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Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

Post Syndicated from Matthew Prince original https://blog.cloudflare.com/introducing-cloudflare-for-teams/

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

Ten years ago, when Cloudflare was created, the Internet was a place that people visited. People still talked about ‘surfing the web’ and the iPhone was less than two years old, but on July 4, 2009 large scale DDoS attacks were launched against websites in the US and South Korea.

Those attacks highlighted how fragile the Internet was and how all of us were becoming dependent on access to the web as part of our daily lives.

Fast forward ten years and the speed, reliability and safety of the Internet is paramount as our private and work lives depend on it.

We started Cloudflare to solve one half of every IT organization’s challenge: how do you ensure the resources and infrastructure that you expose to the Internet are safe from attack, fast, and reliable. We saw that the world was moving away from hardware and software to solve these problems and instead wanted a scalable service that would work around the world.

To deliver that, we built one of the world’s largest networks. Today our network spans more than 200 cities worldwide and is within milliseconds of nearly everyone connected to the Internet. We have built the capacity to stand up to nation-state scale cyberattacks and a threat intelligence system powered by the immense amount of Internet traffic that we see.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

Today we’re expanding Cloudflare’s product offerings to solve the other half of every IT organization’s challenge: ensuring the people and teams within an organization can access the tools they need to do their job and are safe from malware and other online threats.

The speed, reliability, and protection we’ve brought to public infrastructure is extended today to everything your team does on the Internet.

In addition to protecting an organization’s infrastructure, IT organizations are charged with ensuring that employees of an organization can access the tools they need safely. Traditionally, these problems would be solved by hardware products like VPNs and Firewalls. VPNs let authorized users access the tools they needed and Firewalls kept malware out.

Castle and Moat

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

The dominant model was the idea of a castle and a moat. You put all your valuable assets inside the castle. Your Firewall created the moat around the castle to keep anything malicious out. When you needed to let someone in, a VPN acted as the drawbridge over the moat.

This is still the model most businesses use today, but it’s showing its age. The first challenge is that if an attacker is able to find its way over the moat and into the castle then it can cause significant damage. Unfortunately, few weeks go by without reading a news story about how an organization had significant data compromised because an employee fell for a phishing email, or a contractor was compromised, or someone was able to sneak into an office and plug in a rogue device.

The second challenge of the model is the rise of cloud and SaaS. Increasingly an organization’s resources aren’t in the just one castle anymore, but instead in different public cloud and SaaS vendors.

Services like Box, for instance, provide better storage and collaboration tools than most organizations could ever hope to build and manage themselves. But there’s literally nowhere you can ship a hardware box to Box in order to build your own moat around their SaaS castle. Box provides some great security tools themselves, but they are different from the tools provided by every other SaaS and public cloud vendor. Where IT organizations used to try to have a single pane of glass with a complex mess of hardware to see who was getting stopped by their moats and who was crossing their drawbridges, SaaS and cloud make that visibility increasingly difficult.

The third challenge to the traditional castle and moat strategy of IT is the rise of mobile. Where once upon a time your employees would all show up to work in your castle, now people are working around the world. Requiring everyone to login to a limited number of central VPNs becomes obviously absurd when you picture it as villagers having to sprint back from wherever they are across a drawbridge whenever they want to get work done. It’s no wonder VPN support is one of the top IT organization tickets and likely always will be for organizations that maintain a castle and moat approach.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

But it’s worse than that. Mobile has also introduced a culture where employees bring their own devices to work. Or, even if on a company-managed device, work from the road or home — beyond the protected walls of the castle and without the security provided by a moat.

If you’d looked at how we managed our own IT systems at Cloudflare four years ago, you’d have seen us following this same model. We used firewalls to keep threats out and required every employee to login through our VPN to get their work done. Personally, as someone who travels extensively for my job, it was especially painful.

Regularly, someone would send me a link to an internal wiki article asking for my input. I’d almost certainly be working from my mobile phone in the back of a cab running between meetings. I’d try and access the link and be prompted to login to our VPN in San Francisco. That’s when the frustration would start.

Corporate mobile VPN clients, in my experience, all seem to be powered by some 100-sided die that only will allow you to connect if the number of miles you are from your home office is less than 25 times whatever number is rolled. Much frustration, and several IT tickets later, with a little luck I may be able to connect. And, even then, the experience was horribly slow and unreliable.

When we audited our own system, we found that the frustration with the process had caused multiple teams to create work arounds that were, effectively, unauthorized drawbridges over our carefully constructed moat. And, as we increasingly adopted SaaS tools like Salesforce and Workday, we lost much visibility into how these tools were being used.

Around the same time we were realizing the traditional approach to IT security was untenable for an organization like Cloudflare, Google published their paper titled “BeyondCorp: A New Approach to Enterprise Security.” The core idea was that a company’s intranet should be no more trusted than the Internet. And, rather than the perimeter being enforced by a singular moat, instead each application and data source should authenticate the individual and device each time it is accessed.

The BeyondCorp idea, which has come to be known as a ZeroTrust model for IT security, was influential for how we thought about our own systems. Powerfully, because Cloudflare had a flexible global network, we were able to use it both to enforce policies as our team accessed tools as well as to protect ourselves from malware as we did our jobs.

Cloudflare for Teams

Today, we’re excited to announce Cloudflare for Teams™: the suite of tools we built to protect ourselves, now available to help any IT organization, from the smallest to the largest.

Cloudflare for Teams is built around two complementary products: Access and Gateway. Cloudflare Access™ is the modern VPN — a way to ensure your team members get fast access to the resources they need to do their job while keeping threats out. Cloudflare Gateway™ is the modern Next Generation Firewall — a way to ensure that your team members are protected from malware and follow your organization’s policies wherever they go online.

Powerfully, both Cloudflare Access and Cloudflare Gateway are built atop the existing Cloudflare network. That means they are fast, reliable, scalable to the largest organizations, DDoS resistant, and located everywhere your team members are today and wherever they may travel. Have a senior executive going on a photo safari to see giraffes in Kenya, gorillas in Rwanda, and lemurs in Madagascar — don’t worry, we have Cloudflare data centers in all those countries (and many more) and they all support Cloudflare for Teams.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

All Cloudflare for Teams products are informed by the threat intelligence we see across all of Cloudflare’s products. We see such a large diversity of Internet traffic that we often see new threats and malware before anyone else. We’ve supplemented our own proprietary data with additional data sources from leading security vendors, ensuring Cloudflare for Teams provides a broad set of protections against malware and other online threats.

Moreover, because Cloudflare for Teams runs atop the same network we built for our infrastructure protection products, we can deliver them very efficiently. That means that we can offer these products to our customers at extremely competitive prices. Our goal is to make the return on investment (ROI) for all Cloudflare for Teams customers nothing short of a no brainer. If you’re considering another solution, contact us before you decide.

Both Cloudflare Access and Cloudflare Gateway also build off products we’ve launched and battle tested already. For example, Gateway builds, in part, off our 1.1.1.1 Public DNS resolver. Today, more than 40 million people trust 1.1.1.1 as the fastest public DNS resolver globally. By adding malware scanning, we were able to create our entry-level Cloudflare Gateway product.

Cloudflare Access and Cloudflare Gateway build off our WARP and WARP+ products. We intentionally built a consumer mobile VPN service because we knew it would be hard. The millions of WARP and WARP+ users who have put the product through its paces have ensured that it’s ready for the enterprise. That we have 4.5 stars across more than 200,000 ratings, just on iOS, is a testament of how reliable the underlying WARP and WARP+ engines have become. Compare that with the ratings of any corporate mobile VPN client, which are unsurprisingly abysmal.

We’ve partnered with some incredible organizations to create the ecosystem around Cloudflare for Teams. These include endpoint security solutions including VMWare Carbon Black, Malwarebytes, and Tanium. SEIM and analytics solutions including Datadog, Sumo Logic, and Splunk. Identity platforms including Okta, OneLogin, and Ping Identity. Feedback from these partners and more is at the end of this post.

If you’re curious about more of the technical details about Cloudflare for Teams, I encourage you to read Sam Rhea’s post.

Serving Everyone

Cloudflare has always believed in the power of serving everyone. That’s why we’ve offered a free version of Cloudflare for Infrastructure since we launched in 2010. That belief doesn’t change with our launch of Cloudflare for Teams. For both Cloudflare Access and Cloudflare Gateway, there will be free versions to protect individuals, home networks, and small businesses. We remember what it was like to be a startup and believe that everyone deserves to be safe online, regardless of their budget.

With both Cloudflare Access and Gateway, the products are segmented along a Good, Better, Best framework. That breaks out into Access Basic, Access Pro, and Access Enterprise. You can see the features available with each tier in the table below, including Access Enterprise features that will roll out over the coming months.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

We wanted a similar Good, Better, Best framework for Cloudflare Gateway. Gateway Basic can be provisioned in minutes through a simple change to your network’s recursive DNS settings. Once in place, network administrators can set rules on what domains should be allowed and filtered on the network. Cloudflare Gateway is informed both by the malware data gathered from our global sensor network as well as a rich corpus of domain categorization, allowing network operators to set whatever policy makes sense for them. Gateway Basic leverages the speed of 1.1.1.1 with granular network controls.

Gateway Pro, which we’re announcing today and you can sign up to beta test as its features roll out over the coming months, extends the DNS-provisioned protection to a full proxy. Gateway Pro can be provisioned via the WARP client — which we are extending beyond iOS and Android mobile devices to also support Windows, MacOS, and Linux — or network policies including MDM-provisioned proxy settings or GRE tunnels from office routers. This allows a network operator to filter on policies not merely by the domain but by the specific URL.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

Building the Best-in-Class Network Gateway

While Gateway Basic (provisioned via DNS) and Gateway Pro (provisioned as a proxy) made sense, we wanted to imagine what the best-in-class network gateway would be for Enterprises that valued the highest level of performance and security. As we talked to these organizations we heard an ever-present concern: just surfing the Internet created risk of unauthorized code compromising devices. With every page that every user visited, third party code (JavaScript, etc.) was being downloaded and executed on their devices.

The solution, they suggested, was to isolate the local browser from third party code and have websites render in the network. This technology is known as browser isolation. And, in theory, it’s a great idea. Unfortunately, in practice with current technology, it doesn’t perform well. The most common way the browser isolation technology works is to render the page on a server and then push a bitmap of the page down to the browser. This is known as pixel pushing. The challenge is that can be slow, bandwidth intensive, and it breaks many sophisticated web applications.

We were hopeful that we could solve some of these problems by moving the rendering of the pages to Cloudflare’s network, which would be closer to end users. So we talked with many of the leading browser isolation companies about potentially partnering. Unfortunately, as we experimented with their technologies, even with our vast network, we couldn’t overcome the sluggish feel that plagues existing browser isolation solutions.

Enter S2 Systems

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

That’s when we were introduced to S2 Systems. I clearly remember first trying the S2 demo because my first reaction was: “This can’t be working correctly, it’s too fast.” The S2 team had taken a different approach to browser isolation. Rather than trying to push down a bitmap of what the screen looked like, instead they pushed down the vectors to draw what’s on the screen. The result was an experience that was typically at least as fast as browsing locally and without broken pages.

The best, albeit imperfect, analogy I’ve come up with to describe the difference between S2’s technology and other browser isolation companies is the difference between WindowsXP and MacOS X when they were both launched in 2001. WindowsXP’s original graphics were based on bitmapped images. MacOS X were based on vectors. Remember the magic of watching an application “genie” in and out the MacOS X doc? Check it out in a video from the launch…

At the time watching a window slide in and out of the dock seemed like magic compared with what you could do with bitmapped user interfaces. You can hear the awe in the reaction from the audience. That awe that we’ve all gotten used to in UIs today comes from the power of vector images. And, if you’ve been underwhelmed by the pixel-pushed bitmaps of existing browser isolation technologies, just wait until you see what is possible with S2’s technology.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

We were so impressed with the team and the technology that we acquired the company. We will be integrating the S2 technology into Cloudflare Gateway Enterprise. The browser isolation technology will run across Cloudflare’s entire global network, bringing it within milliseconds of virtually every Internet user. You can learn more about this approach in Darren Remington’s blog post.

Once the rollout is complete in the second half of 2020 we expect we will be able to offer the first full browser isolation technology that doesn’t force you to sacrifice performance. In the meantime, if you’d like a demo of the S2 technology in action, let us know.

The Promise of a Faster Internet for Everyone

Cloudflare’s mission is to help build a better Internet. With Cloudflare for Teams, we’ve extended that network to protect the people and organizations that use the Internet to do their jobs. We’re excited to help a more modern, mobile, and cloud-enabled Internet be safer and faster than it ever was with traditional hardware appliances.

But the same technology we’re deploying now to improve enterprise security holds further promise. The most interesting Internet applications keep getting more complicated and, in turn, requiring more bandwidth and processing power to use.

For those of us fortunate enough to be able to afford the latest iPhone, we continue to reap the benefits of an increasingly powerful set of Internet-enabled tools. But try and use the Internet on a mobile phone from a few generations back, and you can see how quickly the latest Internet applications leaves legacy devices behind. That’s a problem if we want to bring the next 4 billion Internet users online.

We need a paradigm shift if the sophistication of applications and complexity of interfaces continues to keep pace with the latest generation of devices. To make the best of the Internet available to everyone, we may need to shift the work of the Internet off the end devices we all carry around in our pockets and let the network — where power, bandwidth, and CPU are relatively plentiful — carry more of the load.

That’s the long term promise of what S2’s technology combined with Cloudflare’s network may someday power. If we can make it so a less expensive device can run the latest Internet applications — using less battery, bandwidth, and CPU than ever before possible — then we can make the Internet more affordable and accessible for everyone.

We started with Cloudflare for Infrastructure. Today we’re announcing Cloudflare for Teams. But our ambition is nothing short of Cloudflare for Everyone.

Early Feedback on Cloudflare for Teams from Customers and Partners

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Cloudflare Access has enabled Ziff Media Group to seamlessly and securely deliver our suite of internal tools to employees around the world on any device, without the need for complicated network configurations,” said Josh Butts, SVP Product & Technology, Ziff Media Group.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“VPNs are frustrating and lead to countless wasted cycles for employees and the IT staff supporting them,” said Amod Malviya, Cofounder and CTO, Udaan. “Furthermore, conventional VPNs can lull people into a false sense of security. With Cloudflare Access, we have a far more reliable, intuitive, secure solution that operates on a per user, per access basis. I think of it as Authentication 2.0 — even 3.0”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Roman makes healthcare accessible and convenient,” said Ricky Lindenhovius, Engineering Director, Roman Health. “Part of that mission includes connecting patients to physicians, and Cloudflare helps Roman securely and conveniently connect doctors to internally managed tools. With Cloudflare, Roman can evaluate every request made to internal applications for permission and identity, while also improving speed and user experience.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“We’re excited to partner with Cloudflare to provide our customers an innovative approach to enterprise security that combines the benefits of endpoint protection and network security,” said Tom Barsi, VP Business Development, VMware. “VMware Carbon Black is a leading endpoint protection platform (EPP) and offers visibility and control of laptops, servers, virtual machines, and cloud infrastructure at scale. In partnering with Cloudflare, customers will have the ability to use VMware Carbon Black’s device health as a signal in enforcing granular authentication to a team’s internally managed application via Access, Cloudflare’s Zero Trust solution. Our joint solution combines the benefits of endpoint protection and a zero trust authentication solution to keep teams working on the Internet more secure.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Rackspace is a leading global technology services company accelerating the value of the cloud during every phase of our customers’ digital transformation,” said Lisa McLin, vice president of alliances and channel chief at Rackspace. “Our partnership with Cloudflare enables us to deliver cutting edge networking performance to our customers and helps them leverage a software defined networking architecture in their journey to the cloud.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Employees are increasingly working outside of the traditional corporate headquarters. Distributed and remote users need to connect to the Internet, but today’s security solutions often require they backhaul those connections through headquarters to have the same level of security,” said Michael Kenney, head of strategy and business development for Ingram Micro Cloud. “We’re excited to work with Cloudflare whose global network helps teams of any size reach internally managed applications and securely use the Internet, protecting the data, devices, and team members that power a business.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“At Okta, we’re on a mission to enable any organization to securely use any technology. As a leading provider of identity for the enterprise, Okta helps organizations remove the friction of managing their corporate identity for every connection and request that their users make to applications. We’re excited about our partnership with Cloudflare and bringing seamless authentication and connection to teams of any size,” said Chuck Fontana, VP, Corporate & Business Development, Okta.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Organizations need one unified place to see, secure, and manage their endpoints,” said Matt Hastings, Senior Director of Product Management at Tanium. “We are excited to partner with Cloudflare to help teams secure their data, off-network devices, and applications. Tanium’s platform provides customers with a risk-based approach to operations and security with instant visibility and control into their endpoints. Cloudflare helps extend that protection by incorporating device data to enforce security for every connection made to protected resources.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“OneLogin is happy to partner with Cloudflare to advance security teams’ identity control in any environment, whether on-premise or in the cloud, without compromising user performance,” said Gary Gwin, Senior Director of Product at OneLogin. “OneLogin’s identity and access management platform securely connects people and technology for every user, every app, and every device. The OneLogin and Cloudflare for Teams integration provides a comprehensive identity and network control solution for teams of all sizes.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Ping Identity helps enterprises improve security and user experience across their digital businesses,” said Loren Russon, Vice President of Product Management, Ping Identity. “Cloudflare for Teams integrates with Ping Identity to provide a comprehensive identity and network control solution to teams of any size, and ensures that only the right people get the right access to applications, seamlessly and securely.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Our customers increasingly leverage deep observability data to address both operational and security use cases, which is why we launched Datadog Security Monitoring,” said Marc Tremsal, Director of Product Management at Datadog. “Our integration with Cloudflare already provides our customers with visibility into their web and DNS traffic; we’re excited to work together as Cloudflare for Teams expands this visibility to corporate environments.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“As more companies support employees who work on corporate applications from outside of the office, it is vital that they understand each request users are making. They need real-time insights and intelligence to react to incidents and audit secure connections,” said John Coyle, VP of Business Development, Sumo Logic. “With our partnership with Cloudflare, customers can now log every request made to internal applications and automatically push them directly to Sumo Logic for retention and analysis.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Cloudgenix is excited to partner with Cloudflare to provide an end-to-end security solution from the branch to the cloud.  As enterprises move off of expensive legacy MPLS networks and adopt branch to internet breakout policies, the CloudGenix CloudBlade platform and Cloudflare for Teams together can make this transition seamless and secure. We’re looking forward to Cloudflare’s roadmap with this announcement and partnership opportunities in the near term.” said Aaron Edwards, Field CTO, Cloudgenix.

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“In the face of limited cybersecurity resources, organizations are looking for highly automated solutions that work together to reduce the likelihood and impact of today’s cyber risks,” said Akshay Bhargava, Chief Product Officer, Malwarebytes. “With Malwarebytes and Cloudflare together, organizations are deploying more than twenty layers of security defense-in-depth. Using just two solutions, teams can secure their entire enterprise from device, to the network, to their internal and external applications.”

Introducing Cloudflare for Teams

“Organizations’ sensitive data is vulnerable in-transit over the Internet and when it’s stored at its destination in public cloud, SaaS applications and endpoints,” said Pravin Kothari, CEO of CipherCloud. “CipherCloud is excited to partner with Cloudflare to secure data in all stages, wherever it goes. Cloudflare’s global network secures data in-transit without slowing down performance. CipherCloud CASB+ provides a powerful cloud security platform with end-to-end data protection and adaptive controls for cloud environments, SaaS applications and BYOD endpoints. Working together, teams can rely on integrated Cloudflare and CipherCloud solution to keep data always protected without compromising user experience.”

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation

Post Syndicated from Darren Remington original https://blog.cloudflare.com/cloudflare-and-remote-browser-isolation/

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation

Cloudflare announced today that it has purchased S2 Systems Corporation, a Seattle-area startup that has built an innovative remote browser isolation solution unlike any other currently in the market. The majority of endpoint compromises involve web browsers — by putting space between users’ devices and where web code executes, browser isolation makes endpoints substantially more secure. In this blog post, I’ll discuss what browser isolation is, why it is important, how the S2 Systems cloud browser works, and how it fits with Cloudflare’s mission to help build a better Internet.

What’s wrong with web browsing?

It’s been more than 30 years since Tim Berners-Lee wrote the project proposal defining the technology underlying what we now call the world wide web. What Berners-Lee envisioned as being useful for “several thousand people, many of them very creative, all working toward common goals[1] has grown to become a fundamental part of commerce, business, the global economy, and an integral part of society used by more than 58% of the world’s population[2].

The world wide web and web browsers have unequivocally become the platform for much of the productive work (and play) people do every day. However, as the pervasiveness of the web grew, so did opportunities for bad actors. Hardly a day passes without a major new cybersecurity breach in the news. Several contributing factors have helped propel cybercrime to unprecedented levels: the commercialization of hacking tools, the emergence of malware-as-a-service, the presence of well-financed nation states and organized crime, and the development of cryptocurrencies which enable malicious actors of all stripes to anonymously monetize their activities.

The vast majority of security breaches originate from the web. Gartner calls the public Internet a “cesspool of attacks” and identifies web browsers as the primary culprit responsible for 70% of endpoint compromises.[3] This should not be surprising. Although modern web browsers are remarkable, many fundamental architectural decisions were made in the 1990’s before concepts like security, privacy, corporate oversight, and compliance were issues or even considerations. Core web browsing functionality (including the entire underlying WWW architecture) was designed and built for a different era and circumstances.

In today’s world, several web browsing assumptions are outdated or even dangerous. Web browsers and the underlying server technologies encompass an extensive – and growing – list of complex interrelated technologies. These technologies are constantly in flux, driven by vibrant open source communities, content publishers, search engines, advertisers, and competition between browser companies. As a result of this underlying complexity, web browsers have become primary attack vectors. According to Gartner, “the very act of users browsing the internet and clicking on URL links opens the enterprise to significant risk. […] Attacking thru the browser is too easy, and the targets too rich.[4] Even “ostensibly ‘good’ websites are easily compromised and can be used to attack visitors” (Gartner[5]) with more than 40% of malicious URLs found on good domains (Webroot[6]). (A complete list of vulnerabilities is beyond the scope of this post.)

The very structure and underlying technologies that power the web are inherently difficult to secure. Some browser vulnerabilities result from illegitimate use of legitimate functionality: enabling browsers to download files and documents is good, but allowing downloading of files infected with malware is bad; dynamic loading of content across multiple sites within a single webpage is good, but cross-site scripting is bad; enabling an extensive advertising ecosystem is good, but the inability to detect hijacked links or malicious redirects to malware or phishing sites is bad; etc.

Enterprise Browsing Issues

Enterprises have additional challenges with traditional browsers.

Paradoxically, IT departments have the least amount of control over the most ubiquitous app in the enterprise – the web browser. The most common complaints about web browsers from enterprise security and IT professionals are:

  1. Security (obviously). The public internet is a constant source of security breaches and the problem is growing given an 11x escalation in attacks since 2016 (Meeker[7]). Costs of detection and remediation are escalating and the reputational damage and financial losses for breaches can be substantial.
  2. Control. IT departments have little visibility into user activity and limited ability to leverage content disarm and reconstruction (CDR) and data loss prevention (DLP) mechanisms including when, where, or who downloaded/upload files.
  3. Compliance. The inability to control data and activity across geographies or capture required audit telemetry to meet increasingly strict regulatory requirements. This results in significant exposure to penalties and fines.

Given vulnerabilities exposed through everyday user activities such as email and web browsing, some organizations attempt to restrict these activities. As both are legitimate and critical business functions, efforts to limit or curtail web browser use inevitably fail or have a substantive negative impact on business productivity and employee morale.

Current approaches to mitigating security issues inherent in browsing the web are largely based on signature technology for data files and executables, and lists of known good/bad URLs and DNS addresses. The challenge with these approaches is the difficulty of keeping current with known attacks (file signatures, URLs and DNS addresses) and their inherent vulnerability to zero-day attacks. Hackers have devised automated tools to defeat signature-based approaches (e.g. generating hordes of files with unknown signatures) and create millions of transient websites in order to defeat URL/DNS blacklists.

While these approaches certainly prevent some attacks, the growing number of incidents and severity of security breaches clearly indicate more effective alternatives are needed.

What is browser isolation?

The core concept behind browser isolation is security-through-physical-isolation to create a “gap” between a user’s web browser and the endpoint device thereby protecting the device (and the enterprise network) from exploits and attacks. Unlike secure web gateways, antivirus software, or firewalls which rely on known threat patterns or signatures, this is a zero-trust approach.

There are two primary browser isolation architectures: (1) client-based local isolation and (2) remote isolation.

Local browser isolation attempts to isolate a browser running on a local endpoint using app-level or OS-level sandboxing. In addition to leaving the endpoint at risk when there is an isolation failure, these systems require significant endpoint resources (memory + compute), tend to be brittle, and are difficult for IT to manage as they depend on support from specific hardware and software components.

Further, local browser isolation does nothing to address the control and compliance issues mentioned above.

Remote browser isolation (RBI) protects the endpoint by moving the browser to a remote service in the cloud or to a separate on-premises server within the enterprise network:

  • On-premises isolation simply relocates the risk from the endpoint to another location within the enterprise without actually eliminating the risk.
  • Cloud-based remote browsing isolates the end-user device and the enterprise’s network while fully enabling IT control and compliance solutions.

Given the inherent advantages, most browser isolation solutions – including S2 Systems – leverage cloud-based remote isolation. Properly implemented, remote browser isolation can protect the organization from browser exploits, plug-ins, zero-day vulnerabilities, malware and other attacks embedded in web content.

How does Remote Browser Isolation (RBI) work?

In a typical cloud-based RBI system (the red-dashed box ❶ below), individual remote browsers ❷ are run in the cloud as disposable containerized instances – typically, one instance per user. The remote browser sends the rendered contents of a web page to the user endpoint device ❹ using a specific protocol and data format ❸. Actions by the user, such as keystrokes, mouse and scroll commands, are sent back to the isolation service over a secure encrypted channel where they are processed by the remote browser and any resulting changes to the remote browser webpage are sent back to the endpoint device.

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation

In effect, the endpoint device is “remote controlling” the cloud browser. Some RBI systems use proprietary clients installed on the local endpoint while others leverage existing HTML5-compatible browsers on the endpoint and are considered ‘clientless.’

Data breaches that occur in the remote browser are isolated from the local endpoint and enterprise network. Every remote browser instance is treated as if compromised and terminated after each session. New browser sessions start with a fresh instance. Obviously, the RBI service must prevent browser breaches from leaking outside the browser containers to the service itself. Most RBI systems provide remote file viewers negating the need to download files but also have the ability to inspect files for malware before allowing them to be downloaded.

A critical component in the above architecture is the specific remoting technology employed by the cloud RBI service. The remoting technology has a significant impact on the operating cost and scalability of the RBI service, website fidelity and compatibility, bandwidth requirements, endpoint hardware/software requirements and even the user experience. Remoting technology also determines the effective level of security provided by the RBI system.

All current cloud RBI systems employ one of two remoting technologies:

(1)    Pixel pushing is a video-based approach which captures pixel images of the remote browser ‘window’ and transmits a sequence of images to the client endpoint browser or proprietary client. This is similar to how remote desktop and VNC systems work. Although considered to be relatively secure, there are several inherent challenges with this approach:

  • Continuously encoding and transmitting video streams of remote webpages to user endpoint devices is very costly. Scaling this approach to millions of users is financially prohibitive and logistically complex.
  • Requires significant bandwidth. Even when highly optimized, pushing pixels is bandwidth intensive.
  • Unavoidable latency results in an unsatisfactory user experience. These systems tend to be slow and generate a lot of user complaints.
  • Mobile support is degraded by high bandwidth requirements compounded by inconsistent connectivity.
  • HiDPI displays may render at lower resolutions. Pixel density increases exponentially with resolution which means remote browser sessions (particularly fonts) on HiDPI devices can appear fuzzy or out of focus.

(2) DOM reconstruction emerged as a response to the shortcomings of pixel pushing. DOM reconstruction attempts to clean webpage HTML, CSS, etc. before forwarding the content to the local endpoint browser. The underlying HTML, CSS, etc., are reconstructed in an attempt to eliminate active code, known exploits, and other potentially malicious content. While addressing the latency, operational cost, and user experience issues of pixel pushing, it introduces two significant new issues:

  • Security. The underlying technologies – HTML, CSS, web fonts, etc. – are the attack vectors hackers leverage to breach endpoints. Attempting to remove malicious content or code is like washing mosquitos: you can attempt to clean them, but they remain inherent carriers of dangerous and malicious material. It is impossible to identify, in advance, all the means of exploiting these technologies even through an RBI system.
  • Website fidelity. Inevitably, attempting to remove malicious active code, reconstructing HTML, CSS and other aspects of modern websites results in broken pages that don’t render properly or don’t render at all. Websites that work today may not work tomorrow as site publishers make daily changes that may break DOM reconstruction functionality. The result is an infinite tail of issues requiring significant resources in an endless game of whack-a-mole. Some RBI solutions struggle to support common enterprise-wide services like Google G Suite or Microsoft Office 365 even as malware laden web email continues to be a significant source of breaches.

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation

Customers are left to choose between a secure solution with a bad user experience and high operating costs, or a faster, much less secure solution that breaks websites. These tradeoffs have driven some RBI providers to implement both remoting technologies into their products. However, this leaves customers to pick their poison without addressing the fundamental issues.

Given the significant tradeoffs in RBI systems today, one common optimization for current customers is to deploy remote browsing capabilities to only the most vulnerable users in an organization such as high-risk executives, finance, business development, or HR employees. Like vaccinating half the pupils in a classroom, this results in a false sense of security that does little to protect the larger organization.

Unfortunately, the largest “gap” created by current remote browser isolation systems is the void between the potential of the underlying isolation concept and the implementation reality of currently available RBI systems.

S2 Systems Remote Browser Isolation

S2 Systems remote browser isolation is a fundamentally different approach based on S2-patented technology called Network Vector Rendering (NVR).

The S2 remote browser is based on the open-source Chromium engine on which Google Chrome is built. In addition to powering Google Chrome which has a ~70% market share[8], Chromium powers twenty-one other web browsers including the new Microsoft Edge browser.[9] As a result, significant ongoing investment in the Chromium engine ensures the highest levels of website support, compatibility and a continuous stream of improvements.

A key architectural feature of the Chromium browser is its use of the Skia graphics library. Skia is a widely-used cross-platform graphics engine for Android, Google Chrome, Chrome OS, Mozilla Firefox, Firefox OS, FitbitOS, Flutter, the Electron application framework and many other products. Like Chromium, the pervasiveness of Skia ensures ongoing broad hardware and platform support.

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation
Skia code fragment

Everything visible in a Chromium browser window is rendered through the Skia rendering layer. This includes application window UI such as menus, but more importantly, the entire contents of the webpage window are rendered through Skia. Chromium compositing, layout and rendering are extremely complex with multiple parallel paths optimized for different content types, device contexts, etc. The following figure is an egregious simplification for illustration purposes of how S2 works (apologies to Chromium experts):

Cloudflare + Remote Browser Isolation

S2 Systems NVR technology intercepts the remote Chromium browser’s Skia draw commands ❶, tokenizes and compresses them, then encrypts and transmits them across the wire ❷ to any HTML5 compliant web browser ❸ (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc.) running locally on the user endpoint desktop or mobile device. The Skia API commands captured by NVR are pre-rasterization which means they are highly compact.

On first use, the S2 RBI service transparently pushes an NVR WebAssembly (Wasm) library ❹ to the local HTML5 web browser on the endpoint device where it is cached for subsequent use. The NVR Wasm code contains an embedded Skia library and the necessary code to unpack, decrypt and “replay” the Skia draw commands from the remote RBI server to the local browser window. A WebAssembly’s ability to “execute at native speed by taking advantage of common hardware capabilities available on a wide range of platforms[10] results in near-native drawing performance.

The S2 remote browser isolation service uses headless Chromium-based browsers in the cloud, transparently intercepts draw layer output, transmits the draw commands efficiency and securely over the web, and redraws them in the windows of local HTML5 browsers. This architecture has a number of technical advantages:

(1)    Security: the underlying data transport is not an existing attack vector and customers aren’t forced to make a tradeoff between security and performance.

(2)    Website compatibility: there are no website compatibility issues nor long tail chasing evolving web technologies or emerging vulnerabilities.

(3)    Performance: the system is very fast, typically faster than local browsing (subject of a future blog post).

(4)    Transparent user experience: S2 remote browsing feels like native browsing; users are generally unaware when they are browsing remotely.

(5)    Requires less bandwidth than local browsing for most websites. Enables advanced caching and other proprietary optimizations unique to web browsers and the nature of web content and technologies.

(6)    Clientless: leverages existing HTML5 compatible browsers already installed on user endpoint desktop and mobile devices.

(7)    Cost-effective scalability: although the details are beyond the scope of this post, the S2 backend and NVR technology have substantially lower operating costs than existing RBI technologies. Operating costs translate directly to customer costs. The S2 system was designed to make deployment to an entire enterprise and not just targeted users (aka: vaccinating half the class) both feasible and attractive for customers.

(8)    RBI-as-a-platform: enables implementation of related/adjacent services such as DLP, content disarm & reconstruction (CDR), phishing detection and prevention, etc.

S2 Systems Remote Browser Isolation Service and underlying NVR technology eliminates the disconnect between the conceptual potential and promise of browser isolation and the unsatisfying reality of current RBI technologies.

Cloudflare + S2 Systems Remote Browser Isolation

Cloudflare’s global cloud platform is uniquely suited to remote browsing isolation. Seamless integration with our cloud-native performance, reliability and advanced security products and services provides powerful capabilities for our customers.

Our Cloudflare Workers architecture enables edge computing in 200 cities in more than 90 countries and will put a remote browser within 100 milliseconds of 99% of the Internet-connected population in the developed world. With more than 20 million Internet properties directly connected to our network, Cloudflare remote browser isolation will benefit from locally cached data and builds on the impressive connectivity and performance of our network. Our Argo Smart Routing capability leverages our communications backbone to route traffic across faster and more reliable network paths resulting in an average 30% faster access to web assets.

Once it has been integrated with our Cloudflare for Teams suite of advanced security products, remote browser isolation will provide protection from browser exploits, zero-day vulnerabilities, malware and other attacks embedded in web content. Enterprises will be able to secure the browsers of all employees without having to make trade-offs between security and user experience. The service will enable IT control of browser-conveyed enterprise data and compliance oversight. Seamless integration across our products and services will enable users and enterprises to browse the web without fear or consequence.

Cloudflare’s mission is to help build a better Internet. This means protecting users and enterprises as they work and play on the Internet; it means making Internet access fast, reliable and transparent. Reimagining and modernizing how web browsing works is an important part of helping build a better Internet.


[1] https://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html

[2] “Internet World Stats,”https://www.internetworldstats.com/, retrieved 12/21/2019.

[3] “Innovation Insight for Remote Browser Isolation,” (report ID: G00350577) Neil MacDonald, Gartner Inc, March 8, 2018”

[4] Gartner, Inc., Neil MacDonald, “Innovation Insight for Remote Browser Isolation”, 8 March 2018

[5] Gartner, Inc., Neil MacDonald, “Innovation Insight for Remote Browser Isolation”, 8 March 2018

[6] “2019 Webroot Threat Report: Forty Percent of Malicious URLs Found on Good Domains”, February 28, 2019

[7] “Kleiner Perkins 2018 Internet Trends”, Mary Meeker.

[8] https://www.statista.com/statistics/544400/market-share-of-internet-browsers-desktop/, retrieved December 21, 2019

[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium_(web_browser), retrieved December 29, 2019

[10] https://webassembly.org/, retrieved December 30, 2019

NFL Targets VPN Sites that ‘Promote’ Illegal Streaming

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/nfl-targets-vpn-sites-that-promote-illegal-streaming-200104/

VPN services are the go-to tools for people who are looking for some extra privacy and security on the Internet.

However, there are other use cases for these services as well. Bypassing geographical restrictions is a widely advertised feature, with VPNs enabling people to access content that’s not available in their own country.

As a result, people using VPNs can access the American Netflix library in another country, or catch up on the BBC iPlayer while abroad. While this wasn’t much of a problem years ago, today more and more content providers are actively banning VPN users to block these ‘unauthorized’ viewers.

The American football league NFL is not a fan of this type of VPN use either, it appears. However, its enforcement strategy goes further than those displayed by other companies.

This week we stumbled upon a DMCA takedown notice that was sent to Google on behalf of the NFL. The complaint in question didn’t list any pirated copies of NFL games but instead requested the removal of several VPN-related URLs.

According to the notice, the VPN sites “promote the use of their software to illegally stream NFL games.”

Looking at the targeted URLs they do indeed mention the NFL. More specifically, most describe how people can use a VPN to access NFL content through official and authorized channels.

A VPN can provide access to a broader range of content in some cases, as it looks like the user is coming from another country. As a result, VPNs ‘bypass’ the NFL’s technical protection measures, which are used to enforce its licenses. That will likely violate its terms of service, even if people have a legitimate subscription.

The targeted URLs include VPN service ExpressVPN, as well as several dedicated VPN review sites and tech publications such as bestvpn.org, vpnspblog.com, vpnmentor.com, vpnfan.com, tomsguide.com, howtogeek.com, and technadu.com.

Whether DMCA takedown notices are the right instrument to deal with this issue is up for debate. It appears that Google is not yet convinced, as it has decided not to remove the vast majority of the links.

The only three pages that were deleted from Google’s search results are from thevpn.guru and flashrouters.com. It’s not immediately clear to us why these are different from the rest.

We were only able to spot a few VPN oriented notices from the NFL, so it could be that this is just incidental. Also, with an increasing number of imposters sending takedown requests we can never be 100% sure that the NFL is indeed behind these notices.

We reached out to the listed anti-piracy partner for more information, but at the time of writing we have yet to hear back

Looking through other NFL notices sent by the same outfit we do see more that target NFL-related sites and URLs. In addition to the VPN complaints, these also target a long list of domains that claim to offer cheap or free NFL access, including nfltvpro.com and nflgptv.com.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Private Internet Access to Be Acquired by Kape

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/private-internet-access-to-be-acquired-by-kape/

Private Internet Access, commonly known as PIA, is one of the largest VPN providers in the world.

In recent years it’s become a well-established brand that has had its no-logging policy tested in court, with success.

This week the company announced that some changes are afoot. PIA’s parent organization LTMI Holdings is in the process of a merger acquisition by the publicly traded Kape Technologies, which also owns the Cyberghost and Zenmate VPN services.

As part of the planned deal, Kape will pay $95.5 million. Part of this will be paid in cash, Vox reports, and Kape is also planning to pay the $32.1 million in existing debt PIA has on the books.

With the planned merger acquisition Kape hopes to become a dominant force in the VPN industry.

“In one acquisition, I believe we have positioned Kape to fast become one of the leading digital privacy service providers in the world, empowering consumers to manage their own data and digital security,” Kape’s CEO Ido Erlichman comments.

PIA’s CEO Ted Kim is also pleased with the deal and notes that it will help to improve the digital privacy and security of PIA’s subscribers worldwide.

There are no changes planned in the short term. The Private Internet Access name will remain in use for now, just as Cyberghost and Zenmate are still using their original brands. However, the acquisition has raised questions among some users.

Some have pointed at Kape’s history. The company had previously operated under the name Crossrider and was active in the advertising space. Among other things, it installed toolbars with ‘potentially unwanted software.’ While the company has since switched to a focus on cybersecurity, this past has made some people suspicious.

In an article addressing some of the questions, PIA assured its subscribers that its course is not going to change. According to Chief Communications Officer, Christel Dahlskjaer, privacy and security remain the top priority.

“From day one, we have been clear that your privacy is our policy and that the Private Internet Access VPN and our other privacy products exist to bring power to the people.

“The people are our stakeholders, and it is to you all, collectively, that we must remain accountable,” Dahlskjaer adds. She points out that PIA worked with Kape’s to establish a shared mission and guiding principles, which reflects the core values.

It’s inevitable that any corporate deal in the VPN industry will be watched closely and that’s a good thing. VPN providers rely on trust and should be judged by their actions. The company that protects its customers the best way it can, will ultimately be the most successful.

PIA believes that, by teaming up with Kape, it has the best shot at achieving this goal and asks users to give it the time to prove itself.

Disclaimer: PIA is one of our sponsors. This article was written independently, as all of our articles are. We generally don’t report on VPN business news but felt that it was good to mention this development.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Log every request to corporate apps, no code changes required

Post Syndicated from Sam Rhea original https://blog.cloudflare.com/log-every-request-to-corporate-apps-no-code-changes-required/

Log every request to corporate apps, no code changes required

When a user connects to a corporate network through an enterprise VPN client, this is what the VPN appliance logs:

Log every request to corporate apps, no code changes required

The administrator of that private network knows the user opened the door at 12:15:05, but, in most cases, has no visibility into what they did next. Once inside that private network, users can reach internal tools, sensitive data, and production environments. Preventing this requires complicated network segmentation, and often server-side application changes. Logging the steps that an individual takes inside that network is even more difficult.

Cloudflare Access does not improve VPN logging; it replaces this model. Cloudflare Access secures internal sites by evaluating every request, not just the initial login, for identity and permission. Instead of a private network, administrators deploy corporate applications behind Cloudflare using our authoritative DNS. Administrators can then integrate their team’s SSO and build user and group-specific rules to control who can reach applications behind the Access Gateway.

When a request is made to a site behind Access, Cloudflare prompts the visitor to login with an identity provider. Access then checks that user’s identity against the configured rules and, if permitted, allows the request to proceed. Access performs these checks on each request a user makes in a way that is transparent and seamless for the end user.

However, since the day we launched Access, our logging has resembled the screenshot above. We captured when a user first authenticated through the gateway, but that’s where it stopped. Starting today, we can give your team the full picture of every request made to every application.

We’re excited to announce that you can now capture logs of every request a user makes to a resource behind Cloudflare Access. In the event of an emergency, like a stolen laptop, you can now audit every URL requested during a session. Logs are standardized in one place, regardless of whether you use multiple SSO providers or secure multiple applications, and the Cloudflare Logpush platform can send them to your SIEM for retention and analysis.

Auditing every login

Cloudflare Access brings the speed and security improvements Cloudflare provides to public-facing sites and applies those lessons to the internal applications your team uses. For most teams, these were applications that traditionally lived behind a corporate VPN. Once a user joined that VPN, they were inside that private network, and administrators had to take additional steps to prevent users from reaching things they should not have access to.

Access flips this model by assuming no user should be able to reach anything by default; applying a zero-trust solution to the internal tools your team uses. With Access, when any user requests the hostname of that application, the request hits Cloudflare first. We check to see if the user is authenticated and, if not, send them to your identity provider like Okta, or Azure ActiveDirectory. The user is prompted to login, and Cloudflare then evaluates if they are allowed to reach the requested application. All of this happens at the edge of our network before a request touches your origin, and for the user, it feels like the seamless SSO flow they’ve become accustomed to for SaaS apps.

Log every request to corporate apps, no code changes required

When a user authenticates with your identity provider, we audit that event as a login and make those available in our API. We capture the user’s email, their IP address, the time they authenticated, the method (in this case, a Google SSO flow), and the application they were able to reach.

Log every request to corporate apps, no code changes required

These logs can help you track every user who connected to an internal application, including contractors and partners who might use different identity providers. However, this logging stopped at the authentication. Access did not capture the next steps of a given user.

Auditing every request

Cloudflare secures both external-facing sites and internal resources by triaging each request in our network before we ever send it to your origin. Products like our WAF enforce rules to protect your site from attacks like SQL injection or cross-site scripting. Likewise, Access identifies the principal behind each request by evaluating each connection that passes through the gateway.

Once a member of your team authenticates to reach a resource behind Access, we generate a token for that user that contains their SSO identity. The token is structured as JSON Web Token (JWT). JWT security is an open standard for signing and encrypting sensitive information. These tokens provide a secure and information-dense mechanism that Access can use to verify individual users. Cloudflare signs the JWT using a public and private key pair that we control. We rely on RSA Signature with SHA-256, or RS256, an asymmetric algorithm, to perform that signature. We make the public key available so that you can validate their authenticity, as well.

When a user requests a given URL, Access appends the user identity from that token as a request header, which we then log as the request passes through our network. Your team can collect these logs in your preferred third-party SIEM or storage destination by using the Cloudflare Logpush platform.

Cloudflare Logpush can be used to gather and send specific request headers from the requests made to sites behind Access. Once enabled, you can then configure the destination where Cloudflare should send these logs. When enabled with the Access user identity field, the logs will export to your systems as JSON similar to the logs below.

{
   "ClientIP": "198.51.100.206",
   "ClientRequestHost": "jira.widgetcorp.tech",
   "ClientRequestMethod": "GET",
   "ClientRequestURI": "/secure/Dashboard/jspa",
   "ClientRequestUserAgent":"Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_14_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36",
   "EdgeEndTimestamp": "2019-11-10T09:51:07Z",
   "EdgeResponseBytes": 4600,
   "EdgeResponseStatus": 200,
   "EdgeStartTimestamp": "2019-11-10T09:51:07Z",
   "RayID": "5y1250bcjd621y99"
   "RequestHeaders":{"cf-access-user":"srhea"},
}
 
{
   "ClientIP": "198.51.100.206",
   "ClientRequestHost": "jira.widgetcorp.tech",
   "ClientRequestMethod": "GET",
   "ClientRequestURI": "/browse/EXP-12",
   "ClientRequestUserAgent":"Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_14_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36",
   "EdgeEndTimestamp": "2019-11-10T09:51:27Z",
   "EdgeResponseBytes": 4570,
   "EdgeResponseStatus": 200,
   "EdgeStartTimestamp": "2019-11-10T09:51:27Z",
   "RayID": "yzrCqUhRd6DVz72a"
   "RequestHeaders":{"cf-access-user":"srhea"},
}

In the example above, the user initially visited the splash page for a sample Jira instance. The next request was made to a specific Jira ticket, EXP-12, about one minute after the first request. With per-request logging, Access administrators can review each request a user made once authenticated in the event that an account is compromised or a device stolen.

The logs are consistent across all applications and identity providers. The same standard fields are captured when contractors login with their AzureAD instance to your supply chain tool as when your internal users authenticate with Okta to your Jira. You can also augment the data above with other request details like TLS cipher used and WAF results.

How can this data be used?

The native logging capabilities of hosted applications vary wildly. Some tools provide more robust records of user activity, but others would require server-side code changes or workarounds to add this level of logging. Cloudflare Access can give your team the ability to skip that work and introduce logging in a single gateway that applies to all resources protected behind it.

The audit logs can be exported to third-party SIEM tools or S3 buckets for analysis and anomaly detection. The data can also be used for audit purposes in the event that a corporate device is lost or stolen. Security teams can then use this to recreate user sessions from logs as they investigate.

What’s next?

Any enterprise customer with Logpush enabled can now use this feature at no additional cost. Instructions are available here to configure Logpush and additional documentation here to enable Access per-request logs.

Company That Acquired ‘Copyright Troll’ Warns ISPs & VPN Providers

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/company-that-acquired-copyright-troll-warns-isps-vpn-providers-191115/

While movie and music companies have regularly filed copyright lawsuits against alleged BitTorrent pirates over the past decade and beyond, the companies operating the machinery behind the scenes are less well known.

One exception was to be found in GuardaLey, an entity that provided tracking data and business structure for numerous lawsuits, notably the massive action targeting alleged pirates of the movies The Hurt Locker and The Expendables.

While these lawsuits and others like them attracted plenty of headlines, GuardaLey itself rarely experienced much scrutiny, at least not to the extent where its complex business dealings were made available to the public.

Earlier this year the waters appeared to be muddied again when 100% of its alleged US-operations were ‘acquired’ by American Films Inc. which promised to target peer-to-peer networks in order to target “repeat infringers.”

Since then, nothing has been heard of American Films Inc, which at the time of the GuardaLey acquisition was described as a “shell company.” Now, however, the company appears to have even grander plans after another acquisition, this time of “strategic data company” Maker Data Services LLC.

“This acquisition is important because it adds to the evidence of BitTorrent related copyright infringement that American Films can provide to its clients,” says John Carty, American Films’ CEO.

“This type of forensic evidence is only available from a few sources, most of which only supply the largest industry associations.”

However, it’s the next set of claims that are likely to raise the most eyebrows, including a veiled threat to not only take powerful Internet service providers to court, but also VPN companies.

“American Films has positioned itself as the go-to data provider for independent filmmakers that want to take action against the direct infringers, Internet Service Providers, VPN Providers, and others that allow, encourage, and profit from BitTorrent copyright infringement,” a company statement reads.

According to various sources, at the time of writing American Films stock is currently changing hands at around $0.04, has one employee, but decides not to supply any financial information by way of accounts.

More information is available on Maker Data Services LLC if one visits its website, but it’s not a particularly confidence-inspiring experience, even for a one-year-old company.

“Our company has created a tool that will search the internet. Our tool is able to find any relevant data that could affect the operations of our clients, that is, the businesses we serve,” the Maker Data site reads.

“We deal mostly with real estate data and people data to ensure that Real Estate businesses have all the vital information to make sound decisions and drive their businesses forward.

“Our real estate data and analytics services will always give you the actual value of a home before buying for better decision making.”

While there might potentially be some synergies between the above and “forensic” anti-piracy activity, the claim elsewhere on the site that the company has “state-the-art software” does not extend to the bug-ridden WordPress installation powering the site.

Every page displays database errors and much of the site consists of ‘articles’ carrying little more than placeholder posts, graphics and text, presumably put there by the creators of the website.

Google “site:makerdataservices.com” for many more..

Along with the acquisition of Maker Data Services comes the appointment of a new CTO for American Films, Craig Campbell, formerly of Fidelity Investments.

His “main focus” will be “managing the build-out of BitTorrent products for copyright enforcement utilizing the combined data resources now available at American Films.”

How the business model of American Films will develop is for the future to reveal but the acquisitions announced by the company thus far only raise more questions, not provide more answers. To be brutal, it’s only the inclusion of GuardaLey’s reputation as a ‘copyright troll’ within the equation that provokes curiosity.

Litigating successful lawsuits against powerful ISPs or even VPN providers seems not only an incredibly lofty goal, but also an extremely costly and risky proposition. Part of the solution to the latter pair of roadblocks, perhaps, lies in the company’s stated aim.

“American Films seeks to create alternative investment participation vehicles that provide necessary funding to appropriate projects while offering reasonable return on investment and mitigation of business risks traditionally encountered in the film industry,” the company states.

A for-hire firewall for ‘copyright trolling’ or the next Rightscorp? Only time will tell but ISPs and VPN providers probably aren’t worried too much just yet.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

NordVPN Breached

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2019/10/nordvpn_breache.html

There was a successful attack against NordVPN:

Based on the command log, another of the leaked secret keys appeared to secure a private certificate authority that NordVPN used to issue digital certificates. Those certificates might be issued for other servers in NordVPN’s network or for a variety of other sensitive purposes. The name of the third certificate suggested it could also have been used for many different sensitive purposes, including securing the server that was compromised in the breach.

The revelations came as evidence surfaced suggesting that two rival VPN services, TorGuard and VikingVPN, also experienced breaches that leaked encryption keys. In a statement, TorGuard said a secret key for a transport layer security certificate for *.torguardvpnaccess.com was stolen. The theft happened in a 2017 server breach. The stolen data related to a squid proxy certificate.

TorGuard officials said on Twitter that the private key was not on the affected server and that attackers “could do nothing with those keys.” Monday’s statement went on to say TorGuard didn’t remove the compromised server until early 2018. TorGuard also said it learned of VPN breaches last May, “and in a related development we filed a legal complaint against NordVPN.”

The breach happened nineteen months ago, but the company is only just disclosing it to the public. We don’t know exactly what was stolen and how it affects VPN security. More details are needed.

VPNs are a shadowy world. We use them to protect our Internet traffic when we’re on a network we don’t trust, but we’re forced to trust the VPN instead. Recommendations are hard. NordVPN’s website says that the company is based in Panama. Do we have any reason to trust it at all?

I’m curious what VPNs others use, and why they should be believed to be trustworthy.

File-Sharing and VPN Traffic Grow Explosively

Post Syndicated from Ernesto original https://torrentfreak.com/filesharing-and-vpn-traffic-grow-explosively-191009/

Today’s Internet traffic patterns are completely different from those roughly a decade ago.

The most pronounced change in recent years has been the dominance of streaming services, mostly IPTV providers, Netflix, and YouTube.

While streaming remains the key traffic generator on the Internet today, file-sharing traffic is making quite a comeback. The early signs of this trend were already visible last year but new data from the Canadian broadband management company Sandvine show that this was no fluke.

Looking at the global application traffic share, we see that video streaming accounts for 60.6% of all downstream and 22.2% of all upstream traffic.

File-sharing has a very modest downstream market share, at just 4.2%, but it beats streaming when it comes to utilized upload bandwidth, 30.2% worldwide.

The relatively large upstream share makes sense, as that’s part of the nature of file-sharing. What’s more telling, perhaps, is the year-over-year growth numbers.

From 2018 to 2019, the share of file-sharing traffic increased by roughly 50% while the upstream share grew by 35%. Keep in mind that these numbers are relative, so in absolute terms, the traffic increases are even larger, as bandwidth usage continues to increase.

There are some regional differences in this trend. BitTorrent traffic, which is the largest chunk of all file-sharing traffic, has grown mostly in the EMEA (Europe, the Middle East, and Africa) and APAC (Asia-Pacific) regions, for example.

BitTorrent is currently most popular in the EMEA region where it is good for 5.3% of all downstream traffic and a massive 44.2% of all upstream traffic. In the APAC region, the figures are 4.5% and 24.8% respectively.

According to Sandvine, the resurgence of file-sharing traffic can be largely attributed to the fragmentation of the legal video streaming landscape. With more legal options and a limited budget, people increasingly resort to piracy, the company argues.

“Netflix aggregated content and made piracy reduce worldwide. With the ongoing fragmentation of the video market, and increase in attractive original content, piracy is on the rise again,” Sandvine’s Cam Cullen notes.

HBO is a crucial ‘fragment’ when it comes to torrent traffic. We have previously reported on the massive impact the last season of Game of Thrones had on BitTorrent traffic and this is confirmed by Sandvine’s data, as shown below. Interestingly, this bump wasn’t visible for Kodi-related traffic.

This Game of Thrones boost may have elevated the overall file-sharing market share this year, but that will become apparent when Sandvine releases its new figures next year.

While BitTorrent and file-sharing traffic increased globally, the Americas form an exception to this trend. There, the relative market share dropped slightly. However, that doesn’t mean that fewer people are using BitTorrent or that less data is being transferred.

For one, market share is relative and a slight drop is possible even if overall traffic increased. In addition, Sandvine’s data show a growing trend in VPN usage. The company closely monitors data used by 70 popular commercial VPNs and has noticed a major boost in usage.

Roughly 2% of all global downstream traffic can now be attributed to VPN traffic. Looking at the upstream traffic this percentage is even larger, 5%, suggesting that it’s often used for upload heavy purposes, such as file-sharing.

In the Americas, this VPN boom is particularly pronounced with the percentage of IPSec VPN traffic tripling to 7.7% of all upstream data. This goes up to almost 9% for all VPN traffic, Sandvine informs us.

It wouldn’t be a surprise if a lot of that traffic comes from BitTorrent transfers.

Finally, it’s worth noting that, while ‘file-sharing’ is often linked to piracy, the majority of all unauthorized media distribution takes place through streaming nowadays. In other words, ‘file-sharing’ is only a small fraction of the piracy landscape.

The streaming piracy traffic is part of Sandvine’s “http media stream” category which, for the first time in years, has a larger market share than Netflix.

The website Openload, which is often linked to streaming piracy, is even listed separately in the top 10 of all video streaming sources. With 2.4% of all downstream video streaming traffic on the global Internet, it’s safe to say that Openload uses a lot of bandwidth.

It will be interesting to see how these trends continue to develop during the coming years. It’s clear though, that file-sharing is not going anywhere, neither is BitTorrent, while the VPN boom only appears to be starting. A full copy of Sandvine’s latest Global Internet Phenomena report is available here.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Post Syndicated from Zack Bloom original https://blog.cloudflare.com/warp-technical-challenges/

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

If you have seen our other post you know that we released WARP to the last members of our waiting list today. With WARP our goal was to secure and improve the connection between your mobile devices and the Internet. Along the way we ran into problems with phone and operating system versions, diverse networks, and our own infrastructure, all while working to meet the pent up demand of a waiting list nearly two million people long.

To understand all these problems and how we solved them we first need to give you some background on how the Cloudflare network works:

How Our Network Works

The Cloudflare network is composed of data centers located in 194 cities and in more than 90 countries. Every Cloudflare data center is composed of many servers that receive a continual flood of requests and has to distribute those requests between the servers that handle them. We use a set of routers to perform that operation:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Our routers listen on Anycast IP addresses which are advertised over the public Internet. If you have a site on Cloudflare, your site is available via two of these addresses. In this case, I am doing a DNS query for “workers.dev”, a site which is powered by Cloudflare:

➜ dig workers.dev

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;workers.dev.      IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
workers.dev.    161  IN  A  198.41.215.162
workers.dev.    161  IN  A  198.41.214.162

;; SERVER: 1.1.1.1#53(1.1.1.1)

workers.dev is available at two addresses 198.41.215.162 and 198.41.214.162 (along with two IPv6 addresses available via the AAAA DNS query). Those two addresses are advertised from every one of our data centers around the world. When someone connects to any Internet property on Cloudflare, each networking device their packets pass through will choose the shortest path to the nearest Cloudflare data center from their computer or phone.

Once the packets hit our data center, we send them to one of the many servers which operate there. Traditionally, one might use a load balancer to do that type of traffic distribution across multiple machines. Unfortunately putting a set of load balancers capable of handling our volume of traffic in every data center would be exceptionally expensive, and wouldn’t scale as easily as our servers do. Instead, we use devices built for operating on exceptional volumes of traffic: network routers.

Once a packet hits our data center it is processed by a router. That router sends the traffic to one of a set of servers responsible for handling that address using a routing strategy called ECMP (Equal-Cost Multi-Path). ECMP refers to the situation where the router doesn’t have a clear ‘winner’ between multiple routes, it has multiple good next hops, all to the same ultimate destination. In our case we hack that concept a bit, rather than using ECMP to balance across multiple intermediary links, we make the intermediary link addresses the final destination of our traffic: our servers.

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Here’s the configuration of a Juniper-brand router of the type which might be in one of our data centers, and which is configured to balance traffic across three destinations:

[email protected]# show routing-options

static {
  route 172.16.1.0/24 next-hop [ 172.16.2.1 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3 ];
}
forwarding-table {
  export load-balancing-policy;
}

Since the ‘next-hop’ is our server, traffic will be split across multiple machines very efficiently.

TCP, IP, and ECMP

IP is responsible for sending packets of data from addresses like 93.184.216.34 to 208.80.153.224 (or [2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946] to [2620:0:860:ed1a::1] in the case of IPv6) across the Internet. It’s the “Internet Protocol”.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) operates on top of a protocol like IP which can send a packet from one place to another, and makes data transmission reliable and useful for more than one process at a time. It is responsible for taking the unreliable and misordered packets that might arrive over a protocol like IP and delivering them reliably, in the correct order. It also introduces the concept of a ‘port’, a number from 1-65535 which help route traffic on a computer or phone to a specific service (such as the web or email). Each TCP connection has a source and destination port which is included in the header TCP adds to the beginning of each packet. Without the idea of ports it would not be easy to figure out which messages were destined for which program. For example, both Google Chrome and Mail might wish to send messages over your WiFi connection at the same time, so they will each use their own port.

Here’s an example of making a request for https://cloudflare.com/ at 198.41.215.162, on the default port for HTTPS: 443. My computer has randomly assigned me the port 51602 which it will listen on it for a response, which will (hopefully) receive the contents of the site:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 19.5.7.21, Dst: 198.41.215.162
    Protocol: TCP (6)
    Source: 19.5.7.21
    Destination: 198.41.215.162
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 51602, Dst Port: 443, Seq: 0, Len: 0
    Source Port: 51602
    Destination Port: 443

Looking at the same request from the Cloudflare side will be a mirror image, a request from my public IP address originating at my source port, destined for port 443 (I’m ignoring NAT for the moment, more on that later):

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 198.41.215.16, Dst: 19.5.7.21
    Protocol: TCP (6)
    Source: 198.41.215.162
    Destination: 19.5.7.21
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 443, Dst Port: 51602, Seq: 0, Len: 0
    Source Port: 443
    Destination Port: 51602

We can now return to ECMP! It could be theoretically possible to use ECMP to balance packets between servers randomly, but you would almost never want to do that. A message over the Internet is generally composed of multiple TCP packets. If each packet were sent to a different server it would be impossible to reconstruct the original message in any one place and act on it. Even beyond that, it would be terrible for performance: we rely on being able to maintain long-lived TCP and TLS sessions which require a persistent connection to a single server. To provide that persistence, our routers don’t balance traffic randomly, they use a combination of four values: the source address, the source port, the destination address, and the destination port. Traffic with the same combination of those four values will always make it to the same server. In the case of my example above, all of my messages destined to cloudflare.com will make it to a single server which can reconstruct the TCP packets into my request and return packets in a response.

Enter WARP

For a conventional request it is very important that our ECMP routing sends all of your packets to the same server for the duration of your request. Over the web a request commonly lasts less than ten seconds and the system works well. Unfortunately we quickly ran into issues with WARP.

WARP uses a session key negotiated with public-key encryption to secure packets. For a successful connection, both sides must negotiate a connection which is then only valid for that particular client and the specific server they are talking to. This negotiation takes time and has to be completed any time a client talks to a new server. Even worse, if packets get sent which expect one server, and end up at another, they can’t be decrypted, breaking the connection. Detecting those failed packets and restarting the connection from scratch takes so much time that our alpha testers experienced it as a complete loss of their Internet connection. As you can imagine, testers don’t leave WARP on very long when it prevents them from using the Internet.

WARP was experiencing so many failures because devices were switching servers much more often than we expected. If you recall, our ECMP router configuration uses a combination of (Source IP, Source Port, Destination IP, Destination Port) to match a packet to a server. Destination IP doesn’t generally change, WARP clients are always connecting to the same Anycast addresses. Similarly, Destination Port doesn’t change, we always listen on the same port for WARP traffic. The other two values, Source IP and Source Port, were changing much more frequently than we had planned.

One source of these changes was expected. WARP runs on cell phones, and cell phones commonly switch from Cellular to Wi-Fi connections. When you make that switch you suddenly go from communicating over the Internet via your cellular carrier’s (like AT&T or Verizon) IP address space to that of the Internet Service Provider your Wi-Fi connection uses (like Comcast or Google Fiber). It’s essentially impossible that your IP address won’t change when you move between connections.

The port changes occurred even more frequently than could be explained by network switches however. For an understanding of why we need to introduce one more component of Internet lore: Network Address Translation.

NAT

An IPv4 address is composed of 32 bits (often written as four eight-bit numbers). If you exclude the reserved addresses which can’t be used, you are left with 3,706,452,992 possible addresses. This number has remained constant since IPv4 was deployed on the ARPANET in 1983, even as the number of devices has exploded (although it might go up a bit soon if the 0.0.0.0/8 becomes available). This data is based on Gartner Research predictions and estimates:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

IPv6 is the definitive solution to this problem. It expands the length of an address from 32 to 128 bits, with 125 available in a valid Internet address at the moment (all public IPv6 addresses have the first three bits set to 001, the remaining 87.5% of the IPv6 address space is not considered necessary yet). 2^125 is an impossibly large number and would be more than enough for every device on Earth to have its own address. Unfortunately, 21 years after it was published, IPv6 still remains unsupported on many networks. Much of the Internet still relies on IPv4, and as seen above, there aren’t enough IPv4 addresses for every device to have their own.

To solve this problem many devices are commonly put behind a single Internet-addressable IP address. A router is used to do Network Address Translation; to take messages which arrive on that single public IP and forward them to the appropriate device on their local network. In effect it’s as if everyone in your apartment building had the same street address, and the postal worker was responsible for sorting out what mail was meant for which person.

When your devices send a packet destined for the Internet your router intercepts it. The router then rewrites the source address to the single public Internet address allocated for you, and the source port to a port which is unique for all the messages being sent across all the Internet-connected devices on your network. Just as your computer chooses a random source port for your messages which was unique between all the different processes on your computer, your router chooses a random source port which is unique for all the Internet connections across your entire network. It remembers the port it is selecting for you as belonging to your connection, and allows the message to continue over the Internet.

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

When a response arrives destined for the port it has allocated to you, it matches it to your connection and again rewrites it, this time replacing the destination address with your address on the local network, and the destination port with the original source port you specified. It has transparently allowed all the devices on your network to act as if they were one big computer with a single Internet-connected IP address.

This process works very well for the duration of a common request over the Internet. Your router only has so much space however, so it will helpfully delete old port assignments, freeing up space for new ones. It generally waits for the connection to not have any messages for thirty seconds or more before deleting an assignment, making it unlikely a response will arrive which it can no longer direct to the appropriate source. Unfortunately, WARP sessions need to last much longer than thirty seconds.

When you next send a message after your NAT session has expired, you are given a new source port. That new port causes your ECMP mapping (based on source IP, source port, destination IP, destination port) to change, causing us to route your requests to a new machine within the Cloudflare data center your messages are arriving at. This breaks your WARP session, and your Internet connection.

We experimented extensively with methods of keeping your NAT session fresh by periodically sending keep-alive messages which would prevent routers and mobile carriers from evicting mappings. Unfortunately waking the radio of your device every thirty seconds has unfortunate consequences for your battery life, and it was not entirely successful at preventing port and address changes. We needed a way to always map sessions to the same machine, even as their source port (and even source address) changed.

Fortunately, we had a solution which came from elsewhere at Cloudflare. We don’t use dedicated load balancers, but we do have many of the same problems load balancers solve. We have long needed to map traffic to Cloudflare servers with more control than ECMP allows alone. Rather than deploying an entire tier of load balancers, we use every server in our network as a load balancer, forwarding packets first to an arbitrary machine and then relying on that machine to forward the packet to the appropriate host. This consumes minimal resources and allows us to scale our load balancing infrastructure with each new machine we add. We have a lot more to share on how this infrastructure works and what makes it unique, subscribe to this blog to be notified when that post is released.

To make our load balancing technique work though we needed a way to identify which client a WARP packet was associated with before it could be decrypted. To understand how we did that it’s helpful to understand how WARP encrypts your messages. The industry standard way of connecting a device to a remote network is a VPN. VPNs use a protocol like IPsec to allow your device to send messages securely to a remote network. Unfortunately, VPNs are generally rather disliked. They slow down connections, eat battery life, and their complexity makes them frequently the source of security vulnerabilities. Users of corporate networks which mandate VPNs often hate them, and the idea that we would convince millions of consumers to install one voluntarily seemed ridiculous.

After considering and testing several more modern options, we landed on WireGuard®. WireGuard is a modern, high performance, and most importantly, simple, protocol created by Jason Donenfeld to solve the same problem. Its original code-base is less than 1% the size of a popular IPsec implementation, making it easy for us to understand and secure. We chose Rust as the language most likely to give us the performance and safety we needed and implemented WireGuard while optimizing the code heavily to run quickly on the platforms we were targeting. Then we open sourced the project.

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

WireGuard changes two very relevant things about the traffic you send over the Internet. The first is it uses UDP not TCP. The second is it uses a session key negotiated with public-key encryption to secure the contents of that UDP packet.

TCP is the conventional protocol used for loading a website over the Internet. It combines the ability to address ports (which we talked about previously) with reliable delivery and flow control. Reliable delivery ensures that if a message is dropped, TCP will eventually resend the missing data. Flow control gives TCP the tools it needs to handle many clients all sharing the same link who exceed its capacity. UDP is a much simpler protocol which trades these capabilities for simplicity, it makes a best-effort attempt to send a message, and if the message is missing or there is too much data for the links, messages are simply never heard of again.

UDP’s lack of reliability would normally be a problem while browsing the Internet, but we are not simply sending UDP, we are sending a complete TCP packet _inside_ our UDP packets.

Inside the payload encrypted by WireGuard we have a complete TCP header which contains all the information necessary to ensure reliable delivery. We then wrap it with WireGuard’s encryption and use UDP to (less-than-reliably) send it over the Internet. Should it be dropped TCP will do its job just as if a network link lost the message and resend it. If we instead wrapped our inner, encrypted, TCP session in another TCP packet as some other protocols do we would dramatically increase the number of network messages required, destroying performance.

The second interesting component of WireGuard relevant to our discussion is public-key encryption. WireGuard allows you to secure each message you send such that only the specific destination you are sending it to can decrypt it. That is a powerful way of ensuring your security as you browse the Internet, but it means it is impossible to read anything inside the encrypted payload until the message has reached the server which is responsible for your session.

Returning to our load balancing issue, you can see that only three things are accessible to us before we can decrypt the message: The IP Header, the UDP Header, and the WireGuard header. Neither the IP Header or UDP Header include the information we need, as we have already failed with the four pieces of information they contain (source IP, source port, destination IP, destination port). That leaves the WireGuard header as the one location where we can find an identifier which can be used to keep track of who the client was before decrypting the message. Unfortunately, there isn’t one. This is the format of the message used to initiate a connection:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

sender looks temptingly like a client id, but it’s randomly assigned every handshake. Handshakes have to be performed every two minutes to rotate keys making them insufficiently persistent. We could have forked the protocol to add any number of additional fields, but it is important to us to remain wire-compatible with other WireGuard clients. Fortunately, WireGuard has a three byte block in its header which is not currently used by other clients. We decided to put our identifier in this region and still support messages from other WireGuard clients (albeit with less reliable routing than we can offer). If this reserved section is used for other purposes we can ignore those bits or work with the WireGuard team to extend the protocol in another suitable way.

When we begin a WireGuard session we include our clientid field which is provided by our authentication server which has to be communicated with to begin a WARP session:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Data messages similarly include the same field:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

It’s important to note that the clientid is only 24 bits long. That means there are less possible clientid values than the current number of users waiting to use WARP. This suits us well as we don’t need or want the ability to track individual WARP users. clientid is only necessary for load balancing, once it serves its purpose we get it expunged from our systems as quickly as we can.

The load balancing system now uses a hash of the clientid to identify which machine a packet should be routed to, meaning  WARP messages always arrive at the same machine even as you change networks or move from Wi-Fi to cellular, and the problem was eliminated.

Client Software

Cloudflare has never developed client software before. We take pride in selling a service anyone can use without needing to buy hardware or provision infrastructure. To make WARP work, however, we needed to deploy our code onto one of the most ubiquitous hardware platforms on Earth: smartphones.

While developing software on mobile devices has gotten steadily easier over the past decade, unfortunately developing low-level networking software remains rather difficult. To consider one example: we began the project using the latest iOS connection API called Network, introduced in iOS 12. Apple strongly recommends the use of Network, in their words “Your customers are going to appreciate how much better your connections, how much more reliable your connections are established, and they’ll appreciate the longer battery life from the better performance.”

The Network framework provides a pleasantly high-level API which, as they say, integrates well with the native performance features built into iOS. Creating a UDP connection (connection is a bit of a misnomer, there are no connections in UDP, just packets) is as simple as:

self.connection = NWConnection(host: hostUDP, port: portUDP, using: .udp)

And sending a message can be as easy as:

self.connection?.send(content: content)

Unfortunately, at a certain point code actually gets deployed, and bug reports begin flowing in. The first issue was the simplicity of the API made it impossible for us to process more than a single UDP packet at a time. We commonly use packets of up to 1500 bytes, running a speed test on my Google Fiber connection currently results in a speed of 370 Mbps, or almost thirty-one thousand packets per second. Attempting to process each packet individually was slowing down connections by as much as 40%. According to Apple, the best solution to get the performance we needed was to fallback to the older NWUDPSession API, introduced in iOS 9.

IPv6

If we compare the code required to create a NWUDPSession to the example above you will notice that we suddenly care which protocol, IPv4 or IPv6, we are using:

let v4Session = NWUDPSession(upgradeFor: self.ipv4Session)
v4Session.setReadHandler(self.filteringReadHandler, maxDatagrams: 32)

In fact, NWUDPSession does not handle many of the more tricky elements of creating connections over the Internet. For example, the Network framework will automatically determine whether a connection should be made over IPv4 or 6:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

NWUDPSession does not do this for you, so we began creating our own logic to determine which type of connection should be used. Once we began to experiment, it quickly became clear that they are not created equal. It’s fairly common for a route to the same destination to have very different performance based on whether you use its IPv4 or IPv6 address. Often this is because there are simply fewer IPv4 addresses which have been around for longer, making it possible for those routes to be better optimized by the Internet’s infrastructure.

Every Cloudflare product has to support IPv6 as a rule. In 2016, we enabled IPv6 for over 98% of our network, over four million sites, and made a pretty big dent in IPv6 adoption on the web:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

We couldn’t release WARP without IPv6 support. We needed to ensure that we were always using the fastest possible connection while still supporting both protocols with equal measure. To solve that we turned to a technology we have used with DNS for years: Happy Eyeballs. As codified in RFC 6555 Happy Eyeballs is the idea that you should try to look for both an IPv4 and IPv6 address when doing a DNS lookup. Whichever returns first, wins. That way you can allow IPv6 websites to load quickly even in a world which does not fully support it.

As an example, I am loading the website http://zack.is/. My web browser makes a DNS request for both the IPv4 address (an “A” record) and the IPv6 address (an “AAAA” record) at the same time:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.7.21, Dst: 1.1.1.1
User Datagram Protocol, Src Port: 47447, Dst Port: 53
Domain Name System (query)
    Queries
        zack.is: type A, class IN

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.7.21, Dst: 1.1.1.1
User Datagram Protocol, Src Port: 49946, Dst Port: 53
Domain Name System (query)
    Queries
        zack.is: type AAAA, class IN

In this case the response to the A query returned more quickly, and the connection is begun using that protocol:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 1.1.1.1, Dst: 192.168.7.21
User Datagram Protocol, Src Port: 53, Dst Port: 47447
Domain Name System (response)
    Queries
        zack.is: type A, class IN
    Answers
        zack.is: type A, class IN, addr 104.24.101.191
       
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.7.21, Dst: 104.24.101.191
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 55244, Dst Port: 80, Seq: 0, Len: 0
    Source Port: 55244
    Destination Port: 80
    Flags: 0x002 (SYN)

We don’t need to do DNS queries to make WARP connections, we know the IP addresses of our data centers already, but we do want to know which of the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses will lead to a faster route over the Internet. To accomplish that we perform the same technique but at the network level: we send a packet over each protocol and use the protocol which returns first for subsequent messages. With some error handling and logging removed for brevity, it appears as:

let raceFinished = Atomic<Bool>(false)

let happyEyeballsRacer: (NWUDPSession, NWUDPSession, String) -> Void = {
    (session, otherSession, name) in
    // Session is the session the racer runs for, otherSession is a session we race against

    let handleMessage: ([Data]) -> Void = { datagrams in
        // This handler will be executed twice, once for the winner, again for the loser.
        // It does not matter what reply we received. Any reply means this connection is working.

        if raceFinished.swap(true) {
            // This racer lost
            return self.filteringReadHandler(data: datagrams, error: nil)
        }

        // The winner becomes the current session
        self.wireguardServerUDPSession = session

        session.setReadHandler(self.readHandler, maxDatagrams: 32)
        otherSession.setReadHandler(self.filteringReadHandler, maxDatagrams: 32)
    }

    session.setReadHandler({ (datagrams) in
        handleMessage(datagrams)
    }, maxDatagrams: 1)

    if !raceFinished.value {
        // Send a handshake message
        session.writeDatagram(onViable())
    }
}

This technique successfully allows us to support IPv6 addressing. In fact, every device which uses WARP instantly supports IPv6 addressing even on networks which don’t have support. Using WARP takes the 34% of Comcast’s network which doesn’t support IPv6 or the 69% of Charter’s network which doesn’t (as of 2018), and allows those users to communicate to IPv6 servers successfully.

This test shows my phone’s IPv6 support before and after enabling WARP:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Dying Connections

Nothing is simple however, with iOS 12.2 NWUDPSession began to trigger errors which killed connections. These errors were only identified with a code ‘55’. After some research it appears 55 has referred to the same error since the early foundations of the FreeBSD operating system OS X was originally built upon. In FreeBSD it’s commonly referred to as ENOBUFS, and it’s returned when the operating system does not have sufficient BUFfer Space to handle the operation being completed. For example, looking at the source of a FreeBSD today, you see this code in its IPv6 implementation:

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

In this example, if enough memory cannot be allocated to accommodate the size of an IPv6 and ICMP6 header, the error ENOBUFS (which is mapped to the number 55) will be returned. Unfortunately, Apple’s take on FreeBSD is not open source however: how, when, and why they might be returning the error is a mystery. This error has been experienced by other UDP-based projects, but a resolution is not forthcoming.

What is clear is once an error 55 begins occurring, the connection is no longer usable. To handle this case we need to reconnect, but doing the same Happy Eyeballs mechanic we do on initial connection is both unnecessary (as we were already talking over the fastest connection), and will consume valuable time. Instead we add a second connection method which is only used to recreate an already working session:

/**
Create a new UDP connection to the server using a Happy Eyeballs like heuristic.

This function should be called when first establishing a connection to the edge server.

It will initiate a new connection over IPv4 and IPv6 in parallel, keeping the connection that receives the first response.
*/

func connect(onViable: @escaping () -> Data, onReply: @escaping () -> Void, onFailure: @escaping () -> Void, onDisconnect: @escaping () -> Void)

/**
Recreate the current connections.

This function should be called as a response to error code 55, when a quick connection is required.

Unlike `happyEyeballs`, this function will use viability as its only success criteria.
*/

func reconnect(onViable: @escaping () -> Void, onFailure: @escaping () -> Void, onDisconnect: @escaping () -> Void)

Using reconnect we are able to recreate sessions broken by code 55 errors, but it still adds a latency hit which is not ideal. As with all client software development on a closed-source platform however, we are dependent on the platform to identify and fix platform-level bugs.

Truthfully, this is just one of a long list of platform-specific bugs we ran into building WARP. We hope to continue working with device vendors to get them fixed. There are an unimaginable number of device and connection combinations, and each connection doesn’t just exist at one moment in time, they are always changing, entering and leaving broken states almost faster than we can track. Even now, getting WARP to work on every device and connection on Earth is not a solved problem, we still get daily bug reports which we work to triage and resolve.

WARP+

WARP is meant to be a place where we can apply optimizations which make the Internet better. We have a lot of experience making websites more performant, WARP is our opportunity to experiment with doing the same for all Internet traffic.

At Cloudflare we have a product called Argo. Argo makes websites’ time to first byte more than 30% faster on average by continually monitoring thousands of routes over the Internet between our data centers. That data builds a database which maps every IP address range with the fastest possible route to every destination. When a packet arrives it first reaches the closest data center to the client, then that data center uses data from our tests to discover the route which will get the packet to its destination with the lowest possible latency. You can think of it like a traffic-aware GPS for the Internet.

Argo has historically only operated on HTTP packets. HTTP is the protocol which powers the web, sending messages which load websites on top of TCP and IP. For example, if I load http://zack.is/, an HTTP message is sent inside a TCP packet:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.7.21, Dst: 104.24.101.191
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 55244, Dst Port: 80
    Source Port: 55244
    Destination Port: 80
    TCP payload (414 bytes)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
    GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n
    Host: zack.is\r\n
    Connection: keep-alive\r\n
    Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate\r\n
    Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9\r\n
    \r\n

The modern and secure web presents a problem for us however: When I make the same request over HTTPS (https://zack.is) rather than just HTTP (http://zack.is), I see a very different result over the wire:

Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 192.168.7.21, Dst: 104.25.151.102
Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 55983, Dst Port: 443
    Source Port: 55983
    Destination Port: 443
    Transport Layer Security
    TCP payload (54 bytes)
Transport Layer Security
    TLSv1.2 Record Layer: Application Data Protocol: http-over-tls
        Encrypted Application Data: 82b6dd7be8c5758ad012649fae4f469c2d9e68fe15c17297…

My request has been encrypted! It’s no longer possible for WARP (or anyone but the destination) to tell what is in the payload. It might be HTTP, but it also might be any other protocol. If my site is one of the twenty-million which use Cloudflare already, we can decrypt the traffic and accelerate it (along with a long list of other optimizations). But for encrypted traffic destined for another source existing HTTP-only Argo technology was not going to work.

Fortunately we now have a good amount of experience working with non-HTTP traffic through our Spectrum and Magic Transit products. To solve our problem the Argo team turned to the CONNECT protocol.

As we now know, when a WARP request is made it first communicates over the WireGuard protocol to a server running in one of our 194 data centers around the world. Once the WireGuard message has been decrypted, we examine the destination IP address to see if it is an HTTP request destined for a Cloudflare-powered site, or a request destined elsewhere. If it’s destined for us it enters our standard HTTP serving path; often we can reply to the request directly from our cache in the very same data center.

If it’s not destined for a Cloudflare-powered site we instead forward the packet to a proxy process which runs on each machine. This proxy is responsible for loading the fastest path from our Argo database and beginning an HTTP session with a machine in the data center this traffic should be forwarded to. It uses the CONNECT command to both transmit metadata (as headers) and turn the HTTP session into a connection which can transmit the raw bytes of the payload:

CONNECT 8.54.232.11:5564 HTTP/1.1\r\n
Exit-Tcp-Keepalive-Duration: 15\r\n
Application: warp\r\n
\r\n
<data to send to origin>

Once the message arrives at the destination data center it is either forwarded to another data center (if that is best for performance), or directed directly to the origin which is awaiting the traffic.

The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP

Smart routing is just the beginning of WARP+; We have a long list of projects and plans which are all aimed at making your Internet faster, and couldn’t be more thrilled to finally have a platform to test them with.

Our Mission

Today, after well over a year of development, WARP is available to you and to your friends and family. For us though, this is just the beginning. With the ability to improve full network connection for all traffic, we unlock a whole new world of optimizations and security improvements which were simply impossible before. We couldn’t be more excited to experiment, play, and eventually release, all sorts of new WARP and WARP+ features.

Cloudflare’s mission is to help build a better Internet. If we are willing to experiment and solve hard technical problems together we believe we can help make the future of the Internet better than the Internet of today, and we are all grateful to play a part in that. Thank you for trusting us with your Internet connection.

WARP was built by Vlad Krasnov, Chris Branch, Dane Knecht, Naga Tripirineni, Andrew Plunk, Adam Schwartz, Irtefa, and intern Michelle Chen with support from members of our Austin, San Francisco, Champaign, London, Warsaw, and Lisbon offices.

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

Post Syndicated from Matthew Prince original https://blog.cloudflare.com/announcing-warp-plus/

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

Today, after a longer than expected wait, we’re opening WARP and WARP Plus to the general public. If you haven’t heard about it yet, WARP is a mobile app designed for everyone which uses our global network to secure all of your phone’s Internet traffic.

We announced WARP on April 1 of this year and expected to roll it out over the next few months at a fairly steady clip and get it released to everyone who wanted to use it by July. That didn’t happen. It turned out that building a next generation service to secure consumer mobile connections without slowing them down or burning battery was… harder than we originally thought.

Before today, there were approximately two million people on the waitlist to try WARP. That demand blew us away. It also embarrassed us. The common refrain is consumers don’t care about their security and privacy, but the attention WARP got proved to us how wrong that assumption actually is.

This post is an explanation of why releasing WARP took so long, what we’ve learned along the way, and an apology for those who have been eagerly waiting. It also talks briefly about the rationale for why we built WARP as well as the privacy principles we’ve committed to. However, if you want a deeper dive on those last two topics, I encourage you to read our original launch announcement.

And, if you just want to jump in and try it, you can download and start using WARP on your iOS or Android devices for free through the following links:

If you’ve already installed the 1.1.1.1 App on your device, you may need to update to the latest version in order to get the option to enable Warp.

Mea Culpa

Let me start with the apology. We are sorry making WARP available took far longer than we ever intended. As a way of hopefully making amends, for everyone who was on the waitlist before today, we’re giving 10 GB of WARP Plus — the even faster version of WARP that uses Cloudflare’s Argo network — to those of you who have been patiently waiting.

For people just signing up today, the basic WARP service is free without bandwidth caps or limitations. The unlimited version of WARP Plus is available for a monthly subscription fee. WARP Plus is the even faster version of WARP that you can optionally pay for. The fee for WARP Plus varies by region and is designed to approximate what a McDonald’s Big Mac would cost in the region. On iOS, the WARP Plus pricing as of the publication of this post is still being adjusted on a regional basis, but that should settle out in the next couple days.

WARP Plus uses Cloudflare’s virtual private backbone, known as Argo, to achieve higher speeds and ensure your connection is encrypted across the long haul of the Internet. We charge for it because it costs us more to provide. However, in order to help spread the word about WARP, you can earn 1GB of WARP Plus for every friend you refer to sign up for WARP. And everyone you refer gets 1GB of WARP Plus for free to get started as well.

Okay, Thanks, That’s Nice, But What Took You So Long?

So what took us so long?

WARP is an ambitious project. We set out to secure Internet connections from mobile devices to the edge of Cloudflare’s network. In doing so, however, we didn’t want to slow devices down or burn excess battery. We wanted it to just work. We also wanted to bet on the technology of the future, not the technology of the past. Specifically, we wanted to build not around legacy protocols like IPsec, but instead around the hyper-efficient WireGuard protocol.

At some level, we thought it would be easy. We already had the 1.1.1.1 App that was securing DNS requests running on millions of mobile devices. That worked great. How much harder could securing all the rest of the requests on a device be? Right??

It turns out, a lot. Zack Bloom has written up a great technical post describing many of the challenges we faced and the solutions we had to invent to deal with them. If you’re interested, I encourage you to check it out.

Some highlights:

Apple threw us a curveball by releasing iOS 12.2 just days before the April 1 planned roll out. The new version of iOS significantly changed the underlying network stack implementation in a way that made some of what we were doing to implement WARP unstable. Ultimately we had to find work-arounds in our networking code, costing us valuable time.

We had a version of the WARP app that (kind of) worked on April 1. But, when we started to invite people from outside of Cloudflare to use it, we quickly realized that the mobile Internet around the world was far more wild and varied than we’d anticipated. The Internet is made up of diverse network components which do not always play nicely, we knew that. What we didn’t expect was how much more pain is introduced by the diversity of mobile carriers, mobile operating systems, and mobile device models.

And, while phones in our testbed were relatively stationary, phones in the real world move around — a lot. When they do, their network settings can change wildly. While that doesn’t matter much for stateless, simple DNS queries, for the rest of Internet traffic that makes things complex. Keeping WireGuard fast requires long-lived sessions between your phone and a server in our network, maintaining that for hours and days was very complex. Even beyond that, we use a technology called Anycast to route your traffic to our network. Anycast meant your traffic could move not just between machines, but between entire data centers. That made things very complex.

Overcoming Challenges

But there is a huge difference between hard and impossible. From long before the announcement, the team has been hard at work and I’m deeply proud of what they’ve accomplished. We changed our roll out plan to focus on iOS and solidify the shared underpinnings of the app to ensure it would work even with future network stack upgrades. We invited beta users not in the order of when they signed up, but instead based on networks where we didn’t yet have information to help us discover as many corner cases as possible. And we invented new technologies to keep session state even when the wild west of mobile networks and Anycast routing collide.

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

I’ve been running WARP on my phone since April 1. The first few months were… rough. Really rough. But, today, WARP has blended into the background of my mobile. And I sleep better knowing that my Internet connections from my phone are secure. Using my phone is as fast, and in some cases faster, than without WARP. In other words, WARP today does what we set out to accomplish: securing your mobile Internet connection and otherwise getting out of the way.

There Will Be Bugs

While WARP is a lot better than it was when we first announced it, we know there are still bugs. The most common bug we’re seeing these days is when WARP is significantly slower than using the mobile Internet without WARP. This is usually due to traffic being misrouted. For instance, we discovered a network in Turkey earlier this week that was being routed to London rather than our local Turkish facility. Once we’re aware of these routing issues we can typically fix them quickly.

Other common bugs involved captive portals — the pages where you have to enter information, for instance, when connecting to a hotel WiFI. We’ve fixed a lot of them but we haven’t had WARP users connecting to every hotel WiFi yet, so there will inevitably still be some that are broken.

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

We’ve made it easy to report issues that you discover. From the 1.1.1.1 App you can click on the little bug icon near the top of the screen, or just shake your phone with the app open, and quickly send us a report. We expect, over the weeks ahead, we’ll be squashing many of the bugs that you report.

Even Faster With Plus

WARP is not just a product, it’s a testbed for all of the Internet-improving technology we have spent years developing. One dream was to use our Argo routing technology to allow all of your Internet traffic to use faster, less-congested, routes through the Internet. When used by Cloudflare customers for the past several years Argo has improved the speed of their websites by an average of over 30%. Through some hard work of the team we are making that technology available to you as WARP Plus.

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

The WARP Plus technology is not without cost for us. Routing your traffic over our network often costs us more than if we release it directly to the Internet. To cover those costs we charge a monthly fee — $4.99/month or less — for WARP Plus. The fee depends on the region that you’re in and is intended to approximate what a Big Mac would cost in the same region.

Basic WARP is free. Our first priority is not to make money off of WARP however, we want to grow it to secure every single phone. To help make that happen, we wanted to give you an incentive to share WARP with your friends. You can earn 1GB of free WARP Plus for every person you share WARP with. And everyone you refer also gets 1GB of WARP Plus for free as well. There is no limit on how much WARP Plus data you can earn by sharing.

Privacy First

The free consumer security space has traditionally not been the most reputable. Many other companies that have promised to keep consumers’ data safe but instead built businesses around selling it or using it help target you with advertising. We think that’s disgusting. That is not Cloudflare’s business model and it never will be. WARP continues all the strong privacy protections that 1.1.1.1 launched with including:

  1. We don’t write user-identifiable log data to disk;
  2. We will never sell your browsing data or use it in any way to target you with advertising data;
  3. Don’t need to provide any personal information — not your name, phone number, or email address — in order to use WARP or WARP Plus; and
  4. We will regularly work with outside auditors to ensure we’re living up to these promises.

What WARP Is Not

From a technical perspective, WARP is a VPN. But it is designed for a very different audience than a traditional VPN. WARP is not designed to allow you to access geo-restricted content when you’re traveling. It will not hide your IP address from the websites you visit. If you’re looking for that kind of high-security protection then a traditional VPN or a service like Tor are likely better choices for you.

WARP, instead, is built for the average consumer. It’s built to ensure that your data is secured while it’s in transit. So the networks between you and the applications you’re using can’t spy on you. It will help protect you from people sniffing your data while you’re at a local coffee shop. It will also help ensure that your ISP isn’t hoovering up data on your browsing patterns to sell to advertisers.

WARP isn’t designed for the ultra-techie who wants to specify exactly what server their traffic will be routed through. There’s basically only one button in the WARP interface: ON or OFF. It’s simple on purpose. It’s designed for my mom and dad who ask me every holiday dinner what they can do to be a bit safer online. I’m excited this year to have something easy for them to do: install the 1.1.1.1 App, enable WARP, and rest a bit easier.

How Fast Is It?

Once we got WARP to a stable place, this was my first question. My initial inclination was to go to one of the many Speed Test sites and see the results. And the results were… weird. Sometimes much faster, sometimes much slower. Overall, they didn’t make a lot of sense. The reason why is that these sites are designed to measure the speed of your ISP. WARP is different, so these test sites don’t give particularly accurate readings.

The better test is to visit common sites around the Internet and see how they load, in real conditions, on WARP versus off. We’ve built a tool that does this. Generally, in our tests, WARP is around the same speed as non-WARP connections when you’re on a high performance network. As network conditions get worse, WARP will often improve performance more. But your experience will depend on the particular conditions of your network.

We plan, in the next few weeks, to expose the test tool within the 1.1.1.1 App so you can see how your device loads a set of popular sites without WARP, with WARP, and with WARP Plus. And, again, if you’re seeing particularly poor performance, please report it to us. Our goal is to provide security without slowing you down or burning excess battery. We can already do that for many networks and devices and we won’t rest until we can do it for everyone.

Here’s to a More Secure, Fast Internet

Cloudflare’s mission is to help build a better Internet. We’ve done that by securing and making more performance millions of Internet properties since we launched almost exactly 9 years ago. WARP furthers Cloudflare’s mission by extending our network to help make every consumer’s mobile device a bit more secure. Our team is proud of what we’ve built with WARP — albeit a bit embarrassed it took us so long to get into your hands. We hope you’ll forgive us for the delay, give WARP a try, and let us know what you think.

WARP is here (sorry it took so long)

Securing infrastructure at scale with Cloudflare Access

Post Syndicated from Jeremy Bernick original https://blog.cloudflare.com/access-wildcard-subdomain/

Securing infrastructure at scale with Cloudflare Access

I rarely have to deal with the hassle of using a corporate VPN and I hope it remains this way. As a new member of the Cloudflare team, that seems possible. Coworkers who joined a few years ago did not have that same luck. They had to use a VPN to get any work done. What changed?

Cloudflare released Access, and now we’re able to do our work without ever needing a VPN again. Access is a way to control access to your internal applications and infrastructure. Today, we’re releasing a new feature to help you replace your VPN by deploying Access at an even greater scale.

Access in an instant

Access replaces a corporate VPN by evaluating every request made to a resource secured behind Access. Administrators can make web applications, remote desktops, and physical servers available at dedicated URLs, configured as DNS records in Cloudflare. These tools are protected via access policies, set by the account owner, so that only authenticated users can access those resources. These end users are able to be authenticated over both HTTPS and SSH requests. They’re prompted to login with their SSO credentials and Access redirects them to the application or server.

For your team, Access makes your internal web applications and servers in your infrastructure feel as seamless to reach as your SaaS tools. Originally we built Access to replace our own corporate VPN. In practice, this became the fastest way to control who can reach different pieces of our own infrastructure. However, administrators configuring Access were required to create a discrete policy per each application/hostname. Now, administrators don’t have to create a dedicated policy for each new resource secured by Access; one policy will cover each URL protected.

When Access launched, the product’s primary use case was to secure internal web applications. Creating unique rules for each was tedious, but manageable. Access has since become a centralized way to secure infrastructure in many environments. Now that companies are using Access to secure hundreds of resources, that method of building policies no longer fits.

Starting today, Access users can build policies using a wildcard subdomain to replace the typical bottleneck that occurs when replacing dozens or even hundreds of bespoke rules within a single policy. With a wildcard, the same ruleset will now automatically apply to any subdomain your team generates that is gated by Access.

How can teams deploy at scale with wildcard subdomains?

Administrators can secure their infrastructure with a wildcard policy in the Cloudflare dashboard. With Access enabled, Cloudflare adds identity-based evaluation to that traffic.

In the Access dashboard, you can now build a rule to secure any subdomain of the site you added to Cloudflare. Create a new policy and enter a wildcard tag (“*”) into the subdomain field. You can then configure rules, at a granular level, using your identity provider to control who can reach any subdomain of that apex domain.

Securing infrastructure at scale with Cloudflare Access

This new policy will propagate to all 180 of Cloudflare’s data centers in seconds and any new subdomains created will be protected.

Securing infrastructure at scale with Cloudflare Access

How are teams using it?

Since releasing this feature in a closed beta, we’ve seen teams use it to gate access to their infrastructure in several new ways. Many teams use Access to secure dev and staging environments of sites that are being developed before they hit production. Whether for QA or collaboration with partner agencies, Access helps make it possible to share sites quickly with a layer of authentication. With wildcard subdomains, teams are deploying dozens of versions of new sites at new URLs without needing to touch the Access dashboard.

For example, an administrator can create a policy for “*.example.com” and then developers can deploy iterations of sites at “dev-1.example.com” and “dev-2.example.com” and both inherit the global Access policy.

The feature is also helping teams lock down their entire hybrid, on-premise, or public cloud infrastructure with the Access SSH feature. Teams can assign dynamic subdomains to their entire fleet of servers, regardless of environment, and developers and engineers can reach them over an SSH connection without a VPN. Administrators can now bring infrastructure online, in an entirely new environment, without additional or custom security rules.

What about creating DNS records?

Cloudflare Access requires users to associate a resource with a domain or subdomain. While the wildcard policy will cover all subdomains, teams will still need to connect their servers to the Cloudflare network and generate DNS records for those services.

Argo Tunnel can reduce that burden significantly. Argo Tunnel lets you expose a server to the Internet without opening any inbound ports. The service runs a lightweight daemon on your server that initiates outbound tunnels to the Cloudflare network.

Instead of managing DNS, network, and firewall complexity, Argo Tunnel helps administrators serve traffic from their origin through Cloudflare with a single command. That single command will generate the DNS record in Cloudflare automatically, allowing you to focus your time on building and managing your infrastructure.

What’s next?

More teams are adopting a hybrid or multi-cloud model for deploying their infrastructure. In the past, these teams were left with just two options for securing those resources: peering a VPN with each provider or relying on custom IAM flows with each environment. In the end, both of these solutions were not only quite costly but also equally unmanageable.

While infrastructure benefits from becoming distributed, security is something that is best when controlled in a single place. Access can consolidate how a team controls who can reach their entire fleet of servers and services.

Russia Says it Will Soon Begin Blocking Major VPNs

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/russia-says-it-will-soon-begin-blocking-major-vpns/

When it comes to site-blocking, Russia is one of the most aggressive countries in the world.

Thousands of pirate sites are blocked on copyright grounds while others are restricted for containing various types of “banned information”, such as extremist material.

The domains of these platforms are contained in a national blacklist. Service providers of many types are required to interface with this database, in order to block sites from being accessible via their systems. This includes VPN providers, particular those that ordinarily provide censorship workarounds.

Back in March, telecoms watchdog Roscomnadzor wrote to ten major VPN providers – NordVPN, ExpressVPN, TorGuard, IPVanish, VPN Unlimited, VyprVPN, Kaspersky Secure Connection, HideMyAss!, Hola VPN, and OpenVPN – ordering them to connect to the database. Many did not want to play ball.

NordVPN, for example, flat-out refused to comply, stating that doing so would violate service agreements made with its customers. IPVanish also rejected any censorship, as did VPN Unlimited, VyprVPN and OpenVPN.

The VPN services in question were given a limited time to respond (30 days) but according to Roscomnadzor, most are digging in their heels. In fact, of the companies contacted with the demands, only one has agreed to the watchdog’s terms.

“We sent out ten notifications to VPNs. Only one of them – Kaspersky Secure Connection – connected to the registry,” Roscomnadzor chief Alexander Zharov informs Interfax.

“All the others did not answer, moreover, they wrote on their websites that they would not comply with Russian law. And the law says unequivocally if the company refuses to comply with the law – it should be blocked.”

And it appears that Roscomnadzor is prepared to carry through with its threat. When questioned on the timeline for blocking, Zharov said that the matter could be closed within a month.

If that happens, the non-compliant providers will themselves be placed on the country’s blacklist (known locally as FGIS), meaning that local ISPs will have to prevent their users from accessing them. It is not yet clear whether that means their web presences, their VPN servers, or both.

In the case of the latter, it’s currently unclear whether there will be a battle or not. TorGuard has already pulled its servers out of Russia and ExpressVPN currently lists no servers in the country. The same is true for OpenVPN although VyprVPN still lists servers in Moscow, as does HideMyAss.

Even if Roscomnadzor is successful in blocking any or all of the non-compliant services, there are still dozens more to choose from, a fact acknowledged by Zharov.

“These ten VPNs do not exhaust the entire list of proxy programs available to our citizens. I don’t think there will be a tragedy if they are blocked, although I feel very sorry about it,” Zharov concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

Post Syndicated from Matthew Prince original https://blog.cloudflare.com/1111-warp-better-vpn/

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

April 1st is a miserable day for most of the Internet. While most days the Internet is full of promise and innovation, on “April Fools” a handful of elite tech companies decide to waste the time of literally billions of people with juvenile jokes that only they find funny.

Cloudflare has never been one for the traditional April Fools antics. Usually we just ignored the day and went on with our mission to help build a better Internet. Last year we decided to go the opposite direction launching a service that we hoped would benefit every Internet user: 1.1.1.1.

The service’s goal was simple — be the fastest, most secure, most privacy-respecting DNS resolver on the Internet. It was our first attempt at a consumer service. While we try not to be sophomoric, we’re still geeks at heart, so we couldn’t resist launching 1.1.1.1 on 4/1 — even though it was April Fools, Easter, Passover, and a Sunday when every media conversation began with some variation of: “You know, if you’re kidding me, you’re dead to me.”

No Joke

We weren’t kidding. In the year that’s followed, we’ve been overwhelmed by the response. 1.1.1.1 has grown usage by 700% month-over-month and appears likely to soon become the second-largest public DNS service in the world — behind only Google (which has twice the latency, so we trust we’ll catch them too someday). We’ve helped champion new standards such as DNS over TLS and DNS over HTTPS, which ensure the privacy and security of the most foundational of Internet requests. And we’ve worked with great organizations like Mozilla to make it so these new standards could be easy to use and accessible to anyone anywhere.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

On 11/11 — yes, again, geeky — we launched Cloudflare’s first mobile app. The 1.1.1.1 App allowed anyone to easily take advantage of the speed, security, and privacy of the 1.1.1.1 DNS service on their phone. Internally, we had hoped that at least 10,000 people would use the app. We ended up getting a lot more than that. In the months that followed, millions of Android and iOS users have installed the app and now experience a faster, more secure, and more private Internet on their phones.

Super Secret Plan

Truth be told, the 1.1.1.1 App was really just a lead up to today. We had a plan on how we could radically improve the performance, security, and privacy of the mobile Internet well beyond just DNS. To pull it off, we needed to understand the failure conditions when a VPN app switched between cellular and WiFi, when it suffered signal degradation, tried to register with a captive portal, or otherwise ran into the different conditions that mobile phones experience in the field.

More on that in a second. First, let’s all acknowledge that the mobile Internet could be so much better than it is today. TCP, the foundational protocol of the Internet, was never designed for a mobile environment. It literally does the exact opposite thing it should when you’re trying to surf the Internet on your phone and someone nearby turns on the microwave or something else happens that causes packet loss. The mobile Internet could be so much better if we just upgraded its underlying protocols. There’s a lot of hope for 5G, but, unfortunately, it does nothing to solve the fact that the mobile Internet still runs on transport protocols designed for a wired network.

Beyond that, our mobile phones carry some of our most personal communications. And yet, how confident are you that they are as secure and private as possible? While there are mobile VPNs that can ensure traffic sent from your phone through the Internet is encrypted, let’s be frank — VPNs suck, especially on mobile. They add latency, drain your battery, and, in many cases, are run by companies with motivations that are opposite to actually keeping your data private and secure.

Announcing 1.1.1.1 with Warp

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

Today we’re excited to announce what we began to plan more than two years ago: the 1.1.1.1 App with Warp performance and security technology. We built Warp from the ground up to thrive in the harsh conditions of the modern mobile Internet. It began with our acquisition of Neumob in November 2017. At the time, our CTO, John Graham-Cumming, wrote about how Neumob was part of our “Super Secret Master Plan.” At the time he wrote:

“Ultimately, the Neumob software is easily extended to operate as a ‘VPN’ for mobile devices that can secure and accelerate all HTTP traffic from a mobile device (including normal web browsing and app API calls). Most VPN software, frankly, is awful. Using a VPN feels like a step backwards to the dial up era of obscure error messages, slow downs, and clunky software. It really doesn’t have to be that way.”

That’s the vision we’ve been working toward ever since: extending Cloudflare’s global network — now within a few milliseconds of the vast majority of the world’s population — to help fix the performance and security of the mobile Internet.

A VPN for People Who Don’t Know What V.P.N. Stands For

Technically, Warp is a VPN. However, we think the market for VPNs as it’s been imagined to date is severely limited. Imagine trying to convince a non-technical friend that they should install an app that will slow down their Internet and drain their battery so they can be a bit more secure. Good luck.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

We built Warp because we’ve had those conversations with our loved ones too and they’ve not gone well. So we knew that we had to start with turning the weaknesses of other VPN solutions into strengths. Under the covers, Warp acts as a VPN. But now in the 1.1.1.1 App, if users decide to enable Warp, instead of just DNS queries being secured and optimized, all Internet traffic is secured and optimized. In other words, Warp is the VPN for people who don’t know what V.P.N. stands for.

Secure All the Traffic…

This doesn’t just apply to your web browser but to all apps running on your phone. Any unencrypted connections are encrypted automatically and by default. Warp respects end-to-end encryption and doesn’t require you to install a root certificate or give Cloudflare any way to see any encrypted Internet traffic we wouldn’t have otherwise.

Unfortunately, a lot of the Internet is still unencrypted. For that, Warp automatically adds encryption from your device to the edge of Cloudflare’s network — which isn’t perfect, but is all other VPNs do and it does address the largest threats typical Internet users face. One silver lining is that if you browse the unencrypted Internet through Warp, when it’s safe to do so, Cloudflare’s network can cache and compress content to improve performance and potentially decrease your data usage and mobile carrier bill.

…While Making It Faster and More Reliable

Security is table stakes. What really distinguishes Warp is performance and reliability. While other VPNs slow down the Internet, Warp incorporates all the work that the team from Neumob has done to improve mobile Internet performance. We’ve built Warp around a UDP-based protocol that is optimized for the mobile Internet. We also leveraged Cloudflare’s massive global network, allowing Warp to connect with servers within milliseconds of most the world’s Internet users. With our network’s direct peering connections and uncongested paths we can deliver a great experience around the world. Our tests have shown that Warp will often significantly increase Internet performance. Generally, the worse your network connection the better Warp should make your performance.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

And reliability is improved as well. While Warp can’t eliminate mobile dead spots, the protocol is designed to recover from loss faster. That makes that spot where your phone loses signal on the train when you’re commuting in from work a bit less annoying.

We also knew it was critical that we ensure Warp doesn’t meaningfully increase your battery usage. We built Warp around WireGuard, a modern, efficient VPN protocol that is much more efficient than legacy VPN protocols. We’ve also worked to minimize any excess use of your phone’s radio through retransmits which, if you’ve ever been somewhere with spotty mobile coverage, you know can heat up your phone and quickly burn through your phone’s battery. Warp is designed to minimize that.

How Much Does It Cost?

Finally, we knew that if we really wanted Warp to be something that all our less-technical friends would use, then price couldn’t be a barrier to adoption. The basic version of Warp is included as an option with the 1.1.1.1 App for free.

We’re also working on a premium version of Warp — which we call Warp+ — that will be even faster by utilizing Cloudflare’s virtual private backbone and Argo technology. We will charge a low monthly fee for those people, like many of you reading this blog, who want even more speed. The cost of Warp+ will likely vary by region, priced in a way that ensures the fastest possible mobile experience is affordable to as many people as possible.

When John hinted more than two years ago that we wanted to build a VPN that didn’t suck, that’s exactly what we’ve been up to. But it’s more than just the technology, it’s also the policy of how we’re going to run the network and who we’re going to make the service accessible to.

What’s the Catch?

Let’s acknowledge that many corners of the consumer VPN industry are really awful so it’s a reasonable question whether we have some ulterior motive. That many VPN companies pretend to keep your data private and then sell it to help target you with advertising is, in a word, disgusting. That is not Cloudflare’s business model and it never will be. The 1.1.1.1 App with Warp will continue to have all the privacy protections that 1.1.1.1 launched with, including:

1. We don’t write user-identifiable log data to disk;

2. We will never sell your browsing data or use it in any way to target you with advertising data;

3. Don’t need to provide any personal information — not your name, phone number, or email address — in order to use the 1.1.1.1 App with Warp; and

4. We will regularly hire outside auditors to ensure we’re living up to these promises.

This Sounds Too Good To Be True

That’s exactly what I thought when I read about the launch of Gmail exactly 15 years ago today. At the time it was hard to believe an email service could exist with effectively no storage cap or fees. What I didn’t understand at the time was that Google had done such a good job figuring out how to store data cheaply and efficiently that what seemed impossible to the rest of the world seemed like a no-brainer to them. Of course, advertising is Google’s business model, it’s not Cloudflare’s, so it’s not a perfect analogy.

There are few companies that have the breadth, reach, scale, and flexibility of Cloudflare’s network. We don’t believe there are any such companies that aren’t primarily motivated by selling user data or advertising. We realized a few years back that providing a VPN service wouldn’t meaningfully change the costs of the network we’re already running successfully. That meant if we could pull off the technology then we could afford to offer this service.

Hokey as it sounds, the primary reason we built Warp is that our mission is to help build a better Internet — and the mobile Internet wasn’t as fast or secure as it could be and VPNs all suck. Time and time again we’ve watched people sit around and talk about how the Internet could be better if someone would just act. We’re in a position to act, and we’ve acted. We made encryption free for all our customers and doubled the size of the encrypted web in the process, we’ve pushed the adoption of IPv6, we’ve made DNSSEC easy, and we were the first to turn HTTP/2 up at scale.

This is our nature: find the biggest problems on the Internet and do the right thing to solve them. And, if you look at the biggest problem on the Internet today, it’s that the mobile web is too insecure and too slow, and current VPN solutions come with massive performance penalties and, worse, often don’t respect users’ privacy.

Once we realized that building Warp was technically and financially possible, it really became a no-brainer for us. At Cloudflare we strive to build technologies for the entire Internet, not just the handful of fellow techies in Silicon Valley who find April Fools shenanigans amusing. Helping build a better Internet is what motivates the sort of great, empathetic, principled, and curious engineers we hire at Cloudflare.

Ok, Sure, But You’re Still a Profit-Seeking Company

Fair enough, and we think that the 1.1.1.1 App with Warp will be a good business for us. There are three primary ways this makes financial sense. The first, and most direct, is the aforementioned Warp+ premium service that you can upgrade to for even faster performance. Cloudflare launched our B2B service with a freemium model and it’s worked extremely well for us. We understand freemium and we are excited to extend our experience with it into the consumer space.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

Second, we think there’s an exciting opportunity in the enterprise VPN space. While companies require their employees to install and use VPNs, even the next generation of cloud VPNs are pretty terrible. Their client software slows everything down and drains your battery. We think the best way to build the best enterprise VPN is to first build the best consumer VPN and let millions of users kick the tires. Imagine if you actually looked forward to logging in to your corporate VPN. If you’re a company interested in working closely to realize that dream, don’t hesitate to reach out and we’ll let you in on our roadmap.

Finally, Cloudflare’s core business is about making our customers content and applications on the Internet fast and secure. While we strive for Warp to make the entire Internet fast, Cloudflare-powered sites and apps will be even faster still. By having software running on both sides of an Internet connection we can make significant optimizations that wouldn’t otherwise be possible. Going forward, we plan to add local device differential compression (think Railgun on your phone), more advanced header compression, intelligently adaptive congestion control, and multipath routing. All those things are easier to provide when someone is accessing a Cloudflare customer through their phone running Warp. So the more people who install Warp, the more valuable Cloudflare’s core services become.

How Do I Sign Up?

We wanted to roll out Warp to the entire Internet on April 1, 2019 with no strings attached. Our Site Reliability Engineering team vetoed that idea. They reminded us that even Google, when they launched Gmail (also on April 1), curated the list of who could get on when. And, listening to them, that clearly makes sense. We want to make sure people have a great experience and our network scales well as we onboard everyone.

Truth be told, we’re also not quite ready. While our team has been working for months to get the new 1.1.1.1 App with Warp ready to launch, including working through the final hours before the launch, we just made the call that there are still too many edge cases that we’re not proud of to start rolling it out to users. Nothing we can’t solve, but it’s going to take a bit longer than we’d hoped. The great thing about a hard deadline like April 1 is that it motivates a team — and our whole team has been doing great work to get this ready — the challenging thing is that you can’t move it.

So, beginning today, what you can do is claim your place in line to be among the first to get Warp. If you already have the 1.1.1.1 App on your phone, you can update it through the Apple App Store or the Google Play Store. If you don’t yet have the 1.1.1.1 App you can download it for free from Apple or Google. Once you’ve done that you’ll see an option to claim your place in line for Warp. As we start onboarding people, your position in line will move up. When it’s your turn we’ll send you a notification and you’ll be able to enable Warp to experience a faster, more secure, more private Internet for yourself.

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

And, don’t worry, if you’d like to keep using the 1.1.1.1 App for DNS performance and security only, that will remain the default for free for anyone who’s already installed it. And, for future installs, you’ll always be able to downgrade to that option for free if, for whatever reason, you don’t want the benefits of Warp.

We expect that we’ll begin inviting people on the waitlist to try Warp over the coming weeks. And, assuming demand stays within our forecasts, hope to have it available to everyone on the waitlist by the end of July.

Helping Build a Better Internet

At Cloudflare our mission is to help build a better Internet. We take that mission very seriously, even on days when the rest of the tech industry is joking around. We’ve lived up to that mission for a significant portion of the world’s content creators. Our whole team is proud that today, for the first time, we’ve extended the scope of that mission meaningfully to the billions of other people who use the Internet every day.

Click to get your place in line for the 1.1.1.1 App with Warp for Apple’s iOS or Google’s Android.

Click here to learn about engineering jobs at Cloudflare.

And, yes, desktop versions are coming soon

Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security

NSA Attacks Against Virtual Private Networks

Post Syndicated from Bruce Schneier original https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2018/09/nsa_attacks_aga.html

A 2006 document from the Snowden archives outlines successful NSA operations against “a number of “high potential” virtual private networks, including those of media organization Al Jazeera, the Iraqi military and internet service organizations, and a number of airline reservation systems.”

It’s hard to believe that many of the Snowden documents are now more than a decade old.

Flight Sim Company Threatens Reddit Mods Over “Libelous” DRM Posts

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/flight-sim-company-threatens-reddit-mods-over-libellous-drm-posts-180604/

Earlier this year, in an effort to deal with piracy of their products, flight simulator company FlightSimLabs took drastic action by installing malware on customers’ machines.

The story began when a Reddit user reported something unusual in his download of FlightSimLabs’ A320X module. A file – test.exe – was being flagged up as a ‘Chrome Password Dump’ tool, something which rang alarm bells among flight sim fans.

As additional information was made available, the story became even more sensational. After first dodging the issue with carefully worded statements, FlightSimLabs admitted that it had installed a password dumper onto ALL users’ machines – whether they were pirates or not – in an effort to catch a particular software cracker and launch legal action.

It was an incredible story that no doubt did damage to FlightSimLabs’ reputation. But the now the company is at the center of a new storm, again centered around anti-piracy measures and again focused on Reddit.

Just before the weekend, Reddit user /u/walkday reported finding something unusual in his A320X module, the same module that caused the earlier controversy.

“The latest installer of FSLabs’ A320X puts two cmdhost.exe files under ‘system32\’ and ‘SysWOW64\’ of my Windows directory. Despite the name, they don’t open a command-line window,” he reported.

“They’re a part of the authentication because, if you remove them, the A320X won’t get loaded. Does someone here know more about cmdhost.exe? Why does FSLabs give them such a deceptive name and put them in the system folders? I hate them for polluting my system folder unless, of course, it is a dll used by different applications.”

Needless to say, the news that FSLabs were putting files into system folders named to make them look like system files was not well received.

“Hiding something named to resemble Window’s “Console Window Host” process in system folders is a huge red flag,” one user wrote.

“It’s a malware tactic used to deceive users into thinking the executable is a part of the OS, thus being trusted and not deleted. Really dodgy tactic, don’t trust it and don’t trust them,” opined another.

With a disenchanted Reddit userbase simmering away in the background, FSLabs took to Facebook with a statement to quieten down the masses.

“Over the past few hours we have become aware of rumors circulating on social media about the cmdhost file installed by the A320-X and wanted to clear up any confusion or misunderstanding,” the company wrote.

“cmdhost is part of our eSellerate infrastructure – which communicates between the eSellerate server and our product activation interface. It was designed to reduce the number of product activation issues people were having after the FSX release – which have since been resolved.”

The company noted that the file had been checked by all major anti-virus companies and everything had come back clean, which does indeed appear to be the case. Nevertheless, the critical Reddit thread remained, bemoaning the actions of a company which probably should have known better than to irritate fans after February’s debacle. In response, however, FSLabs did just that once again.

In private messages to the moderators of the /r/flightsim sub-Reddit, FSLabs’ Marketing and PR Manager Simon Kelsey suggested that the mods should do something about the thread in question or face possible legal action.

“Just a gentle reminder of Reddit’s obligations as a publisher in order to ensure that any libelous content is taken down as soon as you become aware of it,” Kelsey wrote.

Noting that FSLabs welcomes “robust fair comment and opinion”, Kelsey gave the following advice.

“The ‘cmdhost.exe’ file in question is an entirely above board part of our anti-piracy protection and has been submitted to numerous anti-virus providers in order to verify that it poses no threat. Therefore, ANY suggestion that current or future products pose any threat to users is absolutely false and libelous,” he wrote, adding:

“As we have already outlined in the past, ANY suggestion that any user’s data was compromised during the events of February is entirely false and therefore libelous.”

Noting that FSLabs would “hate for lawyers to have to get involved in this”, Kelsey advised the /r/flightsim mods to ensure that no such claims were allowed to remain on the sub-Reddit.

But after not receiving the response he would’ve liked, Kelsey wrote once again to the mods. He noted that “a number of unsubstantiated and highly defamatory comments” remained online and warned that if something wasn’t done to clean them up, he would have “no option” than to pass the matter to FSLabs’ legal team.

Like the first message, this second effort also failed to have the desired effect. In fact, the moderators’ response was to post an open letter to Kelsey and FSLabs instead.

“We sincerely disagree that you ‘welcome robust fair comment and opinion’, demonstrated by the censorship on your forums and the attempted censorship on our subreddit,” the mods wrote.

“While what you do on your forum is certainly your prerogative, your rules do not extend to Reddit nor the r/flightsim subreddit. Removing content you disagree with is simply not within our purview.”

The letter, which is worth reading in full, refutes Kelsey’s claims and also suggests that critics of FSLabs may have been subjected to Reddit vote manipulation and coordinated efforts to discredit them.

What will happen next is unclear but the matter has now been placed in the hands of Reddit’s administrators who have agreed to deal with Kelsey and FSLabs’ personally.

It’s a little early to say for sure but it seems unlikely that this will end in a net positive for FSLabs, no matter what decision Reddit’s admins take.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Неделя, 3 Юни 2018

Post Syndicated from georgi original http://georgi.unixsol.org/diary/archive.php/2018-06-03

Всеки има нужда да бъде спасен от свинщината, наречена “реклама” във
всичките и форми. За хората с компютър и бразуер, това отдавна е решен
проблем благодарение на AdBlock и подобни плъгини (стига да не
използвате браузер като Chrome, но в този случай си заслужавате
всичко дето ви се случва).

По-принцип не оставям компютър без инсталиран AdBlock, това си е направо
обществено полезна дейност. Кофтито е, че на мобилния телефон, дори и да
използвате Firefox и да имате подходящите Addons, програмчетата пак
се изхитряват и ви спамят.

Сега, ако сте root-нали телефона (което никой не прави), можете да
направите нещо по въпроса, но си е разправия, а както всички знаем,
удобството винаги печели пред сигурността.

За щастие има има много лесен начин, да се отървете от долните
спамери в две прости стъпки:

1. Инсталирате си Blokada.

2. Активирате я.

Et voilà – никъде повече няма да ви изкача спам,

Как работи нещото? Прави се на vpn защото това му дава възможност
да филтрира dns заявките и съответно когато някоя програма пита
за pagead.doubleclick.net и подобни – просто му отговаря с 0.0.0.0

Просто, ефективно, не изисква root и бърка директно в джоба на
всичката интернет паплач, която си въобразява, че може да ви залива
с лайна 24/7.

When Joe Public Becomes a Commercial Pirate, a Little Knowledge is Dangerous

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/joe-public-becomes-commercial-pirate-little-knowledge-dangerous-180603/

Back in March and just a few hours before the Anthony Joshua v Joseph Parker fight, I got chatting with some fellow fans in the local pub. While some were intending to pay for the fight, others were going down the Kodi route.

Soon after the conversation switched to IPTV. One of the guys had a subscription and he said that his supplier would be along shortly if anyone wanted a package to watch the fight at home. Of course, I was curious to hear what he had to say since it’s not often this kind of thing is offered ‘offline’.

The guy revealed that he sold more or less exclusively on eBay and called up the page on his phone to show me. The listing made interesting reading.

In common with hundreds of similar IPTV subscription offers easily findable on eBay, the listing offered “All the sports and films you need plus VOD and main UK channels” for the sum of just under £60 per year, which is fairly cheap in the current market. With a non-committal “hmmm” I asked a bit more about the guy’s business and surprisingly he was happy to provide some details.

Like many people offering such packages, the guy was a reseller of someone else’s product. He also insisted that selling access to copyrighted content is OK because it sits in a “gray area”. It’s also easy to keep listings up on eBay, he assured me, as long as a few simple rules are adhered to. Right, this should be interesting.

First of all, sellers shouldn’t be “too obvious” he advised, noting that individual channels or channel lists shouldn’t be listed on the site. Fair enough, but then he said the most important thing of all is to have a disclaimer like his in any listing, written as follows:

“PLEASE NOTE EBAY: THIS IS NOT A DE SCRAMBLER SERVICE, I AM NOT SELLING ANY ILLEGAL CHANNELS OR CHANNEL LISTS NOR DO I REPRESENT ANY MEDIA COMPANY NOR HAVE ACCESS TO ANY OF THEIR CONTENTS. NO TRADEMARK HAS BEEN INFRINGED. DO NOT REMOVE LISTING AS IT IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH EBAY POLICIES.”

Apparently, this paragraph is crucial to keeping listings up on eBay and is the equivalent of kryptonite when it comes to deflecting copyright holders, police, and Trading Standards. Sure enough, a few seconds with Google reveals the same wording on dozens of eBay listings and those offering IPTV subscriptions on external platforms.

It is, of course, absolutely worthless but the IPTV seller insisted otherwise, noting he’d sold “thousands” of subscriptions through eBay without any problems. While a similar logic can be applied to garlic and vampires, a second disclaimer found on many other illicit IPTV subscription listings treads an even more bizarre path.

“THE PRODUCTS OFFERED CAN NOT BE USED TO DESCRAMBLE OR OTHERWISE ENABLE ACCESS TO CABLE OR SATELLITE TELEVISION PROGRAMS THAT BYPASSES PAYMENT TO THE SERVICE PROVIDER. RECEIVING SUBSCRIPTION/BASED TV AIRTIME IS ILLEGAL WITHOUT PAYING FOR IT.”

This disclaimer (which apparently no sellers displaying it have ever read) seems to be have been culled from the Zgemma site, which advertises a receiving device which can technically receive pirate IPTV services but wasn’t designed for the purpose. In that context, the disclaimer makes sense but when applied to dedicated pirate IPTV subscriptions, it’s absolutely ridiculous.

It’s unclear why so many sellers on eBay, Gumtree, Craigslist and other platforms think that these disclaimers are useful. It leads one to the likely conclusion that these aren’t hardcore pirates at all but regular people simply out to make a bit of extra cash who have received bad advice.

What is clear, however, is that selling access to thousands of otherwise subscription channels without permission from copyright owners is definitely illegal in the EU. The European Court of Justice says so (1,2) and it’s been backed up by subsequent cases in the Netherlands.

While the odds of getting criminally prosecuted or sued for reselling such a service are relatively slim, it’s worrying that in 2018 people still believe that doing so is made legal by the inclusion of a paragraph of text. It’s even more worrying that these individuals apparently have no idea of the serious consequences should they become singled out for legal action.

Even more surprisingly, TorrentFreak spoke with a handful of IPTV suppliers higher up the chain who also told us that what they are doing is legal. A couple claimed to be protected by communication intermediary laws, others didn’t want to go into details. Most stopped responding to emails on the topic. Perhaps most tellingly, none wanted to go on the record.

The big take-home here is that following some important EU rulings, knowingly linking to copyrighted content for profit is nearly always illegal in Europe and leaves people open for targeting by copyright holders and the authorities. People really should be aware of that, especially the little guy making a little extra pocket money on eBay.

Of course, people are perfectly entitled to carry on regardless and test the limits of the law when things go wrong. At this point, however, it’s probably worth noting that IPTV provider Ace Hosting recently handed over £600,000 rather than fight the Premier League (1,2) when they clearly had the money to put up a defense.

Given their effectiveness, perhaps they should’ve put up a disclaimer instead?

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

ISP Questions Impartiality of Judges in Copyright Troll Cases

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/isp-questions-impartiality-of-judges-in-copyright-troll-cases-180602/

Following in the footsteps of similar operations around the world, two years ago the copyright trolling movement landed on Swedish shores.

The pattern was a familiar one, with trolls harvesting IP addresses from BitTorrent swarms and tracing them back to Internet service providers. Then, after presenting evidence to a judge, the trolls obtained orders that compelled ISPs to hand over their customers’ details. From there, the trolls demanded cash payments to make supposed lawsuits disappear.

It’s a controversial business model that rarely receives outside praise. Many ISPs have tried to slow down the flood but most eventually grow tired of battling to protect their customers. The same cannot be said of Swedish ISP Bahnhof.

The ISP, which is also a strong defender of privacy, has become known for fighting back against copyright trolls. Indeed, to thwart them at the very first step, the company deletes IP address logs after just 24 hours, which prevents its customers from being targeted.

Bahnhof says that the copyright business appeared “dirty and corrupt” right from the get go, so it now operates Utpressningskollen.se, a web portal where the ISP publishes data on Swedish legal cases in which copyright owners demand customer data from ISPs through the Patent and Market Courts.

Over the past two years, Bahnhof says it has documented 76 cases of which six are still ongoing, 11 have been waived and a majority 59 have been decided in favor of mainly movie companies. Bahnhof says that when it discovered that 59 out of the 76 cases benefited one party, it felt a need to investigate.

In a detailed report compiled by Bahnhof Communicator Carolina Lindahl and sent to TF, the ISP reveals that it examined the individual decision-makers in the cases before the Courts and found five judges with “questionable impartiality.”

“One of the judges, we can call them Judge 1, has closed 12 of the cases, of which two have been waived and the other 10 have benefitted the copyright owner, mostly movie companies,” Lindahl notes.

“Judge 1 apparently has written several articles in the magazine NIR – Nordiskt Immateriellt Rättsskydd (Nordic Intellectual Property Protection) – which is mainly supported by Svenska Föreningen för Upphovsrätt, the Swedish Association for Copyright (SFU).

“SFU is a member-financed group centered around copyright that publishes articles, hands out scholarships, arranges symposiums, etc. On their website they have a public calendar where Judge 1 appears regularly.”

Bahnhof says that the financiers of the SFU are Sveriges Television AB (Sweden’s national public TV broadcaster), Filmproducenternas Rättsförening (a legally-oriented association for filmproducers), BMG Chrysalis Scandinavia (a media giant) and Fackförbundet för Film och Mediabranschen (a union for the movie and media industry).

“This means that Judge 1 is involved in a copyright association sponsored by the film and media industry, while also judging in copyright cases with the film industry as one of the parties,” the ISP says.

Bahnhof’s also has criticism for Judge 2, who participated as an event speaker for the Swedish Association for Copyright, and Judge 3 who has written for the SFU-supported magazine NIR. According to Lindahl, Judge 4 worked for a bureau that is partly owned by a board member of SFU, who also defended media companies in a “high-profile” Swedish piracy case.

That leaves Judge 5, who handled 10 of the copyright troll cases documented by Bahnhof, waiving one and deciding the remaining nine in favor of a movie company plaintiff.

“Judge 5 has been questioned before and even been accused of bias while judging a high-profile piracy case almost ten years ago. The accusations of bias were motivated by the judge’s membership of SFU and the Swedish Association for Intellectual Property Rights (SFIR), an association with several important individuals of the Swedish copyright community as members, who all defend, represent, or sympathize with the media industry,” Lindahl says.

Bahnhof hasn’t named any of the judges nor has it provided additional details on the “high-profile” case. However, anyone who remembers the infamous trial of ‘The Pirate Bay Four’ a decade ago might recall complaints from the defense (1,2,3) that several judges involved in the case were members of pro-copyright groups.

While there were plenty of calls to consider them biased, in May 2010 the Supreme Court ruled otherwise, a fact Bahnhof recognizes.

“Judge 5 was never sentenced for bias by the court, but regardless of the court’s decision this is still a judge who shares values and has personal connections with [the media industry], and as if that weren’t enough, the judge has induced an additional financial aspect by participating in events paid for by said party,” Lindahl writes.

“The judge has parties and interest holders in their personal network, a private engagement in the subject and a financial connection to one party – textbook characteristics of bias which would make anyone suspicious.”

The decision-makers of the Patent and Market Court and their relations.

The ISP notes that all five judges have connections to the media industry in the cases they judge, which isn’t a great starting point for returning “objective and impartial” results. In its summary, however, the ISP is scathing of the overall system, one in which court cases “almost looked rigged” and appear to be decided in favor of the movie company even before reaching court.

In general, however, Bahnhof says that the processes show a lack of individual attention, such as the court blindly accepting questionable IP address evidence supplied by infamous anti-piracy outfit MaverickEye.

“The court never bothers to control the media company’s only evidence (lists generated by MaverickMonitor, which has proven to be an unreliable software), the court documents contain several typos of varying severity, and the same standard texts are reused in several different cases,” the ISP says.

“The court documents show a lack of care and control, something that can easily be taken advantage of by individuals with shady motives. The findings and discoveries of this investigation are strengthened by the pure numbers mentioned in the beginning which clearly show how one party almost always wins.

“If this is caused by bias, cheating, partiality, bribes, political agenda, conspiracy or pure coincidence we can’t say for sure, but the fact that this process has mainly generated money for the film industry, while citizens have been robbed of their personal integrity and legal certainty, indicates what forces lie behind this machinery,” Bahnhof’s Lindahl concludes.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

GoDaddy to Suspend ‘Pirate’ Domain Following Music Industry Complaints

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/godaddy-to-suspend-pirate-domain-following-music-industry-complaints-180601/

Most piracy-focused sites online conduct their business with minimal interference from outside parties. In many cases, a heap of DMCA notices filed with Google represents the most visible irritant.

Others, particularly those with large audiences, can find themselves on the end of a web blockade. Mostly court-ordered, blocking measures restrict the ability of Internet users to visit a site due to ISPs restricting traffic.

In some regions, where copyright holders have the means to do so, they choose to tackle a site’s infrastructure instead, which could mean complaints to webhosts or other service providers. At times, this has included domain registries, who are asked to disable domains on copyright grounds.

This is exactly what has happened to Fox-MusicaGratis.com, a Spanish-language music piracy site that incurred the wrath of IFPI member UNIMPRO – the Peruvian Union of Phonographic Producers.

Pirate music, suspended domain

In a process that’s becoming more common in the region, UNIMPRO initially filed a complaint with the Copyright Commission (Comisión de Derecho de Autor (CDA)) which conducted an investigation into the platform’s activities.

“The CDA considered, among other things, the irreparable damage that would have been caused to the legitimate rights owners, taking into account the large number of users who could potentially have visited said website, which was making available endless musical recordings for commercial purposes, without authorization of the holders of rights,” a statement from CDA reads.

The administrative process was carried out locally with the involvement of the National Institute for the Defense of Competition and the Protection of Intellectual Property (Indecopi), an autonomous public body tasked with handling anti-competitive behavior, unfair competition, and intellectual property matters.

Indecopi HQ

The matter was decided in favor of the rightsholders and a subsequent ruling included an instruction for US-based domain name registry GoDaddy to suspend Fox-MusicaGratis.com. According to the copyright protection entity, GoDaddy agreed to comply, to prevent further infringement.

This latest action involving a music piracy site registered with GoDaddy follows on the heels of a similar enforcement process back in March.

Mp3Juices-Download-Free.com, Melodiavip.net, Foxmusica.site and Fulltono.me were all music sites offering MP3 content without copyright holders’ permission. They too were the subject of an UNIMPRO complaint which resulted in orders for GoDaddy to suspend their domains.

In the cases of all five websites, GoDaddy was given the chance to appeal but there is no indication that the company has done so. GoDaddy did not respond to a request for comment.

Source: TF, for the latest info on copyright, file-sharing, torrent sites and more. We also have VPN reviews, discounts, offers and coupons.

Majority of Canadians Consume Online Content Legally, Survey Finds

Post Syndicated from Andy original https://torrentfreak.com/majority-of-canadians-consume-online-content-legally-survey-finds-180531/

Back in January, a coalition of companies and organizations with ties to the entertainment industries called on local telecoms regulator CRTC to implement a national website blocking regime.

Under the banner of Fairplay Canada, members including Bell, Cineplex, Directors Guild of Canada, Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment, Movie Theatre Association of Canada, and Rogers Media, spoke of an industry under threat from marauding pirates. But just how serious is this threat?

The results of a new survey commissioned by Innovation Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) in collaboration with the Department of Canadian Heritage (PCH) aims to shine light on the problem by revealing the online content consumption habits of citizens in the Great White North.

While there are interesting findings for those on both sides of the site-blocking debate, the situation seems somewhat removed from the Armageddon scenario predicted by the entertainment industries.

Carried out among 3,301 Canadians aged 12 years and over, the Kantar TNS study aims to cover copyright infringement in six key content areas – music, movies, TV shows, video games, computer software, and eBooks. Attitudes and behaviors are also touched upon while measuring the effectiveness of Canada’s copyright measures.

General Digital Content Consumption

In its introduction, the report notes that 28 million Canadians used the Internet in the three-month study period to November 27, 2017. Of those, 22 million (80%) consumed digital content. Around 20 million (73%) streamed or accessed content, 16 million (59%) downloaded content, while 8 million (28%) shared content.

Music, TV shows and movies all battled for first place in the consumption ranks, with 48%, 48%, and 46% respectively.

Copyright Infringement

According to the study, the majority of Canadians do things completely by the book. An impressive 74% of media-consuming respondents said that they’d only accessed material from legal sources in the preceding three months.

The remaining 26% admitted to accessing at least one illegal file in the same period. Of those, just 5% said that all of their consumption was from illegal sources, with movies (36%), software (36%), TV shows (34%) and video games (33%) the most likely content to be consumed illegally.

Interestingly, the study found that few demographic factors – such as gender, region, rural and urban, income, employment status and language – play a role in illegal content consumption.

“We found that only age and income varied significantly between consumers who infringed by downloading or streaming/accessing content online illegally and consumers who did not consume infringing content online,” the report reads.

“More specifically, the profile of consumers who downloaded or streamed/accessed infringing content skewed slightly younger and towards individuals with household incomes of $100K+.”

Licensed services much more popular than pirate haunts

It will come as no surprise that Netflix was the most popular service with consumers, with 64% having used it in the past three months. Sites like YouTube and Facebook were a big hit too, visited by 36% and 28% of content consumers respectively.

Overall, 74% of online content consumers use licensed services for content while 42% use social networks. Under a third (31%) use a combination of peer-to-peer (BitTorrent), cyberlocker platforms, or linking sites. Stream-ripping services are used by 9% of content consumers.

“Consumers who reported downloading or streaming/accessing infringing content only are less likely to use licensed services and more likely to use peer-to-peer/cyberlocker/linking sites than other consumers of online content,” the report notes.

Attitudes towards legal consumption & infringing content

In common with similar surveys over the years, the Kantar research looked at the reasons why people consume content from various sources, both legal and otherwise.

Convenience (48%), speed (36%) and quality (34%) were the most-cited reasons for using legal sources. An interesting 33% of respondents said they use legal sites to avoid using illegal sources.

On the illicit front, 54% of those who obtained unauthorized content in the previous three months said they did so due to it being free, with 40% citing convenience and 34% mentioning speed.

Almost six out of ten (58%) said lower costs would encourage them to switch to official sources, with 47% saying they’d move if legal availability was improved.

Canada’s ‘Notice-and-Notice’ warning system

People in Canada who share content on peer-to-peer systems like BitTorrent without permission run the risk of receiving an infringement notice warning them to stop. These are sent by copyright holders via users’ ISPs and the hope is that the shock of receiving a warning will turn consumers back to the straight and narrow.

The study reveals that 10% of online content consumers over the age of 12 have received one of these notices but what kind of effect have they had?

“Respondents reported that receiving such a notice resulted in the following: increased awareness of copyright infringement (38%), taking steps to ensure password protected home networks (27%), a household discussion about copyright infringement (27%), and discontinuing illegal downloading or streaming (24%),” the report notes.

While these are all positives for the entertainment industries, Kantar reports that almost a quarter (24%) of people who receive a notice simply ignore them.

Stream-ripping

Once upon a time, people obtaining music via P2P networks was cited as the music industry’s greatest threat but, with the advent of sites like YouTube, so-called stream-ripping is the latest bogeyman.

According to the study, 11% of Internet users say they’ve used a stream-ripping service. They are most likely to be male (62%) and predominantly 18 to 34 (52%) years of age.

“Among Canadians who have used a service to stream-rip music or entertainment, nearly half (48%) have used stream-ripping sites, one-third have used downloader apps (38%), one-in-seven (14%) have used a stream-ripping plug-in, and one-in-ten (10%) have used stream-ripping software,” the report adds.

Set-Top Boxes and VPNs

Few general piracy studies would be complete in 2018 without touching on set-top devices and Virtual Private Networks and this report doesn’t disappoint.

More than one in five (21%) respondents aged 12+ reported using a VPN, with the main purpose of securing communications and Internet browsing (57%).

A relatively modest 36% said they use a VPN to access free content while 32% said the aim was to access geo-blocked content unavailable in Canada. Just over a quarter (27%) said that accessing content from overseas at a reasonable price was the main motivator.

One in ten (10%) of respondents reported using a set-top box, with 78% stating they use them to access paid-for content. Interestingly, only a small number say they use the devices to infringe.

“A minority use set-top boxes to access other content that is not legal or they are unsure if it is legal (16%), or to access live sports that are not legal or they are unsure if it is legal (11%),” the report notes.

“Individuals who consumed a mix of legal and illegal content online are more likely to use VPN services (42%) or TV set-top boxes (21%) than consumers who only downloaded or streamed/accessed legal content.”

Kantar says that the findings of the report will be used to help policymakers evaluate how Canada’s Copyright Act is coping with a changing market and technological developments.

“This research will provide the necessary information required to further develop copyright policy in Canada, as well as to provide a foundation to assess the effectiveness of the measures to address copyright infringement, should future analysis be undertaken,” it concludes.

The full report can be found here (pdf)

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