Tag Archives: dashboard

Star your favorite websites in the dashboard

Post Syndicated from Emily Flannery original http://blog.cloudflare.com/star-your-favorite-websites-in-the-dashboard/

Star your favorite websites in the dashboard

Star your favorite websites in the dashboard

We’re excited to introduce starring, a new dashboard feature built to speed up your workflow. You can now “star” up to 10 of the websites and applications you have on Cloudflare for quicker access.

Star your websites or applications for more efficiency

We have heard from many of our users, particularly ones with tens to hundreds of websites and applications running on Cloudflare, about the need to “favorite” the ones they monitor or configure most often. For example, domains or subdomains that our users designate for development or staging may be accessed in the Cloudflare dashboard daily during a build, migration or a first-time configuration, but then rarely touched for months at a time; yet every time logging in, these users have had to go through multiple steps—searching and paging through results—to navigate to where they need to go. These users seek a more efficient workflow to get to their destination faster. Now, by starring your websites or applications, you can have easier access.

How to get started

Star a website or application

Today, you can star up to 10 items per account. Simply star a website or application you have added to Cloudflare from its Overview page. Once you have starred at least one item, you will then see these marked as “starred” in most places across the dashboard. Just look for the yellow star icon. You can always remove from starred by toggling the button.

Filter by starred

By starring a website or application, you can then filter your lists down to display starred items only. To do so, simply select the “starred” filter from the Home page or the site switcher from the sidebar navigation.

Try it out for yourself—log into your account to get started today.

What’s next?

We're very excited to offer this new functionality for better organization of your Cloudflare experience, and about the many possibilities to mature this feature. After trying it out, give us a shout in the Cloudflare Community to let us know what improvements you’d like to see come next.

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Post Syndicated from Mythili Prabhu original http://blog.cloudflare.com/integrate-cloudflare-zero-trust-with-datadog-cloud-siem/

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Cloudflare's Zero Trust platform helps organizations map and adopt a strong security posture. This ranges from Zero Trust Network Access, a Secure Web Gateway to help filter traffic, to Cloud Access Security Broker and Data Loss Prevention to protect data in transit and in the cloud. Customers use Cloudflare to verify, isolate, and inspect all devices managed by IT. Our composable, in-line solutions offer a simplified approach to security and a comprehensive set of logs.

We’ve heard from many of our customers that they aggregate these logs into Datadog’s Cloud SIEM product. Datadog Cloud SIEM provides threat detection, investigation, and automated response for dynamic, cloud-scale environments. Cloud SIEM analyzes operational and security logs in real time – regardless of volume – while utilizing out-of-the-box integrations and rules to detect threats and investigate them. It also automates response and remediation through out-of-the-box workflow blueprints. Developers, security, and operations teams can also leverage detailed observability data and efficiently collaborate to accelerate security investigations in a single, unified platform. We previously had an out-of-the-box dashboard for Cloudflare CDN available on Datadog. These help our customers gain valuable insights into product usage and performance metrics for response times, HTTP status codes, cache hit rate. Customers can collect, visualize, and alert on key Cloudflare metrics.

Today, we are very excited to announce the general availability of Cloudflare Zero Trust Integration with Datadog. This deeper integration offers the Cloudflare Content Pack within Cloud SIEM which includes out-of-the-box dashboard and detection rules that will help our customers ingesting Zero Trust logs into Datadog, gaining greatly improved security insights over their Zero Trust landscape.

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Our Datadog SIEM integration with Cloudflare delivers a holistic view of activity across Cloudflare Zero Trust integrations–helping security and dev teams quickly identify and respond to anomalous activity across app, device, and users within the Cloudflare Zero Trust ecosystem. The integration offers detection rules that automatically generate signals based on CASB (cloud access security broker) findings, and impossible travel scenarios, a revamped dashboard for easy spotting of anomalies, and accelerates response and remediation to quickly contain an attacker’s activity through an out-of-the-box workflow automation blueprints.
Yash Kumar, Senior Director of Product, Datadog

How to get started

Set up Logpush jobs to your Datadog destination

Use the Cloudflare dashboard or API to create a Logpush job with all fields enabled for each dataset you’d like to ingest on Datadog. We have eight account-scoped datasets available to use today (Access Requests, Audit logs, CASB findings, Gateway logs including DNS, Network, HTTP; Zero Trust Session Logs) that can be ingested into Datadog.

Install the Cloudflare Tile in Datadog

In your Datadog dashboard, locate and install the Cloudflare Tile within the Datadog Integration catalog. At this stage, Datadog’s out-of-the-box log processing pipeline will automatically parse and normalize your Cloudflare Zero Trust logs.

Analyze and correlate your Zero Trust logs with Datadog Cloud SIEM's out-of-the-box content

Our new and improved integration with Datadog enables security teams to quickly and easily monitor their Zero Trust components with the Cloudflare Content Pack. This includes the out-of-the-box dashboard that now features a Zero Trust section highlighting various widgets about activity across the applications, devices, and users in your Cloudflare Zero Trust ecosystem. This section gives you a holistic view, helping you spot and respond to anomalies quickly.

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Security detections built for CASB

As Enterprises use more SaaS applications, it becomes more critical to have insights and control for data at-rest. Cloudflare CASB findings do just that by providing security risk insights for all integrated SaaS applications.

With this new integration, Datadog now offers an out-of-the-box detection rule that detects any CASB findings. The alert is triggered at different severity levels for any CASB security finding that could indicate suspicious activity within an integrated SaaS app, like Microsoft 365 and Google Workspace. In the example below, the CASB finding points to an asset whose Google Workspace Domain Record is missing.

This detection is helpful in identifying and remedying misconfigurations or any security issues saving time and reducing the possibility of security breaches.

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

Security detections for Impossible Travel

One of the most common security issues can show up in surprisingly simple ways. For example, could be a user that seemingly logs in from one location only to login shortly after from a location physically too far away. Datadog’s new detection rule addresses exactly this scenario with their Impossible Travel detection rule. If Datadog Cloud SIEM determines that two consecutive loglines for a user indicate impossible travel of more than 500 km at over 1,000 km/h, the security alert is triggered. An admin can then determine if it is a security breach and take actions accordingly.

Integrate Cloudflare Zero Trust with Datadog Cloud SIEM

What’s next

Customers of Cloudflare and Datadog can now gain a more comprehensive view of their products and security posture with the enhanced dashboards and the new detection rules. We are excited to work on adding more value for our customers and develop unique detection rules.

If you are a Cloudflare customer using Datadog, explore the new integration starting today.

Benchmarking dashboard performance

Post Syndicated from Richard Nguyen original http://blog.cloudflare.com/benchmarking-dashboard-performance/

Benchmarking dashboard performance

Benchmarking dashboard performance

In preparation of Cloudflare Speed Week 2023, we spent the last few weeks benchmarking the performance of a Cloudflare product that has gone through many transformations throughout the years: the Cloudflare dashboard itself!

Limitations and scope

Optimizing for user-experience is vital to the long-term success of both Cloudflare and our customers. Reliability and availability of the dashboard are also important, since millions of customers depend on our services every day. To avoid any potential service interruptions while we made changes to the application’s architecture, we decided to gradually roll out the improvements, starting with the login page.

As a global company, we strive to deliver the best experience to all of our customers around the world. While we were aware that performance was regional, with regions furthest from our core data centers experiencing up to 10 times longer loading speeds, we wanted to focus on improvements that would benefit all of our users, no matter where they geographically connect to the Dashboard.

Finally, throughout this exercise, it was important to keep in mind that our overall goal was to improve the user experience of the dashboard, with regards to loading performance. We chose to use a Lighthouse Performance score as a metric to measure performance, but we were careful to not set a target score. Once a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure.

Initial Benchmarks

Using a combination of open-source tools offered by Google (Lighthouse and PageSpeed Insights) and our own homegrown solution (Cloudflare Speed Test), we benchmarked our Lighthouse performance scores starting in Q1 2023. We found the results were… somewhat disappointing:

  • Although the site’s initial render occurred quickly (200ms), it took more than two seconds for the site to finish loading and be fully interactive.
  • In that time, the page was blocked for more than 500ms while the browser executed long JavaScript tasks.
  • Over half of the JavaScript served for the login page was not necessary to render the login page itself.
Benchmarking dashboard performance

Improving what we've measured

The Cloudflare dashboard is a single page application that houses all of the UI for our wide portfolio of existing products, as well as the new features we're releasing every day. However, a less-than-performant experience is not acceptable to us; we owe it to our customers to deliver the best performance possible.

So what did we do?

Shipped less JavaScript

As obvious as it sounds, shipping less code to the user means they have to download fewer resources to load the application. In practice however, accomplishing this was harder than expected, especially for a five year old monolithic application.

We identified some of our largest dependencies with multiple versions, like lodash and our icon library, and deduped them. Bloated packages like the datacenter colo catalogs were refactored and drastically slimmed down. Packages containing unused code like development-only components, deprecated translations, and old Cloudflare Access UI components were removed entirely.

The result was a reduction in total assets being served to the user, going from 10MB (2.7MB gzipped) to 6.5MB (1.7MB gzipped). Lighthouse performance score improved to about 70. This was a good first step, but we could do better.

Identified and code split top-level boundaries

Code splitting is the process in which the application code is split into multiple bundles to be loaded on demand, reducing the initial amount of JavaScript a user downloads on page load. After logging in, as users navigate from account-level products like Workers and Pages, and then into specific zone-level products, like Page Shield for their domain, only the code necessary to render that particular page gets loaded dynamically.

Although most of the account-level and zone-level pages of the dashboard were properly code-split, the root application that imported these pages was not. It contained all of the code to bootstrap the application for both authenticated and unauthenticated users. This wasn’t a great experience for users who weren't even logged in yet, and we wanted to allow them to get into the main dashboard as quickly as possible.

So we split our monolithic application into two sub-applications: an authenticated and unauthenticated application. At a high level, on entrypoint initialization, we simply make an API request to check the user’s authentication state and dynamically load one sub-application or the other.

import React from 'react';
import { useAuth } from './useAuth';
const AuthenticatedAppLoadable = React.lazy(
  () => import('./AuthenticatedApp')
const UnauthenticatedAppLoadable = React.lazy(
  () => import('./UnauthenticatedApp')

// Fetch user auth state here and return user if logged in
// Render AuthenticatedApp or UnauthenticatedApp based on user
const Root: React.FC = () => {
  const { user } = useAuth();
  return user ? <AuthenticatedAppLoadable /> : <UnauthenticatedAppLoadable />;

That’s it! If a user is not logged in, we ship them a small bundle that only contains code necessary to render parts of the application related to login and signup, as well as a few global components. Code related to billing, account-level and zone-level products, sidebar navigation, and user profile settings are all bundled into a separate sub-application that only gets loaded once a user logs in.

Again, we saw significant improvements, especially to Largest Contentful Paint, pushing our performance scores to about 80. However, we ran a Chrome performance profile, and on closer inspection of the longest blocking task we noticed that there was still unnecessary code being parsed and evaluated, even though we never used it. For example, code for sidebar navigation was still loaded for unauthenticated users who never actually saw that component.

Benchmarking dashboard performance

Optimized dead-code elimination

It turned out that our configuration for dead-code elimination was not optimized. Dead-code elimination, or “tree-shaking”, is the process in which your JavaScript transpiler automatically removes unused module imports from the final bundle. Although most modern transpilers have that setting on by default today, optimizing dead-code elimination for an existing application as old as the Cloudflare dashboard is not as straightforward.

We had to go through each individual JavaScript import to identify modules that didn’t produce side-effects so they could be marked by the transpiler to be removed. We were able to optimize “tree-shaking” for the majority of the modules, but this will be an ongoing process as we make more performance improvements.

Key results

Although the performance of the dashboard is not yet where we want it to be, we were still able to roll out significant improvements for the majority of our users. The table below shows the performance benchmarks for US users hitting the login page for the first time before and after the performance improvements.


Benchmarking dashboard performance


Benchmarking dashboard performance

What’s next

Overall, we were able to get some quick wins, but we’re still not done! This is just the first step in our mission to continually improve performance for all of our dashboard users. Here’s a look at some next steps that we will be experimenting with and testing in the coming months: decoupling signup pages from the main application, redesigning SSO login experience, exploring microfrontends and edge-side rendering.

In the meantime, check out Cloudflare Speed Test to generate a performance report and receive recommendations on how to improve the performance of your site today.

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

Post Syndicated from Garrett Galow original https://blog.cloudflare.com/protect-your-domain-with-zone-holds/

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

Today, we are announcing Zone Holds, a new capability for enterprise customers that gives them control of if and when someone else can add the same zone to another Cloudflare account. When multiple teams at a company want to use Cloudflare, one team might accidentally step on another’s toes and try to manage the same zone in two accounts. Zone Holds ensure that this cannot happen by enforcing that only one account can contain a given domain, optionally inclusive of subdomains or custom hostnames, unless explicit permission is granted by the account owner of the zone.

What can go wrong today

Cloudflare already requires zones to be authenticated via DNS before traffic is proxied through our global network. This ensures that only domain owners can authorize traffic to be sent through and controlled with Cloudflare. However, many of our customers are large organizations with many teams all trying to protect and accelerate their web properties. In these cases, one team may not realize that a given domain is already being protected with Cloudflare. If they activate a second instance of the same domain in Cloudflare, they end up replacing the original zone that another team was already managing with Cloudflare. This can create downtime or security issues until the original zone can be re-activated. If these two teams had only known about each other and communicated, then in most cases any issue could be avoided via one of many options – subdomains, custom hostnames, etc. How can we ensure that these teams are aware of potential risk before making these mistakes?

How Zone Holds protect customers

With Zone Holds, any attempt to add a domain that is being held will return an error letting the person know that they need to contact the domain owner first. Zone Holds are enabled by default for all enterprise zones. The holds can be managed from the Zone Overview screen. Optionally, the hold can be extended to apply to subdomains and custom hostnames. When disabling a hold, you can set the hold to re-enable after a set amount of time. This ensures you don’t accidentally leave a hold perpetually disabled. Let’s dig into an example to understand how Zone Holds help customers.

Protect your domain with Zone Holds
An active zone hold not including protection of subdomains

Example Corp – before Zone Holds

Example Corp is a large Cloudflare customer. Specifically, their infrastructure team uses Cloudflare to protect all traffic at example.com. This includes their marketing site at www.example.com and their customer facing API at api.example.com. When they onboarded to Cloudflare they had their IT department, who manages all DNS at the company, setup DNS records at their registrar such that all traffic for example.com routed through Cloudflare.

Fast forward a year later, their marketing department wants to adopt Cloudflare’s Bot Management solution for traffic on www.example.com. They sign up example.com and reach out to their IT department to set the provided NS records at the registrar. The IT department does not realize that Cloudflare is already in use so they do not catch that this will impact the existing zone managed by the infrastructure team. The new zone is activated and an incident occurs because traffic to not only www.example.com but also api.example.com is impacted. With Zone Holds this incident would have been avoided. Let’s see how.

Example Corp – now with Zone Holds

Example Corp signs up for Cloudflare and adds example.com to their account as an ENT zone. Automatically a Zone Hold is enabled on the domain which will prevent any other Cloudflare account from adding example.com. They also enable a hold on any subdomains or custom hostnames under the domain of example.com.

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

Later ACME’s marketing department wants to start using Cloudflare for www.example.com. When they attempt to add that domain to Cloudflare they get an error informing them that they need to reach out to the domain owner.

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

ACME’s marketing department reaches out internally and learns that the infrastructure team manages this domain and that activating this zone would have caused an incident! Instead, both teams decide that the marketing team should add the subdomain of www.example.com so they can control the marketing site. The infrastructure team lifts the subdomain hold on acme.com and the marketing team adds www.example.com to their own account.

Protect your domain with Zone Holds

Once set up and activated they can now begin to leverage bot management to protect their marketing site and no unexpected impact occurs.

Getting started with Zone Holds

Zone Holds are now available to all enterprise zones and are enabled by default at the domain level. You can manage Zone Holds from the Zone Overview screen of any enterprise zone. Optionally, the hold can be extended to apply to subdomains and custom hostnames. When disabling a hold, you can set the hold to re-enable after a set amount of time. This ensures you don’t accidentally leave a hold perpetually disabled.

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Post Syndicated from Radwa Radwan original https://blog.cloudflare.com/account-security-analytics-and-events/

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Cloudflare offers many security features like WAF, Bot management, DDoS, Zero Trust, and more! This suite of products are offered in the form of rules to give basic protection against common vulnerability attacks. These rules are usually configured and monitored per domain, which is very simple when we talk about one, two, maybe three domains (or what we call in Cloudflare’s terms, “zones”).

The zone-level overview sometimes is not time efficient

If you’re a Cloudflare customer with tens, hundreds, or even thousands of domains under your control, you’d spend hours going through these domains one by one, monitoring and configuring all security features. We know that’s a pain, especially for our Enterprise customers. That’s why last September we announced the Account WAF, where you can create one security rule and have it applied to the configuration of all your zones at once!

Account WAF makes it easy to deploy security configurations. Following the same philosophy, we want to empower our customers by providing visibility over these configurations, or even better, visibility on all HTTP traffic.

Today, Cloudflare is offering holistic views on the security suite by launching Account Security Analytics and Account Security Events. Now, across all your domains, you can monitor traffic, get insights quicker, and save hours of your time.

How do customers get visibility over security traffic today?

Before today, to view account analytics or events, customers either used to access each zone individually to check the events and analytics dashboards, or used zone GraphQL Analytics API or logs to collect data and send them to their preferred storage provider where they could collect, aggregate, and plot graphs to get insights for all zones under their account — in case ready-made dashboards were not provided.

Introducing Account Security Analytics and Events

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

The new views are security focused, data-driven dashboards — similar to zone-level views, both have  similar data like: sampled logs and the top filters over many source dimensions (for example, IP addresses, Host, Country, ASN, etc.).

The main difference between them is that Account Security Events focuses on the current configurations on every zone you have, which makes reviewing mitigated requests (rule matches) easy. This step is essential in distinguishing between actual threats from false positives, along with maintaining optimal security configuration.

Part of the Security Events power is showing Events “by service” listing the security-related activity per security feature (for example, WAF, Firewall Rules, API Shield) and Events “by Action” (for example, allow, block, challenge).

On the other hand, Account Security Analytics view shows a wider angle with all HTTP traffic on all zones under the account, whether this traffic is mitigated, i.e., the security configurations took an action to prevent the request from reaching your zone, or not mitigated. This is essential in fine-tuning your security configuration, finding possible false negatives, or onboarding new zones.

The view also provides quick filters or insights of what we think are interesting cases worth exploring for ease of use. Many of the view components are similar to zone level Security Analytics that we introduced recently.

To get to know the components and how they interact, let’s have a look at an actual example.

Analytics walk-through when investigating a spike in traffic

Traffic spikes happen to many customers’ accounts; to investigate the reason behind them, and check what’s missing from the configurations, we recommend starting from Analytics as it shows mitigated and non-mitigated traffic, and to revise the mitigated requests to double check any false positives then Security Events is the go to place. That’s what we’ll do in this walk-through starting with the Analytics, finding a spike, and checking if we need further mitigation action.

Step 1: To navigate to the new views, sign into the Cloudflare dashboard and select the account you want to monitor. You will find Security Analytics and Security Events in the sidebar under Security Center.

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Step 2: In the Analytics dashboard, if you had a big spike in the traffic compared to the usual, there’s a big chance it’s a layer 7 DDoS attack. Once you spot one, zoom into the time interval in the graph.

Zooming into a traffic spike on the timeseries scale

By Expanding the top-Ns on top of the analytics page we can see here many observations:

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

We can confirm it’s a DDoS attack as the peak of traffic does not come from one single IP address, It’s distributed over multiple source IPs. The “edge status code” indicates that there’s a rate limiting rule applied on this attack and it’s a GET method over HTTP/2.

Looking at the right hand side of the analytics we can see “Attack Analysis” indicating that these requests were clean from XSS, SQLi, and common RCE attacks. The Bot Analysis indicates it’s an automated traffic in the Bot Scores distribution; these two products add another layer of intelligence to the investigation process. We can easily deduce here that the attacker is sending clean requests through high volumetric attack from multiple IPs to take the web application down.

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Step 3: For this attack we can see we have rules in place to mitigate it, with the visibility we get the freedom to fine tune our configurations to have better security posture, if needed. we can filter on this attack fingerprint, for instance: add a filter on the referer `www.example.com` which is receiving big bulk of the attack requests, add filter on path equals `/`, HTTP method, query string, and a filter on the automated traffic with Bot score, we will see the following:

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Step 4: Jumping to Security Events to zoom in on our mitigation actions in this case, spike fingerprint is mitigated using two actions: Managed Challenge and Block.

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

The mitigation happened on: Firewall rules and DDoS configurations, the exact rules are shown in the top events.

Account Security Analytics and Events: better visibility over all domains

Who gets the new views?

Starting this week all our customers on Enterprise plans will have access to Account Security Analytics and Security Events. We recommend having Account Bot Management, WAF Attack Score, and Account WAF to have access to the full visibility and actions.

What’s next?

The new Account Security Analytics and Events encompass metadata generated by the Cloudflare network for all domains in one place. In the upcoming period we will be providing a better experience to save our customers’ time in a simple way. We’re currently in beta, log into the dashboard, check out the views, and let us know your feedback.

Adding Zero Trust signals to Sumo Logic for better security insights

Post Syndicated from Corey Mahan original https://blog.cloudflare.com/zero-trust-signals-to-sumo-logic/

Adding Zero Trust signals to Sumo Logic for better security insights

Adding Zero Trust signals to Sumo Logic for better security insights

A picture is worth a thousand words and the same is true when it comes to getting visualizations, trends, and data in the form of a ready-made security dashboard.

Today we’re excited to announce the expansion of support for automated normalization and correlation of Zero Trust logs for Logpush in Sumo Logic’s Cloud SIEM. As a Cloudflare technology partner, Sumo Logic is the pioneer in continuous intelligence, a new category of software which enables organizations of all sizes to address the data challenges and opportunities presented by digital transformation, modern applications, and cloud computing.

The updated content in Sumo Logic Cloud SIEM helps joint Cloudflare customers reduce alert fatigue tied to Zero Trust logs and accelerates the triage process for security analysts by converging security and network data into high-fidelity insights. This new functionality complements the existing Cloudflare App for Sumo Logic designed to help IT and security teams gain insights, understand anomalous activity, and better trend security and network performance data over time.

Adding Zero Trust signals to Sumo Logic for better security insights

Deeper integration to deliver Zero Trust insights

Using Cloudflare Zero Trust helps protect users, devices, and data, and in the process can create a large volume of logs. These logs are helpful and important because they provide the who, what, when, and where for activity happening within and across an organization. They contain information such as what website was accessed, who signed in to an application, or what data may have been shared from a SaaS service.

Up until now, our integrations with Sumo Logic only allowed automated correlation of security signals for Cloudflare only included core services. While it’s critical to ensure collection of WAF and bot detection events across your fabric, extended visibility into Zero Trust components has now become more important than ever with the explosion of distributed work and adoption of hybrid and multi-cloud infrastructure architectures.

With the expanded Zero Trust logs now available in Sumo Logic Cloud SIEM, customers can now get deeper context into security insights thanks to the broad set of network and security logs produced by Cloudflare products:

“As a long time Cloudflare partner, we’ve worked together to help joint customers analyze events and trends from their websites and applications to provide end-to-end visibility and improve digital experiences. We’re excited to expand this partnership to provide real-time insights into the Zero Trust security posture of mutual customers in Sumo Logic’s Cloud SIEM.”
John Coyle – Vice President of Business Development, Sumo Logic

How to get started

To take advantage of the suite of integrations available for Sumo Logic and Cloudflare logs available via Logpush, first enable Logpush to Sumo Logic, which will ship logs directly to Sumo Logic’s cloud-native platform. Then, install the Cloudflare App and (for Cloud SIEM customers) enable forwarding of these logs to Cloud SIEM for automated normalization and correlation of security insights.

Note that Cloudflare’s Logpush service is only available to Enterprise customers. If you are interested in upgrading, please contact us here.

  1. Enable Logpush to Sumo Logic
    Cloudflare Logpush supports pushing logs directly to Sumo Logic via the Cloudflare dashboard or via API.
  2. Install the Cloudflare App for Sumo Logic
    Locate and install the Cloudflare app from the App Catalog, linked above. If you want to see a preview of the dashboards included with the app before installing, click Preview Dashboards. Once installed, you can now view key information in the Cloudflare Dashboards for all core services.
  3. (Cloud SIEM Customers) Forward logs to Cloud SIEM
    After the steps above, enable the updated parser for Cloudflare logs by adding the _parser field to your S3 source created when installing the Cloudflare App.

What’s next

As more organizations move towards a Zero Trust model for security, it’s increasingly important to have visibility into every aspect of the network with logs playing a crucial role in this effort.

If your organization is just getting started and not already using a tool like Sumo Logic, Cloudflare R2 for log storage is worth considering. Cloudflare R2 offers a scalable, cost-effective solution for log storage.

We’re excited to continue closely working with technology partners to expand existing and create new integrations that help customers on their Zero Trust journey.

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

Post Syndicated from Emily Flannery original https://blog.cloudflare.com/zero-trust-navigation/

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

We’re updating the Zero Trust navigation

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

On March 20, 2023, we will be launching an updated navigation in the Zero Trust dashboard, offering all of our Zero Trust users a more seamless experience across Cloudflare as a whole. This change will allow you to more easily manage your Zero Trust organization alongside your application and network services, developer tools, and more.

As part of this upcoming release, you will see three key changes:

Quicker navigation

Instead of opening another window or typing in a URL, you can go back to the Cloudflare dashboard in one click.

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

Switch accounts with ease

View and switch accounts at the top of your sidebar.

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

Resources and support

Find helpful links to our Community, developer documentation, and support team at the top of your navigation bar.

New Zero Trust navigation coming soon (and we need your feedback)

Why we’re updating the Zero Trust navigation

In 2020, Gateway was broadly released as the first Cloudflare product that didn’t require a site hosted on Cloudflare’s infrastructure. In other words, Gateway was unconstrained by the site-specific model most other Cloudflare products relied on at the time, while also used in close conjunction with Access. And so, the Cloudflare for Teams dashboard was built on a new model, designed from scratch, to give our customers a designated home—consolidated under a single roof—to manage their Teams products and accounts.

Fast forward to today and Zero Trust has grown tremendously, both in capability and reach. Many of our customers are using multiple Cloudflare products together, including Cloudflare One and Zero Trust products. Our home has grown, and this navigation change is one step toward expanding our roof to cover Cloudflare’s rapidly expanding footprint.

A focus on user experience

We have heard from many of you about the pains you experience when using multiple Cloudflare products, including Zero Trust. Your voice matters to us, and we’re invested in building a world-class user experience to make your time with Cloudflare an easy and enjoyable one. Our user experience improvements are based on three core principles: Consistency, Interconnectivity, and Discoverability.

We aim to offer a consistent and predictable user experience across the entire Cloudflare ecosystem so you never have to think twice about where you are in your journey, whether performing your familiar daily tasks or discovering our new ground-breaking products and features.

What else?

This navigation change we’re announcing today isn’t the only user experience improvement we’ve built! You may have noticed a few more optimizations recently:

User authorization and loading experience

Remember the days of the recurrent loading screen? Or perhaps when your Zero Trust account didn’t match the one you had logged in with to manage, say, your DNS? Those days are over! Our team has built a smarter, faster, and more seamless user and account authorization experience.

New tables

Tables are table stakes when it comes to presenting large quantities of data and information. (Yes, pun intended.) Tables are a common UI element across Cloudflare, and now Zero Trust uses the same tables UI as you will see when managing other products and features.

UI consistency

A slight change in color scheme and page layout brings the Zero Trust dashboard into the same visual family as the broader Cloudflare experience. Now, when you navigate to Zero Trust, we want you to know that you’re still under our one single Cloudflare roof.

We’re as excited about these improvements as you are! And we hope the upcoming navigation and page improvements come as a welcome addition to the changes noted above.

What’s next?

The user experience changes we’ve covered today go a long way toward creating a more consistent, seamless and user-friendly interface to make your work on Cloudflare as easy and efficient as possible. We know there’s always room for further improvement (we already have quite a few big improvements on our radar!).

To ensure we’re solving your biggest problems, we’d like to hear from you. Please consider filling out a short survey to share the most pressing user experience improvements you’d like to see next.

Visualize database privileges on Amazon Redshift using Grafana

Post Syndicated from Yota Hamaoka original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/visualize-database-privileges-on-amazon-redshift-using-grafana/

Amazon Redshift is a fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service in the cloud. Amazon Redshift enables you to use SQL for analyzing structured and semi-structured data with best price performance along with secure access to the data.

As more users start querying data in a data warehouse, access control is paramount to protect valuable organizational data. Database administrators want to continuously monitor and manage user privileges to maintain proper data access in the data warehouse. Amazon Redshift provides granular access control on the database, schema, table, column, row, and other database objects by granting privileges to roles, groups, and users from a SQL interface. To monitor privileges configured in Amazon Redshift, you can retrieve them by querying system tables.

Although Amazon Redshift provides a broad capability of managing access to database objects, we have heard from customers that they want to visualize and monitor privileges without using a SQL interface. In this post, we introduce predefined dashboards using Grafana which visualizes database privileges without writing SQL. This dashboard will help database administrators to reduce the time spent on database administration and increase the frequency of monitoring cycles.

Database security in Amazon Redshift

Security is the top priority at AWS. Amazon Redshift provides four levels of control:

  • Cluster management
  • Cluster connectivity
  • Database access
  • Temporary database credentials and single sign-on

This post focuses on database access, which relates to user access control against database objects. For more information, see Managing database security.

Amazon Redshift uses the GRANT command to define permissions in the database. For most database objects, GRANT takes three parameters:

  • Identity – The entity you grant access to. This could be a user, role, or group.
  • Object – The type of database object. This could be a database, schema, table or view, column, row, function, procedure, language, datashare, machine leaning (ML) model, and more.
  • Privilege – The type of operation. Examples include CREATE, SELECT, ALTER, DROP, DELETE, and INSERT. The level of privilege depends on the object.

To remove access, use the REVOKE command.

Additionally, Amazon Redshift offers granular access control with the Row-level security (RLS) feature. You can attach or detach RLS policies to identities with the ATTACH RLS POLICY and DETACH RLS POLICY commands, respectively. See RLS policy ownership and management for more details.

Generally, database administrator monitors and reviews the identities, objects, and privileges periodically to ensure proper access is configured. They also need to investigate access configurations if database users face permission errors. These tasks require a SQL interface to query multiple system tables, which can be a repetitive and undifferentiated operation. Therefore, database administrators need a single pane of glass to quickly navigate through identities, objects, and privileges without writing SQL.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture and its key components:

  • Amazon Redshift contains database privilege information in system tables.
  • Grafana provides a predefined dashboard to visualize database privileges. The dashboard runs queries against the Amazon Redshift system table via the Amazon Redshift Data API.

Note that the dashboard focuses on visualization. SQL interface is required to configure privileges in Amazon Redshift. You can use query editor v2, a web-based SQL interface which enables users to run SQL commands from a browser.


Before moving to the next section, you should have the following prerequisites:

While Amazon Managed Grafana controls the plugin version and updates periodically, local Grafana allows user to control the version. Therefore, local Grafana could be an option if you need earlier access for the latest features. Refer to plugin changelog for released features and versions.

Import the dashboards

After you have finished the prerequisites, you should have access to Grafana configured with Amazon Redshift as a data source. Next, import two dashboards for visualization.

  1. In Grafana console, go to the created Redshift data source and click Dashboards
  2. Import the Amazon Redshift Identities and Objects
  3. Go to the data source again and import the Amazon Redshift Privileges

Each dashboard will appear once imported.

Amazon Redshift Identities and Objects dashboard

The Amazon Redshift Identities and Objects dashboard shows identites and database objects in Amazon Redshift, as shown in the following screenshot.

The Identities section shows the detail of each user, role, and group in the source database.

One of the key features in this dashboard is the Role assigned to Role, User section, which uses a node graph panel to visualize the hierarchical structure of roles and users from multiple system tables. This visualization can help administrators quickly examine which roles are inherited to users instead of querying multiple system tables. For more information about role-based access, refer to Role-based access control (RBAC).

Amazon Redshift Privileges dashboard

The Amazon Redshift Privileges dashboard shows privileges defined in Amazon Redshift.

In the Role and Group assigned to User section, open the Role assigned to User panel to list the roles for a specific user. In this panel, you can list and compare roles assigned to multiple users. Use the User drop-down at the top of the dashboard to select users.

The dashboard will refresh immediately and show filtered result for selected users. Following screenshot is the filtered result for user hr1, hr2 and it3.

The Object Privileges section shows the privileges granted for each database object and identity. Note that objects with no privileges granted are not listed here. To show the full list of database objects, use the Amazon Redshift Identities and Objects dashboard.

The Object Privileges (RLS) section contains visualizations for row-level security (RLS). The Policy attachments panel enables you to examine RLS configuration by visualizing relation between of tables, policies, roles and users.


In this post, we introduced a visualization for database privileges of Amazon Redshift using predefined Grafana dashboards. Database administrators can use these dashboards to quickly navigate through identities, objects, and privileges without writing SQL. You can also customize the dashboard to meet your business requirements. The JSON definition file of this dashboard is maintained as part of OSS in the Redshift data source for Grafana GitHub repository.

For more information about the topics described to in this post, refer to the following:

About the author

Yota Hamaoka is an Analytics Solution Architect at Amazon Web Services. He is focused on driving customers to accelerate their analytics journey with Amazon Redshift.

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

Post Syndicated from Hannes Gerhart original https://blog.cloudflare.com/dns-record-comments/

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

Starting today, we’re adding support on all zone plans to add custom comments on your DNS records. Users on the Pro, Business and Enterprise plan will also be able to tag DNS records.

DNS records are important

DNS records play an essential role when it comes to operating a website or a web application. In general, they are used to mapping human-readable hostnames to machine-readable information, most commonly IP addresses. Besides mapping hostnames to IP addresses they also fulfill many other use cases like:

  • Ensuring emails can reach your inbox, by setting up MX records.
  • Avoiding email spoofing and phishing by configuring SPF, DMARC and DKIM policies as TXT records.
  • Validating a TLS certificate by adding a TXT (or CNAME) record.
  • Specifying allowed certificate authorities that can issue certificates on behalf of your domain by creating a CAA record.
  • Validating ownership of your domain for other web services (website hosting, email hosting, web storage, etc.) – usually by creating a TXT record.
  • And many more.

With all these different use cases, it is easy to forget what a particular DNS record is for and it is not always possible to derive the purpose from the name, type and content of a record. Validation TXT records tend to be on seemingly arbitrary names with rather cryptic content. When you then also throw multiple people or teams into the mix who have access to the same domain, all creating and updating DNS records, it can quickly happen that someone modifies or even deletes a record causing the on-call person to get paged in the middle of the night.

Enter: DNS record comments & tags 📝

Starting today, everyone with a zone on Cloudflare can add custom comments on each of their DNS records via the API and through the Cloudflare dashboard.

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

To add a comment, just click on the Edit action of the respective DNS record and fill out the Comment field. Once you hit Save, a small icon will appear next to the record name to remind you that this record has a comment. Hovering over the icon will allow you to take a quick glance at it without having to open the edit panel.

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

What you also can see in the screenshot above is the new Tags field. All users on the Pro, Business, or Enterprise plans now have the option to add custom tags to their records. These tags can be just a key like “important” or a key-value pair like “team:DNS” which is separated by a colon. Neither comments nor tags have any impact on the resolution or propagation of the particular DNS record, and they’re only visible to people with access to the zone.

Now we know that some of our users love automation by using our API. So if you want to create a number of zones and populate all their DNS records by uploading a zone file as part of your script, you can also directly include the DNS record comments and tags in that zone file. And when you export a zone file, either to back up all records of your zone or to easily move your zone to another account on Cloudflare, it will also contain comments and tags. Learn more about importing and exporting comments and tags on our developer documentation.

;; A Records
*.mycoolwebpage.xyz.     1      IN  A
mycoolwebpage.xyz.       1      IN  A ; Contact Hannes for details.
sub1.mycoolwebpage.xyz.  1      IN  A ; Test origin server. Can be deleted eventually. cf_tags=testing
sub1.mycoolwebpage.xyz.  1      IN  A ; Production origin server. cf_tags=important,prod,team:DNS

;; MX Records
mycoolwebpage.xyz.       1      IN  MX   1 mailserver1.example.
mycoolwebpage.xyz.       1      IN  MX   2 mailserver2.example.

;; TXT Records
mycoolwebpage.xyz.       86400	IN  TXT  "v=spf1 ip4: -all" ; cf_tags=important,team:EMAIL
sub1.mycoolwebpage.xyz.  86400  IN  TXT  "hBeFxN3qZT40" ; Verification record for service XYZ. cf_tags=team:API

New filters

It might be that your zone has hundreds or thousands of DNS records, so how on earth would you find all the records that belong to the same team or that are needed for one particular application?

For this we created a new filter option in the dashboard. This allows you to not only filter for comments or tags but also for other record data like name, type, content, or proxy status. The general search bar for a quick and broader search will still be available, but it cannot (yet) be used in conjunction with the new filters.

One of our most requested features is here: DNS record comments and tags

By clicking on the “Add filter” button, you can select individual filters that are connected with a logical AND. So if I wanted to only look at TXT records that are tagged as important, I would add these filters:

One more thing (or two)

Another change we made is to replace the Advanced button with two individual actions: Import and Export, and Dashboard Display Settings.

You can find them in the top right corner under DNS management. When you click on Import and Export you have the option to either export all existing DNS records (including their comments and tags) into a zone file or import new DNS records to your zone by uploading a zone file.

The action Dashboard Display Settings allows you to select which special record types are shown in the UI. And there is an option to toggle showing the record tags inline under the respective DNS record or just showing an icon if there are tags present on the record.

And last but not least, we increased the width of the DNS record table as part of this release. The new table makes better use of the existing horizontal space and allows you to see more details of your DNS records, especially if you have longer subdomain names or content.

Try it now

DNS record comments and tags are available today. Just navigate to the DNS tab of your zone in the Cloudflare dashboard and create your first comment or tag. If you are not yet using Cloudflare DNS, sign up for free in just a few minutes.

Learn more about DNS record comments and tags on our developer documentation.

Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards

Post Syndicated from Emily Flannery original https://blog.cloudflare.com/project-a11y/

Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards

Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards

At Cloudflare, we believe the Internet should be accessible to everyone. And today, we’re happy to announce a more inclusive Cloudflare dashboard experience for our users with disabilities. Recent improvements mean our dashboard now adheres to industry accessibility standards, including Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 AA and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

Over the past several months, the Cloudflare team and our partners have been hard at work to make the Cloudflare dashboard1 as accessible as possible for every single one of our current and potential customers. This means incorporating accessibility features that comply with the latest Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and Section 508 of the US’s federal Rehabilitation Act. We are invested in working to meet or exceed these standards; to demonstrate that commitment and share openly about the state of accessibility on the Cloudflare dashboard, we have completed the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT), a document used to evaluate our level of conformance today.

Conformance with a technical and legal spec is a bit abstract–but for us, accessibility simply means that as many people as possible can be successful users of the Cloudflare dashboard. This is important because each day, more and more individuals and businesses rely upon Cloudflare to administer and protect their websites.

For individuals with disabilities who work on technology, we believe that an accessible Cloudflare dashboard could mean improved economic and technical opportunities, safer websites, and equal access to tools that are shaping how we work and build on the Internet.

For designers and developers at Cloudflare, our accessibility remediation project has resulted in an overhaul of our component library. Our newly WCAG-compliant components expedite and simplify our work building accessible products. They make it possible for us to deliver on our commitment to an accessible dashboard going forward.

Our Journey to an Accessible Cloudflare Dashboard

In 2021, we initiated an audit with third party experts to identify accessibility challenges in the Cloudflare dashboard. This audit came back with a daunting 213-page document—a very, very long list of compliance gaps.

We learned from the audit that there were many users we had unintentionally failed to design and build for in Cloudflare dashboard user interfaces. Most especially, we had not done well accommodating keyboard users and screen reader users, who often rely upon these technologies because of a physical impairment. Those impairments include low vision or blindness, motor disabilities (examples include tremors and repetitive strain injury), or cognitive disabilities (examples include dyslexia and dyscalculia).

As a product and engineering organization, we had spent more than a decade in cycles of rapid growth and product development. While we’re proud of what we have built, the audit made clear to us that there was a great need to address the design and technical debt we had accrued along the way.

One year, four hundred Jira tickets, and over 25 new, accessible web components later, we’re ready to celebrate our progress with you. Major categories of work included:

  1. Forms: We re-wrote our internal form components with accessibility and developer experience top of mind. We improved form validation and error handling, labels, required field annotations, and made use of persistent input descriptions instead of placeholders. Then, we deployed those component upgrades across the dashboard.
  2. Data visualizations: After conducting a rigorous re-evaluation of their design, we re-engineered charts and graphs to be accessible to keyboard and screen reader users. See below for a brief case study.
  3. Heading tags: We corrected page structure throughout the dashboard by replacing all our heading tags (<h1>, <h2>, etc.) with a technique we borrowed from Heydon Pickering. This technique is an approach to heading level management that uses React Context and basic arithmetic.
  4. SVGs: We reworked how we create SVGs (Scalable Vector Graphics), so that they are labeled properly and only exposed to assistive technology when useful.
  5. Node modules: We jumped several major versions of old, inaccessible node modules that our UI components depend upon (and we broke many things along the way).
  6. Color: We overhauled our use of color, and contributed a new volume of accessible sequential colors to our design system.
  7. Bugs: We squashed a lot of bugs that had made their way into the dashboard over the years. The most common type of bug we encountered related to incorrect or unsemantic use of HTML elements—for example, using a <div> where we should have used a <td> (table data) or <tr> (table row) element within a table.

Case Study: Accessibility Work On Cloudflare Dashboard Data & Analytics

The Cloudflare dashboard is replete with analytics and data visualizations designed to offer deep insight into users’ websites’ performance, traffic, security, and more. Making those data visualizations accessible proved to be among the most complex and interdisciplinary issues we faced in the remediation work.

An example of a problem we needed to solve related to WCAG success criterion 1.4.1, which pertains to the use of color. 1.4.1 specifies that color cannot be the only means by which to convey information, such as the differentiation between two items compared in a chart or graph.

Our charts were clearly nonconforming with this standard, using color alone to represent different data being compared. For example, a typical graph might have used the color blue to show the number of requests to a website that were 200 OK, and the color orange to show 403 Forbidden, but failed to offer users another way to discern between the two status codes.

Our UI team went to work on the problem, and chose to focus our effort first on the Cloudflare dashboard time series graphs.

Interestingly, we found that design patterns recommended even by accessibility experts created wholly unusable visualizations when placed into the context of real world data. Examples of such recommended patterns include using different line weights, patterns (dashed, dotted or other line styles), and terminal glyphs (symbols set at the beginning and end of the lines) to differentiate items being compared.

We tried, and failed, to apply a number of these patterns; you can see the evolution of this work on our time series graph component in the three different images below.


Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards
Here is an early attempt at using both terminal glyphs and patterns to differentiate data in a time series graph. You can see that the terminal glyphs pile up and become indistinguishable; the differences among the line patterns are very hard to discern. This code never made it into production.


Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards
In this version, we eliminated terminal glyphs but kept line patterns. Additionally, we faded the unfocused items in the graph to help bring highlighted data to the forefront. This latter technique made it into our final solution.


Project A11Y: how we upgraded Cloudflare’s dashboard to adhere to industry accessibility standards
Here we eliminated patterns altogether, simplified the user interface to only use the fading technique on unfocused items, and put our new, sequentially accessible colors to use. Finally, a visual design solution approved by accessibility and data visualization experts, as well as our design and engineering teams.

After arriving at our design solution, we had some engineering work to do.

In order to meet WCAG success criterion 2.1.1, we rewrote our time series graphs to be fully keyboard accessible by adding focus handling to every data point, and enabling the traversal of data using arrow keys.

Navigating time series data points by keyboard on the Cloudflare dashboard.

We did some fine-tuning, specifically to support screen readers: we eliminated auditory “chartjunk” (unnecessary clutter or information in a chart or graph) and cleaned up decontextualized data (a scenario in which numbers are exposed to and read by a screen reader, but contextualizing information, like x- and y-axis labels, is not).

And lastly, to meet WCAG 1.1.1, we engineered new UI component wrappers to make chart and graph data downloadable in CSV format. We deployed this part of the solution across all charts and graphs, not just the time series charts like those shown above. No matter how you browse and interact with the web, we hope you’ll notice this functionality around the Cloudflare dashboard and find value in it.

Making all of this data available to low vision, keyboard, and assistive technology users was an interesting challenge for us, and a true team effort. It necessitated a separate data visualization report conducted by another, more specialized team of third party experts, deep collaboration between engineering and design, and many weeks of development.

Applying this thorough treatment to all data visualizations on the Cloudflare dashboard is our goal, but still work in progress. Please stay tuned for more accessible updates to our chart and graph components.


There’s a lot of nuance to accessibility work, and we were novices at the beginning: researching and learning as we were doing. We also broke a lot of things in the process, which (as any engineering team knows!) can be stressful.

Overall, our team’s biggest challenge was figuring out how to complete a high volume of cross-functional work in the shortest time possible, while also setting a foundation for these improvements to persist over time.

As a frontend engineering and design team, we are very grateful for having had the opportunity to focus on this problem space and to learn from truly world-class accessibility experts along the way.

Accessibility matters to us, and we know it does to you. We’re proud of our progress, and there’s always more to do to make Cloudflare more usable for all of our customers. This is a critical piece of our foundation at Cloudflare, where we are building the most secure, performant and reliable solutions for the Internet. Stay tuned for what’s next!

Not using Cloudflare yet? Get started today and join us on our mission to build a better Internet.

1All references to “dashboard” in this post are specific to the primary user authenticated Cloudflare web platform. This does not include Cloudflare’s product-specific dashboards, marketing, support, educational materials, or third party integrations.

Now all customers can share access to their Cloudflare account with Role Based Access Controls

Post Syndicated from Joseph So original https://blog.cloudflare.com/rbac-for-everyone/

Now all customers can share access to their Cloudflare account with Role Based Access Controls

Now all customers can share access to their Cloudflare account with Role Based Access Controls

Cloudflare’s mission is to help build a better Internet. Pair that with our core belief that security is something that should be accessible to everyone and the outcome is a better and safer Internet for all. Previously, our FREE and PAYGO customers didn’t have the flexibility to give someone control of just part of their account, they had to give access to everything.

Starting today, role based access controls (RBAC), and all of our additional roles will be rolled out to users on every plan! Whether you are a small business or even a single user, you can ensure that you can add users only to parts of Cloudflare you deem appropriate.

Why should I limit access?

It is good practice with security in general to limit access to what a team member needs to do a job. Restricting access limits the overall threat surface if a given user was compromised, and ensures that you limit the surface that mistakes can be made.

If a malicious user was able to gain access to an account, but it only had read access, you’ll find yourself with less of a headache than someone who had administrative access, and could change how your site operates. Likewise, you can prevent users outside their role from accidentally making changes to critical features like firewall or DNS configuration.

What are roles?

Roles are a grouping of permissions that make sense together. At Cloudflare, this means grouping permissions together by access to a product suite.

Cloudflare is a critical piece of infrastructure for customers, and roles ensure that you can give your team the access they need, scoped to what they’ll do, and which products they interact with.

Once enabled for Role Based Access Controls, by going to “Manage Account” and “Members” in the left sidebar, you’ll have the following list of roles available, which each grant access to disparate subsets of the Cloudflare offering.

Role Name Role Description
Administrator Can access the full account, except for membership management and billing.
Administrator Read Only Can access the full account in read-only mode.
Analytics Can read Analytics.
Audit Logs Viewer Can view Audit Logs.
Billing Can edit the account’s billing profile and subscriptions.
Cache Purge Can purge the edge cache.
Cloudflare Access Can edit Cloudflare Access policies.
Cloudflare Gateway Can edit Cloudflare Gateway and read Access.
Cloudflare Images Can edit Cloudflare Images assets
Cloudflare Stream Can edit Cloudflare Stream media.
Cloudflare Workers Admin Can edit Cloudflare Workers.
Cloudflare Zero Trust Can edit Cloudflare Zero Trust.
Cloudflare Zero Trust PII Can access Cloudflare Zero Trust PII.
Cloudflare Zero Trust Read Only Can access Cloudflare for Zero Trust read only mode.
Cloudflare Zero Trust Reporting Can access Cloudflare for Zero Trust reporting data.
DNS Can edit DNS records.
Firewall Can edit WAF, IP Firewall, and Zone Lockdown settings.
HTTP Applications Can view and edit HTTP Applications
HTTP Applications Read Can view HTTP Applications
Load Balancer Can edit Load Balancers, Pools, Origins, and Health Checks.
Log Share Can edit Log Share configuration.
Log Share Reader Can read Enterprise Log Share.
Magic Network Monitoring Can view and edit MNM configuration
Magic Network Monitoring Admin Can view, edit, create, and delete MNM configuration
Magic Network Monitoring Read-Only Can view MNM configuration
Network Services Read (Magic) Grants read access to network configurations for Magic services.
Network Services Write (Magic) Grants write access to network configurations for Magic services.
SSL/TLS, Caching, Performance, Page Rules, and Customization Can edit most Cloudflare settings except for DNS and Firewall.
Trust and Safety Can view and request reviews for blocks
Zaraz Admin Can edit Zaraz configuration.
Zaraz Readonly Can read Zaraz configuration.

If you find yourself on a team that is growing, you may want to grant firewall and DNS access to a delegated network admin, billing access to your bookkeeper, and Workers access to your developer.

Each of these roles provides specific access to a portion of your Cloudflare account, scoping them to the appropriate set of products. Even Super Administrator is now available, allowing you to provide this access to somebody without handing over your password and 2FA.

How to use our roles

The first step to using RBAC is an analysis and review of the duties and tasks of your team. When a team member primarily interacts with a specific part of the Cloudflare offering, start off by giving them only access to that part(s). Our roles are built in a way that allows multiple to be assigned to a single user, such that when they require more access, you can grant them an additional role.


At this point in time, we will be rolling out RBAC over the next few weeks. When the roles become available in your account, head over to our documentation to learn about each of the roles in detail.

We’ve shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Post Syndicated from Emily Flannery original https://blog.cloudflare.com/quick-search-beta/

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Today we’re proud to announce our first release of quick search for the Cloudflare dashboard, a beta version of our first ever cross-dashboard search tool to help you navigate our products and features. This first release is now available to a small percentage of our customers. Want to request early access? Let us know by filling out this form.

What we’re launching

We’re launching quick search to speed up common interactions with the Cloudflare dashboard. Our dashboard allows you to configure Cloudflare’s full suite of products and features, and quick search gives you a shortcut.

To get started, you can access the quick search tool from anywhere within the Cloudflare dashboard by clicking the magnifying glass button in the top navigation, or hitting Ctrl + K on Linux and Windows or ⌘ + K on Mac. (If you find yourself forgetting which key combination it is just remember that it’s or Ctrl-K-wik.) From there, enter a search term and then select from the results shown below.

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine
Access quick search from the top navigation bar, or use keyboard shortcuts Ctrl + K on Linux and Windows or ⌘ + K on Mac.

Current supported functionality

What functionality will you have access to? Below you’ll learn about the three core capabilities of quick search that are included in this release, as well as helpful tips for using the tool.

Search for a page in the dashboard

Start typing in the name of the product you’re looking for, and we’ll load matching terms after each key press. You will see results for any dashboard page that currently exists in your sidebar navigation. Then, just click the desired result to navigate directly there.

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine
Search for “page” and you’ll see results categorized into “website-only products” and “account-wide products.”
We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine
Search for “ddos” and you’ll see results categorized into “websites,” “website-only products” and “account-wide products.”

Search for website-only products

For our customers who manage a website or domain in Cloudflare, you have access to a multitude of Cloudflare products and features to enhance your website’s security, performance and reliability. Quick search can be used to easily find those products and features, regardless of where you currently are in the dashboard (even from within another website!).

You may easily search for your website by name to navigate to your website’s Overview page:

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

You may also navigate to the products and feature pages within your specific website(s). Note that you can perform a website-specific search from anywhere in your core dashboard using one of two different approaches, which are explained below.

First, you may search first for your website by name, then navigate search results from there:

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Alternatively, you may search first for the product or feature you’re looking for, then filter down by your website:

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Search for account-wide products

Many Cloudflare products and features are not tied directly to a website or domain that you have set up in Cloudflare, like Workers, R2, Magic Transit—not to mention their related sub-pages. Now, you may use quick search to more easily navigate to those sections of the dashboard.

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Here’s an overview of what’s next on our quick search roadmap (and not yet supported today):

  • Search results do not currently return results of product- and feature-specific names or configurations, such as Worker names, specific DNS records, IP addresses, Firewall Rules.
  • Search results do not currently return results from within the Zero Trust dashboard.
  • Search results do not currently return results for Cloudflare content living outside the dashboard, like Support or Developer documentation.

We’d love to hear what you think. What would you like to see added next? Let us know using the feedback link found at the bottom of the search window.

We've shipped so many products the Cloudflare dashboard needed its own search engine

Our vision for the future of the dashboard

We’re excited to launch quick search and to continue improving our dashboard experience for all customers. Over time, we’ll mature our search functionality to index any and all content you might be looking for — including search results for all product content, Support and Developer docs, extending search across accounts, caching your recent searches, and more.

Quick search is one of many important user experience improvements we are planning to tackle over the coming weeks, months and years. The dashboard is central to your Cloudflare experience, and we’re fully committed to making your experience delightful, useful, and easy. Stay tuned for an upcoming blog post outlining the vision for the Cloudflare dashboard, from our in-app home experience to our global navigation and beyond.

For now, keep your eye out for the little search icon that will help you in your day-to-day responsibilities in Cloudflare, and if you don’t see it yet, don’t worry—we can’t wait to ship it to you soon.

If you don’t yet see quick search in your Cloudflare dashboard, you can request early access by filling out this form.

Internship Experience: Software Development Intern

Post Syndicated from Ulysses Kee original https://blog.cloudflare.com/internship-experience-software-development-intern/

Internship Experience: Software Development Intern

Before we dive into my experience interning at Cloudflare, let me quickly introduce myself. I am currently a master’s student at the National University of Singapore (NUS) studying Computer Science. I am passionate about building software that improves people’s lives and making the Internet a better place for everyone. Back in December 2021, I joined Cloudflare as a Software Development Intern on the Partnerships team to help improve the experience that Partners have when using the platform. I was extremely excited about this opportunity and jumped at the prospect of working on serverless technology to build viable tools for our partners and customers. In this blog post, I detail my experience working at Cloudflare and the many highlights of my internship.

Interview Experience

The process began for me back when I was taking a software engineering module at NUS where one of my classmates had shared a job post for an internship at Cloudflare. I had known about Cloudflare’s DNS service prior and was really excited to learn more about the internship opportunity because I really resonated with the company’s mission to help build a better Internet.

I knew right away that this would be a great opportunity and submitted my application. Soon after, I heard back from the recruiting team and went through the interview process – the entire interview process was extremely accommodating and is definitely the most enjoyable interview experience I have had. Throughout the process, I was constantly asked about the kind of things I would like to work on and the relevance of the work that I would be doing. I felt that this thorough communication carried on throughout the internship and really was a cornerstone of my experience interning at Cloudflare.

My Internship

My internship began with onboarding and training, and then after, I had discussions with my mentor, Ayush Verma, on the projects we aimed to complete during the internship and the order of objectives. The main issues we wanted to address was the current manual process that our internal teams and partners go through when they want to duplicate the configuration settings on a zone, or when they want to compare one zone to other zones to ensure that there are no misconfigurations. As you can imagine, with the number of different configurations offered on the Cloudflare dashboard for customers, it could take significant time to copy over every setting and rule manually from one zone to another. Additionally, this process, when done manually, poses a potential threat for misconfigurations due to human error. Furthermore, as more and more customers onboard different zones onto Cloudflare, there needs to be a more automated and improved way for them to make these configuration setups.

Initially, we discussed using Terraform as Cloudflare already supports terraform automation. However, this approach would only cater towards customers and users that have more technical resources and, in true Cloudflare spirit, we wanted to keep it simple such that it could be used by any and everyone. Therefore, we decided to leverage the publicly available Cloudflare APIs and create a browser-based application that interacts with these APIs to display configurations and make changes easily from a simple UI.

With the end goal of simplifying the experience for our partners and customers in duplicating zone configurations, we decided to build a Zone Copier web application solely built on Cloudflare Workers. This tool would, in a click of a button, automatically copy over every setting that can be copied from one zone to another, significantly reducing the amount of time and effort required to make the changes.

Alongside the Zone Copier, we would have some auxiliary tools such as a Zone Viewer, and Zone Comparison, where a customer can easily have a full view of their configurations on a single webpage and be able to compare different zones that they use respectively. These other applications improve upon the existing methods through which Cloudflare users can view their zone configurations, and allow for the direct comparison between different zones.

Importantly, these applications are not to replace the Cloudflare Dashboard, but to complement it instead – for deeper dives into a single particular configuration setting, the Cloudflare Dashboard remains the way to go.

To begin building the web application, I spent the first few weeks diving into the publicly available APIs offered by Cloudflare as part of the v4 API to verify the outputs of each endpoint, and the type of data that would be sent as a response from a request. This took much longer than expected as certain endpoints provided different default responses for a zone that has either an empty setting – for example, not having any Firewall Rules created – or uses a nested structure for its relevant response. These different potential responses have to be examined so that when the web application calls the respective API endpoint, the responses are handled appropriately. This process was quite manual as each endpoint had to be verified individually to ensure the output would work seamlessly with the application.

Once I completed my research, I was able to start designing the web application. Building the web application was a very interesting experience as the stack rested solely on Workers, a serverless application platform. My prior experiences building web applications used servers that require the deployment of a server built using Express and Node.js, whereas for my internship project, I completely relied on a backend built using the itty-router library on Workers to interface with the publicly available Cloudflare APIs. I found this extremely exciting as building a serverless application required less overhead compared to setting up a server and deploying it, and using Workers itself has many other added benefits such as zero cold starts. This introduction to serverless technology and my experience deep-diving into the capabilities of Workers has really opened my eyes to the possibilities that Workers as a platform can offer. With Workers, you can deploy any application on Cloudflare’s global network like I did!

For the frontend of the web application, I used React and the Chakra-UI library to build the user interface for which the Zone Viewer, Zone Comparison, and Zone Copier, is based on. The routing between different pages was done using React Router and the application is deployed directly through Workers.

Here is a screenshot of the application:

Internship Experience: Software Development Intern

Presenting the prototype application

As developers will know, the best way to obtain feedback for the tool that you’re building is to directly have your customers use them and let you know what they think of your application and the kind of features they want to have built on top of it. Therefore, once we had a prototype version of the web application for the Zone Viewer and Zone Comparison complete, we presented the application to the Solutions Engineering team to hear their thoughts on the impact the tool would have on their work and additional features they would like to see built on the application. I found this process very enriching as they collectively mentioned how impactful the application would be for their work and the value add this project provides to them.

Some interesting feedback and feature requests I received were:

  1. The Zone Copier would definitely be very useful for our partners who have to replicate the configuration of one zone to another regularly, and it’s definitely going to help make sure there are less human errors in the process of configuring the setups.
  2. Besides duplicating configurations from zone-to-zone, could we use this to replicate the configurations from a best-in-class setup for different use cases and allow partners to deploy this with a few clicks?
  3. Can we use this tool to generate quarterly reports?
  4. The Zone Viewer would be very helpful for us when we produce documentation on a particular zone’s configuration as part of a POC report.
  5. The Zone Viewer will also give us much deeper insight to better understand the current zone configurations and provide recommendations to improve it.

It was also a very cool experience speaking to the broad Solutions Engineering team as I found that many were very technically inclined and had many valid suggestions for improving the architecture and development of the applications. A special thanks to Edwin Wong for setting up the sharing session with the internal team, and many thanks to Xin Meng, AQ Jiao, Yonggil Choi, Steve Molloy, Kyouhei Hayama, Claire Lim and Jamal Boutkabout for their great insight and suggestions!

Impact of Cloudflare outside of work

While Cloudflare is known for its impeccable transparency throughout the company, and the stellar products it provides in helping make the Internet better, I wanted to take this opportunity to talk about the other endeavors that the company has too.

Cloudflare is part of the Pledge 1%, where the company dedicates 1% of products and 1% of our time to give back to the local communities as well as all the communities we support online around the world.

I took part in one of these activities, where we spent a morning cleaning up parts of the East Coast Park beach, by picking up trash and litter that had been left behind by other park users. Here’s a picture of us from that morning:

Internship Experience: Software Development Intern

From day one, I have been thoroughly impressed by Cloudflare’s commitment to its culture and the effort everyone at Cloudflare puts in to make the company a great place to work and have a positive impact on the surrounding community.

In addition to giving back to the community, other aspects of company culture include having a good team spirit and safe working environment where you feel appreciated and taken care of. At Cloudflare, I have found that everyone is very understanding of work commitments. I faced a few challenges during the internship where I had to spend additional time on university related projects and work, and my manager has always been very supportive and understanding if I required additional time to complete parts of the internship project.

Concluding takeaways

My experience interning at Cloudflare has been extremely positive, and I have seen first hand how transparent the company is with not only its employees but also its customers, and it truly is a great place to work. Cloudflare’s collaborative culture allowed me to access members from different teams, to obtain their thoughts and assistance with certain issues that I faced from time to time. I would not have been able to produce an impactful project without the help of the different brilliant, and motivated, people I worked with across the span of the internship, and I am truly grateful for such a rewarding experience.

We are getting ready to open intern roles for this coming Fall, so we encourage you to visit our careers page frequently, to be up-to-date on all the opportunities we have within our teams.

Query and visualize Amazon Redshift operational metrics using the Amazon Redshift plugin for Grafana

Post Syndicated from Sergey Konoplev original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/query-and-visualize-amazon-redshift-operational-metrics-using-the-amazon-redshift-plugin-for-grafana/

Grafana is a rich interactive open-source tool by Grafana Labs for visualizing data across one or many data sources. It’s used in a variety of modern monitoring stacks, allowing you to have a common technical base and apply common monitoring practices across different systems. Amazon Managed Grafana is a fully managed, scalable, and secure Grafana-as-a-service solution developed by AWS in collaboration with Grafana Labs.

Amazon Redshift is the most widely used data warehouse in the cloud. You can view your Amazon Redshift cluster’s operational metrics on the Amazon Redshift console, use AWS CloudWatch, and query Amazon Redshift system tables directly from your cluster. The first two options provide a set of predefined general metrics and visualizations. The last one allows you to use the flexibility of SQL to get deep insights into the details of the workload. However, querying system tables requires knowledge of system table structures. To address that, we came up with a consolidated Amazon Redshift Grafana dashboard that visualizes a set of curated operational metrics and works on top of the Amazon Redshift Grafana data source. You can easily add it to an Amazon Managed Grafana workspace, as well as to any other Grafana deployments where the data source is installed.

This post guides you through a step-by-step process to create an Amazon Managed Grafana workspace and configure an Amazon Redshift cluster with a Grafana data source for it. Lastly, we show you how to set up the Amazon Redshift Grafana dashboard to visualize the cluster metrics.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.

Architecture Diagram

The solution includes the following components:

  • The Amazon Redshift cluster to get the metrics from.
  • Amazon Managed Grafana, with the Amazon Redshift data source plugin added to it. Amazon Managed Grafana communicates with the Amazon Redshift cluster via the Amazon Redshift Data Service API.
  • The Grafana web UI, with the Amazon Redshift dashboard using the Amazon Redshift cluster as the data source. The web UI communicates with Amazon Managed Grafana via an HTTP API.

We walk you through the following steps during the configuration process:

  1. Configure an Amazon Redshift cluster.
  2. Create a database user for Amazon Managed Grafana on the cluster.
  3. Configure a user in AWS Single Sign-On (AWS SSO) for Amazon Managed Grafana UI access.
  4. Configure an Amazon Managed Grafana workspace and sign in to Grafana.
  5. Set up Amazon Redshift as the data source in Grafana.
  6. Import the Amazon Redshift dashboard supplied with the data source.


To follow along with this walkthrough, you should have the following prerequisites:

  • An AWS account
  • Familiarity with the basic concepts of the following services:
    • Amazon Redshift
    • Amazon Managed Grafana
    • AWS SSO

Configure an Amazon Redshift cluster

If you don’t have an Amazon Redshift cluster, create a sample cluster before proceeding with the following steps. For this post, we assume that the cluster identifier is called redshift-demo-cluster-1 and the admin user name is awsuser.

  1. On the Amazon Redshift console, choose Clusters in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose your cluster.
  3. Choose the Properties tab.

Redshift Cluster Properties

To make the cluster discoverable by Amazon Managed Grafana, you must add a special tag to it.

  1. Choose Add tags. Redshift Cluster Tags
  2. For Key, enter GrafanaDataSource.
  3. For Value, enter true.
  4. Choose Save changes.

Redshift Cluster Tags

Create a database user for Amazon Managed Grafana

Grafana will be directly querying the cluster, and it requires a database user to connect to the cluster. In this step, we create the user redshift_data_api_user and apply some security best practices.

  1. On the cluster details page, choose Query data and Query in query editor v2.Query Editor v2
  2. Choose the redshift-demo-cluster-1 cluster we created previously.
  3. For Database, enter the default dev.
  4. Enter the user name and password that you used to create the cluster.
  5. Choose Create connection.Redshift SU
  6. In the query editor, enter the following statements and choose Run:
CREATE USER redshift_data_api_user PASSWORD '&lt;password&gt;' CREATEUSER;
ALTER USER redshift_data_api_user SET readonly TO TRUE;
ALTER USER redshift_data_api_user SET query_group TO 'superuser';

The first statement creates a user with superuser privileges necessary to access system tables and views (make sure to use a unique password). The second prohibits the user from making modifications. The last statement isolates the queries the user can run to the superuser queue, so they don’t interfere with the main workload.

In this example, we use service managed permissions in Amazon Managed Grafana and a workspace AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role as an authentication provider in the Amazon Redshift Grafana data source. We create the database user redshift_data_api_user using the AmazonGrafanaRedshiftAccess policy.

Configure a user in AWS SSO for Amazon Managed Grafana UI access

Two authentication methods are available for accessing Amazon Managed Grafana: AWS SSO and SAML. In this example, we use AWS SSO.

  1. On the AWS SSO console, choose Users in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Add user.
  3. In the Add user section, provide the required information.

SSO add user

In this post, we select Send an email to the user with password setup instructions. You need to be able to access the email address you enter because you use this email further in the process.

  1. Choose Next to proceed to the next step.
  2. Choose Add user.

An email is sent to the email address you specified.

  1. Choose Accept invitation in the email.

You’re redirected to sign in as a new user and set a password for the user.

  1. Enter a new password and choose Set new password to finish the user creation.

Configure an Amazon Managed Grafana workspace and sign in to Grafana

Now you’re ready to set up an Amazon Managed Grafana workspace.

  1. On the Amazon Grafana console, choose Create workspace.
  2. For Workspace name, enter a name, for example grafana-demo-workspace-1.
  3. Choose Next.
  4. For Authentication access, select AWS Single Sign-On.
  5. For Permission type, select Service managed.
  6. Chose Next to proceed.AMG Workspace configure
  7. For IAM permission access settings, select Current account.AMG permission
  8. For Data sources, select Amazon Redshift.
  9. Choose Next to finish the workspace creation.Redshift to workspace

You’re redirected to the workspace page.

Next, we need to enable AWS SSO as an authentication method.

  1. On the workspace page, choose Assign new user or group.SSO new user
  2. Select the previously created AWS SSO user under Users and Select users and groups tables.SSO User

You need to make the user an admin, because we set up the Amazon Redshift data source with it.

  1. Select the user from the Users list and choose Make admin.
  2. Go back to the workspace and choose the Grafana workspace URL link to open the Grafana UI.AMG workspace
  3. Sign in with the user name and password you created in the AWS SSO configuration step.

Set up an Amazon Redshift data source in Grafana

To visualize the data in Grafana, we need to access the data first. To do so, we must create a data source pointing to the Amazon Redshift cluster.

  1. On the navigation bar, choose the lower AWS icon (there are two) and then choose Redshift from the list.
  2. For Regions, choose the Region of your cluster.
  3. Select the cluster from the list and choose Add 1 data source.Choose Redshift Cluster
  4. On the Provisioned data sources page, choose Go to settings.
  5. For Name, enter a name for your data source.
  6. By default, Authentication Provider should be set as Workspace IAM Role, Default Region should be the Region of your cluster, and Cluster Identifier should be the name of the chosen cluster.
  7. For Database, enter dev.
  8. For Database User, enter redshift_data_api_user.
  9. Choose Save & Test.Settings for Data Source

A success message should appear.

Data source working

Import the Amazon Redshift dashboard supplied with the data source

As the last step, we import the default Amazon Redshift dashboard and make sure that it works.

  1. In the data source we just created, choose Dashboards on the top navigation bar and choose Import to import the Amazon Redshift dashboard.Dashboards in the plugin
  2. Under Dashboards on the navigation sidebar, choose Manage.
  3. In the dashboards list, choose Amazon Redshift.

The dashboard appear, showing operational data from your cluster. When you add more clusters and create data sources for them in Grafana, you can choose them from the Data source list on the dashboard.

Clean up

To avoid incurring unnecessary charges, delete the Amazon Redshift cluster, AWS SSO user, and Amazon Managed Grafana workspace resources that you created as part of this solution.


In this post, we covered the process of setting up an Amazon Redshift dashboard working under Amazon Managed Grafana with AWS SSO authentication and querying from the Amazon Redshift cluster under the same AWS account. This is just one way to create the dashboard. You can modify the process to set it up with SAML as an authentication method, use custom IAM roles to manage permissions with more granularity, query Amazon Redshift clusters outside of the AWS account where the Grafana workspace is, use an access key and secret or AWS Secrets Manager based connection credentials in data sources, and more. You can also customize the dashboard by adding or altering visualizations using the feature-rich Grafana UI.

Because the Amazon Redshift data source plugin is an open-source project, you can install it in any Grafana deployment, whether it’s in the cloud, on premises, or even in a container running on your laptop. That allows you to seamlessly integrate Amazon Redshift monitoring into virtually all your existing Grafana-based monitoring stacks.

For more details about the systems and processes described in this post, refer to the following:

About the Authors

Sergey Konoplev is a Senior Database Engineer on the Amazon Redshift team. Sergey has been focusing on automation and improvement of database and data operations for more than a decade.

Milind Oke is a Data Warehouse Specialist Solutions Architect based out of New York. He has been building data warehouse solutions for over 15 years and specializes in Amazon Redshift.

How to set up Amazon Quicksight dashboard for Amazon Pinpoint and Amazon SES engagement events

Post Syndicated from satyaso original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/messaging-and-targeting/how-to-set-up-amazon-quicksight-dashboard-for-amazon-pinpoint-and-amazon-ses-events/

In this post, we will walk through using Amazon Pinpoint and Amazon Quicksight to create customizable messaging campaign reports. Amazon Pinpoint is a flexible and scalable outbound and inbound marketing communications service that allows customers to connect with users over channels like email, SMS, push, or voice. Amazon QuickSight is a scalable, serverless, embeddable, machine learning-powered business intelligence (BI) service built for the cloud. This solution allows event and user data from Amazon Pinpoint to flow into Amazon Quicksight. Once in Quicksight, customers can build their own reports that shows campaign performance on a more granular level.

Engagement Event Dashboard

Customers want to view the results of their messaging campaigns in ever increasing levels of granularity and ensure their users see value from the email, SMS or push notifications they receive. Customers also want to analyze how different user segments respond to different messages, and how to optimize subsequent user communication. Previously, customers could only view this data in Amazon Pinpoint analytics, which offers robust reporting on: events, funnels, and campaigns. However, does not allow analysis across these different parameters and the building of custom reports. For example, show campaign revenue across different user segments, or show what events were generated after a user viewed a campaign in a funnel analysis. Customers would need to extract this data themselves and do the analysis in excel.


  • Digital user engagement event database solution must be setup at 1st.
  • Customers should be prepared to purchase Amazon Quicksight because it has its own set of costs which is not covered within Amazon Pinpoint cost.

Solution Overview

This Solution uses the Athena tables created by Digital user engagement events database solution. The AWS CloudFormation template given in this post automatically sets up the different architecture components, to capture detailed notifications about Amazon Pinpoint engagement events and log those in Amazon Athena in the form of Athena views. You still need to manually configure Amazon Quicksight dashboards to link to these newly generated Athena views. Please follow the steps below in order for further information.

Use case(s)

Event dashboard solutions have following use cases: –

  • Deep dive into engagement insights. (eg: SMS events, Email events, Campaign events, Journey events)
  • The ability to view engagement events at the individual user level.
  • Data/process mining turn raw event data into useful marking insights.
  • User engagement benchmarking and end user event funneling.
  • Compute campaign conversions (post campaign user analysis to show campaign effectiveness)
  • Build funnels that shows user progression.

Getting started with solution deployment

Prerequisite tasks to be completed before deploying the logging solution

Step 1 – Create AWS account, Pinpoint Project, Implement Event-Database-Solution.
As part of this step customers need to implement DUE Event database solution as the current solution (DUE event dashboard) is an extension of DUE event database solution. The basic assumption here is that the customer has already configured Amazon Pinpoint project or Amazon SES within the required AWS region before implementing this step.

The steps required to implement an event dashboard solution are as follows.

a/Follow the steps mentioned in Event database solution to implement the complete stack. Prior installing the complete stack copy and save the name Athena events database name as shown in the diagram. For my case it is due_eventdb. Database name is required as an input parameter for the current Event Dashboard solution.

b/Once the solution is deployed, navigate to the output page of the cloud formation stack, and copy, and save the following information, which will be required as input parameters in step 2 of the current Event Dashboard solution.

Step 2 – Deploy Cloud formation template for Event dashboard solution
This step generates a number of new Amazon Athena views that will serve as a data source for Amazon Quicksight. Continue with the following actions.

  • Download the cloud formation template(“Event-dashboard.yaml”) from AWS samples.
  • Navigate to Cloud formation page in AWS console, click up right on “Create stack” and select the option “With new resources (standard)”
  • Leave the “Prerequisite – Prepare template” to “Template is ready” and for the “Specify template” option, select “Upload a template file”. On the same page, click on “Choose file”, browse to find the file “Event-dashboard.yaml” file and select it. Once the file is uploaded, click “Next” and deploy the stack.

  • Enter following information under the section “Specify stack details”:
    • EventAthenaDatabaseName – As mentioned in Step 1-a.
    • S3DataLogBucket- As mentioned in Step 1-b
    • This solution will create additional 5 Athena views which are
      • All_email_events
      • All_SMS_events
      • All_custom_events (Custom events can be Mobile app/WebApp/Push Events)
      • All_campaign_events
      • All_journey_events

Step 3 – Create Amazon Quicksight engagement Dashboard
This step walks you through the process of creating an Amazon Quicksight dashboard for Amazon Pinpoint engagement events using the Athena views you created in step-2

  1. To Setup Amazon Quicksight for the 1st time please follow this link (this process is not needed if you have already setup Amazon Quicksight). Please make sure you are an Amazon Quicksight Administrator.
  2. Go/search Amazon Quicksight on AWS console.
  3. Create New Analysis and then select “New dataset”
  4. Select Athena as data source
  5. As a next step, you need to select what all analysis you need for respective events. This solution provides option to create 5 different set of analysis as mentioned in Step 2. They are a/All email events, b/All SMS Events, c/All Custom Events (Mobile/Web App, web push etc), d/ All Campaign events, e/All Journey events. Dashboard can be created from Quicksight analysis and same can be shared among the organization stake holders. Following are the steps to create analysis and dashboards for different type of events.
  6. Email Events –
    • For all email events, name the analysis “All-emails-events” (this can be any kind of customer preferred nomenclature), select Athena workgroup as primary, and then create a data source.
    • Once you create the data source Quicksight lists all the views and tables available under the specified database (in our case it is:-  due_eventdb). Select the email_all_events view as data source.
    • Select the event data location for analysis. There are mainly two options available which are a/ Import to Spice quicker analysis b/ Directly query your data. Please select the preferred options and then click on “visualize the data”.
    • Import to Spice quicker analysis – SPICE is the Amazon QuickSight Super-fast, Parallel, In-memory Calculation Engine. It’s engineered to rapidly perform advanced calculations and serve data. In Enterprise edition, data stored in SPICE is encrypted at rest. (1 GB of storage is available for free for extra storage customer need to pay extra, please refer cost section in this document )
    • Directly query your data – This process enables Quicksight to query directly to the Athena or source database (In the current case it is Athena) and Quicksight will not store any data.
    • Now that you have selected a data source, you will be taken to a blank quick sight canvas (Blank analysis page) as shown in the following Image, please drag and drop what visualization type you need to visualize onto the auto-graph pane. Please note that Amazon QuickSight is a Busines intelligence platform, so customers are free to choose the desired visualization types to observe the individual engagement events.
    • As part of this blog, we have displayed how to create some simple analysis graphs to visualize the engagement events.
    • As an initial step please Select tabular Visualization as shown in the Image.
    • Select all the event dimensions that you want to put it as part of the Table in X axis. Amazon Quicksight table can be extended to show as many as tables columns, this completely depends upon the business requirement how much data marketers want to visualize.
    • Further filtering on the table can be done using Quicksight filters, you can apply the filter on specific granular values to enable further filtering. For Eg – If you want to apply filtering on the destination email Id then 1/Select the filter from left hand menu 2/Add destination field as the filtering criterion 3/ Tick on the destination field you are trying to filter or search for the Destination email ID that 4/ All the result in the table gets further filtered as per the filter criterion
    • As a next step please add another visual from top left corner “Add -> Add Visual”, then select the Donut Chart from Visual types pane. Donut charts are always used for displaying aggregation.
    • Then select the “event_type” as the Group to visualize the aggregated events, this helps marketers/business users to figure out how many email events occurred and what are the aggregated success ratio, click ratio, complain ratio or bounce ratio etc for the emails/Campaign that’s sent to end users.
    • To create a Quicksight dashboards from the Quicksight analysis click Share menu option at the top right corner then select publish dashboard”. Provide required dashboard name while publishing the dashboard”. Same dashboard can be shared with multiple audiences in the Organization.
    • Following is the final version of the dashboard. As mentioned above Quicksight dashboards can be shared with other stakeholders and also complete dashboard can be exported as excel sheet.
  7. SMS Events-
    • As shown above SMS events can be analyzed using Quicksight and dash boards can be created out of the analysis. Please repeat all of the sub-steps listed in step 6. Following is a sample SMS dashboard.
  8. Custom Events-
    • After you integrate your application (app) with Amazon Pinpoint, Amazon Pinpoint can stream event data about user activity, different type custom events, and message deliveries for the app. Eg :- Session.start, Product_page_view, _session.stop etc. Do repeat all of the sub-steps listed in step 6 create a custom event dashboards.
  9. Campaign events
    • As shown before campaign also can be included in the same dashboard or you can create new dashboard only for campaign events.

Cost for Event dashboard solution
You are responsible for the cost of the AWS services used while running this solution. As of the date of publication, the cost for running this solution with default settings in the US West (Oregon) Region is approximately $65 a month. The cost estimate includes the cost of AWS Lambda, Amazon Athena, Amazon Quicksight. The estimate assumes querying 1TB of data in a month, and two authors managing Amazon Quicksight every month, four Amazon Quicksight readers witnessing the events dashboard unlimited times in a month, and a Quicksight spice capacity is 50 GB per month. Prices are subject to change. For full details, see the pricing webpage for each AWS service you will be using in this solution.

Clean up

When you’re done with this exercise, complete the following steps to delete your resources and stop incurring costs:

  1. On the CloudFormation console, select your stack and choose Delete. This cleans up all the resources created by the stack,
  2. Delete the Amazon Quicksight Dashboards and data sets that you have created.


In this blog post, I have demonstrated how marketers, business users, and business analysts can utilize Amazon Quicksight dashboards to evaluate and exploit user engagement data from Amazon SES and Pinpoint event streams. Customers can also utilize this solution to understand how Amazon Pinpoint campaigns lead to business conversions, in addition to analyzing multi-channel communication metrics at the individual user level.

Next steps

The personas for this blog are both the tech team and the marketing analyst team, as it involves a code deployment to create very simple Athena views, as well as the steps to create an Amazon Quicksight dashboard to analyse Amazon SES and Amazon Pinpoint engagement events at the individual user level. Customers may then create their own Amazon Quicksight dashboards to illustrate the conversion ratio and propensity trends in real time by integrating campaign events with app-level events such as purchase conversions, order placement, and so on.

Extending the solution

You can download the AWS Cloudformation templates, code for this solution from our public GitHub repository and modify it to fit your needs.

About the Author

Satyasovan Tripathy works at Amazon Web Services as a Senior Specialist Solution Architect. He is based in Bengaluru, India, and specialises on the AWS Digital User Engagement product portfolio. He likes reading and travelling outside of work.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard

Post Syndicated from Garrett Galow original https://blog.cloudflare.com/dark-mode/

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard

Today, dark mode is available for the Cloudflare Dashboard in beta! From your user profile, you can configure the Cloudflare Dashboard in light mode, dark mode, or match it to your system settings.

For those unfamiliar, dark mode, or light on dark color schemes, uses light text on dark backgrounds instead of the typical dark text on light (usually white) backgrounds. In low-light environments, this can help reduce eyestrain and actually reduce power consumption on OLED screens. For many though, dark mode is simply a preference supported widely by applications and devices.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Side by side comparing the Cloudflare dashboard in dark mode and in light mode

How to enable dark mode

  1. Log into Cloudflare.
  2. Go to your user profile.
  3. Under Appearance, select an option: Light, Dark, or Use system setting. For the time being, your choice is saved into local storage.
Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
The appearance card in the dashboard for modifying color themes

There are many primers and how-tos on implementing dark mode, and you can find articles talking about the general complications of implementing a dark mode including this straightforward explanation. Instead, we will talk about what enabled us to be able to implement dark mode in only a matter of weeks.

Cloudflare’s Design System – Our Secret Weapon

Before getting into the specifics of how we implemented dark mode, it helps to understand the system that underpins all product design and UI work at Cloudflare – the Cloudflare Design System.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
The six pillars of the design system: logo, typography, color, layout, icons, videos

Cloudflare’s Design System defines and documents the interface elements and patterns used to build products at Cloudflare. The system can be used to efficiently build consistent experiences for Cloudflare customers. In practice, the Design System defines primitives like typography, color, layout, and icons in a clear and standard fashion. What this means is that anytime a new interface is designed, or new UI code is written, an easily referenceable, highly detailed set of documentation is available to ensure that the work matches previous work. This increases productivity, especially for new employees, and prevents repetitious discussions about style choices and interaction design.

Built on top of these design primitives, we also have our own component library. This is a set of ready to use components that designers and engineers can combine to form the products our customers use every day. They adhere to the design system, are battle tested in terms of code quality, and enhance the user experience by providing consistent implementations of common UI components. Any button, table, or chart you see looks and works the same because it is the same underlying code with the relevant data changed for the specific use case.

So, what does all of this have to do with dark mode? Everything, it turns out. Due to the widespread adoption of the design system across the dashboard, changing a set of variables like background color and text color in a specific way and seeing the change applied nearly everywhere at once becomes much easier. Let’s take a closer look at how we did that.

Turning Out the Lights

The use of color at Cloudflare has a well documented history. When we originally set out to build our color system, the tools we built and the extensive research we performed resulted in a ten-hue, ten-luminosity set of colors that can be used to build digital products. These colors were built to be accessible — not just in terms of internal use, but for our customers. Take our blue hue scale, for example.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Our blue color scale, as used on the Cloudflare Dashboard. This shows color-contrast accessible text and background pairings for each step in the scale.

Each hue in our color scale contains ten colors, ordered by luminosity in ten increasing increments from low luminosity to high luminosity. This color scale allows us to filter down the choice of color from the 16,777,216 hex codes available on the web to a much simpler choice of just hue and brightness. As a result, we now have a methodology where designers know the first five steps in a scale have sufficient color contrast with white or lighter text, and the last five steps in a scale have sufficient contrast with black or darker text.

Color scales also allow us to make changes while designing in a far more fluid fashion. If a piece of text is too bright relative to its surroundings, drop down a step on the scale. If an element is too visually heavy, take a step-up. With the Design System and these color scales in place, we’ve been able to design and ship products at a rapid rate.

So, with this color system in place, how do we begin to ship a dark mode? It turns out there’s a simple solution to this, and it’s built into the JS standard library. We call reverse() and flip the luminosity scales.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Our blue color scale after calling reverse on it. High luminosity colors are now at the start of the scale, making them contrast accessible with darker backgrounds (and vice-versa).

By performing this small change within our dashboard’s React codebase and shipping a production preview deploy, we were able to see the Cloudflare Dashboard in dark mode with a whole new set of colors in a matter of minutes.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
An early preview of the Cloudflare Dashboard after flipping our color scales.

While not perfect, this brief prototype gave us an incredibly solid baseline and validated the approach with a number of benefits.

Every product built using the Cloudflare Design System now had a dark mode theme built in for free, with no additional work required by teams.

Our color contrast principles remain sound — just as the first five colors in a scale would be accessible with light text, when flipped, the first five colors in the scale are accessible with dark text. Our scales aren’t perfectly symmetrical, but when using white and black, the principle still holds.

In a traditional approach of “inverting” colors, we face the issue of a color’s hue being changed too. When a color is broken down into its constituent hue, saturation, and luminosity values, inverting it would mean a vibrant light blue would become a dull dark orange. Our approach of just inverting the luminosity of a color means that we retain the saturation and hue of a color, meaning we retain Cloudflare’s brand aesthetic and the associated meaning of each hue (blue buttons as calls-to-action, and so on).

Of course, shipping a dark mode for a product as complex as the Cloudflare Dashboard can’t just be done in a matter of minutes.

Not Quite Just Turning the Lights Off

Although our prototype did meet our initial requirements of facilitating the dashboard in a dark theme, some details just weren’t quite right. The data visualization and mapping libraries we use, our icons, text, and various button and link states all had to be audited and required further iterations. One of the most obvious and prominent examples was the page background color. Our prototype had simply changed the background color from white (#FFFFFF) to black (#000000). It quickly became apparent that black wasn’t appropriate. We received feedback that it was “too intense” and “harsh.” We instead opted for off black, specifically what we refer to as “gray.0” or #1D1D1D. The difference may not seem noticeable, but at larger dimensions, the gray background is much less distracting.

Here is what it looks like in our design system:

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Black background color contrast for white text
Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Gray background color contrast for white text

And here is a more realistic example:

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
lorem ipsum sample text on black background and on gray background

The numbers at the end of each row represent the contrast of the text color on the background. According to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), the standard contrast ratio for text should be at least 4.5:1. In our case, while both of the above examples exceed the standard, the gray background ends up being less harsh to use across an entire application. This is not the case with light mode as dark text on white (#FFFFFF) background works well.

Our technique during the prototyping stage involved flipping our color scale; however, we additionally created a tool to let us replace any color within the scale arbitrarily. As the dashboard is made up of charts, icons, links, shadows, buttons and certainly other components, we needed to be able to see how they reacted in their various possible states. Importantly, we also wanted to improve the accessibility of these components and pay particular attention to color contrast.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Color picker tool screenshot showing a color scale

For example, a button is made up of four distinct states:

1) Default
2) Focus
3) Hover
4) Active

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Example showing the various colors for states of buttons in light and dark mode

We wanted to ensure that each of these states would be at least compliant with the AA accessibility standards according to the WCAG. Using a combination of our design systems documentation and a prioritized list of components and pages based on occurrence and visits, we meticulously reviewed each state of our components to ensure their compliance.

Dark Mode for the Cloudflare Dashboard
Side by side comparison of the navbar in light and dark modes

The navigation bar used to select between the different applications was a component we wanted to treat differently compared to light mode. In light mode, the app icons are a solid blue with an outline of the icon; it’s a distinct look and certainly one that grabs your attention. However, for dark mode, the consensus was that it was too bright and distracting for the overall desired experience. We wanted the overall aesthetic of dark mode to be subtle, but it’s important to not conflate aesthetic with poor usability. With that in mind, we made the decision for the navigation bar to use outlines around each icon, instead of being filled in. Only the selected application has a filled state. By using outlines, we are able to create sufficient contrast between the current active application and the rest. Additionally, this provided a visually distinct way to present hover states, by displaying a filled state.

After applying the same methodology as described to other components like charts, icons, and links, we end up with a nicely tailored experience without requiring a substantial overhaul of our codebase. For any new UI that teams at Cloudflare build going forward, they will not have to worry about extra work to support dark mode. This means we get an improved customer experience without any impact to our long term ability to keep delivering amazing new capabilities — that’s a win-win!

Welcome to the Dark Side

We know many of you have been asking for this, and we are excited to bring dark mode to all. Without the investment into our design system by many folks at Cloudflare, dark mode would not have seen the light of day. You can enable dark mode on the Appearance card in your user profile. You can give feedback to shape the future of the dark theme with the feedback form in the card.

If you find these types of problems interesting, come help us tackle them! We are hiring across product, design, and engineering!

Introducing logs from the dashboard for Cloudflare Workers

Post Syndicated from Ashcon Partovi original https://blog.cloudflare.com/workers-dashboard-logs/

Introducing logs from the dashboard for Cloudflare Workers

Introducing logs from the dashboard for Cloudflare Workers

If you’re writing code: what can go wrong, will go wrong.

Many developers know the feeling: “It worked in the local testing suite, it worked in our staging environment, but… it’s broken in production?” Testing can reduce mistakes and debugging can help find them, but logs give us the tools to understand and improve what we are creating.

if (this === undefined) {
  console.log("there’s no way… right?") // Narrator: there was.

While logging can help you understand when the seemingly impossible is actually possible, it’s something that no developer really wants to set up or maintain on their own. That’s why we’re excited to launch a new addition to the Cloudflare Workers platform: logs and exceptions from the dashboard.

Starting today, you can view and filter the console.log output and exceptions from a Worker… at no additional cost with no configuration needed!

View logs, just a click away

When you view a Worker in the dashboard, you’ll now see a “Logs” tab which you can click on to view a detailed stream of logs and exceptions. Here’s what it looks like in action:

Each log entry contains an event with a list of logs, exceptions, and request headers if it was triggered by an HTTP request. We also automatically redact sensitive URLs and headers such as Authorization, Cookie, or anything else that appears to have a sensitive name.

If you are in the Durable Objects open beta, you will also be able to view the logs and requests sent to each Durable Object. This is a great tool to help you understand and debug the interactions between your Worker and a Durable Object.

For now, we support filtering by event status and type. Though, you can expect more filters to be added to the dashboard very soon! Today, we support advanced filtering with the wrangler CLI, which will be discussed later in this blog.

console.log(), and you’re all set

It’s really simple to get started with logging for Workers. Simply invoke one of the standard console APIs, such as console.log(), and we handle the rest. That’s it! There’s no extra setup, no configuration needed, and no hidden logging fees.

function logRequest (request) {
  const { cf, headers } = request
  const { city, region, country, colo, clientTcpRtt  } = cf
  console.log("Detected location:", [city, region, country].filter(Boolean).join(", "))
  if (clientTcpRtt) {
     console.debug("Round-trip time from client to", colo, "is", clientTcpRtt, "ms")

  // You can also pass an object, which will be interpreted as JSON.
  // This is great if you want to define your own structured log schema.
  console.log({ headers })

In fact, you don’t even need to use console.log to view an event from the dashboard. If your Worker doesn’t generate any logs or exceptions, you will still be able to see the request headers from the event.

Advanced filters, from your terminal

If you need more advanced filters you can use wrangler, our command-line tool for deploying Workers. We’ve updated the wrangler tail command to support sampling and a new set of advanced filters. You also no longer need to install or configure cloudflared to use the command. Not to mention it’s much faster, no more waiting around for logs to appear. Here are a few examples:

# Filter by your own IP address, and if there was an uncaught exception.
wrangler tail --format=pretty --ip-address=self --status=error

# Filter by HTTP method, then apply a 10% sampling rate.
wrangler tail --format=pretty --method=GET --sampling-rate=0.1

# Filter using a generic search query.
wrangler tail --format=pretty --search="TypeError"

We recommend using the “pretty” format, since wrangler will output your logs in a colored, human-readable format. (We’re also working on a similar display for the dashboard.)

However, if you want to access structured logs, you can use the “json” format. This is great if you want to pipe your logs to another tool, such as jq, or save them to a file. Here are a few more examples:

# Parses each log event, but only outputs the url.
wrangler tail --format=json | jq .event.request?.url

# You can also specify --once to disconnect the tail after receiving the first log.
# This is useful if you want to run tests in a CI/CD environment.
wrangler tail --format=json --once > event.json

Try it out!

Both logs from the dashboard and wrangler tail are available and free for existing Workers customers. If you would like more information or a step-by-step guide, check out any of the resources below.