

You can start using our expanded capacity today by setting your OCU limits for indexing and search to 200. You can still set the limits to less than 200 to maintain a maximum cost during high traffic spikes. You only pay for the resources consumed, not for the max OCU configuration.

Ingest the data

You can use the load generation scripts shared in the following workshop, or you can use your own application or data generator to create a load. You can run multiple instances of these scripts to generate a burst in indexing requests. As shown in the following screenshot, we tested with an index, sending approximately 10 TB of data. We used our load generator script to send the traffic to a single index, retaining data for 5 days, and used a data life cycle policy to delete data older than 5 days.

Auto scaling in OpenSearch Serverless with new vertical scaling.

Before this release, OpenSearch Serverless auto-scaled by horizontally adding the same-size capacity to handle increases in traffic or load. With the new feature of vertical scaling to a larger size capacity, it can optimize the workload by providing a more powerful compute unit. The system will intelligently decide whether horizontal scaling or vertical scaling is more price-performance optimal. Vertical scaling also improves auto-scaling responsiveness, because vertical scaling helps to reach the optimal capacity faster compared to the incremental steps taken through horizontal scaling. Overall, vertical scaling has significantly improved the response time for auto_scaling.


We encourage you to take advantage of the 10TB index support and put it to the test! Migrate your data, explore the improved throughput, and take advantage of the enhanced scaling capabilities. Our goal is to deliver a seamless and efficient experience that aligns with your requirements.

To get started, refer to Log analytics the easy way with Amazon OpenSearch Serverless. To get hands-on experience with OpenSearch Serverless, follow the Getting started with Amazon OpenSearch Serverless workshop, which has a step-by-step guide for configuring and setting up an OpenSearch Serverless collection.

If you have feedback about this post, share it in the comments section. If you have questions about this post, start a new thread on the Amazon OpenSearch Service forum or contact AWS Support.

About the authors

Satish Nandi is a Senior Product Manager with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He is focused on OpenSearch Serverless and has years of experience in networking, security and ML/AI. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science and an MBA in Entrepreneurship. In his free time, he likes to fly airplanes, hang gliders and ride his motorcycle.

Michelle Xue is Sr. Software Development Manager working on Amazon OpenSearch Serverless. She works closely with customers to help them onboard OpenSearch Serverless and incorporates customer’s feedback into their Serverless roadmap. Outside of work, she enjoys hiking and playing tennis.

Prashant Agrawal is a Sr. Search Specialist Solutions Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He works closely with customers to help them migrate their workloads to the cloud and helps existing customers fine-tune their clusters to achieve better performance and save on cost. Before joining AWS, he helped various customers use OpenSearch and Elasticsearch for their search and log analytics use cases. When not working, you can find him traveling and exploring new places. In short, he likes doing Eat → Travel → Repeat.

Amazon OpenSearch Service Under the Hood : OpenSearch Optimized Instances(OR1)

Post Syndicated from Bukhtawar Khan original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/amazon-opensearch-service-under-the-hood-opensearch-optimized-instancesor1/

Amazon OpenSearch Service recently introduced the OpenSearch Optimized Instance family (OR1), which delivers up to 30% price-performance improvement over existing memory optimized instances in internal benchmarks, and uses Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) to provide 11 9s of durability. With this new instance family, OpenSearch Service uses OpenSearch innovation and AWS technologies to reimagine how data is indexed and stored in the cloud.

Today, customers widely use OpenSearch Service for operational analytics because of its ability to ingest high volumes of data while also providing rich and interactive analytics. In order to provide these benefits, OpenSearch is designed as a high-scale distributed system with multiple independent instances indexing data and processing requests. As your operational analytics data velocity and volume of data grows, bottlenecks may emerge. To sustainably support high indexing volume and provide durability, we built the OR1 instance family.

In this post, we discuss how the reimagined data flow works with OR1 instances and how it can provide high indexing throughput and durability using a new physical replication protocol. We also dive deep into some of the challenges we solved to maintain correctness and data integrity.

Designing for high throughput with 11 9s of durability

OpenSearch Service manages tens of thousands of OpenSearch clusters. We’ve gained insights into typical cluster configurations that customers use to meet high throughput and durability goals. To achieve higher throughput, customers often choose to drop replica copies to save on the replication latency; however, this configuration results in sacrificing availability and durability. Other customers require high durability and as a result need to maintain multiple replica copies, resulting in higher operating costs for them.

The OpenSearch Optimized Instance family provides additional durability while also keeping costs lower by storing a copy of the data on Amazon S3. With OR1 instances, you can configure multiple replica copies for high read availability while maintaining indexing throughput.
The following diagram illustrates an indexing flow involving a metadata update in OR1

Indexing Request Flow in OR1

During indexing operations, individual documents are indexed into Lucene and also appended to a write-ahead log also known as a translog. Before sending back an acknowledgement to the client, all translog operations are persisted to the remote data store backed by Amazon S3. If any replica copies are configured, the primary copy performs checks to detect the possibility of multiple writers (control flow) on all replica copies for correctness reasons.
The following diagram illustrates the segment generation and replication flow in OR1 instances

Replication Flow in OR1

Periodically, as new segment files are created, the OR1 copy those segments to Amazon S3. When the transfer is complete, the primary publishes new checkpoints to all replica copies, notifying them of a new segment being available for download. The replica copies subsequently download newer segments and make them searchable. This model decouples the data flow that happens using Amazon S3 and the control flow (checkpoint publication and term validation) that happens over inter-node transport communication.

The following diagram illustrates the recovery flow in OR1 instances

Recovery Flow in OR1

OR1 instances persist not only the data, but the cluster metadata like index mappings, templates, and settings in Amazon S3. This makes sure that in the event of a cluster-manager quorum loss, which is a common failure mode in non-dedicated cluster-manager setups, OpenSearch can reliably recover the last acknowledged metadata.

In the event of an infrastructure failure, an OpenSearch domain can end up losing one or more nodes. In such an event, the new instance family guarantees recovery of both the cluster metadata and the index data up to the latest acknowledged operation. As new replacement nodes join the cluster, the internal cluster recovery mechanism bootstraps the new set of nodes and then recovers the latest cluster metadata from the remote cluster metadata store. After the cluster metadata is recovered, the recovery mechanism starts to hydrate the missing segment data and translog from Amazon S3. Then all uncommitted translog operations, up to the last acknowledged operation, are replayed to reinstate the lost copy.

The new design doesn’t modify the way searches work. Queries are processed normally by either the primary or replica shard for each shard in the index. You may see longer delays (in the 10-second range) before all copies are consistent to a particular point in time because the data replication is using Amazon S3.

A key advantage of this architecture is that it serves as a foundational building block for future innovations, like separation of readers and writers, and helps segregate compute and storage layers.

How redefining the replication strategy boosts the indexing throughput

OpenSearch supports two replication strategies: logical (document) and physical (segment) replication. In the case of logical replication, the data is indexed on all the copies independently, leading to redundant computation on the cluster. The OR1 instances use the new physical replication model, where data is indexed only on the primary copy and additional copies are created by copying data from the primary. With a high number of replica copies, the node hosting the primary copy requires significant network bandwidth, replicating the segment to all the copies. The new OR1 instances solve this problem by durably persisting the segment to Amazon S3, which is configured as a remote storage option. They also help with scaling replicas without bottlenecking on primary.

After the segments are uploaded to Amazon S3, the primary sends out a checkpoint request, notifying all replicas to download the new segments. The replica copies then need to download the incremental segments. Because this process frees up compute resources on replicas, which is otherwise required to redundantly index data and network overhead incurred on primaries to replicate data, the cluster is able to churn more throughput. In the event the replicas aren’t able to process the newly created segments, due to overload or slow network paths, the replicas beyond a point are marked as failed to prevent them from returning stale results.

Why high durability is a good idea, but hard to do well

Although all committed segments are durably persisted to Amazon S3 whenever they get created, one of key challenges in achieving high durability is synchronously writing all uncommitted operations to a write-ahead log on Amazon S3, before acknowledging back the request to the client, without sacrificing throughput. The new semantics introduce additional network latency for individual requests, but the way we’ve made sure there is no impact to throughput is by batching and draining requests on a single thread for up to a specified interval, while making sure other threads continue to index requests. As a result, you can drive higher throughput with more concurrent client connections by optimally batching your bulk payloads.

Other challenges in designing a highly durable system include enforcing data integrity and correctness at all times. Although some events like network partitions are rare, they can break the correctness of the system and therefore the system needs to be prepared to deal with these failure modes. Therefore, while switching to the new segment replication protocol, we also introduced a few other protocol changes, like detecting multiple writers on each replica. The protocol makes sure that an isolated writer can’t acknowledge a write request, while another newly promoted primary, based on the cluster-manager quorum, is concurrently accepting newer writes.

The new instance family automatically detects the loss of a primary shard while recovering data, and performs extensive checks on network reachability before the data can be re-hydrated from Amazon S3 and the cluster is brought back to a healthy state.

For data integrity, all files are extensively checksummed to make sure we are able to detect and prevent network or file system corruption that may result in data being unreadable. Furthermore, all files including metadata are designed to be immutable, providing additional safety against corruptions and versioned to prevent accidental mutating changes.

Reimagining how data flows

The OR1 instances hydrate copies directly from Amazon S3 in order to perform recovery of lost shards during an infrastructure failure. By using Amazon S3, we are able to free up the primary node’s network bandwidth, disk throughput, and compute, and therefore provide a more seamless in-place scaling and blue/green deployment experience by orchestrating the entire process with minimal primary node coordination.

OpenSearch Service provides automatic data backups called snapshots at hourly intervals, which means in case of accidental modifications to data, you have the option to go back to a previous point in time state. However, with the new OpenSearch instance family, we’ve discussed that the data is already durably persisted on Amazon S3. So how do snapshots work when we already have the data present on Amazon S3?

With the new instance family, snapshots serve as checkpoints, referencing the already present segment data as it exists at a point in time. This makes snapshots more lightweight and faster because they don’t need to re-upload any additional data. Instead, they upload metadata files that capture the view of the segments at that point in time, which we call shallow snapshots. The benefit of shallow snapshots extends to all operations, namely creation, deletion, and cloning of snapshots. You still have the option to snapshot an independent copy with manual snapshots for other administrative operations.


OpenSearch is an open source, community-driven software. Most of the foundational changes including the replication model, remote-backed storage, and remote cluster metadata have been contributed to open source; in fact, we follow an open source first development model.

Efforts to improve throughput and reliability is a never-ending cycle as we continue to learn and improve. The new OpenSearch optimized instances serve as a foundational building block, paving the way for future innovations. We are excited to continue our efforts in improving reliability and performance and to see what new and existing solutions builders can create using OpenSearch Service. We hope this leads to a deeper understanding of the new OpenSearch instance family, how this offering achieves high durability and better throughput, and how it can help you configure clusters based on the needs of your business.

If you’re excited to contribute to OpenSearch, open up a GitHub issue and let us know your thoughts. We would also love to hear about your success stories achieving high throughput and durability on OpenSearch Service. If you have other questions, please leave a comment.

About the Authors

Bukhtawar Khan is a Principal Engineer working on Amazon OpenSearch Service. He is interested in building distributed and autonomous systems. He is a maintainer and an active contributor to OpenSearch.

Gaurav Bafna is a Senior Software Engineer working on OpenSearch at Amazon Web Services. He is fascinated about solving problems in distributed systems. He is a maintainer and an active contributor to OpenSearch.

Sachin Kale is a senior software development engineer at AWS working on OpenSearch.

Rohin Bhargava is a Sr. Product Manager with the Amazon OpenSearch Service team. His passion at AWS is to help customers find the correct mix of AWS services to achieve success for their business goals.

Ranjith Ramachandra is a Senior Engineering Manager working on Amazon OpenSearch Service. He is passionate about highly scalable distributed systems, high performance and resilient systems.

Simplify your query management with search templates in Amazon OpenSearch Service

Post Syndicated from Arun Lakshmanan original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/simplify-your-query-management-with-search-templates-in-amazon-opensearch-service/

Amazon OpenSearch Service is an Apache-2.0-licensed distributed search and analytics suite offered by AWS. This fully managed service allows organizations to secure data, perform keyword and semantic search, analyze logs, alert on anomalies, explore interactive log analytics, implement real-time application monitoring, and gain a more profound understanding of their information landscape. OpenSearch Service provides the tools and resources needed to unlock the full potential of your data. With its scalability, reliability, and ease of use, it’s a valuable solution for businesses seeking to optimize their data-driven decision-making processes and improve overall operational efficiency.

This post delves into the transformative world of search templates. We unravel the power of search templates in revolutionizing the way you handle queries, providing a comprehensive guide to help you navigate through the intricacies of this innovative solution. From optimizing search processes to saving time and reducing complexities, discover how incorporating search templates can elevate your query management game.

Search templates

Search templates empower developers to articulate intricate queries within OpenSearch, enabling their reuse across various application scenarios, eliminating the complexity of query generation in the code. This flexibility also grants you the ability to modify your queries without requiring application recompilation. Search templates in OpenSearch use the mustache template, which is a logic-free templating language. Search templates can be reused by their name. A search template that is based on mustache has a query structure and placeholders for the variable values. You use the _search API to query, specifying the actual values that OpenSearch should use. You can create placeholders for variables that will be changed to their true values at runtime. Double curly braces ({{}}) serve as placeholders in templates.

Mustache enables you to generate dynamic filters or queries based on the values passed in the search request, making your search requests more flexible and powerful.

In the following example, the search template runs the query in the “source” block by passing in the values for the field and value parameters from the “params” block:

GET /myindex/_search/template
      "source": {   
         "query": { 
             "bool": {
               "must": [
                   "match": {
                    "{{field}}": "{{value}}"
 "params": {
    "field": "place",
    "value": "sweethome"

You can store templates in the cluster with a name and refer to them in a search instead of attaching the template in each request. You use the PUT _scripts API to publish a template to the cluster. Let’s say you have an index of books, and you want to search for books with publication date, ratings, and price. You could create and publish a search template as follows:

PUT /_scripts/find_book
  "script": {
    "lang": "mustache",
    "source": {
      "query": {
        "bool": {
          "must": [
              "range": {
                "publish_date": {
                  "gte": "{{gte_date}}"
              "range": {
                "rating": {
                  "gte": "{{gte_rating}}"
              "range": {
                "price": {
                  "lte": "{{lte_price}}"

In this example, you define a search template called find_book that uses the mustache template language with defined placeholders for the gte_date, gte_rating, and lte_price parameters.

To use the search template stored in the cluster, you can send a request to OpenSearch with the appropriate parameters. For example, you can search for products that have been published in the last year with ratings greater than 4.0, and priced less than $20:

POST /books/_search/template
  "id": "find_book",
  "params": {
    "gte_date": "now-1y",
    "gte_rating": 4.0,
    "lte_price": 20

This query will return all books that have been published in the last year, with a rating of at least 4.0, and a price less than $20 from the books index.

Default values in search templates

Default values are values that are used for search parameters when the query that engages the template doesn’t specify values for them. In the context of the find_book example, you can set default values for the from, size, and gte_date parameters in case they are not provided in the search request. To set default values, you can use the following mustache template:

PUT /_scripts/find_book
  "script": {
    "lang": "mustache",
    "source": {
      "query": {
        "bool": {
          "filter": [
              "range": {
                "publish_date": {
                  "gte": "{{gte_date}}{{^gte_date}}now-1y{{/gte_date}}"
              "range": {
                "rating": {
                  "gte": "{{gte_rating}}"
              "range": {
                "price": {
                  "lte": "{{lte_price}}"
        "from": "{{from}}{{^from}}0{{/from}}",
        "size": "{{size}}{{^size}}2{{/size}}"

In this template, the {{from}}, {{size}}, and {{gte_date}} parameters are placeholders that can be filled in with specific values when the template is used in a search. If no value is specified for {{from}}, {{size}}, and {{gte_date}}, OpenSearch uses the default values of 0, 2, and now-1y, respectively. This means that if a user searches for products without specifying from, size, and gte_date, the search will return just two products matching the search criteria for 1 year.

You can also use the render API as follows if you have a stored template and want to validate it:

POST _render/template
  "id": "find_book",
  "params": {
    "gte_date": "now-1y",
    "gte_rating": 4.0,
    "lte_price": 20

Conditions in search templates

The conditional statement that allows you to control the flow of your search template based on certain conditions. It’s often used to include or exclude certain parts of the search request based on certain parameters. The syntax as follows:

{{#Any condition}}
  ... code to execute if the condition is true ...

The following example searches for books based on the gte_date, gte_rating, and lte_price parameters and an optional stock parameter. The if condition is used to include the condition_block/term query only if the stock parameter is present in the search request. If the is_available parameter is not present, the condition_block/term query will be skipped.

GET /books/_search/template
  "source": """{
    "query": {
      "bool": {
        "must": [
          "term": {
            "in_stock": "{{is_available}}"
            "range": {
              "publish_date": {
                "gte": "{{gte_date}}"
            "range": {
              "rating": {
                "gte": "{{gte_rating}}"
            "range": {
              "price": {
                "lte": "{{lte_price}}"
  "params": {
    "gte_date": "now-3y",
    "gte_rating": 4.0,
    "lte_price": 20,
    "is_available": true

By using a conditional statement in this way, you can make your search requests more flexible and efficient by only including the necessary filters when they are needed.

To make the query valid inside the JSON, it needs to be escaped with triple quotes (""") in the payload.

Loops in search templates

A loop is a feature of mustache templates that allows you to iterate over an array of values and run the same code block for each item in the array. It’s often used to generate a dynamic list of filters or queries based on the values passed in the search request. The syntax is as follows:

{{#list item in array}}
  ... code to execute for each item ...

The following example searches for books based on a query string ({{query}}) and an array of categories to filter the search results. The mustache loop is used to generate a match filter for each item in the categories array.

GET books/_search/template
  "source": """{
    "query": {
      "bool": {
        "must": [
          "match": {
            "category": "{{list}}"
          "match": {
            "title": "{{name}}"
  "params": {
    "name": "killer",
    "list": ["Classics", "comics", "Horror"]

The search request is rendered as follows:

  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
          "match": {
            "title": "killer"
          "match": {
            "category": "Classics"
          "match": {
            "category": "comics"
          "match": {
            "category": "Horror"

The loop has generated a match filter for each item in the categories array, resulting in a more flexible and efficient search request that filters by multiple categories. By using the loops, you can generate dynamic filters or queries based on the values passed in the search request, making your search requests more flexible and powerful.

Advantages of using search templates

The following are key advantages of using search templates:

  • Maintainability – By separating the query definition from the application code, search templates make it straightforward to manage changes to the query or tune search relevancy. You don’t have to compile and redeploy your application.
  • Consistency – You can construct search templates that allow you to design standardized query patterns and reuse them throughout your application, which can help maintain consistency across your queries.
  • Readability – Because templates can be constructed using a more terse and expressive syntax, complicated queries are straightforward to test and debug.
  • Testing – Search templates can be tested and debugged independently of the application code, facilitating simpler problem-solving and relevancy tuning without having to re-deploy the application. You can easily create A/B testing with different templates for the same search.
  • Flexibility – Search templates can be quickly updated or adjusted to account for modifications to the data or search specifications.

Best practices

Consider the following best practices when using search templates:

  •  Before deploying your template to production, make sure it is fully tested. You can test the effectiveness and correctness of your template with example data. It is highly recommended to run the application tests that use these templates before publishing.
  • Search templates allow for the addition of input parameters, which you can use to modify the query to suit the needs of a particular use case. Reusing the same template with varied inputs is made simpler by parameterizing the inputs.
  • Manage the templates in an external source control system.
  • Avoid hard-coding values inside the query—instead, use defaults.


In this post, you learned the basics of search templates, a powerful feature of OpenSearch, and how templates help streamline search queries and improve performance. With search templates, you can build more robust search applications in less time.

If you have feedback about this post, submit it in the comments section. If you have questions about this post, start a new thread on the Amazon OpenSearch Service forum or contact AWS Support.

Stay tuned for more exciting updates and new features in OpenSearch Service.

About the authors

Arun Lakshmanan is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service based out of Chicago, IL. He has over 20 years of experience working with enterprise customers and startups. He loves to travel and spend quality time with his family.

Madhan Kumar Baskaran works as a Search Engineer at AWS, specializing in Amazon OpenSearch Service. His primary focus involves assisting customers in constructing scalable search applications and analytics solutions. Based in Bengaluru, India, Madhan has a keen interest in data engineering and DevOps.

Hybrid Search with Amazon OpenSearch Service

Post Syndicated from Hajer Bouafif original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/hybrid-search-with-amazon-opensearch-service/

Amazon OpenSearch Service has been a long-standing supporter of both lexical and semantic search, facilitated by its utilization of the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) plugin. By using OpenSearch Service as a vector database, you can seamlessly combine the advantages of both lexical and vector search. The introduction of the neural search feature in OpenSearch Service 2.9 further simplifies integration with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) models, facilitating the implementation of semantic search.

Lexical search using TF/IDF or BM25 has been the workhorse of search systems for decades. These traditional lexical search algorithms match user queries with exact words or phrases in your documents. Lexical search is more suitable for exact matches, provides low latency, and offers good interpretability of results and generalizes well across domains. However, this approach does not consider the context or meaning of the words, which can lead to irrelevant results.

In the past few years, semantic search methods based on vector embeddings have become increasingly popular to enhance search. Semantic search enables a more context-aware search, understanding the natural language questions of user queries. However, semantic search powered by vector embeddings requires fine-tuning of the ML model for the associated domain (such as healthcare or retail) and more memory resources compared to basic lexical search.

Both lexical search and semantic search have their own strengths and weaknesses. Combining lexical and vector search improves the quality of search results by using their best features in a hybrid model. OpenSearch Service 2.11 now supports out-of-the-box hybrid query capabilities that make it straightforward for you to implement a hybrid search model combining lexical search and semantic search.

This post explains the internals of hybrid search and how to build a hybrid search solution using OpenSearch Service. We experiment with sample queries to explore and compare lexical, semantic, and hybrid search. All the code used in this post is publicly available in the GitHub repository.

Hybrid search with OpenSearch Service

In general, hybrid search to combine lexical and semantic search involves the following steps:

  1. Run a semantic and lexical search using a compound search query clause.
  2. Each query type provides scores on different scales. For example, a Lucene lexical search query will return a score between 1 and infinity. On the other hand, a semantic query using the Faiss engine returns scores between 0 and 1. Therefore, you need to normalize the scores coming from each type of query to put them on the same scale before combining the scores. In a distributed search engine, this normalization needs to happen at the global level rather than shard or node level.
  3. After the scores are all on the same scale, they’re combined for every document.
  4. Reorder the documents based on the new combined score and render the documents as a response to the query.

Prior to OpenSearch Service 2.11, search practitioners would need to use compound query types to combine lexical and semantic search queries. However, this approach does not address the challenge of global normalization of scores as mentioned in Step 2.

OpenSearch Service 2.11 added the support of hybrid query by introducing the score normalization processor in search pipelines. Search pipelines take away the heavy lifting of building normalization of score results and combination outside your OpenSearch Service domain. Search pipelines run inside the OpenSearch Service domain and support three types of processors: search request processor, search response processor, and search phase results processor.

In a hybrid search, the search phase results processor runs between the query phase and fetch phase at the coordinator node (global) level. The following diagram illustrates this workflow.

Search Pipeline

The hybrid search workflow in OpenSearch Service contains the following phases:

  • Query phase – The first phase of a search request is the query phase, where each shard in your index runs the search query locally and returns the document ID matching the search request with relevance scores for each document.
  • Score normalization and combination – The search phase results processor runs between the query phase and fetch phase. It uses the normalization processer to normalize scoring results from BM25 and KNN subqueries. The search processor supports min_max and L2-Euclidean distance normalization methods. The processor combines all scores, compiles the final list of ranked document IDs, and passes them to the fetch phase. The processor supports arithmetic_mean, geometric_mean, and harmonic_mean to combine scores.
  • Fetch phase – The final phase is the fetch phase, where the coordinator node retrieves the documents that matches the final ranked list and returns the search query result.

Solution overview

In this post, you build a web application where you can search through a sample image dataset in the retail space, using a hybrid search system powered by OpenSearch Service. Let’s assume that the web application is a retail shop and you as a consumer need to run queries to search for women’s shoes.

For a hybrid search, you combine a lexical and semantic search query against the text captions of images in the dataset. The end-to-end search application high-level architecture is shown in the following figure.

Solution Architecture

The workflow contains the following steps:

  1. You use an Amazon SageMaker notebook to index image captions and image URLs from the Amazon Berkeley Objects Dataset stored in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) into OpenSearch Service using the OpenSearch ingest pipeline. This dataset is a collection of 147,702 product listings with multilingual metadata and 398,212 unique catalog images. You only use the item images and item names in US English. For demo purposes, you use approximately 1,600 products.
  2. OpenSearch Service calls the embedding model hosted in SageMaker to generate vector embeddings for the image caption. You use the GPT-J-6B variant embedding model, which generates 4,096 dimensional vectors.
  3. Now you can enter your search query in the web application hosted on an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance (c5.large). The application client triggers the hybrid query in OpenSearch Service.
  4. OpenSearch Service calls the SageMaker embedding model to generate vector embeddings for the search query.
  5. OpenSearch Service runs the hybrid query, combines the semantic search and lexical search scores for the documents, and sends back the search results to the EC2 application client.

Let’s look at Steps 1, 2, 4, and 5 in more detail.

Step 1: Ingest the data into OpenSearch

In Step 1, you create an ingest pipeline in OpenSearch Service using the text_embedding processor to generate vector embeddings for the image captions.

After you define a k-NN index with the ingest pipeline, you run a bulk index operation to store your data into the k-NN index. In this solution, you only index the image URLs, text captions, and caption embeddings where the field type for the caption embeddings is k-NN vector.

Step 2 and Step 4: OpenSearch Service calls the SageMaker embedding model

In these steps, OpenSearch Service uses the SageMaker ML connector to generate the embeddings for the image captions and query. The blue box in the preceding architecture diagram refers to the integration of OpenSearch Service with SageMaker using the ML connector feature of OpenSearch. This feature is available in OpenSearch Service starting from version 2.9. It enables you to create integrations with other ML services, such as SageMaker.

Step 5: OpenSearch Service runs the hybrid search query

OpenSearch Service uses the search phase results processor to perform a hybrid search. For hybrid scoring, OpenSearch Service uses the normalization, combination, and weights configuration settings that are set in the normalization processor of the search pipeline.


Before you deploy the solution, make sure you have the following prerequisites:

  • An AWS account
  • Familiarity with the Python programming language
  • Familiarity with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), Amazon EC2, OpenSearch Service, and SageMaker

Deploy the hybrid search application to your AWS account

To deploy your resources, use the provided AWS CloudFormation template. Supported AWS Regions are us-east-1, us-west-2, and eu-west-1. Complete the following steps to launch the stack:

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, create a new stack.
  2. For Template source, select Amazon S3 URL.
  3. For Amazon S3 URL, enter the path for the template for deploying hybrid search.
  4. Choose Next.Deploy CloudFormation
  5. Name the stack hybridsearch.
  6. Keep the remaining settings as default and choose Submit.
  7. The template stack should take 15 minutes to deploy. When it’s done, the stack status will show as CREATE_COMPLETE.Check completion of CloudFormation deployment
  8. When the stack is complete, navigate to the stack Outputs tab.
  9. Choose the SagemakerNotebookURL link to open the SageMaker notebook in a separate tab.Open SageMaker Notebook URL
  10. In the SageMaker notebook, navigate to the AI-search-with-amazon-opensearch-service/opensearch-hybridsearch directory and open HybridSearch.ipynb.Open HybridSearch notebook
  11. If the notebook prompts to set the kernel, Choose the conda_pytorch_p310 kernel from the drop-down menu, then choose Set Kernel.Set the Kernel
  12. The notebook should look like the following screenshot.HybridSearch Implementation steps

Now that the notebook is ready to use, follow the step-by-step instructions in the notebook. With these steps, you create an OpenSearch SageMaker ML connector and a k-NN index, ingest the dataset into an OpenSearch Service domain, and host the web search application on Amazon EC2.

Run a hybrid search using the web application

The web application is now deployed in your account and you can access the application using the URL generated at the end of the SageMaker notebook.

Open the Application using the URL

Copy the generated URL and enter it in your browser to launch the application.

Application UI components

Complete the following steps to run a hybrid search:

  1. Use the search bar to enter your search query.
  2. Use the drop-down menu to select the search type. The available options are Keyword Search, Vector Search, and Hybrid Search.
  3. Choose GO to render results for your query or regenerate results based on your new settings.
  4. Use the left pane to tune your hybrid search configuration:
    • Under Weight for Semantic Search, adjust the slider to choose the weight for semantic subquery. Be aware that the total weight for both lexical and semantic queries should be 1.0. The closer the weight is to 1.0, the more weight is given to the semantic subquery, and this setting minus 1.0 goes as weightage to the lexical query.
    • For Select the normalization type, choose the normalization technique (min_max or L2).
    • For Select the Score Combination type, choose the score combination techniques: arithmetic_mean, geometric_mean, or harmonic_mean.

Experiment with Hybrid Search

In this post, you run four experiments to understand the differences between the outputs of each search type.

As a customer of this retail shop, you are looking for women’s shoes, and you don’t know yet what style of shoes you would like to purchase. You expect that the retail shop should be able to help you decide according to the following parameters:

  • Not to deviate from the primary attributes of what you search for.
  • Provide versatile options and styles to help you understand your preference of style and then choose one.

As your first step, enter the search query “women shoes” and choose 5 as the number of documents to output.

Next, run the following experiments and review the observation for each search type

Experiment 1: Lexical search

Experiment 1: Lexical searchFor a lexical search, choose Keyword Search as your search type, then choose GO.

The keyword search runs a lexical query, looking for same words between the query and image captions. In the first four results, two are women’s boat-style shoes identified by common words like “women” and “shoes.” The other two are men’s shoes, linked by the common term “shoes.” The last result is of style “sandals,” and it’s identified based on the common term “shoes.”

In this experiment, the keyword search provided three relevant results out of five—it doesn’t completely capture the user’s intention to have shoes only for women.

Experiment 2: Semantic search

Experiment 2: Semantic search

For a semantic search, choose Semantic search as the search type, then choose GO.

The semantic search provided results that all belong to one particular style of shoes, “boots.” Even though the term “boots” was not part of the search query, the semantic search understands that terms “shoes” and “boots” are similar because they are found to be nearest neighbors in the vector space.

In this experiment, when the user didn’t mention any specific shoe styles like boots, the results limited the user’s choices to a single style. This hindered the user’s ability to explore a variety of styles and make a more informed decision on their preferred style of shoes to purchase.

Let’s see how hybrid search can help in this use case.

Experiment 3: Hybrid search

Experiment 3: Hybrid search

Choose Hybrid Search as the search type, then choose GO.

In this example, the hybrid search uses both lexical and semantic search queries. The results show two “boat shoes” and three “boots,” reflecting a blend of both lexical and semantic search outcomes.

In the top two results, “boat shoes” directly matched the user’s query and were obtained through lexical search. In the lower-ranked items, “boots” was identified through semantic search.

In this experiment, the hybrid search gave equal weighs to both lexical and semantic search, which allowed users to quickly find what they were looking for (shoes) while also presenting additional styles (boots) for them to consider.

Experiment 4: Fine-tune the hybrid search configuration

Experiment 4: Fine-tune the hybrid search configuration

In this experiment, set the weight of the vector subquery to 0.8, which means the keyword search query has a weightage of 0.2. Keep the normalization and score combination settings set to default. Then choose GO to generate new results for the preceding query.

Providing more weight to the semantic search subquery resulted in higher scores to the semantic search query results. You can see a similar outcome as the semantic search results from the second experiment, with five images of boots for women.

You can further fine-tune the hybrid search results by adjusting the combination and normalization techniques.

In a benchmark conducted by the OpenSearch team using publicly available datasets such as BEIR and Amazon ESCI, they concluded that the min_max normalization technique combined with the arithmetic_mean score combination technique provides the best results in a hybrid search.

You need to thoroughly test the different fine-tuning options to choose what is the most relevant to your business requirements.

Overall observations

From all the previous experiments, we can conclude that the hybrid search in the third experiment had a combination of results that looks relevant to the user in terms of giving exact matches and also additional styles to choose from. The hybrid search matches the expectation of the retail shop customer.

Clean up

To avoid incurring continued AWS usage charges, make sure you delete all the resources you created as part of this post.

To clean up your resources, make sure you delete the S3 bucket you created within the application before you delete the CloudFormation stack.

OpenSearch Service integrations

In this post, you deployed a CloudFormation template to host the ML model in a SageMaker endpoint and spun up a new OpenSearch Service domain, then you used a SageMaker notebook to run steps to create the SageMaker-ML connector and deploy the ML model in OpenSearch Service.

You can achieve the same setup for an existing OpenSearch Service domain by using the ready-made CloudFormation templates from the OpenSearch Service console integrations. These templates automate the steps of SageMaker model deployment and SageMaker ML connector creation in OpenSearch Service.


In this post, we provided a complete solution to run a hybrid search with OpenSearch Service using a web application. The experiments in the post provided an example of how you can combine the power of lexical and semantic search in a hybrid search to improve the search experience for your end-users for a retail use case.

We also explained the new features available in version 2.9 and 2.11 in OpenSearch Service that make it effortless for you to build semantic search use cases such as remote ML connectors, ingest pipelines, and search pipelines. In addition, we showed you how the new score normalization processor in the search pipeline makes it straightforward to establish the global normalization of scores within your OpenSearch Service domain before combining multiple search scores.

Learn more about ML-powered search with OpenSearch and set up hybrid search in your own environment using the guidelines in this post. The solution code is also available on the GitHub repo.

About the Authors

Hajer Bouafif, Analytics Specialist Solutions ArchitectHajer Bouafif is an Analytics Specialist Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services. She focuses on Amazon OpenSearch Service and helps customers design and build well-architected analytics workloads in diverse industries. Hajer enjoys spending time outdoors and discovering new cultures.

Praveen Mohan Prasad, Analytics Specialist Technical Account ManagerPraveen Mohan Prasad is an Analytics Specialist Technical Account Manager at Amazon Web Services and helps customers with pro-active operational reviews on analytics workloads. Praveen actively researches on applying machine learning to improve search relevance.

Amazon OpenSearch H2 2023 in review

Post Syndicated from Jon Handler original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/amazon-opensearch-h2-2023-in-review/

2023 was been a busy year for Amazon OpenSearch Service! Learn more about the releases that OpenSearch Service launched in the first half of 2023.

In the second half of 2023, OpenSearch Service added the support of two new OpenSearch versions: 2.9 and 2.11 These two versions introduce new features in the search space, machine learning (ML) search space, migrations, and the operational side of the service.

With the release of zero-ETL integration with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), you can analyze your data sitting in your data lake using OpenSearch Service to build dashboards and query the data without the need to move your data from Amazon S3.

OpenSearch Service also announced a new zero-ETL integration with Amazon DynamoDB through the DynamoDB plugin for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion. OpenSearch Ingestion takes care of bootstrapping and continuously streams data from your DynamoDB source.

OpenSearch Serverless announced the general availability of the Vector Engine for Amazon OpenSearch Serverless along with other features to enhance your experience with time series collections, manage your cost for development environments, and quickly scale your resources to match your workload demands.

In this post, we discuss the new releases in OpenSearch Service to empower your business with search, observability, security analytics, and migrations.

Build cost-effective solutions with OpenSearch Service

With the zero-ETL integration for Amazon S3, OpenSearch Service now lets you query your data in place, saving cost on storage. Data movement is an expensive operation because you need to replicate data across different data stores. This increases your data footprint and drives cost. Moving data also adds the overhead of managing pipelines to migrate the data from one source to a new destination.

OpenSearch Service also added new instance types for data nodes—Im4gn and OR1—to help you further optimize your infrastructure cost. With a maximum 30 TB non-volatile memory (NVMe) solid state drives (SSD), the Im4gn instance provides dense storage and better performance. OR1 instances use segment replication and remote-backed storage to greatly increase throughput for indexing-heavy workloads.

Zero-ETL from DynamoDB to OpenSearch Service

In November 2023, DynamoDB and OpenSearch Ingestion introduced a zero-ETL integration for OpenSearch Service. OpenSearch Service domains and OpenSearch Serverless collections provide advanced search capabilities, such as full-text and vector search, on your DynamoDB data. With a few clicks on the AWS Management Console, you can now seamlessly load and synchronize your data from DynamoDB to OpenSearch Service, eliminating the need to write custom code to extract, transform, and load the data.

Direct query (zero-ETL for Amazon S3 data, in preview)

OpenSearch Service announced a new way for you to query operational logs in Amazon S3 and S3-based data lakes without needing to switch between tools to analyze operational data. Previously, you had to copy data from Amazon S3 into OpenSearch Service to take advantage of OpenSearch’s rich analytics and visualization features to understand your data, identify anomalies, and detect potential threats.

However, continuously replicating data between services can be expensive and requires operational work. With the OpenSearch Service direct query feature, you can access operational log data stored in Amazon S3, without needing to move the data itself. Now you can perform complex queries and visualizations on your data without any data movement.

Support of Im4gn with OpenSearch Service

Im4gn instances are optimized for workloads that manage large datasets and need high storage density per vCPU. Im4gn instances come in sizes large through 16xlarge, with up to 30 TB in NVMe SSD disk size. Im4gn instances are built on AWS Nitro System SSDs, which offer high-throughput, low-latency disk access for best performance. OpenSearch Service Im4gn instances support all OpenSearch versions and Elasticsearch versions 7.9 and above. For more details, refer to Supported instance types in Amazon OpenSearch Service.

Introducing OR1, an OpenSearch Optimized Instance family for indexing heavy workloads

In November 2023, OpenSearch Service launched OR1, the OpenSearch Optimized Instance family, which delivers up to 30% price-performance improvement over existing instances in internal benchmarks and uses Amazon S3 to provide 11 9s of durability. A domain with OR1 instances uses Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes for primary storage, with data copied synchronously to Amazon S3 as it arrives. OR1 instances use OpenSearch’s segment replication feature to enable replica shards to read data directly from Amazon S3, avoiding the resource cost of indexing in both primary and replica shards. The OR1 instance family also supports automatic data recovery in the event of failure. For more information about OR1 instance type options, refer to Current generation instance types in OpenSearch Service.

Enable your business with security analytics features

The Security Analytics plugin in OpenSearch Service supports out-of-the-box prepackaged log types and provides security detection rules (SIGMA rules) to detect potential security incidents.

In OpenSearch 2.9, the Security Analytics plugin added support for customer log types and native support for Open Cybersecurity Schema Framework (OCSF) data format. With this new support, you can build detectors with OCSF data stored in Amazon Security Lake to analyze security findings and mitigate any potential incident. The Security Analytics plugin has also added the possibility to create your own custom log types and create custom detection rules.

Build ML-powered search solutions

In 2023, OpenSearch Service invested in eliminating the heavy lifting required to build next-generation search applications. With features such as search pipelines, search processors, and AI/ML connectors, OpenSearch Service enabled rapid development of search applications powered by neural search, hybrid search, and personalized results. Additionally, enhancements to the kNN plugin improved storage and retrieval of vector data. Newly launched optional plugins for OpenSearch Service enable seamless integration with additional language analyzers and Amazon Personalize.

Search pipelines

Search pipelines provide new ways to enhance search queries and improve search results. You define a search pipeline and then send your queries to it. When you define the search pipeline, you specify processors that transform and augment your queries, and re-rank your results. The prebuilt query processors include date conversion, aggregation, string manipulation, and data type conversion. The results processor in the search pipeline intercepts and adapts results on the fly before rendering to next phase. Both request and response processing for the pipeline are performed on the coordinator node, so there is no shard-level processing.

Optional plugins

OpenSearch Service lets you associate preinstalled optional OpenSearch plugins to use with your domain. An optional plugin package is compatible with a specific OpenSearch version, and can only be associated to domains with that version. Available plugins are listed on the Packages page on the OpenSearch Service console. The optional plugin includes the Amazon Personalize plugin, which integrates OpenSearch Service with Amazon Personalize, and new language analyzers such as Nori, Sudachi, STConvert, and Pinyin.

Support for new language analyzers

OpenSearch Service added support for four new language analyzer plugins: Nori (Korean), Sudachi (Japanese), Pinyin (Chinese), and STConvert Analysis (Chinese). These are available in all AWS Regions as optional plugins that you can associate with domains running any OpenSearch version. You can use the Packages page on the OpenSearch Service console to associate these plugins to your domain, or use the Associate Package API.

Neural search feature

Neural search is generally available with OpenSearch Service version 2.9 and later. Neural search allows you to integrate with ML models that are hosted remotely using the model serving framework. When you use a neural query during search, neural search converts the query text into vector embeddings, uses vector search to compare the query and document embedding, and returns the closest results. During ingestion, neural search transforms document text into vector embedding and indexes both the text and its vector embeddings in a vector index.

Integration with Amazon Personalize

OpenSearch Service introduced an optional plugin to integrate with Amazon Personalize in OpenSearch versions 2.9 or later. The OpenSearch Service plugin for Amazon Personalize Search Ranking allows you to improve the end-user engagement and conversion from your website and application search by taking advantage of the deep learning capabilities offered by Amazon Personalize. As an optional plugin, the package is compatible with OpenSearch version 2.9 or later, and can only be associated to domains with that version.

Efficient query filtering with OpenSearch’s k-NN FAISS

OpenSearch Service introduced efficient query filtering with OpenSearch’s k-NN FAISS in version 2.9 and later. OpenSearch’s efficient vector query filters capability intelligently evaluates optimal filtering strategies—pre-filtering with approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) or filtering with exact k-nearest neighbor (k-NN)—to determine the best strategy to deliver accurate and low-latency vector search queries. In earlier OpenSearch versions, vector queries on the FAISS engine used post-filtering techniques, which enabled filtered queries at scale, but potentially returning less than the requested “k” number of results. Efficient vector query filters deliver low latency and accurate results, enabling you to employ hybrid search across vector and lexical techniques.

Byte-quantized vectors in OpenSearch Service

With the new byte-quantized vector introduced with 2.9, you can reduce memory requirements by a factor of 4 and significantly reduce search latency, with minimal loss in quality (recall). With this feature, the usual 32-bit floats that are used for vectors are quantized or converted to 8-bit signed integers. For many applications, existing float vector data can be quantized with little loss in quality. Comparing benchmarks, you will find that using byte vectors rather than 32-bit floats results in a significant reduction in storage and memory usage while also improving indexing throughput and reducing query latency. An internal benchmark showed the storage usage was reduced by up to 78%, and RAM usage was reduced by up to 59% (for the glove-200-angular dataset). Recall values for angular datasets were lower than those of Euclidean datasets.

AI/ML connectors

OpenSearch 2.9 and later supports integrations with ML models hosted on AWS services or third-party platforms. This allows system administrators and data scientists to run ML workloads outside of their OpenSearch Service domain. The ML connectors come with a supported set of ML blueprints—templates that define the set of parameters you need to provide when sending API requests to a specific connector. OpenSearch Service provides connectors for several platforms, such as Amazon SageMaker, Amazon Bedrock, OpenAI ChatGPT, and Cohere.

OpenSearch Service console integrations

OpenSearch 2.9 and later added a new integrations feature on the console. Integrations provides you with an AWS CloudFormation template to build your semantic search use case by connecting to your ML models hosted on SageMaker or Amazon Bedrock. The CloudFormation template generates the model endpoint and registers the model ID with the OpenSearch Service domain you provide as input to the template.

Hybrid search and range normalization

The normalization processor and hybrid query builds on top of the two features released earlier in 2023—neural search and search pipelines. Because lexical and semantic queries return relevance scores on different scales, fine-tuning hybrid search queries was difficult.

OpenSearch Service 2.11 now supports a combination and normalization processor for hybrid search. You can now perform hybrid search queries, combining a lexical and a natural language-based k-NN vector search queries. OpenSearch Service also enables you to tune your hybrid search results for maximum relevance using multiple scoring combination and normalization techniques.

Multimodal search with Amazon Bedrock

OpenSearch Service 2.11 launches the support of multimodal search that allows you to search text and image data using multimodal embedding models. To generate vector embeddings, you need to create an ingest pipeline that contains a text_image_embedding processor, which converts the text or image binaries in a document field to vector embeddings. You can use the neural query clause, either in the k-NN plugin API or Query DSL queries, to do a combination of text and images searches. You can use the new OpenSearch Service integration features to quickly start with multimodal search.

Neural sparse retrieval

Neural sparse search, a new efficient method of semantic retrieval, is available in OpenSearch Service 2.11. Neural sparse search operates in two modes: bi-encoder and document-only. With the bi-encoder mode, both documents and search queries are passed through deep encoders. In document-only mode, only documents are passed through deep encoders, while search queries are tokenized. A document-only sparse encoder generates an index that is 10.4% of the size of a dense encoding index. For a bi-encoder, the index size is 7.2% of the size of a dense encoding index. Neural sparse search is enabled by sparse encoding models that create sparse vector embeddings: a set of <token: weight> pairs representing the text entry and its corresponding weight in the sparse vector. To learn more about the pre-trained models for sparse neural search, refer to Sparse encoding models.

Neural sparse search reduces costs, improves search relevance, and has lower latency. You can use the new OpenSearch Service integrations features to quickly start with neural sparse search.

OpenSearch Ingestion updates

OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed and auto scaled ingestion pipeline that delivers your data to OpenSearch Service domains and OpenSearch Serverless collections. Since its release in 2023, OpenSearch Ingestion continues to add new features to make it straightforward to transform and move your data from supported sources to downstream destinations like OpenSearch Service, OpenSearch Serverless, and Amazon S3.

New migration features in OpenSearch Ingestion

In November 2023, OpenSearch Ingestion announced the release of new features to support data migration from self-managed Elasticsearch version 7.x domains to the latest versions of OpenSearch Service.

OpenSearch Ingestion also supports the migration of data from OpenSearch Service managed domains running OpenSearch version 2.x to OpenSearch Serverless collections.

Learn how you can use OpenSearch Ingestion to migrate your data to OpenSearch Service.

Improve data durability with OpenSearch Ingestion

In November 2023, OpenSearch Ingestion introduced persistent buffering for push-based sources likes HTTP sources (HTTP, Fluentd, FluentBit) and OpenTelemetry collectors.

By default, OpenSearch Ingestion uses in-memory buffering. With persistent buffering, OpenSearch Ingestion stores your data in a disk-based store that is more resilient. If you have existing ingestion pipelines, you can enable persistent buffering for these pipelines, as shown in the following screenshot.

Support of new plugins

In early 2023, OpenSearch Ingestion added support for Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK). OpenSearch Ingestion uses the Kafka plugin to stream data from Amazon MSK to OpenSearch Service managed domains or OpenSearch Serverless collections. To learn more about setting up Amazon MSK as a data source, see Using an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline with Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka.

OpenSearch Serverless updates

OpenSearch Serverless continued to enhance your serverless experience with OpenSearch by introducing the support of a new collection of type vector search to store embeddings and run similarity search. OpenSearch Serverless now supports shard replica scaling to handle spikes in query throughput. And if you are using a time series collection, you can now set up your custom data retention policy to match your data retention requirements.

Vector Engine for OpenSearch Serverless

In November 2023, we launched the vector engine for Amazon OpenSearch Serverless. The vector engine makes it straightforward to build modern ML-augmented search experiences and generative artificial intelligence (generative AI) applications without needing to manage the underlying vector database infrastructure. It also enables you to run hybrid search, combining vector search and full-text search in the same query, removing the need to manage and maintain separate data stores or a complex application stack.

OpenSearch Serverless lower-cost dev and test environments

OpenSearch Serverless now supports development and test workloads by allowing you to avoid running a replica. Removing replicas eliminates the need to have redundant OCUs in another Availability Zone solely for availability purposes. If you are using OpenSearch Serverless for development and testing, where availability is not a concern, you can drop your minimum OCUs from 4 to 2.

OpenSearch Serverless supports automated time-based data deletion using data lifecycle policies

In December 2023, OpenSearch Serverless announced support for managing data retention of time series collections and indexes. With the new automated time-based data deletion feature, you can specify how long you want to retain data. OpenSearch Serverless automatically manages the lifecycle of the data based on this configuration. To learn more, refer to Amazon OpenSearch Serverless now supports automated time-based data deletion.

OpenSearch Serverless announced support for scaling up replicas at shard level

At launch, OpenSearch Serverless supported increasing capacity automatically in response to growing data sizes. With the new shard replica scaling feature, OpenSearch Serverless automatically detects shards under duress due to sudden spikes in query rates and dynamically adds new shard replicas to handle the increased query throughput while maintaining fast response times. This approach proves to be more cost-efficient than simply adding new index replicas.

AWS user notifications to monitor your OCU usage

With this launch, you can configure the system to send notifications when OCU utilization is approaching or has reached maximum configured limits for search or ingestion. With the new AWS User Notification integration, you can configure the system to send notifications whenever the capacity threshold is breached. The User Notification feature eliminates the need to monitor the service constantly. For more information, see Monitoring Amazon OpenSearch Serverless using AWS User Notifications.

Enhance your experience with OpenSearch Dashboards

OpenSearch 2.9 in OpenSearch Service introduced new features to make it straightforward to quickly analyze your data in OpenSearch Dashboards. These new features include the new out-of-the box, preconfigured dashboards with OpenSearch Integrations, and the ability to create alerting and anomaly detection from an existing visualization in your dashboards.

OpenSearch Dashboard integrations

OpenSearch 2.9 added the support of OpenSearch integrations in OpenSearch Dashboards. OpenSearch integrations include preconfigured dashboards so you can quickly start analyzing your data coming from popular sources such as AWS CloudFront, AWS WAF, AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) flow logs.

Alerting and anomalies in OpenSearch Dashboards

In OpenSearch Service 2.9, you can create a new alerting monitor directly from your line chart visualization in OpenSearch Dashboards. You can also associate the existing monitors or detectors previously created in OpenSearch to the dashboard visualization.

This new feature helps reduce context switching between dashboards and both the Alerting or Anomaly Detection plugins. Refer to the following dashboard to add an alerting monitor to detect drops in average data volume in your services.

OpenSearch expands geospatial aggregations support

With OpenSearch version 2.9, OpenSearch Service added the support of three types of geoshape data aggregation through API: geo_bounds, geo_hash, and geo_tile.

The geoshape field type provides the possibility to index location data in different geographic formats such as a point, a polygon, or a linestring. With the new aggregation types, you have more flexibility to aggregate documents from an index using metric and multi-bucket geospatial aggregations.

OpenSearch Service operational updates

OpenSearch Service removed the need to run blue/green deployment when changing the domain managed nodes. Additionally, the service improved the Auto-Tune events with the support of new Auto-Tune metrics to track the changes within your OpenSearch Service domain.

OpenSearch Service now lets you update domain manager nodes without blue/green deployment

As of early H2 of 2023, OpenSearch Service allowed you to modify the instance type or instance count of dedicated cluster manager nodes without the need for blue/green deployment. This enhancement allows quicker updates with minimal disruption to your domain operations, all while avoiding any data movement.

Previously, updating your dedicated cluster manager nodes on OpenSearch Service meant using a blue/green deployment to make the change. Although blue/green deployments are meant to avoid any disruption to your domains, because the deployment utilizes additional resources on the domain, it is recommended that you perform them during low-traffic periods. Now you can update cluster manager instance types or instance counts without requiring a blue/green deployment, so these updates can complete faster while avoiding any potential disruption to your domain operations. In cases where you modify both the domain manager instance type and count, OpenSearch Service will still use a blue/green deployment to make the change. You can use the dry-run option to check whether your change requires a blue/green deployment.

Enhanced Auto-Tune experience

In September 2023, OpenSearch Service added new Auto-Tune metrics and improved Auto-Tune events that give you better visibility into the domain performance optimizations made by Auto-Tune.

Auto-Tune is an adaptive resource management system that automatically updates OpenSearch Service domain resources to improve efficiency and performance. For example, Auto-Tune optimizes memory-related configuration such as queue sizes, cache sizes, and Java virtual machine (JVM) settings on your nodes.

With this launch, you can now audit the history of the changes, as well as track them in real time from the Amazon CloudWatch console.

Additionally, OpenSearch Service now publishes details of the changes to Amazon EventBridge when Auto-Tune settings are recommended or applied to an OpenSearch Service domain. These Auto-Tune events will also be visible on the Notifications page on the OpenSearch Service console.

Accelerate your migration to OpenSearch Service with the new Migration Assistant solution

In November 2023, the OpenSearch team launched a new open-source solution—Migration Assistant for Amazon OpenSearch Service. The solution supports data migration from self-managed Elasticsearch and OpenSearch domains to OpenSearch Service, supporting Elasticsearch 7.x (<=7.10), OpenSearch 1.x, and OpenSearch 2.x as migration sources. The solution facilitates the migration of the existing and live data between source and destination.


In this post, we covered the new releases in OpenSearch Service to help you innovate your business with search, observability, security analytics, and migrations. We provided you with information about when to use each new feature in OpenSearch Service, OpenSearch Ingestion, and OpenSearch Serverless.

Learn more about OpenSearch Dashboards and OpenSearch plugins and the new exciting OpenSearch assistant using OpenSearch playground.

Check out the features described in this post, and we appreciate you providing us your valuable feedback.

About the Authors

Jon Handler is a Senior Principal Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services based in Palo Alto, CA. Jon works closely with OpenSearch and Amazon OpenSearch Service, providing help and guidance to a broad range of customers who have search and log analytics workloads that they want to move to the AWS Cloud. Prior to joining AWS, Jon’s career as a software developer included 4 years of coding a large-scale, ecommerce search engine. Jon holds a Bachelor of the Arts from the University of Pennsylvania, and a Master of Science and a PhD in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence from Northwestern University.

Hajer Bouafif is an Analytics Specialist Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services. She focuses on Amazon OpenSearch Service and helps customers design and build well-architected analytics workloads in diverse industries. Hajer enjoys spending time outdoors and discovering new cultures.

Aruna Govindaraju is an Amazon OpenSearch Specialist Solutions Architect and has worked with many commercial and open source search engines. She is passionate about search, relevancy, and user experience. Her expertise with correlating end-user signals with search engine behavior has helped many customers improve their search experience.

Prashant Agrawal is a Sr. Search Specialist Solutions Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He works closely with customers to help them migrate their workloads to the cloud and helps existing customers fine-tune their clusters to achieve better performance and save on cost. Before joining AWS, he helped various customers use OpenSearch and Elasticsearch for their search and log analytics use cases. When not working, you can find him traveling and exploring new places. In short, he likes doing Eat → Travel → Repeat.

Muslim Abu Taha is a Sr. OpenSearch Specialist Solutions Architect dedicated to guiding clients through seamless search workload migrations, fine-tuning clusters for peak performance, and ensuring cost-effectiveness. With a background as a Technical Account Manager (TAM), Muslim brings a wealth of experience in assisting enterprise customers with cloud adoption and optimize their different set of workloads. Muslim enjoys spending time with his family, traveling and exploring new places.

Build a RAG data ingestion pipeline for large-scale ML workloads

Post Syndicated from Randy DeFauw original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/build-a-rag-data-ingestion-pipeline-for-large-scale-ml-workloads/

For building any generative AI application, enriching the large language models (LLMs) with new data is imperative. This is where the Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) technique comes in. RAG is a machine learning (ML) architecture that uses external documents (like Wikipedia) to augment its knowledge and achieve state-of-the-art results on knowledge-intensive tasks. For ingesting these external data sources, Vector databases have evolved, which can store vector embeddings of the data source and allow for similarity searches.

In this post, we show how to build a RAG extract, transform, and load (ETL) ingestion pipeline to ingest large amounts of data into an Amazon OpenSearch Service cluster and use Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) for PostgreSQL with the pgvector extension as a vector data store. Each service implements k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) or approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) algorithms and distance metrics to calculate similarity. We introduce the integration of Ray into the RAG contextual document retrieval mechanism. Ray is an open source, Python, general purpose, distributed computing library. It allows distributed data processing to generate and store embeddings for a large amount of data, parallelizing across multiple GPUs. We use a Ray cluster with these GPUs to run parallel ingest and query for each service.

In this experiment, we attempt to analyze the following aspects for OpenSearch Service and the pgvector extension on Amazon RDS:

  • As a vector store, the ability to scale and handle a large dataset with tens of millions of records for RAG
  • Possible bottlenecks in the ingest pipeline for RAG
  • How to achieve optimal performance in ingestion and query retrieval times for OpenSearch Service and Amazon RDS

To understand more about vector data stores and their role in building generative AI applications, refer to The role of vector datastores in generative AI applications.

Overview of OpenSearch Service

OpenSearch Service is a managed service for secure analysis, search, and indexing of business and operational data. OpenSearch Service supports petabyte-scale data with the ability to create multiple indexes on text and vector data. With optimized configuration, it aims for high recall for the queries. OpenSearch Service supports ANN as well as exact k-NN search. OpenSearch Service supports a selection of algorithms from the NMSLIB, FAISS, and Lucene libraries to power the k-NN search. We created the ANN index for OpenSearch with the Hierarchical Navigable Small World (HNSW) algorithm because it’s regarded as a better search method for large datasets. For more information on the choice of index algorithm, refer to Choose the k-NN algorithm for your billion-scale use case with OpenSearch.

Overview of Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL with pgvector

The pgvector extension adds an open source vector similarity search to PostgreSQL. By utilizing the pgvector extension, PostgreSQL can perform similarity searches on vector embeddings, providing businesses with a speedy and proficient solution. pgvector provides two types of vector similarity searches: exact nearest neighbor, which results with 100% recall, and approximate nearest neighbor (ANN), which provides better performance than exact search with a trade-off on recall. For searches over an index, you can choose how many centers to use in the search, with more centers providing better recall with a trade-off of performance.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.

Let’s look at the key components in more detail.


We use OSCAR data as our corpus and the SQUAD dataset to provide sample questions. These datasets are first converted to Parquet files. Then we use a Ray cluster to convert the Parquet data to embeddings. The created embeddings are ingested to OpenSearch Service and Amazon RDS with pgvector.

OSCAR (Open Super-large Crawled Aggregated corpus) is a huge multilingual corpus obtained by language classification and filtering of the Common Crawl corpus using the ungoliant architecture. Data is distributed by language in both original and deduplicated form. The Oscar Corpus dataset is approximately 609 million records and takes up about 4.5 TB as raw JSONL files. The JSONL files are then converted to Parquet format, which minimizes the total size to 1.8 TB. We further scaled the dataset down to 25 million records to save time during ingestion.

SQuAD (Stanford Question Answering Dataset) is a reading comprehension dataset consisting of questions posed by crowd workers on a set of Wikipedia articles, where the answer to every question is a segment of text, or span, from the corresponding reading passage, or the question might be unanswerable. We use SQUAD, licensed as CC-BY-SA 4.0, to provide sample questions. It has approximately 100,000 questions with over 50,000 unanswerable questions written by crowd workers to look similar to answerable ones.

Ray cluster for ingestion and creating vector embeddings

In our testing, we found that the GPUs make the biggest impact to performance when creating the embeddings. Therefore, we decided to use a Ray cluster to convert our raw text and create the embeddings. Ray is an open source unified compute framework that enables ML engineers and Python developers to scale Python applications and accelerate ML workloads. Our cluster consisted of 5 g4dn.12xlarge Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances. Each instance was configured with 4 NVIDIA T4 Tensor Core GPUs, 48 vCPU, and 192 GiB of memory. For our text records, we ended up chunking each into 1,000 pieces with a 100-chunk overlap. This breaks out to approximately 200 per record. For the model used to create embeddings, we settled on all-mpnet-base-v2 to create a 768-dimensional vector space.

Infrastructure setup

We used the following RDS instance types and OpenSearch service cluster configurations to set up our infrastructure.

The following are our RDS instance type properties:

  • Instance type: db.r7g.12xlarge
  • Allocated storage: 20 TB
  • Multi-AZ: True
  • Storage encrypted: True
  • Enable Performance Insights: True
  • Performance Insight retention: 7 days
  • Storage type: gp3
  • Provisioned IOPS: 64,000
  • Index type: IVF
  • Number of lists: 5,000
  • Distance function: L2

The following are our OpenSearch Service cluster properties:

  • Version: 2.5
  • Data nodes: 10
  • Data node instance type: r6g.4xlarge
  • Primary nodes: 3
  • Primary node instance type: r6g.xlarge
  • Index: HNSW engine: nmslib
  • Refresh interval: 30 seconds
  • ef_construction: 256
  • m: 16
  • Distance function: L2

We used large configurations for both the OpenSearch Service cluster and RDS instances to avoid any performance bottlenecks.

We deploy the solution using an AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) stack, as outlined in the following section.

Deploy the AWS CDK stack

The AWS CDK stack allows us to choose OpenSearch Service or Amazon RDS for ingesting data.


Before proceeding with the installation, under cdk, bin, src.tc, change the Boolean values for Amazon RDS and OpenSearch Service to either true or false depending on your preference.

You also need a service-linked AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role for the OpenSearch Service domain. For more details, refer to Amazon OpenSearch Service Construct Library. You can also run the following command to create the role:

aws iam create-service-linked-role --aws-service-name es.amazonaws.com

npm install
cdk deploy

This AWS CDK stack will deploy the following infrastructure:

  • A VPC
  • A jump host (inside the VPC)
  • An OpenSearch Service cluster (if using OpenSearch service for ingestion)
  • An RDS instance (if using Amazon RDS for ingestion)
  • An AWS Systems Manager document for deploying the Ray cluster
  • An Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket
  • An AWS Glue job for converting the OSCAR dataset JSONL files to Parquet files
  • Amazon CloudWatch dashboards

Download the data

Run the following commands from the jump host:


export AWS_REGION=$(curl -s | sed 's/\(.*\)[a-z]/\1/')
aws configure set region $AWS_REGION

bucket_name=$(aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name "$stack_name" --query "Stacks[0].Outputs[?OutputKey=='bucketName'].OutputValue" --output text )

Before cloning the git repo, make sure you have a Hugging Face profile and access to the OSCAR data corpus. You need to use the user name and password for cloning the OSCAR data:

GIT_LFS_SKIP_SMUDGE=1 git clone https://huggingface.co/datasets/oscar-corpus/OSCAR-2301
cd OSCAR-2301
git lfs pull --include en_meta
cd en_meta
for F in `ls *.zst`; do zstd -d $F; done
rm *.zst
cd ..
aws s3 sync en_meta s3://$bucket_name/oscar/jsonl/

Convert JSONL files to Parquet

The AWS CDK stack created the AWS Glue ETL job oscar-jsonl-parquet to convert the OSCAR data from JSONL to Parquet format.

After you run the oscar-jsonl-parquet job, the files in Parquet format should be available under the parquet folder in the S3 bucket.

Download the questions

From your jump host, download the questions data and upload it to your S3 bucket:


export AWS_REGION=$(curl -s | sed 's/\(.*\)[a-z]/\1/')
aws configure set region $AWS_REGION

bucket_name=$(aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name "$stack_name" --query "Stacks[0].Outputs[?OutputKey=='bucketName'].OutputValue" --output text )

wget https://rajpurkar.github.io/SQuAD-explorer/dataset/train-v2.0.json
cat train-v2.0.json| jq '.data[].paragraphs[].qas[].question' > questions.csv
aws s3 cp questions.csv s3://$bucket_name/oscar/questions/questions.csv

Set up the Ray cluster

As part of the AWS CDK stack deployment, we created a Systems Manager document called CreateRayCluster.

To run the document, complete the following steps:

  1. On the Systems Manager console, under Documents in the navigation pane, choose Owned by Me.
  2. Open the CreateRayCluster document.
  3. Choose Run.

The run command page will have the default values populated for the cluster.

The default configuration requests 5 g4dn.12xlarge. Make sure your account has limits to support this. The relevant service limit is Running On-Demand G and VT instances. The default for this is 64, but this configuration requires 240 CPUS.

  1. After you review the cluster configuration, select the jump host as the target for the run command.

This command will perform the following steps:

  • Copy the Ray cluster files
  • Set up the Ray cluster
  • Set up the OpenSearch Service indexes
  • Set up the RDS tables

You can monitor the output of the commands on the Systems Manager console. This process will take 10–15 minutes for the initial launch.

Run ingestion

From the jump host, connect to the Ray cluster:

sudo -i
cd /rag
ray attach llm-batch-inference.yaml

The first time connecting to the host, install the requirements. These files should already be present on the head node.

pip install -r requirements.txt

For either of the ingestion methods, if you get an error like the following, it’s related to expired credentials. The current workaround (as of this writing) is to place credential files in the Ray head node. To avoid security risks, don’t use IAM users for authentication when developing purpose-built software or working with real data. Instead, use federation with an identity provider such as AWS IAM Identity Center (successor to AWS Single Sign-On).

OSError: When reading information for key 'oscar/parquet_data/part-00497-f09c5d2b-0e97-4743-ba2f-1b2ad4f36bb1-c000.snappy.parquet' in bucket 'ragstack-s3bucket07682993-1e3dic0fvr3rf': AWS Error [code 15]: No response body.

Usually, the credentials are stored in the file ~/.aws/credentials on Linux and macOS systems, and %USERPROFILE%\.aws\credentials on Windows, but these are short-term credentials with a session token. You also can’t override the default credential file, and so you need to create long-term credentials without the session token using a new IAM user.

To create long-term credentials, you need to generate an AWS access key and AWS secret access key. You can do that from the IAM console. For instructions, refer to Authenticate with IAM user credentials.

After you create the keys, connect to the jump host using Session Manager, a capability of Systems Manager, and run the following command:

$ aws configure
AWS Access Key ID [None]: <Your AWS Access Key>
AWS Secret Access Key [None]: <Your AWS Secret access key>
Default region name [None]: us-east-1
Default output format [None]: json

Now you can rerun the ingestion steps.

Ingest data into OpenSearch Service

If you’re using OpenSearch service, run the following script to ingest the files:

export AWS_REGION=$(curl -s | sed 's/\(.*\)[a-z]/\1/')
aws configure set region $AWS_REGION

python embedding_ray_os.py

When it’s complete, run the script that runs simulated queries:

python query_os.py

Ingest data into Amazon RDS

If you’re using Amazon RDS, run the following script to ingest the files:

export AWS_REGION=$(curl -s | sed 's/\(.*\)[a-z]/\1/')
aws configure set region $AWS_REGION

python embedding_ray_rds.py

When it’s complete, make sure to run a full vacuum on the RDS instance.

Then run the following script to run simulated queries:

python query_rds.py

Set up the Ray dashboard

Before you set up the Ray dashboard, you should install the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) on your local machine. For instructions, refer to Install or update the latest version of the AWS CLI.

Complete the following steps to set up the dashboard:

  1. Install the Session Manager plugin for the AWS CLI.
  2. In the Isengard account, copy the temporary credentials for bash/zsh and run in your local terminal.
  3. Create a session.sh file in your machine and copy the following content to the file:
echo Starting session to $1 to forward to port $2 using local port $3
aws ssm start-session --target $1 --document-name AWS-StartPortForwardingSession --parameters ‘{“portNumber”:[“‘$2’“], “localPortNumber”:[“‘$3’“]}'
  1. Change the directory to where this session.sh file is stored.
  2. Run the command Chmod +x to give executable permission to the file.
  3. Run the following command:
./session.sh <Ray cluster head node instance ID> 8265 8265

For example:

./session.sh i-021821beb88661ba3 8265 8265

You will see a message like the following:

Starting session to i-021821beb88661ba3 to forward to port 8265 using local port 8265

Starting session with SessionId: abcdefgh-Isengard-0d73d992dfb16b146
Port 8265 opened for sessionId abcdefgh-Isengard-0d73d992dfb16b146.
Waiting for connections...

Open a new tab in your browser and enter localhost:8265.

You will see the Ray dashboard and statistics of the jobs and cluster running. You can track metrics from here.

For example, you can use the Ray dashboard to observe load on the cluster. As shown in the following screenshot, during ingest, the GPUs are running close to 100% utilization.

You can also use the RAG_Benchmarks CloudWatch dashboard to see the ingestion rate and query response times.

Extensibility of the solution

You can extend this solution to plug in other AWS or third-party vector stores. For every new vector store, you will need to create scripts for configuring the data store as well as ingesting data. The rest of the pipeline can be reused as needed.


In this post, we shared an ETL pipeline that you can use to put vectorized RAG data in both OpenSearch Service as well as Amazon RDS with the pgvector extension as vector datastores. The solution used a Ray cluster to provide the necessary parallelism to ingest a large data corpus. You can use this methodology to integrate any vector database of your choice to build RAG pipelines.

About the Authors

Randy DeFauw is a Senior Principal Solutions Architect at AWS. He holds an MSEE from the University of Michigan, where he worked on computer vision for autonomous vehicles. He also holds an MBA from Colorado State University. Randy has held a variety of positions in the technology space, ranging from software engineering to product management. He entered the big data space in 2013 and continues to explore that area. He is actively working on projects in the ML space and has presented at numerous conferences, including Strata and GlueCon.

David Christian is a Principal Solutions Architect based out of Southern California. He has his bachelor’s in Information Security and a passion for automation. His focus areas are DevOps culture and transformation, infrastructure as code, and resiliency. Prior to joining AWS, he held roles in security, DevOps, and system engineering, managing large-scale private and public cloud environments.

Prachi Kulkarni is a Senior Solutions Architect at AWS. Her specialization is machine learning, and she is actively working on designing solutions using various AWS ML, big data, and analytics offerings. Prachi has experience in multiple domains, including healthcare, benefits, retail, and education, and has worked in a range of positions in product engineering and architecture, management, and customer success.

Richa Gupta is a Solutions Architect at AWS. She is passionate about architecting end-to-end solutions for customers. Her specialization is machine learning and how it can be used to build new solutions that lead to operational excellence and drive business revenue. Prior to joining AWS, she worked in the capacity of a Software Engineer and Solutions Architect, building solutions for large telecom operators. Outside of work, she likes to explore new places and loves adventurous activities.

In-stream anomaly detection with Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion and Amazon OpenSearch Serverless

Post Syndicated from Rupesh Tiwari original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/in-stream-anomaly-detection-with-amazon-opensearch-ingestion-and-amazon-opensearch-serverless/

Unsupervised machine learning analytics has emerged as a powerful tool for anomaly detection in today’s data-rich landscape, especially with the growing volume of machine-generated data. In-stream anomaly detection offers real-time insights into data anomalies, enabling proactive response. Amazon OpenSearch Serverless focuses on delivering seamless scalability and management of search workloads; Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion complements this by providing a robust solution for anomaly detection on indexed data.

In this post, we provide a solution using OpenSearch Ingestion that empowers you to perform in-stream anomaly detection within your own AWS environment.

In-stream anomaly detection with OpenSearch Ingestion

OpenSearch Ingestion makes the process of in-stream anomaly detection straightforward and at less cost. In-stream anomaly detection helps you save on indexing and avoids the need for extensive resources to handle big data. It lets organizations apply the appropriate resources at the appropriate time, managing large data efficiently and saving money. Using peer forwarders and aggregate processors can make things more complex and expensive; OpenSearch Ingestion reduces these issues.

Let’s look at a use case showing an OpenSearch Ingestion configuration YAML for in-stream anomaly detection.

Solution overview

In this example, we walk through the setup of OpenSearch Ingestion using a random cut forest anomaly detector for monitoring log counts within a 5-minute period. We also index the raw logs to provide a comprehensive demonstration of the incoming data flow. If your use case requires the analysis of raw logs, you can streamline the process by bypassing the initial pipeline and focus directly on in-stream anomaly detection, indexing only the identified anomalies.

The following diagram illustrates our solution architecture.

The configuration outlines two OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines. The first, non-ad-pipeline, ingests HTTP data, timestamps it, and forwards it to both ad-pipeline and an OpenSearch index, non-ad-index. The second, ad-pipeline, receives this data, performs aggregation based on the ID within a 5-minute window, and conducts anomaly detection. Results are stored in the index ad-anomaly-index. This setup showcases data processing, anomaly detection, and storage within OpenSearch Service, enhancing analysis capabilities.

Implement the solution

Complete the following steps to set up the solution:

  1. Create a pipeline role.
  2. Create a collection.
  3. Create a pipeline in which you specify the pipeline role.

The pipeline assumes this role in order to sign requests to the OpenSearch Serverless collection endpoint. Specify the values for the keys within the following pipeline configuration:

  • For sts_role_arn, specify the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the pipeline role that you created.
  • For hosts, specify the endpoint of the collection that you created.
  • Set serverless to true.
version: "2"
# 1st pipeline
      path: "/${pipelineName}/test_ingestion_path"
    - date:
        from_time_received: true
        destination: "@timestamp"
    - pipeline:
        name: "ad-pipeline"
    - opensearch:
        index: "non-ad-index"
          sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::{account-id}:role/pipeline-role"
          region: "us-east-1"
          serverless: true
# 2nd pipeline
      name: "non-ad-pipeline"
    - aggregate:
        identification_keys: ["id"]
        group_duration: "300s"
    - anomaly_detector:
        keys: ["value"] # value will have sum of logs
            output_after: 200 
    - opensearch:
          sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::{account-id}:role/pipeline-role"
          region: "us-east-1"
          serverless: true
        index: "ad-anomaly-index"

For a detailed guide on the required parameters and any limitations, see Supported plugins and options for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines.

  1. After you update the configuration, confirm the validity of your pipeline settings by choosing Validate pipeline.

A successful validation will display a message stating Pipeline configuration validation successful.” as shown in the following screenshot.

If validation fails, refer to Troubleshooting Amazon OpenSearch Service for troubleshooting and guidance.

Cost estimation for OpenSearch Ingestion

You are only charged for the number of Ingestion OpenSearch Compute Units (Ingestion OCUs) that are allocated to a pipeline, regardless of whether there’s data flowing through the pipeline. OpenSearch Ingestion immediately accommodates your workloads by scaling pipeline capacity up or down based on usage. For an overview of expenses, refer to Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion.

The following table shows approximate monthly costs based on specified throughputs and compute needs. Let’s assume that operation occurs from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM on weekdays, with a cost of $0.24 per OCU per hour.

The formula would be: Total Cost/Month = OCU Requirement * OCU Price * Hours/Day * Days/Month.

Throughput Compute Required (OCUs) Total Cost/Month (USD)
1 Gbps 10 576
10 Gbps 100 5760
50 Gbps 500 28800
100 Gbps 1000 57600
500 Gbps 5000 288000

Clean up

When you are done using the solution, delete the resources you created, including the pipeline role, pipeline, and collection.


With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can explore in-stream anomaly detection with OpenSearch Service. The use case in this post demonstrates how OpenSearch Ingestion simplifies the process, achieving more with fewer resources. It showcases the service’s ability to analyze log rates, generate anomaly notifications, and empower proactive response to anomalies. With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can improve operational efficiency and enhance real-time risk management capabilities.

Leave any thoughts and questions in the comments.

About the Authors

Rupesh Tiwari, an AWS Solutions Architect, specializes in modernizing applications with a focus on data analytics, OpenSearch, and generative AI. He’s known for creating scalable, secure solutions that leverage cloud technology for transformative business outcomes, also dedicating time to community engagement and sharing expertise.

Muthu Pitchaimani is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics of networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.

Petabyte-scale log analytics with Amazon S3, Amazon OpenSearch Service, and Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion

Post Syndicated from Jagadish Kumar original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/petabyte-scale-log-analytics-with-amazon-s3-amazon-opensearch-service-and-amazon-opensearch-ingestion/

Organizations often need to manage a high volume of data that is growing at an extraordinary rate. At the same time, they need to optimize operational costs to unlock the value of this data for timely insights and do so with a consistent performance.

With this massive data growth, data proliferation across your data stores, data warehouse, and data lakes can become equally challenging. With a modern data architecture on AWS, you can rapidly build scalable data lakes; use a broad and deep collection of purpose-built data services; ensure compliance via unified data access, security, and governance; scale your systems at a low cost without compromising performance; and share data across organizational boundaries with ease, allowing you to make decisions with speed and agility at scale.

You can take all your data from various silos, aggregate that data in your data lake, and perform analytics and machine learning (ML) directly on top of that data. You can also store other data in purpose-built data stores to analyze and get fast insights from both structured and unstructured data. This data movement can be inside-out, outside-in, around the perimeter or sharing across.

For example, application logs and traces from web applications can be collected directly in a data lake, and a portion of that data can be moved out to a log analytics store like Amazon OpenSearch Service for daily analysis. We think of this concept as inside-out data movement. The analyzed and aggregated data stored in Amazon OpenSearch Service can again be moved to the data lake to run ML algorithms for downstream consumption from applications. We refer to this concept as outside-in data movement.

Let’s look at an example use case. Example Corp. is a leading Fortune 500 company that specializes in social content. They have hundreds of applications generating data and traces at approximately 500 TB per day and have the following criteria:

  • Have logs available for fast analytics for 2 days
  • Beyond 2 days, have data available in a storage tier that can be made available for analytics with a reasonable SLA
  • Retain the data beyond 1 week in cold storage for 30 days (for purposes of compliance, auditing, and others)

In the following sections, we discuss three possible solutions to address similar use cases:

  • Tiered storage in Amazon OpenSearch Service and data lifecycle management
  • On-demand ingestion of logs using Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion
  • Amazon OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)

Solution 1: Tiered storage in OpenSearch Service and data lifecycle management

OpenSearch Service supports three integrated storage tiers: hot, UltraWarm, and cold storage. Based on your data retention, query latency, and budgeting requirements, you can choose the best strategy to balance cost and performance. You can also migrate data between different storage tiers.

Hot storage is used for indexing and updating, and provides the fastest access to data. Hot storage takes the form of an instance store or Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes attached to each node.

UltraWarm offers significantly lower costs per GiB for read-only data that you query less frequently and doesn’t need the same performance as hot storage. UltraWarm nodes use Amazon S3 with related caching solutions to improve performance.

Cold storage is optimized to store infrequently accessed or historical data. When you use cold storage, you detach your indexes from the UltraWarm tier, making them inaccessible. You can reattach these indexes in a few seconds when you need to query that data.

For more details on data tiers within OpenSearch Service, refer to Choose the right storage tier for your needs in Amazon OpenSearch Service.

Solution overview

The workflow for this solution consists of the following steps:

  1. Incoming data generated by the applications is streamed to an S3 data lake.
  2. Data is ingested into Amazon OpenSearch using S3-SQS near-real-time ingestion through notifications set up on the S3 buckets.
  3. After 2 days, hot data is migrated to UltraWarm storage to support read queries.
  4. After 5 days in UltraWarm, the data is migrated to cold storage for 21 days and detached from any compute. The data can be reattached to UltraWarm when needed. Data is deleted from cold storage after 21 days.
  5. Daily indexes are maintained for easy rollover. An Index State Management (ISM) policy automates the rollover or deletion of indexes that are older than 2 days.

The following is a sample ISM policy that rolls over data into the UltraWarm tier after 2 days, moves it to cold storage after 5 days, and deletes it from cold storage after 21 days:

    "policy": {
        "description": "hot warm delete workflow",
        "default_state": "hot",
        "schema_version": 1,
        "states": [
                "name": "hot",
                "actions": [
                        "rollover": {
                            "min_index_age": "2d",
                            "min_primary_shard_size": "30gb"
                "transitions": [
                        "state_name": "warm"
                "name": "warm",
                "actions": [
                        "replica_count": {
                            "number_of_replicas": 5
                "transitions": [
                        "state_name": "cold",
                        "conditions": {
                            "min_index_age": "5d"
                "name": "cold",
                "actions": [
                        "retry": {
                            "count": 5,
                            "backoff": "exponential",
                            "delay": "1h"
                        "cold_migration": {
                            "start_time": null,
                            "end_time": null,
                            "timestamp_field": "@timestamp",
                            "ignore": "none"
                "transitions": [
                        "state_name": "delete",
                        "conditions": {
                            "min_index_age": "21d"
                "name": "delete",
                "actions": [
                        "retry": {
                            "count": 3,
                            "backoff": "exponential",
                            "delay": "1m"
                        "cold_delete": {}
                "transitions": []
        "ism_template": {
            "index_patterns": [
            "priority": 100


UltraWarm uses sophisticated caching techniques to enable querying for infrequently accessed data. Although the data access is infrequent, the compute for UltraWarm nodes needs to be running all the time to make this access possible.

When operating at PB scale, to reduce the area of effect of any errors, we recommend decomposing the implementation into multiple OpenSearch Service domains when using tiered storage.

The next two patterns remove the need to have long-running compute and describe on-demand techniques where the data is either brought when needed or queried directly where it resides.

Solution 2: On-demand ingestion of logs data through OpenSearch Ingestion

OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed data collector that delivers real-time log and trace data to OpenSearch Service domains. OpenSearch Ingestion is powered by the open source data collector Data Prepper. Data Prepper is part of the open source OpenSearch project.

With OpenSearch Ingestion, you can filter, enrich, transform, and deliver your data for downstream analysis and visualization. You configure your data producers to send data to OpenSearch Ingestion. It automatically delivers the data to the domain or collection that you specify. You can also configure OpenSearch Ingestion to transform your data before delivering it. OpenSearch Ingestion is serverless, so you don’t need to worry about scaling your infrastructure, operating your ingestion fleet, and patching or updating the software.

There are two ways that you can use Amazon S3 as a source to process data with OpenSearch Ingestion. The first option is S3-SQS processing. You can use S3-SQS processing when you require near-real-time scanning of files after they are written to S3. It requires an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon S3) queue that receives S3 Event Notifications. You can configure S3 buckets to raise an event any time an object is stored or modified within the bucket to be processed.

Alternatively, you can use a one-time or recurring scheduled scan to batch process data in an S3 bucket. To set up a scheduled scan, configure your pipeline with a schedule at the scan level that applies to all your S3 buckets, or at the bucket level. You can configure scheduled scans with either a one-time scan or a recurring scan for batch processing.

For a comprehensive overview of OpenSearch Ingestion, see Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion. For more information about the Data Prepper open source project, visit Data Prepper.

Solution overview

We present an architecture pattern with the following key components:

  • Application logs are streamed into to the data lake, which helps feed hot data into OpenSearch Service in near-real time using OpenSearch Ingestion S3-SQS processing.
  • ISM policies within OpenSearch Service handle index rollovers or deletions. ISM policies let you automate these periodic, administrative operations by triggering them based on changes in the index age, index size, or number of documents. For example, you can define a policy that moves your index into a read-only state after 2 days and then deletes it after a set period of 3 days.
  • Cold data is available in the S3 data lake to be consumed on demand into OpenSearch Service using OpenSearch Ingestion scheduled scans.

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.

The workflow includes the following steps:

  1. Incoming data generated by the applications is streamed to the S3 data lake.
  2. For the current day, data is ingested into OpenSearch Service using S3-SQS near-real-time ingestion through notifications set up in the S3 buckets.
  3. Daily indexes are maintained for easy rollover. An ISM policy automates the rollover or deletion of indexes that are older than 2 days.
  4. If a request is made for analysis of data beyond 2 days and the data is not in the UltraWarm tier, data will be ingested using the one-time scan feature of Amazon S3 between the specific time window.

For example, if the present day is January 10, 2024, and you need data from January 6, 2024 at a specific interval for analysis, you can create an OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline with an Amazon S3 scan in your YAML configuration, with the start_time and end_time to specify when you want the objects in the bucket to be scanned:

version: "2"
      compression: "gzip"
        start_time: 2023-12-28T01:00:00
        end_time: 2023-12-31T09:00:00
          - bucket:
              name: <bucket-name>
        region: "us-east-1"
        sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::<acct num>:role/PipelineRole"
    acknowledgments: true
    - parse_json:
    - date:
        from_time_received: true
        destination: "@timestamp"           
    - opensearch:                  
        index: "logs_ondemand_20231231"
        hosts: [ "https://search-XXXX-domain-XXXXXXXXXX.us-east-1.es.amazonaws.com" ]
          sts_role_arn: "arn:aws:iam::<acct num>:role/PipelineRole"
          region: "us-east-1"


Take advantage of compression

Data in Amazon S3 can be compressed, which reduces your overall data footprint and results in significant cost savings. For example, if you are generating 15 PB of raw JSON application logs per month, you can use a compression mechanism like GZIP, which can reduce the size to approximately 1PB or less, resulting in significant cost savings.

Stop the pipeline when possible

OpenSearch Ingestion scales automatically between the minimum and maximum OCUs set for the pipeline. After the pipeline has completed the Amazon S3 scan for the specified duration mentioned in the pipeline configuration, the pipeline continues to run for continuous monitoring at the minimum OCUs.

For on-demand ingestion for past time durations where you don’t expect new objects to be created, consider using supported pipeline metrics such as recordsOut.count to create Amazon CloudWatch alarms that can stop the pipeline. For a list of supported metrics, refer to Monitoring pipeline metrics.

CloudWatch alarms perform an action when a CloudWatch metric exceeds a specified value for some amount of time. For example, you might want to monitor recordsOut.count to be 0 for longer than 5 minutes to initiate a request to stop the pipeline through the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) or API.

Solution 3: OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3

OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3 (preview) is a new way to query operational logs in Amazon S3 and S3 data lakes without needing to switch between services. You can now analyze infrequently queried data in cloud object stores and simultaneously use the operational analytics and visualization capabilities of OpenSearch Service.

OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3 provides zero-ETL integration to reduce the operational complexity of duplicating data or managing multiple analytics tools by enabling you to directly query your operational data, reducing costs and time to action. This zero-ETL integration is configurable within OpenSearch Service, where you can take advantage of various log type templates, including predefined dashboards, and configure data accelerations tailored to that log type. Templates include VPC Flow Logs, Elastic Load Balancing logs, and NGINX logs, and accelerations include skipping indexes, materialized views, and covered indexes.

With OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3, you can perform complex queries that are critical to security forensics and threat analysis and correlate data across multiple data sources, which aids teams in investigating service downtime and security events. After you create an integration, you can start querying your data directly from OpenSearch Dashboards or the OpenSearch API. You can audit connections to ensure that they are set up in a scalable, cost-efficient, and secure way.

Direct queries from OpenSearch Service to Amazon S3 use Spark tables within the AWS Glue Data Catalog. After the table is cataloged in your AWS Glue metadata catalog, you can run queries directly on your data in your S3 data lake through OpenSearch Dashboards.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.

This solution consists of the following key components:

  • The hot data for the current day is stream processed into OpenSearch Service domains through the event-driven architecture pattern using the OpenSearch Ingestion S3-SQS processing feature
  • The hot data lifecycle is managed through ISM policies attached to daily indexes
  • The cold data resides in your Amazon S3 bucket, and is partitioned and cataloged

The following screenshot shows a sample http_logs table that is cataloged in the AWS Glue metadata catalog. For detailed steps, refer to Data Catalog and crawlers in AWS Glue.

Before you create a data source, you should have an OpenSearch Service domain with version 2.11 or later and a target S3 table in the AWS Glue Data Catalog with the appropriate AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions. IAM will need access to the desired S3 buckets and have read and write access to the AWS Glue Data Catalog. The following is a sample role and trust policy with appropriate permissions to access the AWS Glue Data Catalog through OpenSearch Service:

    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Principal": {
                "Service": "directquery.opensearchservice.amazonaws.com"
            "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"

The following is a sample custom policy with access to Amazon S3 and AWS Glue:

    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
            "Sid": "Statement1",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "es:ESHttp*",
            "Resource": "arn:aws:es:*:<acct_num>:domain/*"
            "Sid": "Statement2",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
            "Resource": [
            "Sid": "GlueCreateAndReadDataCatalog",
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
            "Resource": [

To create a new data source on the OpenSearch Service console, provide the name of your new data source, specify the data source type as Amazon S3 with the AWS Glue Data Catalog, and choose the IAM role for your data source.

After you create a data source, you can go to the OpenSearch dashboard of the domain, which you use to configure access control, define tables, set up log type-based dashboards for popular log types, and query your data.

After you set up your tables, you can query your data in your S3 data lake through OpenSearch Dashboards. You can run a sample SQL query for the http_logs table you created in the AWS Glue Data Catalog tables, as shown in the following screenshot.

Best practices

Ingest only the data you need

Work backward from your business needs and establish the right datasets you’ll need. Evaluate if you can avoid ingesting noisy data and ingest only curated, sampled, or aggregated data. Using these cleaned and curated datasets will help you optimize the compute and storage resources needed to ingest this data.

Reduce the size of data before ingestion

When you design your data ingestion pipelines, use strategies such as compression, filtering, and aggregation to reduce the size of the ingested data. This will permit smaller data sizes to be transferred over the network and stored in your data layer.


In this post, we discussed solutions that enable petabyte-scale log analytics using OpenSearch Service in a modern data architecture. You learned how to create a serverless ingestion pipeline to deliver logs to an OpenSearch Service domain, manage indexes through ISM policies, configure IAM permissions to start using OpenSearch Ingestion, and create the pipeline configuration for data in your data lake. You also learned how to set up and use the OpenSearch Service direct queries with Amazon S3 feature (preview) to query data from your data lake.

To choose the right architecture pattern for your workloads when using OpenSearch Service at scale, consider the performance, latency, cost and data volume growth over time in order to make the right decision.

  • Use Tiered storage architecture with Index State Management policies when you need fast access to your hot data and want to balance the cost and performance with UltraWarm nodes for read-only data.
  • Use On Demand Ingestion of your data into OpenSearch Service when you can tolerate ingestion latencies to query your data not retained in your hot nodes. You can achieve significant cost savings when using compressed data in Amazon S3 and ingesting data on demand into OpenSearch Service.
  • Use Direct query with S3 feature when you want to directly analyze your operational logs in Amazon S3 with the rich analytics and visualization features of OpenSearch Service.

As a next step, refer to the Amazon OpenSearch Developer Guide to explore logs and metric pipelines that you can use to build a scalable observability solution for your enterprise applications.

About the Authors

Jagadish Kumar (Jag) is a Senior Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS focused on Amazon OpenSearch Service. He is deeply passionate about Data Architecture and helps customers build analytics solutions at scale on AWS.

Muthu Pitchaimani
is a Senior Specialist Solutions Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics of networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.

Sam Selvan
is a Principal Specialist Solution Architect with Amazon OpenSearch Service.

Top Architecture Blog Posts of 2023

Post Syndicated from Andrea Courtright original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/top-architecture-blog-posts-of-2023/

2023 was a rollercoaster year in tech, and we at the AWS Architecture Blog feel so fortunate to have shared in the excitement. As we move into 2024 and all of the new technologies we could see, we want to take a moment to highlight the brightest stars from 2023.

As always, thanks to our readers and to the many talented and hardworking Solutions Architects and other contributors to our blog.

I give you our 2023 cream of the crop!

#10: Build a serverless retail solution for endless aisle on AWS

In this post, Sandeep and Shashank help retailers and their customers alike in this guided approach to finding inventory that doesn’t live on shelves.

Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Figure 1. Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Check it out!

#9: Optimizing data with automated intelligent document processing solutions

Who else dreads wading through large amounts of data in multiple formats? Just me? I didn’t think so. Using Amazon AI/ML and content-reading services, Deependra, Anirudha, Bhajandeep, and Senaka have created a solution that is scalable and cost-effective to help you extract the data you need and store it in a format that works for you.

AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Figure 2: AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Check it out!

#8: Disaster Recovery Solutions with AWS managed services, Part 3: Multi-Site Active/Passive

Disaster recovery posts are always popular, and this post by Brent and Dhruv is no exception. Their creative approach in part 3 of this series is most helpful for customers who have business-critical workloads with higher availability requirements.

Warm standby with managed services

Figure 3. Warm standby with managed services

Check it out!

#7: Simulating Kubernetes-workload AZ failures with AWS Fault Injection Simulator

Continuing with the theme of “when bad things happen,” we have Siva, Elamaran, and Re’s post about preparing for workload failures. If resiliency is a concern (and it really should be), the secret is test, test, TEST.

Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Figure 4. Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Check it out!

#6: Let’s Architect! Designing event-driven architectures

Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira weren’t content with their four top-10 spots last year – they’re back with some things you definitely need to know about event-driven architectures.

Let's Architect

Figure 5. Let’s Architect artwork

Check it out!

#5: Use a reusable ETL framework in your AWS lake house architecture

As your lake house increases in size and complexity, you could find yourself facing maintenance challenges, and Ashutosh and Prantik have a solution: frameworks! The reusable ETL template with AWS Glue templates might just save you a headache or three.

Reusable ETL framework architecture

Figure 6. Reusable ETL framework architecture

Check it out!

#4: Invoking asynchronous external APIs with AWS Step Functions

It’s possible that AWS’ menagerie of services doesn’t have everything you need to run your organization. (Possible, but not likely; we have a lot of amazing services.) If you are using third-party APIs, then Jorge, Hossam, and Shirisha’s architecture can help you maintain a secure, reliable, and cost-effective relationship among all involved.

Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Figure 7. Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Check it out!

#3: Announcing updates to the AWS Well-Architected Framework

The Well-Architected Framework continues to help AWS customers evaluate their architectures against its six pillars. They are constantly striving for improvement, and Haleh’s diligence in keeping us up to date has not gone unnoticed. Thank you, Haleh!

Well-Architected logo

Figure 8. Well-Architected logo

Check it out!

#2: Let’s Architect! Designing architectures for multi-tenancy

The practically award-winning Let’s Architect! series strikes again! This time, Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira were joined by Federica to discuss multi-tenancy and why that concept is so crucial for SaaS providers.

Let's Architect

Figure 9. Let’s Architect

Check it out!

And finally…

#1: Understand resiliency patterns and trade-offs to architect efficiently in the cloud

Haresh, Lewis, and Bonnie revamped this 2022 post into a masterpiece that completely stole our readers’ hearts and is among the top posts we’ve ever made!

Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Figure 10. Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Check it out!

Bonus! Three older special mentions

These three posts were published before 2023, but we think they deserve another round of applause because you, our readers, keep coming back to them.

Thanks again to everyone for their contributions during a wild year. We hope you’re looking forward to the rest of 2024 as much as we are!

Introducing Terraform support for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion

Post Syndicated from Rahul Sharma original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/introducing-terraform-support-for-amazon-opensearch-ingestion/

Today, we are launching Terraform support for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion. Terraform is an infrastructure as code (IaC) tool that helps you build, deploy, and manage cloud resources efficiently. OpenSearch Ingestion is a fully managed, serverless data collector that delivers real-time log, metric, and trace data to Amazon OpenSearch Service domains and Amazon OpenSearch Serverless collections. In this post, we explain how you can use Terraform to deploy OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines. As an example, we use an HTTP source as input and an Amazon OpenSearch Service domain (Index) as output.

Solution overview

The steps in this post deploy a publicly accessible OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline with Terraform, along with other supporting resources that are needed for the pipeline to ingest data into Amazon OpenSearch. We have implemented the Tutorial: Ingesting data into a domain using Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion, using Terraform.

We create the following resources with Terraform:

The pipeline that you create exposes an HTTP source as input and an Amazon OpenSearch sink to save batches of events.


To follow the steps in this post, you need the following:

  • An active AWS account.
  • Terraform installed on your local machine. For more information, see Install Terraform.
  • The necessary IAM permissions required to create the AWS resources using Terraform.
  • awscurl for sending HTTPS requests through the command line with AWS Sigv4 authentication. For instructions on installing this tool, see the GitHub repo.

Create a directory

In Terraform, infrastructure is managed as code, called a project. A Terraform project contains various Terraform configuration files, such as main.tf, provider.tf, variables.tf, and output.df . Let’s create a directory on the server or machine that we can use to connect to AWS services using the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI):

mkdir osis-pipeline-terraform-example

Change to the directory.

cd osis-pipeline-terraform-example

Create the Terraform configuration

Create a file to define the AWS resources.

touch main.tf

Enter the following configuration in main.tf and save your file:

terraform {
  required_providers {
    aws = {
      source  = "hashicorp/aws"
      version = "~> 5.36"

  required_version = ">= 1.2.0"

provider "aws" {
  region = "eu-central-1"

data "aws_region" "current" {}
data "aws_caller_identity" "current" {}
locals {
    account_id = data.aws_caller_identity.current.account_id

output "ingest_endpoint_url" {
  value = tolist(aws_osis_pipeline.example.ingest_endpoint_urls)[0]

resource "aws_iam_role" "example" {
  name = "exampleosisrole"
  assume_role_policy = jsonencode({
    Version = "2012-10-17"
    Statement = [
        Action = "sts:AssumeRole"
        Effect = "Allow"
        Sid    = ""
        Principal = {
          Service = "osis-pipelines.amazonaws.com"

resource "aws_opensearch_domain" "test" {
  domain_name           = "osi-example-domain"
  engine_version = "OpenSearch_2.7"
  cluster_config {
    instance_type = "r5.large.search"
  encrypt_at_rest {
    enabled = true
  domain_endpoint_options {
    enforce_https       = true
    tls_security_policy = "Policy-Min-TLS-1-2-2019-07"
  node_to_node_encryption {
    enabled = true
  ebs_options {
    ebs_enabled = true
    volume_size = 10
 access_policies = <<EOF
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Principal": {
        "AWS": "${aws_iam_role.example.arn}"
      "Action": "es:*"



resource "aws_iam_policy" "example" {
  name = "osis_role_policy"
  description = "Policy for OSIS pipeline role"
  policy = jsonencode({
    Version = "2012-10-17",
    Statement = [
          Action = ["es:DescribeDomain"]
          Effect = "Allow"
          Resource = "arn:aws:es:${data.aws_region.current.name}:${local.account_id}:domain/*"
          Action = ["es:ESHttp*"]
          Effect = "Allow"
          Resource = "arn:aws:es:${data.aws_region.current.name}:${local.account_id}:domain/osi-test-domain/*"

resource "aws_iam_role_policy_attachment" "example" {
  role       = aws_iam_role.example.name
  policy_arn = aws_iam_policy.example.arn

resource "aws_cloudwatch_log_group" "example" {
  name = "/aws/vendedlogs/OpenSearchIngestion/example-pipeline"
  retention_in_days = 365
  tags = {
    Name = "AWS Blog OSIS Pipeline Example"

resource "aws_osis_pipeline" "example" {
  pipeline_name               = "example-pipeline"
  pipeline_configuration_body = <<-EOT
            version: "2"
                  path: "/test_ingestion_path"
                - date:
                    from_time_received: true
                    destination: "@timestamp"
                - opensearch:
                    hosts: ["https://${aws_opensearch_domain.test.endpoint}"]
                    index: "application_logs"
                      sts_role_arn: "${aws_iam_role.example.arn}"   
                      region: "${data.aws_region.current.name}"
  max_units                   = 1
  min_units                   = 1
  log_publishing_options {
    is_logging_enabled = true
    cloudwatch_log_destination {
      log_group = aws_cloudwatch_log_group.example.name
  tags = {
    Name = "AWS Blog OSIS Pipeline Example"

Create the resources

Initialize the directory:

terraform init

Review the plan to see what resources will be created:

terraform plan

Apply the configuration and answer yes to run the plan:

terraform apply

The process might take around 7–10 minutes to complete.

Test the pipeline

After you create the resources, you should see the ingest_endpoint_url output displayed. Copy this value and export it in your environment variable:

export OSIS_PIPELINE_ENDPOINT_URL=<Replace with value copied>

Send a sample log with awscurl. Replace the profile with your appropriate AWS profile for credentials:

awscurl --service osis --region eu-central-1 -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '[{"time":"2014-08-11T11:40:13+00:00","remote_addr":"","status":"404","request":"GET http://www.k2proxy.com//hello.html HTTP/1.1","http_user_agent":"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; WOW64; SLCC2;)"}]' https://$OSIS_PIPELINE_ENDPOINT_URL/test_ingestion_path

You should receive a 200 OK as a response.

To verify that the data was ingested in the OpenSearch Ingestion pipeline and saved in the OpenSearch, navigate to the OpenSearch and get its domain endpoint. Replace the <OPENSEARCH ENDPOINT URL> in the snippet given below and run it.

awscurl --service es --region eu-central-1 -X GET https://<OPENSEARCH ENDPOINT URL>/application_logs/_search | json_pp 

You should see the output as below:

Clean up

To destroy the resources you created, run the following command and answer yes when prompted:

terraform destroy

The process might take around 30–35 minutes to complete.


In this post, we showed how you can use Terraform to deploy OpenSearch Ingestion pipelines. AWS offers various resources for you to quickly start building pipelines using OpenSearch Ingestion and use Terraform to deploy them. You can use various built-in pipeline integrations to quickly ingest data from Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK), Amazon Security Lake, Fluent Bit, and many more. The following OpenSearch Ingestion blueprints allow you to build data pipelines with minimal configuration changes and manage them with ease using Terraform. To learn more, check out the Terraform documentation for Amazon OpenSearch Ingestion.

About the Authors

Rahul Sharma is a Technical Account Manager at Amazon Web Services. He is passionate about the data technologies that help leverage data as a strategic asset and is based out of New York city, New York.

Farhan Angullia is a Cloud Application Architect at AWS Professional Services, based in Singapore. He primarily focuses on modern applications with microservice software patterns, and advocates for implementing robust CI/CD practices to optimize the software delivery lifecycle for customers. He enjoys contributing to the open source Terraform ecosystem in his spare time.

Arjun Nambiar is a Product Manager with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He focusses on ingestion technologies that enable ingesting data from a wide variety of sources into Amazon OpenSearch Service at scale. Arjun is interested in large scale distributed systems and cloud-native technologies and is based out of Seattle, Washington.

Muthu Pitchaimani is a Search Specialist with Amazon OpenSearch Service. He builds large-scale search applications and solutions. Muthu is interested in the topics of networking and security, and is based out of Austin, Texas.