Tag Archives: Healthcare

Amazon QuickSight Update – Geospatial Visualization, Private VPC Access, and More

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/amazon-quicksight-update-geospatial-visualization-private-vpc-access-and-more/

We don’t often recognize or celebrate anniversaries at AWS. With nearly 100 services on our list, we’d be eating cake and drinking champagne several times a week. While that might sound like fun, we’d rather spend our working hours listening to customers and innovating. With that said, Amazon QuickSight has now been generally available for a little over a year and I would like to give you a quick update!

QuickSight in Action
Today, tens of thousands of customers (from startups to enterprises, in industries as varied as transportation, legal, mining, and healthcare) are using QuickSight to analyze and report on their business data.

Here are a couple of examples:

Gemini provides legal evidence procurement for California attorneys who represent injured workers. They have gone from creating custom reports and running one-off queries to creating and sharing dynamic QuickSight dashboards with drill-downs and filtering. QuickSight is used to track sales pipeline, measure order throughput, and to locate bottlenecks in the order processing pipeline.

Jivochat provides a real-time messaging platform to connect visitors to website owners. QuickSight lets them create and share interactive dashboards while also providing access to the underlying datasets. This has allowed them to move beyond the sharing of static spreadsheets, ensuring that everyone is looking at the same and is empowered to make timely decisions based on current data.

Transfix is a tech-powered freight marketplace that matches loads and increases visibility into logistics for Fortune 500 shippers in retail, food and beverage, manufacturing, and other industries. QuickSight has made analytics accessible to both BI engineers and non-technical business users. They scrutinize key business and operational metrics including shipping routes, carrier efficient, and process automation.

Looking Back / Looking Ahead
The feedback on QuickSight has been incredibly helpful. Customers tell us that their employees are using QuickSight to connect to their data, perform analytics, and make high-velocity, data-driven decisions, all without setting up or running their own BI infrastructure. We love all of the feedback that we get, and use it to drive our roadmap, leading to the introduction of over 40 new features in just a year. Here’s a summary:

Looking forward, we are watching an interesting trend develop within our customer base. As these customers take a close look at how they analyze and report on data, they are realizing that a serverless approach offers some tangible benefits. They use Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) as a data lake and query it using a combination of QuickSight and Amazon Athena, giving them agility and flexibility without static infrastructure. They also make great use of QuickSight’s dashboards feature, monitoring business results and operational metrics, then sharing their insights with hundreds of users. You can read Building a Serverless Analytics Solution for Cleaner Cities and review Serverless Big Data Analytics using Amazon Athena and Amazon QuickSight if you are interested in this approach.

New Features and Enhancements
We’re still doing our best to listen and to learn, and to make sure that QuickSight continues to meet your needs. I’m happy to announce that we are making seven big additions today:

Geospatial Visualization – You can now create geospatial visuals on geographical data sets.

Private VPC Access – You can now sign up to access a preview of a new feature that allows you to securely connect to data within VPCs or on-premises, without the need for public endpoints.

Flat Table Support – In addition to pivot tables, you can now use flat tables for tabular reporting. To learn more, read about Using Tabular Reports.

Calculated SPICE Fields – You can now perform run-time calculations on SPICE data as part of your analysis. Read Adding a Calculated Field to an Analysis for more information.

Wide Table Support – You can now use tables with up to 1000 columns.

Other Buckets – You can summarize the long tail of high-cardinality data into buckets, as described in Working with Visual Types in Amazon QuickSight.

HIPAA Compliance – You can now run HIPAA-compliant workloads on QuickSight.

Geospatial Visualization
Everyone seems to want this feature! You can now take data that contains a geographic identifier (country, city, state, or zip code) and create beautiful visualizations with just a few clicks. QuickSight will geocode the identifier that you supply, and can also accept lat/long map coordinates. You can use this feature to visualize sales by state, map stores to shipping destinations, and so forth. Here’s a sample visualization:

To learn more about this feature, read Using Geospatial Charts (Maps), and Adding Geospatial Data.

Private VPC Access Preview
If you have data in AWS (perhaps in Amazon Redshift, Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS), or on EC2) or on-premises in Teradata or SQL Server on servers without public connectivity, this feature is for you. Private VPC Access for QuickSight uses an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) for secure, private communication with data sources in a VPC. It also allows you to use AWS Direct Connect to create a secure, private link with your on-premises resources. Here’s what it looks like:

If you are ready to join the preview, you can sign up today.

Jeff;

 

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis Is Now a HIPAA Eligible Service and You Can Use It to Power Real-Time Healthcare Applications

Post Syndicated from Manan Goel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/now-you-can-use-amazon-elasticache-for-redis-a-hipaa-eligible-service-to-power-real-time-healthcare-applications/

HIPAA image

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis is now a HIPAA Eligible Service and has been added to the AWS Business Associate Addendum (BAA). This means you can use ElastiCache for Redis to help you power healthcare applications as well as process, maintain, and store protected health information (PHI). ElastiCache for Redis is a Redis-compatible, fully-managed, in-memory data store and cache in the cloud that provides sub-millisecond latency to power applications. Now you can use the speed, simplicity, and flexibility of ElastiCache for Redis to build secure, fast, and internet-scale healthcare applications.

ElastiCache for Redis with HIPAA eligibility is available for all current-generation instance node types and requires Redis engine version 3.2.6. You must ensure that nodes are configured to encrypt the data in transit and at rest, and to authenticate Redis commands before the engine executes them. See Architecting for HIPAA Security and Compliance on Amazon Web Services for information about how to configure Amazon HIPAA Eligible Services to store, process, and transmit PHI.

ElastiCache for Redis uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-512 symmetric keys to encrypt data on disk. The Redis backups stored in Amazon S3 are encrypted with server-side encryption (SSE) using AES-256 symmetric keys. ElastiCache for Redis uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) to encrypt data in transit. It uses the Redis AUTH token that you provide at the time of Redis cluster creation to authenticate the Redis commands coming from clients. The AUTH token is encrypted using AWS Key Management Service.

There is no additional charge for using ElastiCache for Redis clusters with HIPAA eligibility. To get started, see HIPAA Compliance for Amazon ElastiCache for Redis.

– Manan

Hot Startups on AWS – October 2017

Post Syndicated from Tina Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/hot-startups-on-aws-october-2017/

In 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) reported that healthcare spending made up 17.8% of the U.S. GDP – that’s almost $3.2 trillion or $9,990 per person. By 2025, the CMS estimates this number will increase to nearly 20%. As cloud technology evolves in the healthcare and life science industries, we are seeing how companies of all sizes are using AWS to provide powerful and innovative solutions to customers across the globe. This month we are excited to feature the following startups:

  • ClearCare – helping home care agencies operate efficiently and grow their business.
  • DNAnexus – providing a cloud-based global network for sharing and managing genomic data.

ClearCare (San Francisco, CA)

ClearCare envisions a future where home care is the only choice for aging in place. Home care agencies play a critical role in the economy and their communities by significantly lowering the overall cost of care, reducing the number of hospital admissions, and bending the cost curve of aging. Patients receiving home care typically have multiple chronic conditions and functional limitations, driving over $190 billion in healthcare spending in the U.S. each year. To offset these costs, health insurance payers are developing in-home care management programs for patients. ClearCare’s goal is to help home care agencies leverage technology to improve costs, outcomes, and quality of life for the aging population. The company’s powerful software platform is specifically designed for use by non-medical, in-home care agencies to manage their businesses.

Founder and CEO Geoff Nudd created ClearCare because of his own grandmother’s need for care. Keeping family members and caregivers up to date on a loved one’s well being can be difficult, so Geoff created what is now ClearCare’s Family Room, which enables caregivers and agency staff to check schedules and receive real-time updates about what’s happening in the home. Since then, agencies have provided feedback on others areas of their businesses that could be streamlined. ClearCare has now built over 20 modules to help home care agencies optimize operations with services including a telephony service, billing and payroll, and more. ClearCare now serves over 4,000 home care agencies, representing 500,000 caregivers and 400,000 seniors.

Using AWS, ClearCare is able to spin up reliable infrastructure for proofs of concept and iterate on those systems to quickly get value to market. The company runs many AWS services including Amazon Elasticsearch Service, Amazon RDS, and Amazon CloudFront. Amazon EMR and Amazon Athena have enabled ClearCare to build a Hadoop-based ETL and data warehousing system that processes terabytes of data each day. By utilizing these managed services, ClearCare has been able to go from concept to customer delivery in less than three months.

To learn more about ClearCare, check out their website.

DNAnexus (Mountain View, CA)

DNAnexus is accelerating the application of genomic data in precision medicine by providing a cloud-based platform for sharing and managing genomic and biomedical data and analysis tools. The company was founded in 2009 by Stanford graduate student Andreas Sundquist and two Stanford professors Arend Sidow and Serafim Batzoglou, to address the need for scaling secondary analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data in the cloud. The founders quickly learned that users needed a flexible solution to build complex analysis workflows and tools that enable them to share and manage large volumes of data. DNAnexus is optimized to address the challenges of security, scalability, and collaboration for organizations that are pursuing genomic-based approaches to health, both in clinics and research labs. DNAnexus has a global customer base – spanning North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and Africa – that runs a million jobs each month and is doubling their storage year-over-year. The company currently stores more than 10 petabytes of biomedical and genomic data. That is equivalent to approximately 100,000 genomes, or in simpler terms, over 50 billion Facebook photos!

DNAnexus is working with its customers to help expand their translational informatics research, which includes expanding into clinical trial genomic services. This will help companies developing different medicines to better stratify clinical trial populations and develop companion tests that enable the right patient to get the right medicine. In collaboration with Janssen Human Microbiome Institute, DNAnexus is also launching Mosaic – a community platform for microbiome research.

AWS provides DNAnexus and its customers the flexibility to grow and scale research programs. Building the technology infrastructure required to manage these projects in-house is expensive and time-consuming. DNAnexus removes that barrier for labs of any size by using AWS scalable cloud resources. The company deploys its customers’ genomic pipelines on Amazon EC2, using Amazon S3 for high-performance, high-durability storage, and Amazon Glacier for low-cost data archiving. DNAnexus is also an AWS Life Sciences Competency Partner.

Learn more about DNAnexus here.

-Tina

AWS HIPAA Eligibility Update (October 2017) – Sixteen Additional Services

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hipaa-eligibility-post-update-october-2017-sixteen-additional-services/

Our Health Customer Stories page lists just a few of the many customers that are building and running healthcare and life sciences applications that run on AWS. Customers like Verge Health, Care Cloud, and Orion Health trust AWS with Protected Health Information (PHI) and Personally Identifying Information (PII) as part of their efforts to comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

Sixteen More Services
In my last HIPAA Eligibility Update I shared the news that we added eight additional services to our list of HIPAA eligible services. Today I am happy to let you know that we have added another sixteen services to the list, bringing the total up to 46. Here are the newest additions, along with some short descriptions and links to some of my blog posts to jog your memory:

Amazon Aurora with PostgreSQL Compatibility – This brand-new addition to Amazon Aurora allows you to encrypt your relational databases using keys that you create and manage through AWS Key Management Service (KMS). When you enable encryption for an Amazon Aurora database, the underlying storage is encrypted, as are automated backups, read replicas, and snapshots. Read New – Encryption at Rest for Amazon Aurora to learn more.

Amazon CloudWatch Logs – You can use the logs to monitor and troubleshoot your systems and applications. You can monitor your existing system, application, and custom log files in near real-time, watching for specific phrases, values, or patterns. Log data can be stored durably and at low cost, for as long as needed. To learn more, read Store and Monitor OS & Application Log Files with Amazon CloudWatch and Improvements to CloudWatch Logs and Dashboards.

Amazon Connect – This self-service, cloud-based contact center makes it easy for you to deliver better customer service at a lower cost. You can use the visual designer to set up your contact flows, manage agents, and track performance, all without specialized skills. Read Amazon Connect – Customer Contact Center in the Cloud and New – Amazon Connect and Amazon Lex Integration to learn more.

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis – This service lets you deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache that you can use to improve the performance of your applications. Each ElastiCache for Redis cluster publishes key performance metrics to Amazon CloudWatch. To learn more, read Caching in the Cloud with Amazon ElastiCache and Amazon ElastiCache – Now With a Dash of Redis.

Amazon Kinesis Streams – This service allows you to build applications that process or analyze streaming data such as website clickstreams, financial transactions, social media feeds, and location-tracking events. To learn more, read Amazon Kinesis – Real-Time Processing of Streaming Big Data and New: Server-Side Encryption for Amazon Kinesis Streams.

Amazon RDS for MariaDB – This service lets you set up scalable, managed MariaDB instances in minutes, and offers high performance, high availability, and a simplified security model that makes it easy for you to encrypt data at rest and in transit. Read Amazon RDS Update – MariaDB is Now Available to learn more.

Amazon RDS SQL Server – This service lets you set up scalable, managed Microsoft SQL Server instances in minutes, and also offers high performance, high availability, and a simplified security model. To learn more, read Amazon RDS for SQL Server and .NET support for AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Amazon RDS for Microsoft SQL Server – Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) to learn more.

Amazon Route 53 – This is a highly available Domain Name Server. It translates names like www.example.com into IP addresses. To learn more, read Moving Ahead with Amazon Route 53.

AWS Batch – This service lets you run large-scale batch computing jobs on AWS. You don’t need to install or maintain specialized batch software or build your own server clusters. Read AWS Batch – Run Batch Computing Jobs on AWS to learn more.

AWS CloudHSM – A cloud-based Hardware Security Module (HSM) for key storage and management at cloud scale. Designed for sensitive workloads, CloudHSM lets you manage your own keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs. To learn more, read AWS CloudHSM – Secure Key Storage and Cryptographic Operations and AWS CloudHSM Update – Cost Effective Hardware Key Management at Cloud Scale for Sensitive & Regulated Workloads.

AWS Key Management Service – This service makes it easy for you to create and control the encryption keys used to encrypt your data. It uses HSMs to protect your keys, and is integrated with AWS CloudTrail in order to provide you with a log of all key usage. Read New AWS Key Management Service (KMS) to learn more.

AWS Lambda – This service lets you run event-driven application or backend code without thinking about or managing servers. To learn more, read AWS Lambda – Run Code in the Cloud, AWS Lambda – A Look Back at 2016, and AWS Lambda – In Full Production with New Features for Mobile Devs.

[email protected] – You can use this new feature of AWS Lambda to run Node.js functions across the global network of AWS locations without having to provision or manager servers, in order to deliver rich, personalized content to your users with low latency. Read [email protected] – Intelligent Processing of HTTP Requests at the Edge to learn more.

AWS Snowball Edge – This is a data transfer device with 100 terabytes of on-board storage as well as compute capabilities. You can use it to move large amounts of data into or out of AWS, as a temporary storage tier, or to support workloads in remote or offline locations. To learn more, read AWS Snowball Edge – More Storage, Local Endpoints, Lambda Functions.

AWS Snowmobile – This is an exabyte-scale data transfer service. Pulled by a semi-trailer truck, each Snowmobile packs 100 petabytes of storage into a ruggedized 45-foot long shipping container. Read AWS Snowmobile – Move Exabytes of Data to the Cloud in Weeks to learn more (and to see some of my finest LEGO work).

AWS Storage Gateway – This hybrid storage service lets your on-premises applications use AWS cloud storage (Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon Glacier, and Amazon Elastic File System) in a simple and seamless way, with storage for volumes, files, and virtual tapes. To learn more, read The AWS Storage Gateway – Integrate Your Existing On-Premises Applications with AWS Cloud Storage and File Interface to AWS Storage Gateway.

And there you go! Check out my earlier post for a list of resources that will help you to build applications that comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

Jeff;

 

Now You Can Use Amazon ElastiCache for Redis with In-Transit and At-Rest Encryption to Help Protect Sensitive Information

Post Syndicated from Manan Goel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/amazon-elasticache-now-supports-encryption-for-elasticache-for-redis/

Amazon ElastiCache image

Amazon ElastiCache for Redis now supports encryption for secure internode communications to help keep personally identifiable information (PII) safe. Both encryption in transit and at rest are supported. The new encryption in-transit feature enables you to encrypt all communications between clients and Redis servers as well as between Redis servers (primary and read replica nodes). The encryption at-rest feature allows you to encrypt your ElastiCache for Redis backups on disk and in Amazon S3. Additionally, you can use the Redis AUTH command for an added level of authentication.

If you are in the Financial Services, Healthcare, and Telecommunications sectors, this new encryption functionality can help you protect your sensitive data sets and meet compliance requirements. You can start using the new functionality by enabling it at the time of cluster creation via the ElastiCache console or through the API. You don’t have to manage the lifecycle of your certificates because ElastiCache for Redis automatically manages the issuance, renewal, and expiration of your certificates. For more information, see Enabling In-Transit Encryption and Enabling At-Rest Encryption.

There is no additional charge to use this feature, and it is available in the US West (Oregon), US West (N. California), US East (Ohio), US East (N. Virginia), Canada (Central), EU (Ireland), and South America (São Paulo) Regions. We will make this feature available in other AWS Regions as well.

For more information about this feature and Amazon ElastiCache for Redis, see the ElastiCache for Redis FAQs.

– Manan

Surviving Your First Year

Post Syndicated from Gleb Budman original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/startup-stages-surviving-your-first-year/

Surviving Your First Year

This post by Backblaze’s CEO and co-founder Gleb Budman is the fifth in a series about entrepreneurship. You can choose posts in the series from the list below:

  1. How Backblaze got Started: The Problem, The Solution, and the Stuff In-Between
  2. Building a Competitive Moat: Turning Challenges Into Advantages
  3. From Idea to Launch: Getting Your First Customers
  4. How to Get Your First 1,000 Customers
  5. Surviving Your First Year

Use the Join button above to receive notification of new posts in this series.

In my previous posts, I talked about coming up with an idea, determining the solution, and getting your first customers. But you’re building a company, not a product. Let’s talk about what the first year should look like.

The primary goals for that first year are to: 1) set up the company; 2) build, launch, and learn; and 3) survive.

Setting Up the Company

The company you’re building is more than the product itself, and you’re not going to do it alone. You don’t want to spend too much time on this since getting customers is key, but if you don’t set up the basics, there are all sorts of issues down the line.

startup idea board

Find Your Co-Founders & Determine Roles

You may already have the idea, but who do you need to execute it? At Backblaze, we needed people to build the web experience, the client backup application, and the server/storage side. We also needed someone to handle the business/marketing aspects, and we felt that the design and user experience were critical. As a result, we started with five co-founders: three engineers, a designer, and me for the business and marketing.

Of course not every role needs to be filled by a co-founder. You can hire employees for positions as well. But think through the strategic skills you’ll need to launch and consider co-founders with those skill sets.

Too many people think they can just “work together” on everything. Don’t. Determine roles as quickly as possible so that it’s clear who is responsible for what work and which decisions. We were lucky in that we had worked together and thus knew what each person would do, but even so we assigned titles early on to clarify roles.

Takeaway:   Fill critical roles and explicitly split roles and responsibilities.

Get Your Legal Basics In Place

When we’re excited about building a product, legal basics are often the last thing we want to deal with. You don’t need to go overboard, but it’s critical to get certain things done.

  1. Determine ownership split. What is the percentage breakdown of the company that each of the founders will own? It can be a tough discussion, but it only becomes more difficult later when there is more value and people have put more time into it. At Backblaze we split the equity equally five ways. This is uncommon. The benefit of this is that all the founders feel valued and “in it together.” The benefit of the more common split where someone has a dominant share is that person is typically empowered to be the ultimate decision-maker. Slicing Pie provides some guidance on how to think about splitting equity. Regardless of which way you want you go, don’t put it off.
  2. Incorporate. Hard to be a company if you’re not. There are various formats, but if you plan to raise angel/venture funding, a Delaware-based C-corp is standard.
  3. Deal With Stock. At a minimum, issue stock to the founders, have each one buy their shares, and file an 83(b). Buying your shares at this stage might be $100. Filing the 83(b) election marks the date at which you purchased your shares, and shows that you bought them for what they were worth. This one piece of paper paper can make the difference between paying long-term capital gains rates (~20%) or income tax rates (~40%).
  4. Assign Intellectual Property. Ask everyone to sign a Proprietary Information and Inventions Assignment (“PIIA”). This document says that what they do at the company is owned by the company. Early on we had a friend who came by and brainstormed ideas. We thought of it as interesting banter. He later said he owned part of our storage design. While we worked it out together, a PIIA makes ownership clear.

The ownership split can be worked out by the founders directly. For the other items, I would involve lawyers. Some law firms will set up the basics and defer payment until you raise money or the business can pay for services out of operations. Gunderson Dettmer did that for us (ask for Bennett Yee). Cooley will do this on a casey-by-case basis as well.

Takeaway:  Don’t let the excitement of building a company distract you from filing the basic legal documents required to protect and grow your company.

Get Health Insurance

This item may seem out of place, but not having health insurance can easily bankrupt you personally, and that certainly won’t bode well for your company. While you can buy individual health insurance, it will often be less expensive to buy it as a company. Also, it will make recruiting employees more difficult if you do not offer healthcare. When we contacted brokers they asked us to send the W-2 of each employee that wanted coverage, but the founders weren’t taking a salary at first. To work around this, make the founders ‘officers’ of the company, and the healthcare brokers can then insure them. (Of course, you need to be ok with your co-founders being officers, but hopefully, that is logical anyway.)

Takeaway:  Don’t take your co-founders’ physical and financial health for granted. Health insurance can serve as both individual protection and a recruiting tool for future employees.

Building, Launching & Learning

Getting the company set up gives you the foundation, but ultimately a company with no product and no customers isn’t very interesting.

Build

Ideally, you have one person on the team focusing on all of the items above and everyone else can be heads-down building product. There is a lot to say about building product, but for this post, I’ll just say that your goal is to get something out the door that is good enough to start collecting feedback. It doesn’t have to have every feature you dream of and doesn’t have to support 1 billion users on day one.

Launch

If you’re building a car or rocket, that may take some time. But with the availability of open-source software and cloud services, most startups should launch inside of a year.

Launching forces a scoping of the feature set to what’s critical, rallies the company around a goal, starts building awareness of your company and solution, and pushes forward the learning process. Backblaze launched in public beta on June 2, 2008, eight months after the founders all started working on it full-time.

Takeaway:  Focus on the most important features and launch.

Learn & Iterate

As much as we think we know about the customers and their needs, the launch process and beyond opens up all sorts of insights. This early period is critical to collect feedback and iterate, especially while both the product and company are still quite malleable. We initially planned on building peer-to-peer and local backup immediately on the heels of our online offering, but after launching found minimal demand for those features. On the other hand, there was tremendous demand from companies and resellers.

Takeaway:  Use the critical post-launch period to collect feedback and iterate.

Surviving

“Live to fight another day.” If the company doesn’t survive, it’s hard to change the world. Let’s talk about some of the survival components.

Consider What You As A Founding Team Want & How You Work

Are you doing this because you hope to get rich? See yourself on the cover of Fortune? Make your own decisions? Work from home all the time? Founder fighting is the number one reason companies fail; the founders need to be on the same page as much as possible.

At Backblaze we agreed very early on that we wanted three things:

  1. Build products we were proud of
  2. Have fun
  3. Make money

This has driven various decisions over the years and has evolved into being part of the culture. For example, while Backblaze is absolutely a company with a profit motive, we do not compromise the product to make more money. Other directions are not bad; they’re just different.

Do you want a lifestyle business? Or want to build a billion dollar business? Want to run it forever or build it for a couple years and do something else?

Pretend you’re getting married to each other. Do some introspection and talk about your vision of the future a lot. Do you expect everyone to work 20 or 100 hours every week? In the office or remote? How do you like to work? What pet peeves do you have?

When getting married each person brings the “life they’ve known,” often influenced by the life their parents lived. Together they need to decide which aspects of their previous lives they want to keep, toss, or change. As founders coming together, you have the same opportunity for your new company.

Takeaway:  In order for a company to survive, the founders must agree on what they want the company to be. Have the discussions early.

Determine How You Will Fund Your Business

Raising venture capital is often seen as the only path, and considered the most important thing to start doing on day one. However, there are a variety of options for funding your business, including using money from savings, part-time work, friends & family money, loans, angels, and customers. Consider the right option for you, your founding team, and your business.

Conserve Cash

Whichever option you choose for funding your business, chances are high that you will not be flush with cash on day one. In certain situations, you actually don’t want to conserve cash because you’ve raised $100m and now you want to run as fast as you can to capture a market — cash is plentiful and time is not. However, with the exception of founder struggles, running out of cash is the most common way companies go under. There are many ways to conserve cash — limit hiring of employees and consultants, use lawyers and accountants sparingly, don’t spend on advertising, work from a home office, etc. The most important way is to simply ensure that you and your team are cash conscious, challenging decisions that commit you to spending cash.

Backblaze spent a total of $94,122 to get to public beta launch. That included building the backup application, our own server infrastructure, the website with account/billing/restore functionality, the marketing involved in getting to launch, and all the steps above in setting up the company, paying for healthcare, etc. The five founders took no salary during this time (which, of course, would have cost dramatically more), so most of this money went to computers, servers, hard drives, and other infrastructure.

Takeaway:  Minimize cash burn — it extends your runway and gives you options.

Slowly Flesh Out Your Team

We started with five co-founders, and thus a fairly fleshed-out team. A year in, we only added one person, a Mac architect. Three months later we shipped a beta of our Mac version, which has resulted in more than 50% of our revenue.

Minimizing hiring is key to cash conservation, and hiring ahead of getting market feedback is risky since you may realize that the talent you need will change. However, once you start getting feedback, think about the key people that you need to move your company forward. But be rigorous in determining whether they’re critical. We didn’t hire our first customer support person until all five founders were spending 20% of their time on it.

Takeaway:  Don’t hire in anticipation of market growth; hire to fuel the growth.

Keep Your Spirits Up

Startups are roller coasters of emotion. There have been some serious articles about founders suffering from depression and worse. The idea phase is exhilarating, then there is the slog of building. The launch is a blast, but the week after there are crickets.

On June 2, 2008, we launched in public beta with great press and hordes of customers. But a few months later we were signing up only about 10 new customers per month. That’s $50 new monthly recurring revenue (MRR) after a year of work and no salary.

On August 25, 2008, we brought on our Mac architect. Two months later, on October 26, 2008, Apple launched Time Machine — completely free and built-in backup for all Macs.

There were plenty of times when our prospects looked bleak. In the rearview mirror it’s easy to say, “well sure, but now you have lots of customers,” or “yes, but Time Machine doesn’t do cloud backup.” But at the time neither of these were a given.

Takeaway:  Getting up each day and believing that as a team you’ll figure it out will let you get to the point where you can look in the rearview mirror and say, “It looked bleak back then.”

Succeeding in Your First Year

I titled the post “Surviving Your First Year,” but if you manage to, 1) set up the company; 2) build, launch, and learn; and 3) survive, you will have done more than survive: you’ll have truly succeeded in your first year.

The post Surviving Your First Year appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

AWS Partner Webinar Series – September & October 2017

Post Syndicated from Sara Rodas original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-partner-webinar-series-september-october-2017/

The wait is over. September and October’s Partner Webinars have officially arrived! In case you missed the intro last month, the AWS Partner Webinar Series is a selection of live and recorded presentations covering a broad range of topics at varying technical levels and scale. A little different from our AWS Online TechTalks, each AWS Partner Webinar is hosted by an AWS solutions architect and an AWS Competency Partner who has successfully helped customers evaluate and implement the tools, techniques, and technologies of AWS.

 

 

September & October Partner Webinars:

 

SAP Migration
Velocity: How EIS Reduced Costs by 20% and Optimized SAP by Leveraging the Cloud
September 19, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Mactores: SAP on AWS: How UCT is Experiencing Better Performance on AWS While Saving 60% in Infrastructure Costs with Mactores
September 19, 2017 | 1:00 PM PDT

 

Accenture: Reduce Operating Costs and Accelerate Efficiency by Migrating Your SAP Applications to AWS with Accenture
September 20, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Capgemini: Accelerate your SAP HANA Migration with Capgemini & AWS FAST
September 21, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Salesforce
Salesforce IoT: Monetize your IOT Investment with Salesforce and AWS
September 27, 2017 | 10:00 am PDT

 

Salesforce Heroku: Build Engaging Applications with Salesforce Heroku and AWS
October 10, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Windows Migration
Cascadeo: How a National Transportation Software Provider Migrated a Mission-Critical Test Infrastructure to AWS with Cascadeo
September 26, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Datapipe: Optimize App Performance and Security by Managing Microsoft Workloads on AWS with Datapipe
September 27, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Datavail: Datavail Accelerates AWS Adoption for Sony DADC New Media Solutions
September 28, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Life Sciences

SAP, Deloitte & Turbot: Life Sciences Compliance on AWS
October 4, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Healthcare

AWS, ClearData & Cloudticity: Healthcare Compliance on AWS 
October 5, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Storage

N2WS: Learn How Goodwill Industries Ensures 24/7 Data Availability on AWS
October 10, 2017 | 8:00 AM PDT

 

Big Data

Zoomdata: Taking Complexity Out of Data Science with AWS and Zoomdata
October 10, 2017 | 10:00 AM PDT

 

Attunity: Cardinal Health: Moving Data to AWS in Real-Time with Attunity 
October 11, 2017 | 11:00 AM PDT

 

Splunk: How TrueCar Gains Actionable Insights with Splunk Cloud
October 18, 2017 | 9:00 AM PDT

AWS Hot Startups – August 2017

Post Syndicated from Tina Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hot-startups-august-2017/

There’s no doubt about it – Artificial Intelligence is changing the world and how it operates. Across industries, organizations from startups to Fortune 500s are embracing AI to develop new products, services, and opportunities that are more efficient and accessible for their consumers. From driverless cars to better preventative healthcare to smart home devices, AI is driving innovation at a fast rate and will continue to play a more important role in our everyday lives.

This month we’d like to highlight startups using AI solutions to help companies grow. We are pleased to feature:

  • SignalBox – a simple and accessible deep learning platform to help businesses get started with AI.
  • Valossa – an AI video recognition platform for the media and entertainment industry.
  • Kaliber – innovative applications for businesses using facial recognition, deep learning, and big data.

SignalBox (UK)

In 2016, SignalBox founder Alain Richardt was hearing the same comments being made by developers, data scientists, and business leaders. They wanted to get into deep learning but didn’t know where to start. Alain saw an opportunity to commodify and apply deep learning by providing a platform that does the heavy lifting with an easy-to-use web interface, blueprints for common tasks, and just a single-click to productize the models. With SignalBox, companies can start building deep learning models with no coding at all – they just select a data set, choose a network architecture, and go. SignalBox also offers step-by-step tutorials, tips and tricks from industry experts, and consulting services for customers that want an end-to-end AI solution.

SignalBox offers a variety of solutions that are being used across many industries for energy modeling, fraud detection, customer segmentation, insurance risk modeling, inventory prediction, real estate prediction, and more. Existing data science teams are using SignalBox to accelerate their innovation cycle. One innovative UK startup, Energi Mine, recently worked with SignalBox to develop deep networks that predict anomalous energy consumption patterns and do time series predictions on energy usage for businesses with hundreds of sites.

SignalBox uses a variety of AWS services including Amazon EC2, Amazon VPC, Amazon Elastic Block Store, and Amazon S3. The ability to rapidly provision EC2 GPU instances has been a critical factor in their success – both in terms of keeping their operational expenses low, as well as speed to market. The Amazon API Gateway has allowed for operational automation, giving SignalBox the ability to control its infrastructure.

To learn more about SignalBox, visit here.

Valossa (Finland)

As students at the University of Oulu in Finland, the Valossa founders spent years doing research in the computer science and AI labs. During that time, the team witnessed how the world was moving beyond text, with video playing a greater role in day-to-day communication. This spawned an idea to use technology to automatically understand what an audience is viewing and share that information with a global network of content producers. Since 2015, Valossa has been building next generation AI applications to benefit the media and entertainment industry and is moving beyond the capabilities of traditional visual recognition systems.

Valossa’s AI is capable of analyzing any video stream. The AI studies a vast array of data within videos and converts that information into descriptive tags, categories, and overviews automatically. Basically, it sees, hears, and understands videos like a human does. The Valossa AI can detect people, visual and auditory concepts, key speech elements, and labels explicit content to make moderating and filtering content simpler. Valossa’s solutions are designed to provide value for the content production workflow, from media asset management to end-user applications for content discovery. AI-annotated content allows online viewers to jump directly to their favorite scenes or search specific topics and actors within a video.

Valossa leverages AWS to deliver the industry’s first complete AI video recognition platform. Using Amazon EC2 GPU instances, Valossa can easily scale their computation capacity based on customer activity. High-volume video processing with GPU instances provides the necessary speed for time-sensitive workflows. The geo-located Availability Zones in EC2 allow Valossa to bring resources close to their customers to minimize network delays. Valossa also uses Amazon S3 for video ingestion and to provide end-user video analytics, which makes managing and accessing media data easy and highly scalable.

To see how Valossa works, check out www.WhatIsMyMovie.com or enable the Alexa Skill, Valossa Movie Finder. To try the Valossa AI, sign up for free at www.valossa.com.

Kaliber (San Francisco, CA)

Serial entrepreneurs Ray Rahman and Risto Haukioja founded Kaliber in 2016. The pair had previously worked in startups building smart cities and online privacy tools, and teamed up to bring AI to the workplace and change the hospitality industry. Our world is designed to appeal to our senses – stores and warehouses have clearly marked aisles, products are colorfully packaged, and we use these designs to differentiate one thing from another. We tell each other apart by our faces, and previously that was something only humans could measure or act upon. Kaliber is using facial recognition, deep learning, and big data to create solutions for business use. Markets and companies that aren’t typically associated with cutting-edge technology will be able to use their existing camera infrastructure in a whole new way, making them more efficient and better able to serve their customers.

Computer video processing is rapidly expanding, and Kaliber believes that video recognition will extend to far more than security cameras and robots. Using the clients’ network of in-house cameras, Kaliber’s platform extracts key data points and maps them to actionable insights using their machine learning (ML) algorithm. Dashboards connect users to the client’s BI tools via the Kaliber enterprise APIs, and managers can view these analytics to improve their real-world processes, taking immediate corrective action with real-time alerts. Kaliber’s Real Metrics are aimed at combining the power of image recognition with ML to ultimately provide a more meaningful experience for all.

Kaliber uses many AWS services, including Amazon Rekognition, Amazon Kinesis, AWS Lambda, Amazon EC2 GPU instances, and Amazon S3. These services have been instrumental in helping Kaliber meet the needs of enterprise customers in record time.

Learn more about Kaliber here.

Thanks for reading and we’ll see you next month!

-Tina

 

Affordable Raspberry Pi 3D Body Scanner

Post Syndicated from Alex Bate original https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/affordable-raspberry-pi-3d-body-scanner/

With a £1000 grant from Santander, Poppy Mosbacher set out to build a full-body 3D body scanner with the intention of creating an affordable setup for makespaces and similar community groups.

First Scan from DIY Raspberry Pi Scanner

Head and Shoulders Scan with 29 Raspberry Pi Cameras

Uses for full-body 3D scanning

Poppy herself wanted to use the scanner in her work as a fashion designer. With the help of 3D scans of her models, she would be able to create custom cardboard dressmakers dummy to ensure her designs fit perfectly. This is a brilliant way of incorporating digital tech into another industry – and it’s not the only application for this sort of build. Growing numbers of businesses use 3D body scanning, for example the stores around the world where customers can 3D scan and print themselves as action-figure-sized replicas.

Print your own family right on the high street!
image c/o Tom’s Guide and Shapify

We’ve also seen the same technology used in video games for more immersive virtual reality. Moreover, there are various uses for it in healthcare and fitness, such as monitoring the effect of exercise regimes or physiotherapy on body shape or posture.

Within a makespace environment, a 3D body scanner opens the door to including new groups of people in community make projects: imagine 3D printing miniatures of a theatrical cast to allow more realistic blocking of stage productions and better set design, or annually sending grandparents a print of their grandchild so they can compare the child’s year-on-year growth in a hands-on way.

Raspberry Pi 3d Body Scan

The Germany-based clothing business Outfittery uses full body scanners to take the stress out of finding clothes that fits well.
image c/o Outfittery

As cheesy as it sounds, the only limit for the use of 3D scanning is your imagination…and maybe storage space for miniature prints.

Poppy’s Raspberry Pi 3D Body Scanner

For her build, Poppy acquired 27 Raspberry Pi Zeros and 27 Raspberry Pi Camera Modules. With various other components, some 3D-printed or made of cardboard, Poppy got to work. She was helped by members of Build Brighton and by her friend Arthur Guy, who also wrote the code for the scanner.

Raspberry Pi 3D Body Scanner

The Pi Zeros run Raspbian Lite, and are connected to a main server running a node application. Each is fitted into its own laser-cut cardboard case, and secured to a structure of cardboard tubing and 3D-printed connectors.

Raspberry Pi 3D Body Scanner

In the finished build, the person to be scanned stands within the centre of the structure, and the press of a button sends the signal for all Pis to take a photo. The images are sent back to the server, and processed through Autocade ReMake, a freemium software available for the PC (Poppy discovered part-way through the project that the Mac version has recently lost support).

Build your own

Obviously there’s a lot more to the process of building this full-body 3D scanner than what I’ve reported in these few paragraphs. And since it was Poppy’s goal to make a readily available and affordable scanner that anyone can recreate, she’s provided all the instructions and code for it on her Instructables page.

Projects like this, in which people use the Raspberry Pi to create affordable and interesting tech for communities, are exactly the type of thing we love to see. Always make sure to share your Pi-based projects with us on social media, so we can boost their visibility!

If you’re a member of a makespace, run a workshop in a school or club, or simply love to tinker and create, this build could be the perfect addition to your workshop. And if you recreate Poppy’s scanner, or build something similar, we’d love to see the results in the comments below.

The post Affordable Raspberry Pi 3D Body Scanner appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

Nazis, are bad

Post Syndicated from Eevee original https://eev.ee/blog/2017/08/13/nazis-are-bad/

Anonymous asks:

Could you talk about something related to the management/moderation and growth of online communities? IOW your thoughts on online community management, if any.

I think you’ve tweeted about this stuff in the past so I suspect you have thoughts on this, but if not, again, feel free to just blog about … anything 🙂

Oh, I think I have some stuff to say about community management, in light of recent events. None of it hasn’t already been said elsewhere, but I have to get this out.

Hopefully the content warning is implicit in the title.


I am frustrated.

I’ve gone on before about a particularly bothersome phenomenon that hurts a lot of small online communities: often, people are willing to tolerate the misery of others in a community, but then get up in arms when someone pushes back. Someone makes a lot of off-hand, off-color comments about women? Uses a lot of dog-whistle terms? Eh, they’re not bothering anyone, or at least not bothering me. Someone else gets tired of it and tells them to knock it off? Whoa there! Now we have the appearance of conflict, which is unacceptable, and people will turn on the person who’s pissed off — even though they’ve been at the butt end of an invisible conflict for who knows how long. The appearance of peace is paramount, even if it means a large chunk of the population is quietly miserable.

Okay, so now, imagine that on a vastly larger scale, and also those annoying people who know how to skirt the rules are Nazis.


The label “Nazi” gets thrown around a lot lately, probably far too easily. But when I see a group of people doing the Hitler salute, waving large Nazi flags, wearing Nazi armbands styled after the SS, well… if the shoe fits, right? I suppose they might have flown across the country to join a torch-bearing mob ironically, but if so, the joke is going way over my head. (Was the murder ironic, too?) Maybe they’re not Nazis in the sense that the original party doesn’t exist any more, but for ease of writing, let’s refer to “someone who espouses Nazi ideology and deliberately bears a number of Nazi symbols” as, well, “a Nazi”.

This isn’t a new thing, either; I’ve stumbled upon any number of Twitter accounts that are decorated in Nazi regalia. I suppose the trouble arises when perfectly innocent members of the alt-right get unfairly labelled as Nazis.

But hang on; this march was called “Unite the Right” and was intended to bring together various far right sub-groups. So what does their choice of aesthetic say about those sub-groups? I haven’t heard, say, alt-right coiner Richard Spencer denounce the use of Nazi symbology — extra notable since he was fucking there and apparently didn’t care to discourage it.


And so begins the rule-skirting. “Nazi” is definitely overused, but even using it to describe white supremacists who make not-so-subtle nods to Hitler is likely to earn you some sarcastic derailment. A Nazi? Oh, so is everyone you don’t like and who wants to establish a white ethno state a Nazi?

Calling someone a Nazi — or even a white supremacist — is an attack, you see. Merely expressing the desire that people of color not exist is perfectly peaceful, but identifying the sentiment for what it is causes visible discord, which is unacceptable.

These clowns even know this sort of thing and strategize around it. Or, try, at least. Maybe it wasn’t that successful this weekend — though flicking through Charlottesville headlines now, they seem to be relatively tame in how they refer to the ralliers.

I’m reminded of a group of furries — the alt-furries — who have been espousing white supremacy and wearing red armbands with a white circle containing a black… pawprint. Ah, yes, that’s completely different.


So, what to do about this?

Ignore them” is a popular option, often espoused to bullied children by parents who have never been bullied, shortly before they resume complaining about passive-aggressive office politics. The trouble with ignoring them is that, just like in smaller communitiest, they have a tendency to fester. They take over large chunks of influential Internet surface area like 4chan and Reddit; they help get an inept buffoon elected; and then they start to have torch-bearing rallies and run people over with cars.

4chan illustrates a kind of corollary here. Anyone who’s steeped in Internet Culture™ is surely familiar with 4chan; I was never a regular visitor, but it had enough influence that I was still aware of it and some of its culture. It was always thick with irony, which grew into a sort of ironic detachment — perhaps one of the major sources of the recurring online trope that having feelings is bad — which proceeded into ironic racism.

And now the ironic racism is indistinguishable from actual racism, as tends to be the case. Do they “actually” “mean it”, or are they just trying to get a rise out of people? What the hell is unironic racism if not trying to get a rise out of people? What difference is there to onlookers, especially as they move to become increasingly involved with politics?

It’s just a joke” and “it was just a thoughtless comment” are exceptionally common defenses made by people desperate to preserve the illusion of harmony, but the strain of overt white supremacy currently running rampant through the US was built on those excuses.


The other favored option is to debate them, to defeat their ideas with better ideas.

Well, hang on. What are their ideas, again? I hear they were chanting stuff like “go back to Africa” and “fuck you, faggots”. Given that this was an overtly political rally (and again, the Nazi fucking regalia), I don’t think it’s a far cry to describe their ideas as “let’s get rid of black people and queer folks”.

This is an underlying proposition: that white supremacy is inherently violent. After all, if the alt-right seized total political power, what would they do with it? If I asked the same question of Democrats or Republicans, I’d imagine answers like “universal health care” or “screw over poor people”. But people whose primary goal is to have a country full of only white folks? What are they going to do, politely ask everyone else to leave? They’re invoking the memory of people who committed genocide and also tried to take over the fucking world. They are outright saying, these are the people we look up to, this is who we think had a great idea.

How, precisely, does one defeat these ideas with rational debate?

Because the underlying core philosophy beneath all this is: “it would be good for me if everything were about me”. And that’s true! (Well, it probably wouldn’t work out how they imagine in practice, but it’s true enough.) Consider that slavery is probably fantastic if you’re the one with the slaves; the issue is that it’s reprehensible, not that the very notion contains some kind of 101-level logical fallacy. That’s probably why we had a fucking war over it instead of hashing it out over brunch.

…except we did hash it out over brunch once, and the result was that slavery was still allowed but slaves only counted as 60% of a person for the sake of counting how much political power states got. So that’s how rational debate worked out. I’m sure the slaves were thrilled with that progress.


That really only leaves pushing back, which raises the question of how to push back.

And, I don’t know. Pushing back is much harder in spaces you don’t control, spaces you’re already struggling to justify your own presence in. For most people, that’s most spaces. It’s made all the harder by that tendency to preserve illusory peace; even the tamest request that someone knock off some odious behavior can be met by pushback, even by third parties.

At the same time, I’m aware that white supremacists prey on disillusioned young white dudes who feel like they don’t fit in, who were promised the world and inherited kind of a mess. Does criticism drive them further away? The alt-right also opposes “political correctness”, i.e. “not being a fucking asshole”.

God knows we all suck at this kind of behavior correction, even within our own in-groups. Fandoms have become almost ridiculously vicious as platforms like Twitter and Tumblr amplify individual anger to deafening levels. It probably doesn’t help that we’re all just exhausted, that every new fuck-up feels like it bears the same weight as the last hundred combined.

This is the part where I admit I don’t know anything about people and don’t have any easy answers. Surprise!


The other alternative is, well, punching Nazis.

That meme kind of haunts me. It raises really fucking complicated questions about when violence is acceptable, in a culture that’s completely incapable of answering them.

America’s relationship to violence is so bizarre and two-faced as to be almost incomprehensible. We worship it. We have the biggest military in the world by an almost comical margin. It’s fairly mainstream to own deadly weapons for the express stated purpose of armed revolution against the government, should that become necessary, where “necessary” is left ominously undefined. Our movies are about explosions and beating up bad guys; our video games are about explosions and shooting bad guys. We fantasize about solving foreign policy problems by nuking someone — hell, our talking heads are currently in polite discussion about whether we should nuke North Korea and annihilate up to twenty-five million people, as punishment for daring to have the bomb that only we’re allowed to have.

But… violence is bad.

That’s about as far as the other side of the coin gets. It’s bad. We condemn it in the strongest possible terms. Also, guess who we bombed today?

I observe that the one time Nazis were a serious threat, America was happy to let them try to take over the world until their allies finally showed up on our back porch.

Maybe I don’t understand what “violence” means. In a quest to find out why people are talking about “leftist violence” lately, I found a National Review article from May that twice suggests blocking traffic is a form of violence. Anarchists have smashed some windows and set a couple fires at protests this year — and, hey, please knock that crap off? — which is called violence against, I guess, Starbucks. Black Lives Matter could be throwing a birthday party and Twitter would still be abuzz with people calling them thugs.

Meanwhile, there’s a trend of murderers with increasingly overt links to the alt-right, and everyone is still handling them with kid gloves. First it was murders by people repeating their talking points; now it’s the culmination of a torches-and-pitchforks mob. (Ah, sorry, not pitchforks; assault rifles.) And we still get this incredibly bizarre both-sides-ism, a White House that refers to the people who didn’t murder anyone as “just as violent if not more so“.


Should you punch Nazis? I don’t know. All I know is that I’m extremely dissatisfied with discourse that’s extremely alarmed by hypothetical punches — far more mundane than what you’d see after a sporting event — but treats a push for ethnic cleansing as a mere difference of opinion.

The equivalent to a punch in an online space is probably banning, which is almost laughable in comparison. It doesn’t cause physical harm, but it is a use of concrete force. Doesn’t pose quite the same moral quandary, though.

Somewhere in the middle is the currently popular pastime of doxxing (doxxxxxxing) people spotted at the rally in an attempt to get them fired or whatever. Frankly, that skeeves me out, though apparently not enough that I’m directly chastizing anyone for it.


We aren’t really equipped, as a society, to deal with memetic threats. We aren’t even equipped to determine what they are. We had a fucking world war over this, and now people are outright saying “hey I’m like those people we went and killed a lot in that world war” and we give them interviews and compliment their fashion sense.

A looming question is always, what if they then do it to you? What if people try to get you fired, to punch you for your beliefs?

I think about that a lot, and then I remember that it’s perfectly legal to fire someone for being gay in half the country. (Courts are currently wrangling whether Title VII forbids this, but with the current administration, I’m not optimistic.) I know people who’ve been fired for coming out as trans. I doubt I’d have to look very far to find someone who’s been punched for either reason.

And these aren’t even beliefs; they’re just properties of a person. You can stop being a white supremacist, one of those people yelling “fuck you, faggots”.

So I have to recuse myself from this asinine question, because I can’t fairly judge the risk of retaliation when it already happens to people I care about.

Meanwhile, if a white supremacist does get punched, I absolutely still want my tax dollars to pay for their universal healthcare.


The same wrinkle comes up with free speech, which is paramount.

The ACLU reminds us that the First Amendment “protects vile, hateful, and ignorant speech”. I think they’ve forgotten that that’s a side effect, not the goal. No one sat down and suggested that protecting vile speech was some kind of noble cause, yet that’s how we seem to be treating it.

The point was to avoid a situation where the government is arbitrarily deciding what qualifies as vile, hateful, and ignorant, and was using that power to eliminate ideas distasteful to politicians. You know, like, hypothetically, if they interrogated and jailed a bunch of people for supporting the wrong economic system. Or convicted someone under the Espionage Act for opposing the draft. (Hey, that’s where the “shouting fire in a crowded theater” line comes from.)

But these are ideas that are already in the government. Bannon, a man who was chair of a news organization he himself called “the platform for the alt-right”, has the President’s ear! How much more mainstream can you get?

So again I’m having a little trouble balancing “we need to defend the free speech of white supremacists or risk losing it for everyone” against “we fairly recently were ferreting out communists and the lingering public perception is that communists are scary, not that the government is”.


This isn’t to say that freedom of speech is bad, only that the way we talk about it has become fanatical to the point of absurdity. We love it so much that we turn around and try to apply it to corporations, to platforms, to communities, to interpersonal relationships.

Look at 4chan. It’s completely public and anonymous; you only get banned for putting the functioning of the site itself in jeopardy. Nothing is stopping a larger group of people from joining its politics board and tilting sentiment the other way — except that the current population is so odious that no one wants to be around them. Everyone else has evaporated away, as tends to happen.

Free speech is great for a government, to prevent quashing politics that threaten the status quo (except it’s a joke and they’ll do it anyway). People can’t very readily just bail when the government doesn’t like them, anyway. It’s also nice to keep in mind to some degree for ubiquitous platforms. But the smaller you go, the easier it is for people to evaporate away, and the faster pure free speech will turn the place to crap. You’ll be left only with people who care about nothing.


At the very least, it seems clear that the goal of white supremacists is some form of destabilization, of disruption to the fabric of a community for purely selfish purposes. And those are the kinds of people you want to get rid of as quickly as possible.

Usually this is hard, because they act just nicely enough to create some plausible deniability. But damn, if someone is outright telling you they love Hitler, maybe skip the principled hand-wringing and eject them.

Wanted: Automation Systems Administrator

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/wanted-automation-systems-administrator/

Are you an Automation Systems Administrator who is looking for a challenging and fast-paced working environment? Want to a join our dynamic team and help Backblaze grow to new heights? Our Operations team is a distributed and collaborative group of individual contributors. We work closely together to build and maintain our home grown cloud storage farm, carefully controlling costs by utilizing open source and various brands of technology, as well as designing our own cloud storage servers. Members of Operations participate in the prioritization and decision making process, and make a difference everyday. The environment is challenging, but we balance the challenges with rewards, and we are looking for clever and innovative people to join us.

Responsibilities:

  • Develop and deploy automated provisioning & updating of systems
  • Lead projects across a range of IT disciplines
  • Understand environment thoroughly enough to administer/debug any system
  • Participate in the 24×7 on-call rotation and respond to alerts as needed

Requirements:

  • Expert knowledge of automated provisioning
  • Expert knowledge of Linux administration (Debian preferred)
  • Scripting skills
  • Experience in automation/configuration management
  • Position based in the San Mateo, California Corporate Office

Required for all Backblaze Employees

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Relentless attention to detail.
  • Excellent communication and problem solving skills.
  • Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

Company Description:
Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2 – robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. Part of our differentiation is being able to offer the lowest price of any of the big players while still being profitable.

We’ve managed to nurture a team oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. Don’t forget to check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.

We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.

Some Backblaze Perks:

  • Competitive healthcare plans
  • Competitive compensation and 401k
  • All employees receive Option grants
  • Unlimited vacation days
  • Strong coffee
  • Fully stocked Micro kitchen
  • Catered breakfast and lunches
  • Awesome people who work on awesome projects
  • Childcare bonus
  • Normal work hours
  • Get to bring your pets into the office
  • San Mateo Office – located near Caltrain and Highways 101 & 280.

If this sounds like you — follow these steps:

  1. Send an email to [email protected] with the position in the subject line.
  2. Include your resume.
  3. Tell us a bit about your experience and why you’re excited to work with Backblaze.

The post Wanted: Automation Systems Administrator appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Wanted: Site Reliability Engineer

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/wanted-site-reliability-engineer/

Are you a Site Reliability Engineer who is looking for a challenging and fast-paced working environment? Want to a join our dynamic team and help Backblaze grow to new heights? Our Operations team is a distributed and collaborative group of individual contributors. We work closely together to build and maintain our home grown cloud storage farm, carefully controlling costs by utilizing open source and various brands of technology, as well as designing our own cloud storage servers. Members of Operations participate in the prioritization and decision making process, and make a difference everyday. The environment is challenging, but we balance the challenges with rewards, and we are looking for clever and innovative people to join us.

Responsibilities:

  • Lead projects across a range of IT disciplines
  • Understand environment thoroughly enough to administer/debug any system
  • Collaborate on automated provisioning & updating of systems
  • Collaborate on network administration and security
  • Collaborate on database administration
  • Participate in the 24×7 on-call rotation and respond to alerts
    as needed

Requirements:

  • Expert knowledge of Linux administration (Debian preferred)
  • Scripting skills
  • Experience in automation/configuration management (Ansible preferred)
  • Position based in the San Mateo, California Corporate Office

Required for all Backblaze Employees

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Relentless attention to detail.
  • Excellent communication and problem solving skills.
  • Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

Company Description:
Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2 – robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. Part of our differentiation is being able to offer the lowest price of any of the big players while still being profitable.

We’ve managed to nurture a team oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. Don’t forget to check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.

We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.

Some Backblaze Perks:

  • Competitive healthcare plans
  • Competitive compensation and 401k
  • All employees receive Option grants
  • Unlimited vacation days
  • Strong coffee
  • Fully stocked Micro kitchen
  • Catered breakfast and lunches
  • Awesome people who work on awesome projects
  • Childcare bonus
  • Normal work hours
  • Get to bring your pets into the office
  • San Mateo Office – located near Caltrain and Highways 101 & 280.

If this sounds like you — follow these steps:

  1. Send an email to [email protected] with the position in the subject line.
  2. Include your resume.
  3. Tell us a bit about your experience and why you’re excited to work with Backblaze.

The post Wanted: Site Reliability Engineer appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Wanted: Network Systems Administrator

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/wanted-network-systems-administrator/

Are you a Network Systems Administrator who is looking for a challenging and fast-paced working environment? Want to a join our dynamic team and help Backblaze grow to new heights? Our Operations team is a distributed and collaborative group of individual contributors. We work closely together to build and maintain our home grown cloud storage farm, carefully controlling costs by utilizing open source and various brands of technology, as well as designing our own cloud storage servers. Members of Operations participate in the prioritization and decision making process, and make a difference everyday. The environment is challenging, but we balance the challenges with rewards, and we are looking for clever and innovative people to join us.

Responsibilities:

  • Own the network administration and security
  • Lead projects across a range of IT disciplines
  • Understand environment thoroughly enough to administer/debug any system
  • Participate in the 24×7 on-call rotation and respond to alerts as needed

Requirements:

  • Expert knowledge of network administration and security
  • Expert knowledge of Linux administration (Debian preferred)
  • Scripting skills
  • Position based in the San Mateo, California Corporate Office

Required for all Backblaze Employees

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Relentless attention to detail.
  • Excellent communication and problem solving skills.
  • Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

Company Description:
Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2 – robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. Part of our differentiation is being able to offer the lowest price of any of the big players while still being profitable.

We’ve managed to nurture a team oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. Don’t forget to check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.

We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.

Some Backblaze Perks:

  • Competitive healthcare plans
  • Competitive compensation and 401k
  • All employees receive Option grants
  • Unlimited vacation days
  • Strong coffee
  • Fully stocked Micro kitchen
  • Catered breakfast and lunches
  • Awesome people who work on awesome projects
  • Childcare bonus
  • Normal work hours
  • Get to bring your pets into the office
  • San Mateo Office – located near Caltrain and Highways 101 & 280.

If this sounds like you — follow these steps:

  1. Send an email to [email protected] with the position in the subject line.
  2. Include your resume.
  3. Tell us a bit about your experience and why you’re excited to work with Backblaze.

The post Wanted: Network Systems Administrator appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

Wanted: Database Systems Administrator

Post Syndicated from Yev original https://www.backblaze.com/blog/wanted-database-systems-administrator/

Are you a Database Systems Administrator who is looking for a challenging and fast-paced working environment? Want to a join our dynamic team and help Backblaze grow to new heights? Our Operations team is a distributed and collaborative group of individual contributors. We work closely together to build and maintain our home grown cloud storage farm, carefully controlling costs by utilizing open source and various brands of technology, as well as designing our own cloud storage servers. Members of Operations participate in the prioritization and decision making process, and make a difference everyday. The environment is challenging, but we balance the challenges with rewards, and we are looking for clever and innovative people to join us.

Responsibilities:

  • Own the administration of Cassandra and MySQL
  • Lead projects across a range of IT disciplines
  • Understand environment thoroughly enough to administer/debug the system
  • Participate in the 24×7 on-call rotation and respond to alerts as needed

Requirements:

  • Expert knowledge of Cassandra & MySQL
  • Expert knowledge of Linux administration (Debian preferred)
  • Scripting skills
  • Experience in automation/configuration management
  • Position is based in the San Mateo, California corporate office

Required for all Backblaze Employees

  • Good attitude and willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.
  • Desire to learn and adapt to rapidly changing technologies and work environment.
  • Relentless attention to detail.
  • Excellent communication and problem solving skills.
  • Backblaze is an Equal Opportunity Employer and we offer competitive salary and benefits, including our no policy vacation policy.

Company Description:
Founded in 2007, Backblaze started with a mission to make backup software elegant and provide complete peace of mind. Over the course of almost a decade, we have become a pioneer in robust, scalable low cost cloud backup. Recently, we launched B2 – robust and reliable object storage at just $0.005/gb/mo. Part of our differentiation is being able to offer the lowest price of any of the big players while still being profitable.

We’ve managed to nurture a team oriented culture with amazingly low turnover. We value our people and their families. Don’t forget to check out our “About Us” page to learn more about the people and some of our perks.

We have built a profitable, high growth business. While we love our investors, we have maintained control over the business. That means our corporate goals are simple – grow sustainably and profitably.

Some Backblaze Perks:

  • Competitive healthcare plans
  • Competitive compensation and 401k
  • All employees receive Option grants
  • Unlimited vacation days
  • Strong coffee
  • Fully stocked Micro kitchen
  • Catered breakfast and lunches
  • Awesome people who work on awesome projects
  • Childcare bonus
  • Normal work hours
  • Get to bring your pets into the office
  • San Mateo Office – located near Caltrain and Highways 101 & 280.

If this sounds like you — follow these steps:

  1. Send an email to [email protected] with the position in the subject line.
  2. Include your resume.
  3. Tell us a bit about your experience and why you’re excited to work with Backblaze.

The post Wanted: Database Systems Administrator appeared first on Backblaze Blog | Cloud Storage & Cloud Backup.

AWS HIPAA Eligibility Update (July 2017) – Eight Additional Services

Post Syndicated from Jeff Barr original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-hipaa-eligibility-update-july-2017-eight-additional-services/

It is time for an update on our on-going effort to make AWS a great host for healthcare and life sciences applications. As you can see from our Health Customer Stories page, Philips, VergeHealth, and Cambia (to choose a few) trust AWS with Protected Health Information (PHI) and Personally Identifying Information (PII) as part of their efforts to comply with HIPAA and HITECH.

In May we announced that we added Amazon API Gateway, AWS Direct Connect, AWS Database Migration Service, and Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) to our list of HIPAA eligible services and discussed our how customers and partners are putting them to use.

Eight More Eligible Services
Today I am happy to share the news that we are adding another eight services to the list:

Amazon CloudFront can now be utilized to enhance the delivery and transfer of Protected Health Information data to applications on the Internet. By providing a completely secure and encryptable pathway, CloudFront can now be used as a part of applications that need to cache PHI. This includes applications for viewing lab results or imaging data, and those that transfer PHI from Healthcare Information Exchanges (HIEs).

AWS WAF can now be used to protect applications running on AWS which operate on PHI such as patient care portals, patient scheduling systems, and HIEs. Requests and responses containing encrypted PHI and PII can now pass through AWS WAF.

AWS Shield can now be used to protect web applications such as patient care portals and scheduling systems that operate on encrypted PHI from DDoS attacks.

Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration can now be used to accelerate the bulk transfer of large amounts of research, genetics, informatics, insurance, or payer/payment data containing PHI/PII information. Transfers can take place between a pair of AWS Regions or from an on-premises system and an AWS Region.

Amazon WorkSpaces can now be used by researchers, informaticists, hospital administrators and other users to analyze, visualize or process PHI/PII data using on-demand Windows virtual desktops.

AWS Directory Service can now be used to connect the authentication and authorization systems of organizations that use or process PHI/PII to their resources in the AWS Cloud. For example, healthcare providers operating hybrid cloud environments can now use AWS Directory Services to allow their users to easily transition between cloud and on-premises resources.

Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) can now be used to send notifications containing encrypted PHI/PII as part of patient care, payment processing, and mobile applications.

Amazon Cognito can now be used to authenticate users into mobile patient portal and payment processing applications that use PHI/PII identifiers for accounts.

Additional HIPAA Resources
Here are some additional resources that will help you to build applications that comply with HIPAA and HITECH:

Keep in Touch
In order to make use of any AWS service in any manner that involves PHI, you must first enter into an AWS Business Associate Addendum (BAA). You can contact us to start the process.

Jeff;

Analyze OpenFDA Data in R with Amazon S3 and Amazon Athena

Post Syndicated from Ryan Hood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/analyze-openfda-data-in-r-with-amazon-s3-and-amazon-athena/

One of the great benefits of Amazon S3 is the ability to host, share, or consume public data sets. This provides transparency into data to which an external data scientist or developer might not normally have access. By exposing the data to the public, you can glean many insights that would have been difficult with a data silo.

The openFDA project creates easy access to the high value, high priority, and public access data of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The data has been formatted and documented in consumer-friendly standards. Critical data related to drugs, devices, and food has been harmonized and can easily be called by application developers and researchers via API calls. OpenFDA has published two whitepapers that drill into the technical underpinnings of the API infrastructure as well as how to properly analyze the data in R. In addition, FDA makes openFDA data available on S3 in raw format.

In this post, I show how to use S3, Amazon EMR, and Amazon Athena to analyze the drug adverse events dataset. A drug adverse event is an undesirable experience associated with the use of a drug, including serious drug side effects, product use errors, product quality programs, and therapeutic failures.

Data considerations

Keep in mind that this data does have limitations. In addition, in the United States, these adverse events are submitted to the FDA voluntarily from consumers so there may not be reports for all events that occurred. There is no certainty that the reported event was actually due to the product. The FDA does not require that a causal relationship between a product and event be proven, and reports do not always contain the detail necessary to evaluate an event. Because of this, there is no way to identify the true number of events. The important takeaway to all this is that the information contained in this data has not been verified to produce cause and effect relationships. Despite this disclaimer, many interesting insights and value can be derived from the data to accelerate drug safety research.

Data analysis using SQL

For application developers who want to perform targeted searching and lookups, the API endpoints provided by the openFDA project are “ready to go” for software integration using a standard API powered by Elasticsearch, NodeJS, and Docker. However, for data analysis purposes, it is often easier to work with the data using SQL and statistical packages that expect a SQL table structure. For large-scale analysis, APIs often have query limits, such as 5000 records per query. This can cause extra work for data scientists who want to analyze the full dataset instead of small subsets of data.

To address the concern of requiring all the data in a single dataset, the openFDA project released the full 100 GB of harmonized data files that back the openFDA project onto S3. Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL. It’s a quick and easy way to answer your questions about adverse events and aspirin that does not require you to spin up databases or servers.

While you could point tools directly at the openFDA S3 files, you can find greatly improved performance and use of the data by following some of the preparation steps later in this post.

Architecture

This post explains how to use the following architecture to take the raw data provided by openFDA, leverage several AWS services, and derive meaning from the underlying data.

Steps:

  1. Load the openFDA /drug/event dataset into Spark and convert it to gzip to allow for streaming.
  2. Transform the data in Spark and save the results as a Parquet file in S3.
  3. Query the S3 Parquet file with Athena.
  4. Perform visualization and analysis of the data in R and Python on Amazon EC2.

Optimizing public data sets: A primer on data preparation

Those who want to jump right into preparing the files for Athena may want to skip ahead to the next section.

Transforming, or pre-processing, files is a common task for using many public data sets. Before you jump into the specific steps for transforming the openFDA data files into a format optimized for Athena, I thought it would be worthwhile to provide a quick exploration on the problem.

Making a dataset in S3 efficiently accessible with minimal transformation for the end user has two key elements:

  1. Partitioning the data into objects that contain a complete part of the data (such as data created within a specific month).
  2. Using file formats that make it easy for applications to locate subsets of data (for example, gzip, Parquet, ORC, etc.).

With these two key elements in mind, you can now apply transformations to the openFDA adverse event data to prepare it for Athena. You might find the data techniques employed in this post to be applicable to many of the questions you might want to ask of the public data sets stored in Amazon S3.

Before you get started, I encourage those who are interested in doing deeper healthcare analysis on AWS to make sure that you first read the AWS HIPAA Compliance whitepaper. This covers the information necessary for processing and storing patient health information (PHI).

Also, the adverse event analysis shown for aspirin is strictly for demonstration purposes and should not be used for any real decision or taken as anything other than a demonstration of AWS capabilities. However, there have been robust case studies published that have explored a causal relationship between aspirin and adverse reactions using OpenFDA data. If you are seeking research on aspirin or its risks, visit organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

Preparing data for Athena

For this walkthrough, you will start with the FDA adverse events dataset, which is stored as JSON files within zip archives on S3. You then convert it to Parquet for analysis. Why do you need to convert it? The original data download is stored in objects that are partitioned by quarter.

Here is a small sample of what you find in the adverse events (/drugs/event) section of the openFDA website.

If you were looking for events that happened in a specific quarter, this is not a bad solution. For most other scenarios, such as looking across the full history of aspirin events, it requires you to access a lot of data that you won’t need. The zip file format is not ideal for using data in place because zip readers must have random access to the file, which means the data can’t be streamed. Additionally, the zip files contain large JSON objects.

To read the data in these JSON files, a streaming JSON decoder must be used or a computer with a significant amount of RAM must decode the JSON. Opening up these files for public consumption is a great start. However, you still prepare the data with a few lines of Spark code so that the JSON can be streamed.

Step 1:  Convert the file types

Using Apache Spark on EMR, you can extract all of the zip files and pull out the events from the JSON files. To do this, use the Scala code below to deflate the zip file and create a text file. In addition, compress the JSON files with gzip to improve Spark’s performance and reduce your overall storage footprint. The Scala code can be run in either the Spark Shell or in an Apache Zeppelin notebook on your EMR cluster.

If you are unfamiliar with either Apache Zeppelin or the Spark Shell, the following posts serve as great references:

 

import scala.io.Source
import java.util.zip.ZipInputStream
import org.apache.spark.input.PortableDataStream
import org.apache.hadoop.io.compress.GzipCodec

// Input Directory
val inputFile = "s3://download.open.fda.gov/drug/event/2015q4/*.json.zip";

// Output Directory
val outputDir = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET HERE}/output/2015q4/";

// Extract zip files from 
val zipFiles = sc.binaryFiles(inputFile);

// Process zip file to extract the json as text file and save it
// in the output directory 
val rdd = zipFiles.flatMap((file: (String, PortableDataStream)) => {
    val zipStream = new ZipInputStream(file.2.open)
    val entry = zipStream.getNextEntry
    val iter = Source.fromInputStream(zipStream).getLines
    iter
}).map(.replaceAll("\s+","")).saveAsTextFile(outputDir, classOf[GzipCodec])

Step 2:  Transform JSON into Parquet

With just a few more lines of Scala code, you can use Spark’s abstractions to convert the JSON into a Spark DataFrame and then export the data back to S3 in Parquet format.

Spark requires the JSON to be in JSON Lines format to be parsed correctly into a DataFrame.

// Output Parquet directory
val outputDir = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET NAME}/output/drugevents"
// Input json file
val inputJson = "s3://{YOUR OUTPUT BUCKET NAME}/output/2015q4/*”
// Load dataframe from json file multiline 
val df = spark.read.json(sc.wholeTextFiles(inputJson).values)
// Extract results from dataframe
val results = df.select("results")
// Save it to Parquet
results.write.parquet(outputDir)

Step 3:  Create an Athena table

With the data cleanly prepared and stored in S3 using the Parquet format, you can now place an Athena table on top of it to get a better understanding of the underlying data.

Because the openFDA data structure incorporates several layers of nesting, it can be a complex process to try to manually derive the underlying schema in a Hive-compatible format. To shorten this process, you can load the top row of the DataFrame from the previous step into a Hive table within Zeppelin and then extract the “create  table” statement from SparkSQL.

results.createOrReplaceTempView("data")

val top1 = spark.sql("select * from data tablesample(1 rows)")

top1.write.format("parquet").mode("overwrite").saveAsTable("drugevents")

val show_cmd = spark.sql("show create table drugevents”).show(1, false)

This returns a “create table” statement that you can almost paste directly into the Athena console. Make some small modifications (adding the word “external” and replacing “using with “stored as”), and then execute the code in the Athena query editor. The table is created.

For the openFDA data, the DDL returns all string fields, as the date format used in your dataset does not conform to the yyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss[.f…] format required by Hive. For your analysis, the string format works appropriately but it would be possible to extend this code to use a Presto function to convert the strings into time stamps.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE  drugevents (
   companynumb  string, 
   safetyreportid  string, 
   safetyreportversion  string, 
   receiptdate  string, 
   patientagegroup  string, 
   patientdeathdate  string, 
   patientsex  string, 
   patientweight  string, 
   serious  string, 
   seriousnesscongenitalanomali  string, 
   seriousnessdeath  string, 
   seriousnessdisabling  string, 
   seriousnesshospitalization  string, 
   seriousnesslifethreatening  string, 
   seriousnessother  string, 
   actiondrug  string, 
   activesubstancename  string, 
   drugadditional  string, 
   drugadministrationroute  string, 
   drugcharacterization  string, 
   drugindication  string, 
   drugauthorizationnumb  string, 
   medicinalproduct  string, 
   drugdosageform  string, 
   drugdosagetext  string, 
   reactionoutcome  string, 
   reactionmeddrapt  string, 
   reactionmeddraversionpt  string)
STORED AS parquet
LOCATION
  's3://{YOUR TARGET BUCKET}/output/drugevents'

With the Athena table in place, you can start to explore the data by running ad hoc queries within Athena or doing more advanced statistical analysis in R.

Using SQL and R to analyze adverse events

Using the openFDA data with Athena makes it very easy to translate your questions into SQL code and perform quick analysis on the data. After you have prepared the data for Athena, you can begin to explore the relationship between aspirin and adverse drug events, as an example. One of the most common metrics to measure adverse drug events is the Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR). It is defined as:

PRR = (m/n)/( (M-m)/(N-n) )
Where
m = #reports with drug and event
n = #reports with drug
M = #reports with event in database
N = #reports in database

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage has the highest PRR of any reaction to aspirin when viewed in aggregate. One question you may want to ask is how the PRR has trended on a yearly basis for gastrointestinal haemorrhage since 2005.

Using the following query in Athena, you can see the PRR trend of “GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE” reactions with “ASPIRIN” since 2005:

with drug_and_event as 
(select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , reactionmeddrapt
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_drug_and_event 
from fda.drugevents
where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and medicinalproduct = 'ASPIRIN'
     and reactionmeddrapt= 'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'
group by reactionmeddrapt, rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') 
), reports_with_drug as 
(
select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_drug 
 from fda.drugevents 
 where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and medicinalproduct = 'ASPIRIN'
group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') 
), reports_with_event as 
(
   select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as reports_with_event 
   from fda.drugevents
   where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
     and reactionmeddrapt= 'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'
   group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA')
), total_reports as 
(
   select rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year
    , count(distinct (concat(safetyreportid,receiptdate,reactionmeddrapt))) as total_reports 
   from fda.drugevents
   where rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') 
     between '2005' and '2015' 
   group by rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA')
)
select  drug_and_event.receipt_year, 
(1.0 * drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event/reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug)/ (1.0 * (reports_with_event.reports_with_event- drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event)/(total_reports.total_reports-reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug)) as prr
, drug_and_event.reports_with_drug_and_event
, reports_with_drug.reports_with_drug
, reports_with_event.reports_with_event
, total_reports.total_reports
from drug_and_event
    inner join reports_with_drug on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = reports_with_drug.receipt_year   
    inner join reports_with_event on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = reports_with_event.receipt_year
    inner join total_reports on  drug_and_event.receipt_year = total_reports.receipt_year
order by  drug_and_event.receipt_year


One nice feature of Athena is that you can quickly connect to it via R or any other tool that can use a JDBC driver to visualize the data and understand it more clearly.

With this quick R script that can be run in R Studio either locally or on an EC2 instance, you can create a visualization of the PRR and Reporting Odds Ratio (RoR) for “GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE” reactions from “ASPIRIN” since 2005 to better understand these trends.

# connect to ATHENA
conn <- dbConnect(drv, '<Your JDBC URL>',s3_staging_dir="<Your S3 Location>",user=Sys.getenv(c("USER_NAME"),password=Sys.getenv(c("USER_PASSWORD"))

# Declare Adverse Event
adverseEvent <- "'GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE'"

# Build SQL Blocks
sqlFirst <- "SELECT rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') as receipt_year, count(DISTINCT safetyreportid) as event_count FROM fda.drugsflat WHERE rpad(receiptdate,4,'NA') between '2005' and '2015'"
sqlEnd <- "GROUP BY rpad(receiptdate, 4, 'NA') ORDER BY receipt_year"

# Extract Aspirin with adverse event counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND medicinalproduct ='ASPIRIN' AND reactionmeddrapt=",adverseEvent, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
aspirinAdverseCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Extract Aspirin counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND medicinalproduct ='ASPIRIN'", sqlEnd,sep=" ")
aspirinCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Extract adverse event counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst,"AND reactionmeddrapt=",adverseEvent, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
adverseCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# All Drug Adverse event Counts
sql <- paste(sqlFirst, sqlEnd,sep=" ")
allDrugCount = dbGetQuery(conn,sql)

# Select correct rows
selAll =  allDrugCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year
selAspirin = aspirinCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year
selAdverse = adverseCount$receipt_year == aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year

# Calculate Numbers
m <- c(aspirinAdverseCount$event_count)
n <- c(aspirinCount[selAspirin,2])
M <- c(adverseCount[selAdverse,2])
N <- c(allDrugCount[selAll,2])

# Calculate proptional reporting ratio
PRR = (m/n)/((M-m)/(N-n))

# Calculate reporting Odds Ratio
d = n-m
D = N-M
ROR = (m/d)/(M/D)

# Plot the PRR and ROR
g_range <- range(0, PRR,ROR)
g_range[2] <- g_range[2] + 3
yearLen = length(aspirinAdverseCount$receipt_year)
axis(1,1:yearLen,lab=ax)
plot(PRR, type="o", col="blue", ylim=g_range,axes=FALSE, ann=FALSE)
axis(1,1:yearLen,lab=ax)
axis(2, las=1, at=1*0:g_range[2])
box()
lines(ROR, type="o", pch=22, lty=2, col="red")

As you can see, the PRR and RoR have both remained fairly steady over this time range. With the R Script above, all you need to do is change the adverseEvent variable from GASTROINTESTINAL HAEMORRHAGE to another type of reaction to analyze and compare those trends.

Summary

In this walkthrough:

  • You used a Scala script on EMR to convert the openFDA zip files to gzip.
  • You then transformed the JSON blobs into flattened Parquet files using Spark on EMR.
  • You created an Athena DDL so that you could query these Parquet files residing in S3.
  • Finally, you pointed the R package at the Athena table to analyze the data without pulling it into a database or creating your own servers.

If you have questions or suggestions, please comment below.


Next Steps

Take your skills to the next level. Learn how to optimize Amazon S3 for an architecture commonly used to enable genomic data analysis. Also, be sure to read more about running R on Amazon Athena.

 

 

 

 

 


About the Authors

Ryan Hood is a Data Engineer for AWS. He works on big data projects leveraging the newest AWS offerings. In his spare time, he enjoys watching the Cubs win the World Series and attempting to Sous-vide anything he can find in his refrigerator.

 

 

Vikram Anand is a Data Engineer for AWS. He works on big data projects leveraging the newest AWS offerings. In his spare time, he enjoys playing soccer and watching the NFL & European Soccer leagues.

 

 

Dave Rocamora is a Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services on the Open Data team. Dave is based in Seattle and when he is not opening data, he enjoys biking and drinking coffee outside.