Tag Archives: AWS .NET Development

Introducing the .NET 8 runtime for AWS Lambda

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-the-net-8-runtime-for-aws-lambda/

This post is written by Beau Gosse, Senior Software Engineer and Paras Jain, Senior Technical Account Manager.

AWS Lambda now supports .NET 8 as both a managed runtime and container base image. With this release, Lambda developers can benefit from .NET 8 features including API enhancements, improved Native Ahead of Time (Native AOT) support, and improved performance. .NET 8 supports C# 12, F# 8, and PowerShell 7.4. You can develop Lambda functions in .NET 8 using the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio, the AWS Extensions for .NET CLI, AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM), AWS CDK, and other infrastructure as code tools.

Creating .NET 8 function in the console

Creating .NET 8 function in the console

What’s new

Upgraded operating system

The .NET 8 runtime is built on the Amazon Linux 2023 (AL2023) minimal container image. This provides a smaller deployment footprint than earlier Amazon Linux 2 (AL2) based runtimes and updated versions of common libraries such as glibc 2.34 and OpenSSL 3.

The new image also uses microdnf as a package manager, symlinked as dnf. This replaces the yum package manager used in earlier AL2-based images. If you deploy your Lambda functions as container images, you must update your Dockerfiles to use dnf instead of yum when upgrading to the .NET 8 base image. For more information, see Introducing the Amazon Linux 2023 runtime for AWS Lambda.


There are a number of language performance improvements available as part of .NET 8. Initialization time can impact performance, as Lambda creates new execution environments to scale your function automatically. There are a number of ways to optimize performance for Lambda-based .NET workloads, including using source generators in System.Text.Json or using Native AOT.

Lambda has increased the default memory size from 256 MB to 512 MB in the blueprints and templates for improved performance with .NET 8. Perform your own functional and performance tests on your .NET 8 applications. You can use AWS Compute Optimizer or AWS Lambda Power Tuning for performance profiling.

At launch, new Lambda runtimes receive less usage than existing established runtimes. This can result in longer cold start times due to reduced cache residency within internal Lambda subsystems. Cold start times typically improve in the weeks following launch as usage increases. As a result, AWS recommends not drawing performance comparison conclusions with other Lambda runtimes until the performance has stabilized.

Native AOT

Lambda introduced .NET Native AOT support in November 2022. Benchmarks show up to 86% improvement in cold start times by eliminating the JIT compilation. Deploying .NET 8 Native AOT functions using the managed dotnet8 runtime rather than the OS-only provided.al2023 runtime gives your function access to .NET system libraries. For example, libicu, which is used for globalization, is not included by default in the provided.al2023 runtime but is in the dotnet8 runtime.

While Native AOT is not suitable for all .NET functions, .NET 8 has improved trimming support. This allows you to more easily run ASP.NET APIs. Improved trimming support helps eliminate build time trimming warnings, which highlight possible runtime errors. This can give you confidence that your Native AOT function behaves like a JIT-compiled function. Trimming support has been added to the Lambda runtime libraries, AWS .NET SDK, .NET Lambda Annotations, and .NET 8 itself.

Using.NET 8 with Lambda

To use .NET 8 with Lambda, you must update your tools.

  1. Install or update the .NET 8 SDK.
  2. If you are using AWS SAM, install or update to the latest version.
  3. If you are using Visual Studio, install or update the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio.
  4. If you use the .NET Lambda Global Tools extension (Amazon.Lambda.Tools), install the CLI extension and templates. You can upgrade existing tools with dotnet tool update -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools and existing templates with dotnet new install Amazon.Lambda.Templates.

You can also use .NET 8 with Powertools for AWS Lambda (.NET), a developer toolkit to implement serverless best practices such as observability, batch processing, retrieving parameters, idempotency, and feature flags.

Building new .NET 8 functions


  1. Run sam init.
  2. Choose 1- AWS Quick Start Templates.
  3. Choose one of the available templates such as Hello World Example.
  4. Select N for Use the most popular runtime and package type?
  5. Select dotnet8 as the runtime. The dotnet8 Hello World Example also includes a Native AOT template option.
  6. Follow the rest of the prompts to create the .NET 8 function.
AWS SAM .NET 8 init options

AWS SAM .NET 8 init options

You can amend the generated function code and use sam deploy --guided to deploy the function.

Using AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. From the Create a new project wizard, filter the templates to either the Lambda or Serverless project type and select a template. Use Lambda for deploying a single function. Use Serverless for deploying a collection of functions using AWS CloudFormation.
  2. Continue with the steps to finish creating your project.
  3. You can amend the generated function code.
  4. To deploy, right click on the project in the Solution Explorer and select Publish to AWS Lambda.

Using AWS extensions for the .NET CLI

  1. Run dotnet new list --tag Lambda to get a list of available Lambda templates.
  2. Choose a template and run dotnet new <template name>. To build a function using Native AOT, use dotnet new lambda.NativeAOT or dotnet new serverless.NativeAOT when using the .NET Lambda Annotations Framework.
  3. Locate the generated Lambda function in the directory under src which contains the .csproj file. You can amend the generated function code.
  4. To deploy, run dotnet lambda deploy-function and follow the prompts.
  5. You can test the function in the cloud using dotnet lambda invoke-function or by using the test functionality in the Lambda console.

You can build and deploy .NET Lambda functions using container images. Follow the instructions in the documentation.

Migrating from .NET 6 to .NET 8 without Native AOT


  1. Open the template.yaml file.
  2. Update Runtime to dotnet8.
  3. Open a terminal window and rebuild the code using sam build.
  4. Run sam deploy to deploy the changes.

Using AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. Open the .csproj project file and update the TargetFramework to net8.0. Update NuGet packages for your Lambda functions to the latest version to pull in .NET 8 updates.
  2. Verify that the build command you are using is targeting the .NET 8 runtime.
  3. There may be additional steps depending on what build/deploy tool you’re using. Updating the function runtime may be sufficient.

.NET function in AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

Using AWS extensions for the .NET CLI or AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio

  1. Open the aws-lambda-tools-defaults.json file if it exists.
    1. Set the framework field to net8.0. If unspecified, the value is inferred from the project file.
    2. Set the function-runtime field to dotnet8.
  2. Open the serverless.template file if it exists. For any AWS::Lambda::Function or AWS::Servereless::Function resources, set the Runtime property to dotnet8.
  3. Open the .csproj project file if it exists and update the TargetFramework to net8.0. Update NuGet packages for your Lambda functions to the latest version to pull in .NET 8 updates.

Migrating from .NET 6 to .NET 8 Native AOT

The following example migrates a .NET 6 class library function to a .NET 8 Native AOT executable function. This uses the optional Lambda Annotations framework which provides idiomatic .NET coding patterns.

Update your project file

  1. Open the project file.
  2. Set TargetFramework to net8.0.
  3. Set OutputType to exe.
  4. Remove PublishReadyToRun if it exists.
  5. Add PublishAot and set to true.
  6. Add or update NuGet package references to Amazon.Lambda.Annotations and Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport. You can update using the NuGet UI in your IDE, manually, or by running dotnet add package Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport and dotnet add package Amazon.Lambda.Annotations from your project directory.

Your project file should look similar to the following:

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk">
    <!-- Generate native aot images during publishing to improve cold start time. -->
	  <!-- StripSymbols tells the compiler to strip debugging symbols from the final executable if we're on Linux and put them into their own file. 
		This will greatly reduce the final executable's size.-->
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.Core" Version="2.2.0" />
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.RuntimeSupport" Version="1.10.0" />
    <PackageReference Include="Amazon.Lambda.Serialization.SystemTextJson" Version="2.4.0" />

Updating your function code

    1. Reference the annotations library with using Amazon.Lambda.Annotations;
    2. Add [assembly:LambdaGlobalProperties(GenerateMain = true)] to allow the annotations framework to create the main method. This is required as the project is now an executable instead of a library.
    3. Add the below partial class and include a JsonSerializable attribute for any types that you need to serialize, including for your function input and output This partial class is used at build time to generate reflection free code dedicated to serializing the listed types. The following is an example:
    4. /// <summary>
      /// This class is used to register the input event and return type for the FunctionHandler method with the System.Text.Json source generator.
      /// There must be a JsonSerializable attribute for each type used as the input and return type or a runtime error will occur 
      /// from the JSON serializer unable to find the serialization information for unknown types.
      /// </summary>
      public partial class MyCustomJsonSerializerContext : JsonSerializerContext
          // By using this partial class derived from JsonSerializerContext, we can generate reflection free JSON Serializer code at compile time
          // which can deserialize our class and properties. However, we must attribute this class to tell it what types to generate serialization code for
          // See https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/serialization/system-text-json-source-generation

    5. After the using statement, add the following to specify the serializer to use. [assembly: LambdaSerializer(typeof(SourceGeneratorLambdaJsonSerializer<LambdaFunctionJsonSerializerContext>))]

    Swap LambdaFunctionJsonSerializerContext for your context if you are not using the partial class from the previous step.

    Updating your function configuration

    If you are using aws-lambda-tools-defaults.json.

    1. Set function-runtime to dotnet8.
    2. Set function-architecture to match your build machine – either x86_64 or arm64.
    3. Set (or update) environment-variables to include ANNOTATIONS_HANDLER=<YourFunctionHandler>. Replace <YourFunctionHandler> with the method name of your function handler, so the annotations framework knows which method to call from the generated main method.
    4. Set function-handler to the name of the executable assembly in your bin directory. By default, this is your project name, which tells the .NET Lambda bootstrap script to run your native binary instead of starting the .NET runtime. If your project file has AssemblyName then use that value for the function handler.
      "function-architecture": "x86_64",
      "function-runtime": "dotnet8",
      "function-handler": "<your-assembly-name>",

    Deploy and test

    1. Deploy your function. If you are using Amazon.Lambda.Tools, run dotnet lambda deploy-function. Check for trim warnings during build and refactor to eliminate them.
    2. Test your function to ensure that the native calls into AL2023 are working correctly. By default, running local unit tests on your development machine won’t run natively and will still use the JIT compiler. Running with the JIT compiler does not allow you to catch native AOT specific runtime errors.


    Lambda is introducing the new .NET 8 managed runtime. This post highlights new features in .NET 8. You can create new Lambda functions or migrate existing functions to .NET 8 or .NET 8 Native AOT.

    For more information, see the AWS Lambda for .NET repository, documentation, and .NET on Serverless Land.

    For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Create a CI/CD pipeline for .NET Lambda functions with AWS CDK Pipelines

Post Syndicated from Ankush Jain original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/create-a-ci-cd-pipeline-for-net-lambda-functions-with-aws-cdk-pipelines/

The AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) is an open-source software development framework to define cloud infrastructure in familiar programming languages and provision it through AWS CloudFormation.

In this blog post, we will explore the process of creating a Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipeline for a .NET AWS Lambda function using the CDK Pipelines. We will cover all the necessary steps to automate the deployment of the .NET Lambda function, including setting up the development environment, creating the pipeline with AWS CDK, configuring the pipeline stages, and publishing the test reports. Additionally, we will show how to promote the deployment from a lower environment to a higher environment with manual approval.


AWS CDK makes it easy to deploy a stack that provisions your infrastructure to AWS from your workstation by simply running cdk deploy. This is useful when you are doing initial development and testing. However, in most real-world scenarios, there are multiple environments, such as development, testing, staging, and production. It may not be the best approach to deploy your CDK application in all these environments using cdk deploy. Deployment to these environments should happen through more reliable, automated pipelines. CDK Pipelines makes it easy to set up a continuous deployment pipeline for your CDK applications, powered by AWS CodePipeline.

The AWS CDK Developer Guide’s Continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) using CDK Pipelines page shows you how you can use CDK Pipelines to deploy a Node.js based Lambda function. However, .NET based Lambda functions are different from Node.js or Python based Lambda functions in that .NET code first needs to be compiled to create a deployment package. As a result, we decided to write this blog as a step-by-step guide to assist our .NET customers with deploying their Lambda functions utilizing CDK Pipelines.

In this post, we dive deeper into creating a real-world pipeline that runs build and unit tests, and deploys a .NET Lambda function to one or multiple environments.


CDK Pipelines is a construct library that allows you to provision a CodePipeline pipeline. The pipeline created by CDK pipelines is self-mutating. This means, you need to run cdk deploy one time to get the pipeline started. After that, the pipeline automatically updates itself if you add new application stages or stacks in the source code.

The following diagram captures the architecture of the CI/CD pipeline created with CDK Pipelines. Let’s explore this architecture at a high level before diving deeper into the details.

Figure 1: Reference architecture diagram

Figure 1: Reference architecture diagram

The solution creates a CodePipeline with a AWS CodeCommit repo as the source (CodePipeline Source Stage). When code is checked into CodeCommit, the pipeline is automatically triggered and retrieves the code from the CodeCommit repository branch to proceed to the Build stage.

  • Build stage compiles the CDK application code and generates the cloud assembly.
  • Update Pipeline stage updates the pipeline (if necessary).
  • Publish Assets stage uploads the CDK assets to Amazon S3.

After Publish Assets is complete, the pipeline deploys the Lambda function to both the development and production environments. For added control, the architecture includes a manual approval step for releases that target the production environment.


For this tutorial, you should have:

  1. An AWS account
  2. Visual Studio 2022
  3. AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio
  4. Node.js 18.x or later
  5. AWS CDK v2 (2.67.0 or later required)
  6. Git


Before you use AWS CDK to deploy CDK Pipelines, you must bootstrap the AWS environments where you want to deploy the Lambda function. An environment is the target AWS account and Region into which the stack is intended to be deployed.

In this post, you deploy the Lambda function into a development environment and, optionally, a production environment. This requires bootstrapping both environments. However, deployment to a production environment is optional; you can skip bootstrapping that environment for the time being, as we will cover that later.

This is one-time activity per environment for each environment to which you want to deploy CDK applications. To bootstrap the development environment, run the below command, substituting in the AWS account ID for your dev account, the region you will use for your dev environment, and the locally-configured AWS CLI profile you wish to use for that account. See the documentation for additional details.

cdk bootstrap aws://<DEV-ACCOUNT-ID>/<DEV-REGION> \
    --profile DEV-PROFILE \ 
    --cloudformation-execution-policies arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AdministratorAccess

‐‐profile specifies the AWS CLI credential profile that will be used to bootstrap the environment. If not specified, default profile will be used. The profile should have sufficient permissions to provision the resources for the AWS CDK during bootstrap process.

‐‐cloudformation-execution-policies specifies the ARNs of managed policies that should be attached to the deployment role assumed by AWS CloudFormation during deployment of your stacks.

Note: By default, stacks are deployed with full administrator permissions using the AdministratorAccess policy, but for real-world usage, you should define a more restrictive IAM policy and use that, refer customizing bootstrapping in AWS CDK documentation and Secure CDK deployments with IAM permission boundaries to see how to do that.

Create a Git repository in AWS CodeCommit

For this post, you will use CodeCommit to store your source code. First, create a git repository named dotnet-lambda-cdk-pipeline in CodeCommit by following these steps in the CodeCommit documentation.

After you have created the repository, generate git credentials to access the repository from your local machine if you don’t already have them. Follow the steps below to generate git credentials.

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the IAM console.
  2. Create an IAM user (for example, git-user).
  3. Once user is created, attach AWSCodeCommitPowerUser policy to the user.
  4. Next. open the user details page, choose the Security Credentials tab, and in HTTPS Git credentials for AWS CodeCommit, choose Generate.
  5. Download credentials to download this information as a .CSV file.

Clone the recently created repository to your workstation, then cd into dotnet-lambda-cdk-pipeline directory.

cd dotnet-lambda-cdk-pipeline

Alternatively, you can use git-remote-codecommit to clone the repository with git clone codecommit::<REGION>://<PROFILE>@<REPOSITORY-NAME> command, replacing the placeholders with their original values. Using git-remote-codecommit does not require you to create additional IAM users to manage git credentials. To learn more, refer AWS CodeCommit with git-remote-codecommit documentation page.

Initialize the CDK project

From the command prompt, inside the dotnet-lambda-cdk-pipeline directory, initialize a AWS CDK project by running the following command.

cdk init app --language csharp

Open the generated C# solution in Visual Studio, right-click the DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline project and select Properties. Set the Target framework to .NET 6.

Create a CDK stack to provision the CodePipeline

Your CDK Pipelines application includes at least two stacks: one that represents the pipeline itself, and one or more stacks that represent the application(s) deployed via the pipeline. In this step, you create the first stack that deploys a CodePipeline pipeline in your AWS account.

From Visual Studio, open the solution by opening the .sln solution file (in the src/ folder). Once the solution has loaded, open the DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack.cs file, and replace its contents with the following code. Note that the filename, namespace and class name all assume you named your Git repository as shown earlier.

Note: be sure to replace “<CODECOMMIT-REPOSITORY-NAME>” in the code below with the name of your CodeCommit repository (in this blog post, we have used dotnet-lambda-cdk-pipeline).

using Amazon.CDK;
using Amazon.CDK.AWS.CodeBuild;
using Amazon.CDK.AWS.CodeCommit;
using Amazon.CDK.AWS.IAM;
using Amazon.CDK.Pipelines;
using Constructs;
using System.Collections.Generic;

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline 
    public class DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack : Stack
        internal DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack(Construct scope, string id, IStackProps props = null) : base(scope, id, props)
            var repository = Repository.FromRepositoryName(this, "repository", "<CODECOMMIT-REPOSITORY-NAME>");
            // This construct creates a pipeline with 3 stages: Source, Build, and UpdatePipeline
            var pipeline = new CodePipeline(this, "pipeline", new CodePipelineProps
                PipelineName = "LambdaPipeline",
                SelfMutation = true,
                // Synth represents a build step that produces the CDK Cloud Assembly.
                // The primary output of this step needs to be the cdk.out directory generated by the cdk synth command.
                Synth = new CodeBuildStep("Synth", new CodeBuildStepProps
                    // The files downloaded from the repository will be placed in the working directory when the script is executed
                    Input = CodePipelineSource.CodeCommit(repository, "master"),
                    // Commands to run to generate CDK Cloud Assembly
                    Commands = new string[] { "npm install -g aws-cdk", "cdk synth" },
                    // Build environment configuration
                    BuildEnvironment = new BuildEnvironment
                        BuildImage = LinuxBuildImage.AMAZON_LINUX_2_4,
                        ComputeType = ComputeType.MEDIUM,
                        // Specify true to get a privileged container inside the build environment image
                        Privileged = true

In the preceding code, you use CodeBuildStep instead of ShellStep, since ShellStep doesn’t provide a property to specify BuildEnvironment. We need to specify the build environment in order to set privileged mode, which allows access to the Docker daemon in order to build container images in the build environment. This is necessary to use the CDK’s bundling feature, which is explained in later in this blog post.

Open the file src/DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline/Program.cs, and edit its contents to reflect the below. Be sure to replace the placeholders with your AWS account ID and region for your dev environment.

using Amazon.CDK;

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline
    sealed class Program
        public static void Main(string[] args)
            var app = new App();
            new DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack(app, "DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack", new StackProps
                Env = new Amazon.CDK.Environment
                    Account = "<DEV-ACCOUNT-ID>",
                    Region = "<DEV-REGION>"

Note: Instead of committing the account ID and region to source control, you can set environment variables on the CodeBuild agent and use them; see Environments in the AWS CDK documentation for more information. Because the CodeBuild agent is also configured in your CDK code, you can use the BuildEnvironmentVariableType property to store environment variables in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store or AWS Secrets Manager.

After you make the code changes, build the solution to ensure there are no build issues. Next, commit and push all the changes you just made. Run the following commands (or alternatively use Visual Studio’s built-in Git functionality to commit and push your changes):

git add --all .
git commit -m 'Initial commit'
git push

Then navigate to the root directory of repository where your cdk.json file is present, and run the cdk deploy command to deploy the initial version of CodePipeline. Note that the deployment can take several minutes.

The pipeline created by CDK Pipelines is self-mutating. This means you only need to run cdk deploy one time to get the pipeline started. After that, the pipeline automatically updates itself if you add new CDK applications or stages in the source code.

After the deployment has finished, a CodePipeline is created and automatically runs. The pipeline includes three stages as shown below.

  • Source – It fetches the source of your AWS CDK app from your CodeCommit repository and triggers the pipeline every time you push new commits to it.
  • Build – This stage compiles your code (if necessary) and performs a cdk synth. The output of that step is a cloud assembly.
  • UpdatePipeline – This stage runs cdk deploy command on the cloud assembly generated in previous stage. It modifies the pipeline if necessary. For example, if you update your code to add a new deployment stage to the pipeline to your application, the pipeline is automatically updated to reflect the changes you made.
Figure 2: Initial CDK pipeline stages

Figure 2: Initial CDK pipeline stages

Define a CodePipeline stage to deploy .NET Lambda function

In this step, you create a stack containing a simple Lambda function and place that stack in a stage. Then you add the stage to the pipeline so it can be deployed.

To create a Lambda project, do the following:

  1. In Visual Studio, right-click on the solution, choose Add, then choose New Project.
  2. In the New Project dialog box, choose the AWS Lambda Project (.NET Core – C#) template, and then choose OK or Next.
  3. For Project Name, enter SampleLambda, and then choose Create.
  4. From the Select Blueprint dialog, choose Empty Function, then choose Finish.

Next, create a new file in the CDK project at src/DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline/SampleLambdaStack.cs to define your application stack containing a Lambda function. Update the file with the following contents (adjust the namespace as necessary):

using Amazon.CDK;
using Amazon.CDK.AWS.Lambda;
using Constructs;
using AssetOptions = Amazon.CDK.AWS.S3.Assets.AssetOptions;

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline 
    class SampleLambdaStack: Stack
        public SampleLambdaStack(Construct scope, string id, StackProps props = null) : base(scope, id, props)
            // Commands executed in a AWS CDK pipeline to build, package, and extract a .NET function.
            var buildCommands = new[]
                "cd /asset-input",
                "export DOTNET_CLI_HOME=\"/tmp/DOTNET_CLI_HOME\"",
                "export PATH=\"$PATH:/tmp/DOTNET_CLI_HOME/.dotnet/tools\"",
                "dotnet build",
                "dotnet tool install -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools",
                "dotnet lambda package -o output.zip",
                "unzip -o -d /asset-output output.zip"
            new Function(this, "LambdaFunction", new FunctionProps
                Runtime = Runtime.DOTNET_6,
                Handler = "SampleLambda::SampleLambda.Function::FunctionHandler",
                // Asset path should point to the folder where .csproj file is present.
                // Also, this path should be relative to cdk.json file.
                Code = Code.FromAsset("./src/SampleLambda", new AssetOptions
                    Bundling = new BundlingOptions
                        Image = Runtime.DOTNET_6.BundlingImage,
                        Command = new[]
                            "bash", "-c", string.Join(" && ", buildCommands)

Building inside a Docker container

The preceding code uses bundling feature to build the Lambda function inside a docker container. Bundling starts a new docker container, copies the Lambda source code inside /asset-input directory of the container, runs the specified commands that write the package files under /asset-output directory. The files in /asset-output are copied as assets to the stack’s cloud assembly directory. In a later stage, these files are zipped and uploaded to S3 as the CDK asset.

Building Lambda functions inside Docker containers is preferable than building them locally because it reduces the host machine’s dependencies, resulting in greater consistency and reliability in your build process.

Bundling requires the creation of a docker container on your build machine. For this purpose, the privileged: true setting on the build machine has already been configured.

Adding development stage

Create a new file in the CDK project at src/DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline/DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage.cs to hold your stage. This class will create the development stage for your pipeline.

using Amazon.CDK; 
using Constructs; 

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline
    public class DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage : Stage
        internal DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage(Construct scope, string id, IStageProps props = null) : base(scope, id, props)
            Stack lambdaStack = new SampleLambdaStack(this, "LambdaStack");

Edit src/DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline/DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack.cs to add the stage to your pipeline. Add the bolded line from the code below to your file.

using Amazon.CDK; 
using Amazon.CDK.Pipelines; 

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline 
    public class DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack : Stack
        internal DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack(Construct scope, string id, IStackProps props = null) : base(scope, id, props)
            var repository = Repository.FromRepositoryName(this, "repository", "dotnet-lambda-cdk-application");
            // This construct creates a pipeline with 3 stages: Source, Build, and UpdatePipeline
            var pipeline = new CodePipeline(this, "pipeline", new CodePipelineProps
                PipelineName = "LambdaPipeline",
            var devStage = pipeline.AddStage(new DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage(this, "Development"));

Next, build the solution, then commit and push the changes to the CodeCommit repo. This will trigger the CodePipeline to start.

When the pipeline runs, UpdatePipeline stage detects the changes and updates the pipeline based on the code it finds there. After the UpdatePipeline stage completes, pipeline is updated with additional stages.

Let’s observe the changes:

  1. An Assets stage has been added. This stage uploads all the assets you are using in your app to Amazon S3 (the S3 bucket created during bootstrapping) so that they could be used by other deployment stages later in the pipeline. For example, the CloudFormation template used by the development stage, includes reference to these assets, which is why assets are first moved to S3 and then referenced in later stages.
  2. A Development stage with two actions has been added. The first action is to create the change set, and the second is to execute it.
Figure 3: CDK pipeline with development stage to deploy .NET Lambda function

Figure 3: CDK pipeline with development stage to deploy .NET Lambda function

After the Deploy stage has completed, you can find the newly-deployed Lambda function by visiting the Lambda console, selecting “Functions” from the left menu, and filtering the functions list with “LambdaStack”. Note the runtime is .NET.

Running Unit Test cases in the CodePipeline

Next, you will add unit test cases to your Lambda function, and run them through the pipeline to generate a test report in CodeBuild.

To create a Unit Test project, do the following:

  1. Right click on the solution, choose Add, then choose New Project.
  2. In the New Project dialog box, choose the xUnit Test Project template, and then choose OK or Next.
  3. For Project Name, enter SampleLambda.Tests, and then choose Create or Next.
    Depending on your version of Visual Studio, you may be prompted to select the version of .NET to use. Choose .NET 6.0 (Long Term Support), then choose Create.
  4. Right click on SampleLambda.Tests project, choose Add, then choose Project Reference. Select SampleLambda project, and then choose OK.

Next, edit the src/SampleLambda.Tests/UnitTest1.cs file to add a unit test. You can use the code below, which verifies that the Lambda function returns the input string as upper case.

using Xunit;

namespace SampleLambda.Tests
    public class UnitTest1
        public void TestSuccess()
            var lambda = new SampleLambda.Function();

            var result = lambda.FunctionHandler("test string", context: null);

            Assert.Equal("TEST STRING", result);

You can add pre-deployment or post-deployment actions to the stage by calling its AddPre() or AddPost() method. To execute above test cases, we will use a pre-deployment action.

To add a pre-deployment action, we will edit the src/DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline/DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack.cs file in the CDK project, after we add code to generate test reports.

To run the unit test(s) and publish the test report in CodeBuild, we will construct a BuildSpec for our CodeBuild project. We also provide IAM policy statements to be attached to the CodeBuild service role granting it permissions to run the tests and create reports. Update the file by adding the new code (starting with “// Add this code for test reports”) below the devStage declaration you added earlier:

using Amazon.CDK; 
using Amazon.CDK.Pipelines;

namespace DotnetLambdaCdkPipeline 
    public class DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack : Stack
        internal DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStack(Construct scope, string id, IStackProps props = null) : base(scope, id, props)
            // ...
            // ...
            // ...
            var devStage = pipeline.AddStage(new DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage(this, "Development"));
            // Add this code for test reports
            var reportGroup = new ReportGroup(this, "TestReports", new ReportGroupProps
                ReportGroupName = "TestReports"
            // Policy statements for CodeBuild Project Role
            var policyProps = new PolicyStatementProps()
                Actions = new string[] {
                Effect = Effect.ALLOW,
                Resources = new string[] { reportGroup.ReportGroupArn }
            // PartialBuildSpec in AWS CDK for C# can be created using Dictionary
            var reports = new Dictionary<string, object>()
                    "reports", new Dictionary<string, object>()
                            reportGroup.ReportGroupArn, new Dictionary<string,object>()
                                { "file-format", "VisualStudioTrx" },
                                { "files", "**/*" },
                                { "base-directory", "./testresults" }
            // End of new code block

Finally, add the CodeBuildStep as a pre-deployment action to the development stage with necessary CodeBuildStepProps to set up reports. Add this after the new code you added above.

devStage.AddPre(new Step[]
    new CodeBuildStep("Unit Test", new CodeBuildStepProps
        Commands= new string[]
            "dotnet test -c Release ./src/SampleLambda.Tests/SampleLambda.Tests.csproj --logger trx --results-directory ./testresults",
        PrimaryOutputDirectory = "./testresults",
        PartialBuildSpec= BuildSpec.FromObject(reports),
        RolePolicyStatements = new PolicyStatement[] { new PolicyStatement(policyProps) },
        BuildEnvironment = new BuildEnvironment
            BuildImage = LinuxBuildImage.AMAZON_LINUX_2_4,
            ComputeType = ComputeType.MEDIUM

Build the solution, then commit and push the changes to the repository. Pushing the changes triggers the pipeline, runs the test cases, and publishes the report to the CodeBuild console. To view the report, after the pipeline has completed, navigate to TestReports in CodeBuild’s Report Groups as shown below.

Figure 4: Test report in CodeBuild report group

Figure 4: Test report in CodeBuild report group

Deploying to production environment with manual approval

CDK Pipelines makes it very easy to deploy additional stages with different accounts. You have to bootstrap the accounts and Regions you want to deploy to, and they must have a trust relationship added to the pipeline account.

To bootstrap an additional production environment into which AWS CDK applications will be deployed by the pipeline, run the below command, substituting in the AWS account ID for your production account, the region you will use for your production environment, the AWS CLI profile to use with the prod account, and the AWS account ID where the pipeline is already deployed (the account you bootstrapped at the start of this blog).

cdk bootstrap aws://<PROD-ACCOUNT-ID>/<PROD-REGION>
    --profile <PROD-PROFILE> \
    --cloudformation-execution-policies arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AdministratorAccess \

The --trust option indicates which other account should have permissions to deploy AWS CDK applications into this environment. For this option, specify the pipeline’s AWS account ID.

Use below code to add a new stage for production deployment with manual approval. Add this code below the “devStage.AddPre(...)” code block you added in the previous section, and remember to replace the placeholders with your AWS account ID and region for your prod environment.

var prodStage = pipeline.AddStage(new DotnetLambdaCdkPipelineStage(this, "Production", new StageProps
    Env = new Environment
        Account = "<PROD-ACCOUNT-ID>",
        Region = "<PROD-REGION>"
}), new AddStageOpts
    Pre = new[] { new ManualApprovalStep("PromoteToProd") }

To support deploying CDK applications to another account, the artifact buckets must be encrypted, so add a CrossAccountKeys property to the CodePipeline near the top of the pipeline stack file, and set the value to true (see the line in bold in the code snippet below). This creates a KMS key for the artifact bucket, allowing cross-account deployments.

var pipeline = new CodePipeline(this, "pipeline", new CodePipelineProps
   PipelineName = "LambdaPipeline",
   SelfMutation = true,
   CrossAccountKeys = true,
   EnableKeyRotation = true, //Enable KMS key rotation for the generated KMS keys
   // ...

After you commit and push the changes to the repository, a new manual approval step called PromoteToProd is added to the Production stage of the pipeline. The pipeline pauses at this step and awaits manual approval as shown in the screenshot below.

Figure 5: Pipeline waiting for manual review

Figure 5: Pipeline waiting for manual review

When you click the Review button, you are presented with the following dialog. From here, you can choose to approve or reject and add comments if needed.

Figure 6: Manual review approval dialog

Figure 6: Manual review approval dialog

Once you approve, the pipeline resumes, executes the remaining steps and completes the deployment to production environment.

Figure 7: Successful deployment to production environment

Figure 7: Successful deployment to production environment

Clean up

To avoid incurring future charges, log into the AWS console of the different accounts you used, go to the AWS CloudFormation console of the Region(s) where you chose to deploy, select and click Delete on the stacks created for this activity. Alternatively, you can delete the CloudFormation Stack(s) using cdk destroy command. It will not delete the CDKToolkit stack that the bootstrap command created. If you want to delete that as well, you can do it from the AWS Console.


In this post, you learned how to use CDK Pipelines for automating the deployment process of .NET Lambda functions. An intuitive and flexible architecture makes it easy to set up a CI/CD pipeline that covers the entire application lifecycle, from build and test to deployment. With CDK Pipelines, you can streamline your development workflow, reduce errors, and ensure consistent and reliable deployments.
For more information on CDK Pipelines and all the ways it can be used, see the CDK Pipelines reference documentation.

About the authors:

Ankush Jain

Ankush Jain

Ankush Jain is a Cloud Consultant at AWS Professional Services based out of Pune, India. He currently focuses on helping customers migrate their .NET applications to AWS. He is passionate about cloud, with a keen interest in serverless technologies.

Sanjay Chaudhari

Sanjay Chaudhari

Sanjay Chaudhari is a Cloud Consultant with AWS Professional Services. He works with customers to migrate and modernize their Microsoft workloads to the AWS Cloud.

Introducing AWS Lambda Powertools for .NET

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-aws-lambda-powertools-for-net/

This blog post is written by Amir Khairalomoum, Senior Solutions Architect.

Modern applications are built with modular architectural patterns, serverless operational models, and agile developer processes. They allow you to innovate faster, reduce risk, accelerate time to market, and decrease your total cost of ownership (TCO). A microservices architecture comprises many distributed parts that can introduce complexity to application observability. Modern observability must respond to this complexity, the increased frequency of software deployments, and the short-lived nature of AWS Lambda execution environments.

The Serverless Applications Lens for the AWS Well-Architected Framework focuses on how to design, deploy, and architect your serverless application workloads in the AWS Cloud. AWS Lambda Powertools for .NET translates some of the best practices defined in the serverless lens into a suite of utilities. You can use these in your application to apply structured logging, distributed tracing, and monitoring of metrics.

Following the community’s continued adoption of AWS Lambda Powertools for Python, Java, and TypeScript, AWS Lambda Powertools for .NET is now generally available.

This post shows how to use the new open source Powertools library to implement observability best practices with minimal coding. It walks through getting started, with the provided examples available in the Powertools GitHub repository.

About Powertools

Powertools for .NET is a suite of utilities that helps with implementing observability best practices without needing to write additional custom code. It currently supports Lambda functions written in C#, with support for runtime versions .NET 6 and newer. Powertools provides three core utilities:

  • Tracing provides a simpler way to send traces from functions to AWS X-Ray. It provides visibility into function calls, interactions with other AWS services, or external HTTP requests. You can add attributes to traces to allow filtering based on key information. For example, when using the Tracing attribute, it creates a ColdStart annotation. You can easily group and analyze traces to understand the initialization process.
  • Logging provides a custom logger that outputs structured JSON. It allows you to pass in strings or more complex objects, and takes care of serializing the log output. The logger handles common use cases, such as logging the Lambda event payload, and capturing cold start information. This includes appending custom keys to the logger.
  • Metrics simplifies collecting custom metrics from your application, without the need to make synchronous requests to external systems. This functionality allows capturing metrics asynchronously using Amazon CloudWatch Embedded Metric Format (EMF) which reduces latency and cost. This provides convenient functionality for common cases, such as validating metrics against CloudWatch EMF specification and tracking cold starts.

Getting started

The following steps explain how to use Powertools to implement structured logging, add custom metrics, and enable tracing with AWS X-Ray. The example application consists of an Amazon API Gateway endpoint, a Lambda function, and an Amazon DynamoDB table. It uses the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) to manage the deployment.

When you send a GET request to the API Gateway endpoint, the Lambda function is invoked. This function calls a location API to find the IP address, stores it in the DynamoDB table, and returns it with a greeting message to the client.

Example application

Example application

The AWS Lambda Powertools for .NET utilities are available as NuGet packages. Each core utility has a separate NuGet package. It allows you to add only the packages you need. This helps to make the Lambda package size smaller, which can improve the performance.

To implement each of these core utilities in a separate example, use the Globals sections of the AWS SAM template to configure Powertools environment variables and enable active tracing for all Lambda functions and Amazon API Gateway stages.

Sometimes resources that you declare in an AWS SAM template have common configurations. Instead of duplicating this information in every resource, you can declare them once in the Globals section and let your resources inherit them.


The following steps explain how to implement structured logging in an application. The logging example shows you how to use the logging feature.

To add the Powertools logging library to your project, install the packages from NuGet gallery, from Visual Studio editor, or by using following .NET CLI command:

dotnet add package AWS.Lambda.Powertools.Logging

Use environment variables in the Globals sections of the AWS SAM template to configure the logging library:

          POWERTOOLS_SERVICE_NAME: powertools-dotnet-logging-sample

Decorate the Lambda function handler method with the Logging attribute in the code. This enables the utility and allows you to use the Logger functionality to output structured logs by passing messages as a string. For example:

public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> FunctionHandler
         (APIGatewayProxyRequest apigProxyEvent, ILambdaContext context)
  Logger.LogInformation("Getting ip address from external service");
  var location = await GetCallingIp();

Lambda sends the output to Amazon CloudWatch Logs as a JSON-formatted line.

  "cold_start": true,
  "xray_trace_id": "1-621b9125-0a3b544c0244dae940ab3405",
  "function_name": "powertools-dotnet-tracing-sampl-HelloWorldFunction-v0F2GJwy5r1V",
  "function_version": "$LATEST",
  "function_memory_size": 256,
  "function_arn": "arn:aws:lambda:eu-west-2:286043031651:function:powertools-dotnet-tracing-sample-HelloWorldFunction-v0F2GJwy5r1V",
  "function_request_id": "3ad9140b-b156-406e-b314-5ac414fecde1",
  "timestamp": "2022-02-27T14:56:39.2737371Z",
  "level": "Information",
  "service": "powertools-dotnet-sample",
  "name": "AWS.Lambda.Powertools.Logging.Logger",
  "message": "Getting ip address from external service"

Another common use case, especially when developing new Lambda functions, is to print a log of the event received by the handler. You can achieve this by enabling LogEvent on the Logging attribute. This is disabled by default to prevent potentially leaking sensitive event data into logs.

[Logging(LogEvent = true)]
public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> FunctionHandler
         (APIGatewayProxyRequest apigProxyEvent, ILambdaContext context)

With logs available as structured JSON, you can perform searches on this structured data using CloudWatch Logs Insights. To search for all logs that were output during a Lambda cold start, and display the key fields in the output, run following query:

fields coldStart='true'
| fields @timestamp, function_name, function_version, xray_trace_id
| sort @timestamp desc
| limit 20
CloudWatch Logs Insights query for cold starts

CloudWatch Logs Insights query for cold starts


Using the Tracing attribute, you can instruct the library to send traces and metadata from the Lambda function invocation to AWS X-Ray using the AWS X-Ray SDK for .NET. The tracing example shows you how to use the tracing feature.

When your application makes calls to AWS services, the SDK tracks downstream calls in subsegments. AWS services that support tracing, and resources that you access within those services, appear as downstream nodes on the service map in the X-Ray console.

You can instrument all of your AWS SDK for .NET clients by calling RegisterXRayForAllServices before you create them.

public class Function
  private static IDynamoDBContext _dynamoDbContext;
  public Function()

To add the Powertools tracing library to your project, install the packages from NuGet gallery, from Visual Studio editor, or by using following .NET CLI command:

dotnet add package AWS.Lambda.Powertools.Tracing

Use environment variables in the Globals sections of the AWS SAM template to configure the tracing library.

      Tracing: Active
          POWERTOOLS_SERVICE_NAME: powertools-dotnet-tracing-sample

Decorate the Lambda function handler method with the Tracing attribute to enable the utility. To provide more granular details for your traces, you can use the same attribute to capture the invocation of other functions outside of the handler. For example:

public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> FunctionHandler
         (APIGatewayProxyRequest apigProxyEvent, ILambdaContext context)
  var location = await GetCallingIp().ConfigureAwait(false);

[Tracing(SegmentName = "Location service")]
private static async Task<string?> GetCallingIp()

Once traffic is flowing, you see a generated service map in the AWS X-Ray console. Decorating the Lambda function handler method, or any other method in the chain with the Tracing attribute, provides an overview of all the traffic flowing through the application.

AWS X-Ray trace service view

AWS X-Ray trace service view

You can also view the individual traces that are generated, along with a waterfall view of the segments and subsegments that comprise your trace. This data can help you pinpoint the root cause of slow operations or errors within your application.

AWS X-Ray waterfall trace view

AWS X-Ray waterfall trace view

You can also filter traces by annotation and create custom service maps with AWS X-Ray Trace groups. In this example, use the filter expression annotation.ColdStart = true to filter traces based on the ColdStart annotation. The Tracing attribute adds these automatically when used within the handler method.

View trace attributes

View trace attributes


CloudWatch offers a number of included metrics to help answer general questions about the application’s throughput, error rate, and resource utilization. However, to understand the behavior of the application better, you should also add custom metrics relevant to your workload.

The metrics utility creates custom metrics asynchronously by logging metrics to standard output using the Amazon CloudWatch Embedded Metric Format (EMF).

In the sample application, you want to understand how often your service is calling the location API to identify the IP addresses. The metrics example shows you how to use the metrics feature.

To add the Powertools metrics library to your project, install the packages from the NuGet gallery, from the Visual Studio editor, or by using the following .NET CLI command:

dotnet add package AWS.Lambda.Powertools.Metrics

Use environment variables in the Globals sections of the AWS SAM template to configure the metrics library:

          POWERTOOLS_SERVICE_NAME: powertools-dotnet-metrics-sample

To create custom metrics, decorate the Lambda function with the Metrics attribute. This ensures that all metrics are properly serialized and flushed to logs when the function finishes its invocation.

You can then emit custom metrics by calling AddMetric or push a single metric with a custom namespace, service and dimensions by calling PushSingleMetric. You can also enable the CaptureColdStart on the attribute to automatically create a cold start metric.

[Metrics(CaptureColdStart = true)]
public async Task<APIGatewayProxyResponse> FunctionHandler
         (APIGatewayProxyRequest apigProxyEvent, ILambdaContext context)
  // Add Metric to capture the amount of time
        metricName: "CallingIP",
        value: 1,
        unit: MetricUnit.Count,
        service: "lambda-powertools-metrics-example",
        defaultDimensions: new Dictionary<string, string>
            { "Metric Type", "Single" }


CloudWatch and AWS X-Ray offer functionality that provides comprehensive observability for your applications. Lambda Powertools .NET is now available in preview. The library helps implement observability when running Lambda functions based on .NET 6 while reducing the amount of custom code.

It simplifies implementing the observability best practices defined in the Serverless Applications Lens for the AWS Well-Architected Framework for a serverless application and allows you to focus more time on the business logic.

You can find the full documentation and the source code for Powertools in GitHub. We welcome contributions via pull request, and encourage you to create an issue if you have any feedback for the project. Happy building with AWS Lambda Powertools for .NET.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

AWS Week In Review – July 11, 2022

Post Syndicated from Sébastien Stormacq original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-july-11/

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

In France, we know summer has started when you see the Tour de France bike race on TV or in a city nearby. This year, the tour stopped in the city where I live, and I was blocked on my way back home from a customer conference to let the race pass through.

It’s Monday today, so let’s make another tour—a tour of the AWS news, announcements, or blog posts that captured my attention last week. I selected these as being of interest to IT professionals and developers: the doers, the builders that spend their time on the AWS Management Console or in code.

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that got my attention during the previous week:

Amazon EC2 Mac M1 instances are generally available – this new EC2 instance type allows you to deploy Mac mini computers with M1 Apple Silicon running macOS using the same console, API, SDK, or CLI you are used to for interacting with EC2 instances. You can start, stop them, assign a security group or an IAM role, snapshot their EBS volume, and recreate an AMI from it, just like with Linux-based or Windows-based instances. It lets iOS developers create full CI/CD pipelines in the cloud without requiring someone in your team to reinstall various combinations of macOS and Xcode versions on on-prem machines. Some of you had the chance the enter the preview program for EC2 Mac M1 instances when we announced it last December. EC2 Mac M1 instances are now generally available.

AWS IAM Roles Anywhere – this is one of those incremental changes that has the potential to unlock new use cases on the edge or on-prem. AWS IAM Roles Anywhere enables you to use IAM roles for your applications outside of AWS to access AWS APIs securely, the same way that you use IAM roles for workloads on AWS. With IAM Roles Anywhere, you can deliver short-term credentials to your on-premises servers, containers, or other compute platforms. It requires an on-prem Certificate Authority registered as a trusted source in IAM. IAM Roles Anywhere exchanges certificates issued by this CA for a set of short-term AWS credentials limited in scope by the IAM role associated to the session. To make it easy to use, we do provide a CLI-based signing helper tool that can be integrated in your CLI configuration.

A streamlined deployment experience for .NET applications – the new deployment experience focuses on the type of application you want to deploy instead of individual AWS services by providing intelligent compute recommendations. You can find it in the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio using the new “Publish to AWS” wizard. It is also available via the .NET CLI by installing AWS Deploy Tool for .NET. Together, they help easily transition from a prototyping phase in Visual Studio to automated deployments. The new deployment experience supports ASP.NET Core, Blazor WebAssembly, console applications (such as long-lived message processing services), and tasks that need to run on a schedule.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
This week, I also learned from these blog posts:

TLS 1.2 to become the minimum TLS protocol level for all AWS API endpointsthis article was published at the end of June, and it deserves more exposure. Starting in June 2022, we will progressively transition all our API endpoints to TLS 1.2 only. The good news is that 95 percent of the API calls we observe are already using TLS 1.2, and only five percent of the applications are impacted. If you have applications developed before 2014 (using a Java JDK before version 8 or .NET before version 4.6.2), it is worth checking your app and updating them to use TLS 1.2. When we detect your application is still using TLS 1.0 or TLS 1.1, we inform you by email and in the AWS Health Dashboard. The blog article goes into detail about how to analyze AWS CloudTrail logs to detect any API call that would not use TLS 1.2.

How to implement automated appointment reminders using Amazon Connect and Amazon Pinpoint this blog post guides you through the steps to implement a system to automatically call your customers to remind them of their appointments. This automated outbound campaign for appointment reminders checked the campaign list against a “do not call” list before making an outbound call. Your customers are able to confirm automatically or reschedule by speaking to an agent. You monitor the results of the calls on a dashboard in near real time using Amazon QuickSight. It provides you with AWS CloudFormation templates for the parts that can be automated and detailed instructions for the manual steps.

Using Amazon CloudWatch metrics math to monitor and scale resources AWS Auto Scaling is one of those capabilities that may look like magic at first glance. It uses metrics to take scale-out or scale-in decisions. Most customers I talk with struggle a bit at first to define the correct combination of metrics that allow them to scale at the right moment. Scaling out too late impacts your customer experience while scaling out too early impacts your budget. This article explains how to use metric math, a way to query multiple Amazon CloudWatch metrics, and use math expressions to create new time series based on these metrics. These math metrics may, in turn, be used to trigger scaling decisions. The typical use case would be to mathematically combine CPU, memory, and network utilization metrics to decide when to scale in or to scale out.

How to use Amazon RDS and Amazon Aurora with a static IP address – in the cloud, it is better to access network resources by referencing their DNS name instead of IP addresses. IP addresses come and go as resources are stopped, restarted, scaled out, or scaled in. However, when integrating with older, more rigid environments, it might happen, for a limited period of time, to authorize access through a static IP address. You have probably heard that scary phrase: “I have to authorize your IP address in my firewall configuration.” This new blog post explains how to do so for Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) database. It uses a Network Load Balancer and traffic forwarding at the Linux-kernel level to proxy your actual database server.

Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering significantly reduces storage costs – we estimate our customers saved up to $250 millions in storage costs since we launched S3 Intelligent-Tiering in 2018. A recent blog post describes how Amazon Photo, a service that provides unlimited photo storage and 5 GB of video storage to Amazon Prime members in eight marketplaces world-wide, uses S3 Intelligent-Tiering to significantly save on storage costs while storing hundreds of petabytes of content and billions of images and videos on S3.

Upcoming AWS Events
Check your calendars and sign up for these AWS events:

AWS re:Inforce is the premier cloud security conference, July 26-27. This year it is hosted at the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, Massachusetts, USA. The conference agenda is available and there is still time to register.

AWS Summit Chicago, August 25, at McCormick Place, Chicago, Illinois, USA. You may register now.

AWS Summit Canberra, August 31, at the National Convention Center, Canberra, Australia. Registrations are already open.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another tour of AWS news and launches!

— seb

AWS Week in Review – June 20, 2022

Post Syndicated from Steve Roberts original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-week-in-review-june-20-2022/

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Last Week’s Launches
It’s been a quiet week on the AWS News Blog, however a glance at What’s New page shows the various service teams have been busy as usual. Here’s a round-up of announcements that caught my attention this past week.

Support for 15 new resource types in AWS Config – AWS Config is a service for assessment, audit, and evaluation of the configuration of resources in your account. You can monitor and review changes in resource configuration using automation against a desired configuration. The newly expanded set of types includes resources from Amazon SageMaker, Elastic Load Balancing, AWS Batch, AWS Step Functions, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), and more.

New console experience for AWS Budgets – A new split-view panel allows for viewing details of a budget without needing to leave the overview page. The new panel will save you time (and clicks!) when you’re analyzing performance across a set of budgets. By the way, you can also now select multiple budgets at the same time.

VPC endpoint support is now available in Amazon SageMaker Canvas SageMaker Canvas is a visual point-and-click service enabling business analysts to generate accurate machine-learning (ML) models without requiring ML experience or needing to write code. The new VPC endpoint support, available in all Regions where SageMaker Canvas is suppported, eliminates the need for an internet gateway, NAT instance, or a VPN connection when connecting from your SageMaker Canvas environment to services such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Redshift, and more.

Additional data sources for Amazon AppFlow – Facebook Ads, Google Ads, and Mixpanel are now supported as data sources, providing the ability to ingest marketing and product analytics for downstream analysis in AppFlow-connected software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications such as Marketo and Salesforce Marketing Cloud.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other updates you may have missed from the past week:

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) expanded the Regional availability of AWS Nitro System-based C6 instance types. C6gn instance types, powered by Arm-based AWS Graviton2 processors, are now available in the Asia Pacific (Seoul), Europe (Milan), Europe (Paris), and Middle East (Bahrain) Regions, while C6i instance types, powered by 3rd generation Intel Xeon Scalable processors, are now available in the Europe (Frankfurt) Region.

As a .NET and PowerShell Developer Advocate here at AWS, there are some news and updates related to .NET I want to highlight:

Upcoming AWS Events
The AWS New York Summit is approaching quickly, on July 12. Registration is also now open for the AWS Summit Canberra, an in-person event scheduled for August 31.

Microsoft SQL Server users may be interested in registering for the SQL Server Database Modernization webinar on June 21. The webinar will show you how to go about modernizing and how to cost-optimize SQL Server on AWS.

Amazon re:MARS is taking place this week in Las Vegas. I’ll be there as a host of the AWS on Air show, along with special guests highlighting their latest news from the conference. I also have some On Air sessions on using our AI services from .NET lined up! As usual, we’ll be streaming live from the expo hall, so if you’re at the conference, give us a wave. You can watch the show live on Twitch.tv/aws, Twitter.com/AWSOnAir, and LinkedIn Live.

A reminder that if you’re a podcast listener, check out the official AWS Podcast Update Show. There is also the latest installment of the AWS Open Source News and Updates newsletter to help keep you up to date.

No doubt there’ll be a whole new batch of releases and announcements from re:MARS, so be sure to check back next Monday for a summary of the announcements that caught our attention!

— Steve

Deploy .NET Blazor WebAssembly Application to AWS Amplify

Post Syndicated from Adilson Perinei original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/deploy-net-blazor-webassembly-application-to-aws-amplify/

Blazor can run your client-side C# code directly in the browser, using WebAssembly. It is a .NET running on WebAssembly, and you can reuse code and libraries from the server-side parts of your application.

Overview of solution

In this post, you will deploy a Blazor WebAssembly Application from git repository to AWS Amplify. We will use .NET 6. to create a Blazor WebAssembly on local machine using AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), use GitHub as a git repository, and deploy the application to Amplify.

Follow this post on: Windows 10, Windows 11/Ubuntu 20.04 LTS/macOS 10.15 “Catalina”, macOS 11.0 “Big Sur”, or macOS 12.0 “Monterey”.

User pushes Blazor WebAssembly code and amplify.yml to Github. This action will trigger the amplify pipeline that will use amplify.yml to build and deploy the application.


We will walk through the following steps:

  • Create Blazor WebAssembly application on our local machine using AWS CLI
  • Test /run the application locally
  • Create a new repository on Github
  • Create a local repository
  • Setup Amplify
  • Test /run the application on AWS


For this walkthrough, you should have the following prerequisites:

Let’s start creating a Blazor WebAssembly application on our local machine using CLI:

    1. Open the command line interface
    2. Create a directory for your application running the following command:

mkdir BlazorWebApp

    1. Change to the application directory running the following command:

cd BlazorWebApp

    1.  Create the Blazor WebAssembly Application running the following command:

dotnet new blazorwasm

    1. Run the application:

dotnet run

    1. Copy the URL after “Now listening on:”, and paste it on your browser.
      Example: http://localhost:5152 (port might be different in your CLI)

Sample app

    1. After testing your application, go back to the terminal and press <ctrl> + c to stop the application.
    2. Create a gitignore for your project running the following command:

dotnet new gitignore

    1. Create a file called “amplify.yml” in the root directory of your application. The name must be exactly “amplify.yml”. This file contains the commands to build your application used by AWS CodeBuild.
    2. Copy and paste the following code to the file amplify.yml.

version: 1
- curl -sSL https://dot.net/v1/dotnet-install.sh > dotnet-install.sh
- chmod +x *.sh
- ./dotnet-install.sh -c 6.0 -InstallDir ./dotnet6
- ./dotnet6/dotnet --version
- ./dotnet6/dotnet publish -c Release -o release
baseDirectory: /release/wwwroot
- '**/*'
paths: []

Create a new repository on Github:

      1. Log in to the Github website and create a new repository:

Create Github repo

      1. Type a name for your repository, choose private, and add a read.me file as shown in the following screenshot:

Create repo

Create a local repository for your application:

      1. On the root folder of your application enter the following commands. Make sure that you have configured git CLI with email and user

git add --all
git commit -m “first commit”
git branch -M main
git remote add origin https://github.com/perinei/blazorToAmplify.git
(replace red text with your repo)
for ssh authentication use:
git remote add origin [email protected]: perinei/blazorToAmplify.git
git push -u origin main

Setup Amplify:

      1. Log in to the AWS account
      2. Go to AWS Amplify Service
      3. On the left panel, choose All apps
      4. Select New app as per the following screen
      5. Select Host Web App from the dropdown list

      1. Choose Github

      1. Select Continue. If you are still logged in on your Github account, then the page will automatically authenticate you, otherwise select the Authenticate Button
      2. Choose your repository: in my case, perinei/bazortoamplify
      3. Branch: main
      4. Select next

      1. Give your app a name
      2. amplify.yml will be automatically detected and will be used to build the application on AWS

      1. Select Next to review the configuration
      2. Select Save and Deploy
      3. Amplify will provision, build, deploy, and verify the application

      1. When the process is complete, select the URL of your application and test the application.

      1. Congratulations! Your Blazor WebAssembly is running on Amplify.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring future charges, delete the resources. On Amplify, choose your app name on the left panel, select action, and then delete app.


Congratulations, you deployed your first Blazor Webassembly Application to AWS Amplify.

In this blog post you learned how to easily build a full CI/CD pipeline for a Blazor WebAssembly using the AWS amplify. It was only necessary to specify the repository and the commands build the application on the file amplify.yml that should be include on the root folder of repository. You can also easily add a custom domain to your application. Visit Set up custom domains on AWS Amplify Hosting

AWS can help you to migrate .NET applications to the Cloud. Visit .NET on AWS.

The .NET on AWS YouTube playlist is the place to get the latest .NET on AWS videos, including AWS re:Invent sessions.

To learn more about how to amplify.yml to build your application, visit Configuring build settings – AWS Amplify.

Adilson Perinei

Adilson Perinei is an AWS Consultant with six AWS certifications and loves to develop serverless applications using AWS infrastructure..

Build Next-Generation Microservices with .NET 5 and gRPC on AWS

Post Syndicated from Matt Cline original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/next-generation-microservices-dotnet-grpc/

Modern architectures use multiple microservices in conjunction to drive customer experiences. At re:Invent 2015, AWS senior project manager Rob Brigham described Amazon’s architecture of many single-purpose microservices – including ones that render the “Buy” button, calculate tax at checkout, and hundreds more.

Microservices commonly communicate with JSON over HTTP/1.1. These technologies are ubiquitous and human-readable, but they aren’t optimized for communication between dozens or hundreds of microservices.

Next-generation Web technologies, including gRPC and HTTP/2, significantly improve communication speed and efficiency between microservices. AWS offers the most compelling experience for builders implementing microservices. Moreover, the addition of HTTP/2 and gRPC support in Application Load Balancer (ALB) provides an end-to-end solution for next-generation microservices. ALBs can inspect and route gRPC calls, enabling features like health checks, access logs, and gRPC-specific metrics.

This post demonstrates .NET microservices communicating with gRPC via Application Load Balancers. The microservices run on AWS Graviton2 instances, utilizing a custom-built 64-bit Arm processor to deliver up to 40% better price/performance than x86.

Architecture Overview

Modern Tacos is a new restaurant offering delivery. Customers place orders via mobile app, then they receive real-time status updates as their order is prepared and delivered.

The tutorial includes two microservices: “Submit Order” and “Track Order”. The Submit Order service receives orders from the app, then it calls the Track Order service to initiate order tracking. The Track Order service provides streaming updates to the app as the order is prepared and delivered.

Each microservice is deployed in an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group. Each group is behind an ALB that routes gRPC traffic to instances in the group.

Shows the communication flow of gRPC traffic from users through an ALB to EC2 instances.
This architecture is simplified to focus on ALB and gRPC functionality. Microservices are often deployed in
containers for elastic scaling, improved reliability, and efficient resource utilization. ALB, gRPC, and .NET all work equally effectively in these architectures.

Comparing gRPC and JSON for microservices

Microservices typically communicate by sending JSON data over HTTP. As a text-based format, JSON is readable, flexible, and widely compatible. However, JSON also has significant weaknesses as a data interchange format. JSON’s flexibility makes enforcing a strict API specification difficult — clients can send arbitrary or invalid data, so developers must write rigorous data validation code. Additionally, performance can suffer at scale due to JSON’s relatively high bandwidth and parsing requirements. These factors also impact performance in constrained environments, such as smartphones and IoT devices. gRPC addresses all of these issues.

gRPC is an open-source framework designed to efficiently connect services. Instead of JSON, gRPC sends messages via a compact binary format called Protocol Buffers, or protobuf. Although protobuf messages are not human-readable, they utilize less network bandwidth and are faster to encode and decode. Operating at scale, these small differences multiply to a significant performance gain.

gRPC APIs define a strict contract that is automatically enforced for all messages. Based on this contract, gRPC implementations generate client and server code libraries in multiple programming languages. This allows developers to use higher-level constructs to call services, rather than programming against “raw” HTTP requests.

gRPC also benefits from being built on HTTP/2, a major revision of the HTTP protocol. In addition to the foundational performance and efficiency improvements from HTTP/2, gRPC utilizes the new protocol to support bi-directional streaming data. Implementing real-time streaming prior to gRPC typically required a completely separate protocol (such as WebSockets) that might not be supported by every client.

gRPC for .NET developers

Several recent updates have made gRPC more useful to .NET developers. .NET 5 includes significant performance improvements to gRPC, and AWS has broad support for .NET 5. In May 2021, the .NET team announced their focus on a gRPC implementation written entirely in C#, called “grpc-dotnet”, which follows C# conventions very closely.

Instead of working with JSON, dynamic objects, or strings, C# developers calling a gRPC service use a strongly-typed client, automatically generated from the protobuf specification. This obviates much of the boilerplate validation required by JSON APIs, and it enables developers to use rich data structures. Additionally, the generated code enables full IntelliSense support in Visual Studio.

For example, the “Submit Order” microservice executes this code in order to call the “Track Order” microservice:

using var channel = GrpcChannel.ForAddress("https://track-order.example.com");

var trackOrderClient = new TrackOrder.Protos.TrackOrder.TrackOrderClient(channel);

var reply = await trackOrderClient.StartTrackingOrderAsync(new TrackOrder.Protos.Order
    DeliverTo = "Address",
    LastUpdated = Timestamp.FromDateTime(DateTime.UtcNow),
    OrderId = order.OrderId,
    PlacedOn = order.PlacedOn,
    Status = TrackOrder.Protos.OrderStatus.Placed

This code calls the StartTrackingOrderAsync method on the Track Order client, which looks just like a local method call. The method intakes a data structure that supports rich data types like DateTime and enumerations, instead of the loosely-typed JSON. The methods and data structures are defined by the Track Order service’s protobuf specification, and the .NET gRPC tools automatically generate the client and data structure classes without requiring any developer effort.

Configuring ALB for gRPC

To make gRPC calls to targets behind an ALB, create a load balancer target group and select gRPC as the protocol version. You can do this through the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), AWS CloudFormation, or AWS Cloud Development Kit (CDK).

Screenshot of the AWS Management Console, showing how to configure a load balancer's target group for gRPC communication.

This CDK code creates a gRPC target group:

var targetGroup = new ApplicationTargetGroup(this, "TargetGroup", new ApplicationTargetGroupProps
    Protocol = ApplicationProtocol.HTTPS,
    ProtocolVersion = ApplicationProtocolVersion.GRPC,
    Vpc = vpc,
    Targets = new IApplicationLoadBalancerTarget {...}

gRPC requests work with target groups utilizing HTTP/2, but the gRPC protocol enables additional features including health checks, request count metrics, access logs that differentiate gRPC requests, and gRPC-specific response headers. gRPC also works with native ALB features like stickiness, multiple load balancing algorithms, and TLS termination.

Deploy the Tutorial

The sample provisions AWS resources via the AWS Cloud Development Kit (CDK). The CDK code is provided in C# so that .NET developers can use a familiar language.

The solution deployment steps include:

  • Configuring a domain name in Route 53.
  • Deploying the microservices.
  • Running the mobile app on AWS Device Farm.

The source code is available on GitHub.


For this tutorial, you should have these prerequisites:

Configure the environment variables needed by the CDK. In the sample commands below, replace AWS_ACCOUNT_ID with your numeric AWS account ID. Replace AWS_REGION with the name of the region where you will deploy the sample, such as us-east-1 or us-west-2.

If you’re using a *nix shell such as Bash, run these commands:


If you’re using PowerShell, run these commands:

Set-DefaultAWSRegion -Region AWS_REGION

Throughout this tutorial, replace RED TEXT with the appropriate value.

Save the directory path where you cloned the GitHub repository. In the sample commands below, replace EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY with this path.

In your terminal or PowerShell, run these commands:

cd EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/Common/cdk
cdk bootstrap --context domain-name=PARENT_DOMAIN_NAME
cdk deploy --context domain-name=PARENT_DOMAIN_NAME

The CDK output includes the name of the S3 bucket that will store deployment packages. Save the name of this bucket. In the sample commands below, replace SHARED_BUCKET_NAME with this name.

Deploy the Track Order microservice

Compile the Track Order microservice for the Arm microarchitecture utilized by AWS Graviton2 processors. The TrackOrder.csproj file includes a target that automatically packages the compiled microservice into a ZIP file. You will upload this ZIP file to S3 for use by CodeDeploy. Next, you will utilize the CDK to deploy the microservice’s AWS infrastructure, and then install the microservice on the EC2 instance via CodeDeploy.

The CDK stack deploys these resources:

  • An Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group.
  • An Application Load Balancer (ALB) using gRPC, targeting the Auto Scaling group and configured with microservice health checks.
  • A subdomain for the microservice, targeting the ALB.
  • A DynamoDB table used by the microservice.
  • CodeDeploy infrastructure to deploy the microservice to the Auto Scaling group.

If you’re using the AWS CLI, run these commands:

cd EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/TrackOrder/src/
dotnet publish --runtime linux-arm64 --self-contained
aws s3 cp ./bin/TrackOrder.zip s3://SHARED_BUCKET_NAME
etag=$(aws s3api head-object --bucket SHARED_BUCKET_NAME \
    --key TrackOrder.zip --query ETag --output text)
cd ../cdk
cdk deploy

The CDK output includes the name of the CodeDeploy deployment group. Use this name to run the next command:

aws deploy create-deployment --application-name ModernTacoShop-TrackOrder \
    --deployment-group-name TRACK_ORDER_DEPLOYMENT_GROUP_NAME \
    --s3-location bucket=SHARED_BUCKET_NAME,bundleType=zip,key=TrackOrder.zip,etag=$etag \
    --file-exists-behavior OVERWRITE

If you’re using PowerShell, run these commands:

cd EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/TrackOrder/src/
dotnet publish --runtime linux-arm64 --self-contained
Write-S3Object -BucketName SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -Key TrackOrder.zip `
    -File ./bin/TrackOrder.zip
Get-S3ObjectMetadata -BucketName SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -Key TrackOrder.zip `
    -Select ETag `
    -OutVariable etag
cd ../cdk
cdk deploy

The CDK output includes the name of the CodeDeploy deployment group. Use this name to run the next command:

New-CDDeployment -ApplicationName ModernTacoShop-TrackOrder `
    -S3Location_Bucket SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -S3Location_BundleType zip `
    -S3Location_Key TrackOrder.zip `
    -S3Location_ETag $etag[0] `
    -RevisionType S3 `
    -FileExistsBehavior OVERWRITE

Deploy the Submit Order microservice

The steps to deploy the Submit Order microservice are identical to the Track Order microservice. See that section for details.

If you’re using the AWS CLI, run these commands:

cd EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/SubmitOrder/src/
dotnet publish --runtime linux-arm64 --self-contained
aws s3 cp ./bin/SubmitOrder.zip s3://SHARED_BUCKET_NAME
etag=$(aws s3api head-object --bucket SHARED_BUCKET_NAME \
    --key SubmitOrder.zip --query ETag --output text)
cd ../cdk
cdk deploy

The CDK output includes the name of the CodeDeploy deployment group. Use this name to run the next command:

aws deploy create-deployment --application-name ModernTacoShop-SubmitOrder \
    --deployment-group-name SUBMIT_ORDER_DEPLOYMENT_GROUP_NAME \
    --s3-location bucket=SHARED_BUCKET_NAME,bundleType=zip,key=SubmitOrder.zip,etag=$etag \
    --file-exists-behavior OVERWRITE

If you’re using PowerShell, run these commands:

cd EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/SubmitOrder/src/
dotnet publish --runtime linux-arm64 --self-contained
Write-S3Object -BucketName SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -Key SubmitOrder.zip `
    -File ./bin/SubmitOrder.zip
Get-S3ObjectMetadata -BucketName SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -Key SubmitOrder.zip `
    -Select ETag `
    -OutVariable etag
cd ../cdk
cdk deploy

The CDK output includes the name of the CodeDeploy deployment group. Use this name to run the next command:

New-CDDeployment -ApplicationName ModernTacoShop-SubmitOrder `
    -S3Location_Bucket SHARED_BUCKET_NAME `
    -S3Location_BundleType zip `
    -S3Location_Key SubmitOrder.zip `
    -S3Location_ETag $etag[0] `
    -RevisionType S3 `
    -FileExistsBehavior OVERWRITE

Data flow diagram

Architecture diagram showing the complete data flow of the sample gRPC microservices application.
  1. The app submits an order via gRPC.
  2. The Submit Order ALB routes the gRPC call to an instance.
  3. The Submit Order instance stores order data.
  4. The Submit Order instance calls the Track Order service via gRPC.
  5. The Track Order ALB routes the gRPC call to an instance.
  6. The Track Order instance stores tracking data.
  7. The app calls the Track Order service, which streams the order’s location during delivery.

Test the microservices

Once the CodeDeploy deployments have completed, test both microservices.

First, check the load balancers’ status. Go to Target Groups in the AWS Management Console, which will list one target group for each microservice. Click each target group, then click “Targets” in the lower details pane. Every EC2 instance in the target group should have a “healthy” status.

Next, verify each microservice via gRPCurl. This tool lets you invoke gRPC services from the command line. Install gRPCurl using the instructions, and then test each microservice:

grpcurl submit-order.PARENT_DOMAIN_NAME:443 modern_taco_shop.SubmitOrder/HealthCheck
grpcurl track-order.PARENT_DOMAIN_NAME:443 modern_taco_shop.TrackOrder/HealthCheck

If a service is healthy, it will return an empty JSON object.

Run the mobile app

You will run a pre-compiled version of the app on AWS Device Farm, which lets you test on a real device without managing any infrastructure. Alternatively, compile your own version via the AndroidApp.FrontEnd project within the solution located at EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/AndroidApp/AndroidApp.sln.

Go to Device Farm in the AWS Management Console. Under “Mobile device testing projects”, click “Create a new project”. Enter “ModernTacoShop” as the project name, and click “Create Project”. In the ModernTacoShop project, click the “Remote access” tab, then click “Start a new session”. Under “Choose a device”, select the Google Pixel 3a running OS version 10, and click “Confirm and start session”.

Screenshot of the AWS Device Farm showing a Google Pixel 3a.

Once the session begins, click “Upload” in the “Install applications” section. Unzip and upload the APK file located at EXAMPLE_DIRECTORY/src/ModernTacoShop/AndroidApp/com.example.modern_tacos.grpc_tacos.apk.zip, or upload an APK that you created.

Screenshot of the gRPC microservices demo Android app, showing the map that displays streaming location data.

Screenshot of the gRPC microservices demo Android app, on the order preparation screen.

Once the app has uploaded, drag up from the bottom of the device screen in order to reach the “All apps” screen. Click the ModernTacos app to launch it.

Once the app launches, enter the parent domain name in the “Domain Name” field. Click the “+” and “-“ buttons next to each type of taco in order to create your order, then click “Submit Order”. The order status will initially display as “Preparing”, and will switch to “InTransit” after about 30 seconds. The Track Order service will stream a random route to the app, updating with new position data every 5 seconds. After approximately 2 minutes, the order status will change to “Delivered” and the streaming updates will stop.

Once you’ve run a successful test, click “Stop session” in the console.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring charges, use the cdk destroy command to delete the stacks in the reverse order that you deployed them.

You can also delete the resources via CloudFormation in the AWS Management Console.

In addition to deleting the stacks, you must delete the Route 53 hosted zone and the Device Farm project.


This post demonstrated multiple next-generation technologies for microservices, including end-to-end HTTP/2 and gRPC communication over Application Load Balancer, AWS Graviton2 processors, and .NET 5. These technologies enable builders to create microservices applications with new levels of performance and efficiency.

Matt Cline

Matt Cline

Matt Cline is a Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services, supporting customers in his home city of Pittsburgh PA. With a background as a full-stack developer and architect, Matt is passionate about helping customers deliver top-quality applications on AWS. Outside of work, Matt builds (and occasionally finishes) scale models and enjoys running a tabletop role-playing game for his friends.

Ulili Nhaga

Ulili Nhaga

Ulili Nhaga is a Cloud Application Architect at Amazon Web Services in San Diego, California. He helps customers modernize, architect, and build highly scalable cloud-native applications on AWS. Outside of work, Ulili loves playing soccer, cycling, Brazilian BBQ, and enjoying time on the beach.

Build and deploy .NET web applications to ARM-powered AWS Graviton 2 Amazon ECS Clusters using AWS CDK

Post Syndicated from Matt Laver original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/build-and-deploy-net-web-applications-to-arm-powered-aws-graviton-2-amazon-ecs-clusters-using-aws-cdk/

With .NET providing first-class support for ARM architecture, running .NET applications on an AWS Graviton processor provides you with more choices to help optimize performance and cost. We have already written about .NET 5 with Graviton benchmarks; in this post, we explore how C#/.NET developers can take advantages of Graviton processors and obtain this performance at scale with Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS).

In addition, we take advantage of infrastructure as code (IaC) by using the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) to define the infrastructure .

The AWS CDK is an open-source development framework to define cloud applications in code. It includes constructs for Amazon ECS resources, which allows you to deploy fully containerized applications to AWS.

Architecture overview

Our target architecture for our .NET application running in AWS is a load balanced ECS cluster, as shown in the following diagram.

Show load balanced Amazon ECS Cluster running .NET application

Figure: Show load balanced Amazon ECS Cluster running .NET application

We need to provision many components in this architecture, but this is where the AWS CDK comes in. AWS CDK is an open source-software development framework to define cloud resources using familiar programming languages. You can use it for the following:

  • A multi-stage .NET application container build
  • Create an Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) repository and push the Docker image to it
  • Use IaC written in .NET to provision the preceding architecture

The following diagram illustrates how we use these services.

Show pplication and Infrastructure code written in .NET

Figure: Show Application and Infrastructure code written in .NET

Setup the development environment

To deploy this solution on AWS, we use the AWS Cloud9 development environment.

  1. On the AWS Cloud9 console, choose Create environment.
  2. For Name, enter a name for the environment.
  3. Choose Next step.
  4. On the Environment settings page, keep the default settings:
    1. Environment type – Create a new EC2 instance for the environment (direct access)
    2. Instance type – t2.micro (1 Gib RAM + 1 vCPU)
    3. Platform – Amazon Linux 2(recommended)
    Show Cloud9 Environment settings

    Figure: Show Cloud9 Environment settings

  5. Choose Next step.
  6. Choose Create environment.

When the Cloud9 environment is ready, proceed to the next section.

Install the .NET SDK

The AWS development tools we require will already be setup in the Cloud9 environment, however the .NET SDK will not be available.

Install the .NET SDK with the following code from the Cloud9 terminal:

curl -sSL https://dot.net/v1/dotnet-install.sh | bash /dev/stdin -c 5.0
export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin:$HOME/.dotnet

Verify the expected version has been installed:

dotnet --version
Show installed .NET SDK version

Figure: Show installed .NET SDK version

Clone and explore the example code

Clone the example repository:

git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/aws-cdk-dotnet-graviton-ecs-example.git

This repository contains two .NET projects, the web application, and the IaC application using the AWS CDK.

The unit of deployment in the AWS CDK is called a stack. All AWS resources defined within the scope of a stack, either directly or indirectly, are provisioned as a single unit.

The stack for this project is located within /cdk/src/Cdk/CdkStack.cs. When we read the C# code, we can see how it aligns with the architecture diagram at the beginning of this post.

First, we create a virtual private cloud (VPC) and assign a maximum of two Availability Zones:

var vpc = new Vpc(this, "DotNetGravitonVpc", new VpcProps { MaxAzs = 2 });

Next, we define the cluster and assign it to the VPC:

var cluster = new Cluster(this, "DotNetGravitonCluster", new ClusterProp { Vpc = vpc });

The Graviton instance type (c6g.4xlarge) is defined in the cluster capacity options:

    new AddCapacityOptions
        InstanceType = new InstanceType("c6g.4xlarge"),
        MachineImage = EcsOptimizedImage.AmazonLinux2(AmiHardwareType.ARM)

Finally, ApplicationLoadBalancedEC2Service is defined, along with a reference to the application source code:

new ApplicationLoadBalancedEc2Service(this, "Service",
    new ApplicationLoadBalancedEc2ServiceProps
        Cluster = cluster,
        MemoryLimitMiB = 8192,
        DesiredCount = 2,
        TaskImageOptions = new ApplicationLoadBalancedTaskImageOptions
            Image = ContainerImage.FromAsset(Path.Combine(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory(), @"../app")),                        

With about 30 lines of AWS CDK code written in C#, we achieve the following:

  • Build and package a .NET application within a Docker image
  • Push the Docker image to Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR)
  • Create a VPC with two Availability Zones
  • Create a cluster with a Graviton c6g.4xlarge instance type that pulls the Docker image from Amazon ECR

The AWS CDK has several useful helpers, such as the FromAsset function:

Image =  ContainerImage.FromAsset(Path.Combine(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory(), @"../app")),  

The ContainerImage.FromAsset function instructs the AWS CDK to build the Docker image from a Dockerfile, automatically create an Amazon ECR repository, and upload the image to the repository.

For more information about the ContainerImage class, see ContainerImage.

Build and deploy the project with the AWS CDK Toolkit

The AWS CDK Toolkit, the CLI command cdk, is the primary tool for interaction with AWS CDK apps. It runs the app, interrogates the application model you defined, and produces and deploys the AWS CloudFormation templates generated by the AWS CDK.

If an AWS CDK stack being deployed uses assets such as Docker images, the environment needs to be bootstrapped. Use the cdk bootstrap command from the /cdk directory:

cdk bootstrap

Now you can deploy the stack into the AWS account with the deploy command:

cdk deploy

The AWS CDK Toolkit synthesizes fresh CloudFormation templates locally before deploying anything. The first time this runs, it has a changeset that reflects all the infrastructure defined within the stack and prompts you for confirmation before running.

When the deployment is complete, the load balancer DNS is in the Outputs section.

Show stack outputs

Figure: Show stack outputs

You can navigate to the load balancer address via a browser.

Browser navigating to .NET application

Figure: Show browser navigating to .NET application

Tracking the drift

Typically drift is a change that happens outside of the Infrastructure as Code, for example, code updates to the .NET application.

To support changes, the AWS CDK Toolkit queries the AWS account for the last deployed CloudFormation template for the stack and compares it with the locally generated template. Preview the changes with the following code:

cdk diff

If a simple text change within the application’s home page HTML is made (app/webapp/Pages/Index.cshtml), a difference is detected within the assets, but not all the infrastructure as per the first deploy.

Show cdk diff output

Figure: Show cdk diff output

Running cdk deploy again now rebuilds the Docker image, uploads it to Amazon ECR, and refreshes the containers within the ECS cluster.

cdk deploy
Show browser navigating to updated .NET application

Figure: Show browser navigating to updated .NET application

Clean up

Remove the resources created in this post with the following code:

cdk destroy


Using the AWS CDK to provision infrastructure in .NET provides rigor, clarity, and reliability in a language familiar to .NET developers. For more information, see Infrastructure as Code.

This post demonstrates the low barrier to entry for .NET developers wanting to apply modern application development practices while taking advantage of the price performance of ARM-based processors such as Graviton.

To learn more about building and deploying .NET applications on AWS visit our .NET Developer Center.

About the author

Author Matt Laver


Matt Laver is a Solutions Architect at AWS working with SMB customers in the UK. He is passionate about DevOps and loves helping customers find simple solutions to difficult problems.


Using NuGet with AWS CodeArtifact

Post Syndicated from John Standish original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/using-nuget-with-aws-codeartifact/

Managing NuGet packages for .NET development can be a challenge. Tasks such as initial configuration, ongoing maintenance, and scaling inefficiencies are the biggest pain points for developers and organizations. With its addition of NuGet package support, AWS CodeArtifact now provides easy-to-configure and scalable package management for .NET developers. You can use NuGet packages stored in CodeArtifact in Visual Studio, allowing you to use the tools you already know.

In this post, we show how you can provision NuGet repositories in 5 minutes. Then we demonstrate how to consume packages from your new NuGet repositories, all while using .NET native tooling.

All relevant code for this post is available in the aws-codeartifact-samples GitHub repo.


For this walkthrough, you should have the following prerequisites:

Architecture overview

Two core resource types make up CodeArtifact: domains and repositories. Domains provide an easy way manage multiple repositories within an organization. Repositories store packages and their assets. You can connect repositories to other CodeArtifact repositories, or popular public package repositories such as nuget.org, using upstream and external connections. For more information about these concepts, see AWS CodeArtifact Concepts.

The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

AWS CodeArtifact core concepts

Figure: AWS CodeArtifact core concepts

Creating CodeArtifact resources with AWS CloudFormation

The AWS CloudFormation template provided in this post provisions three CodeArtifact resources: a domain, a team repository, and a shared repository. The team repository is configured to use the shared repository as an upstream repository, and the shared repository has an external connection to nuget.org.

The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

Example AWS CodeArtifact architecture

Figure: Example AWS CodeArtifact architecture

The following CloudFormation template used in this walkthrough:

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09'
Description: AWS CodeArtifact resources for dotnet

  # Create Domain
    Type: AWS::CodeArtifact::Domain
      DomainName: example-domain
        Version: 2012-10-17
          - Effect: Allow
              - !Sub arn:aws:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:root
            Resource: "*"
              - codeartifact:CreateRepository
              - codeartifact:DescribeDomain
              - codeartifact:GetAuthorizationToken
              - codeartifact:GetDomainPermissionsPolicy
              - codeartifact:ListRepositoriesInDomain

  # Create External Repository
    Type: AWS::CodeArtifact::Repository
    Condition: ProvisionNugetTeamAndUpstream
      DomainName: !GetAtt ExampleDomain.Name
      RepositoryName: my-external-repository       
        - public:nuget-org
        Version: 2012-10-17
          - Effect: Allow
              - !Sub arn:aws:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:root
            Resource: "*"
              - codeartifact:DescribePackageVersion
              - codeartifact:DescribeRepository
              - codeartifact:GetPackageVersionReadme
              - codeartifact:GetRepositoryEndpoint
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersionAssets
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersionDependencies
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersions
              - codeartifact:ListPackages
              - codeartifact:PublishPackageVersion
              - codeartifact:PutPackageMetadata
              - codeartifact:ReadFromRepository

  # Create Repository
    Type: AWS::CodeArtifact::Repository
      DomainName: !GetAtt ExampleDomain.Name
      RepositoryName: my-team-repository
        - !GetAtt MyExternalRepository.Name
        Version: 2012-10-17
          - Effect: Allow
              - !Sub arn:aws:iam::${AWS::AccountId}:root
            Resource: "*"
              - codeartifact:DescribePackageVersion
              - codeartifact:DescribeRepository
              - codeartifact:GetPackageVersionReadme
              - codeartifact:GetRepositoryEndpoint
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersionAssets
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersionDependencies
              - codeartifact:ListPackageVersions
              - codeartifact:ListPackages
              - codeartifact:PublishPackageVersion
              - codeartifact:PutPackageMetadata
              - codeartifact:ReadFromRepository

Getting the CloudFormation template

To use the CloudFormation stack, we recommend you clone the following GitHub repo so you also have access to the example projects. See the following code:

git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/aws-codeartifact-samples.git
cd aws-codeartifact-samples/getting-started/dotnet/cloudformation/

Alternatively, you can copy the previous template into a file on your local filesystem named deploy.yml.

Provisioning the CloudFormation stack

Now that you have a local copy of the template, you need to provision the resources using a CloudFormation stack. You can deploy the stack using the AWS CLI or on the AWS CloudFormation console.

To use the AWS CLI, enter the following code:

aws cloudformation deploy \
--template-file deploy.yml \
--stack-name CodeArtifact-GettingStarted-DotNet

To use the AWS CloudFormation console, complete the following steps:

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Create stack.
  2. Choose With new resources (standard).
  3. Select Upload a template file.
  4. Choose Choose file.
  5. Name the stack CodeArtifact-GettingStarted-DotNet.
  6. Continue to choose Next until prompted to create the stack.

Configuring your local development experience

We use the CodeArtifact credential provider to connect the Visual Studio IDE to a CodeArtifact repository. You need to download and install the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio to configure the credential provider. The toolkit is an extension for Microsoft Visual Studio on Microsoft Windows that makes it easy to develop, debug, and deploy .NET applications to AWS. The credential provider automates fetching and refreshing the authentication token required to pull packages from CodeArtifact. For more information about the authentication process, see AWS CodeArtifact authentication and tokens.

To connect to a repository, you complete the following steps:

  1. Configure an account profile in the AWS Toolkit.
  2. Copy the source endpoint from the AWS Explorer.
  3. Set the NuGet package source as the source endpoint.
  4. Add packages for your project via your CodeArtifact repository.

Configuring an account profile in the AWS Toolkit

Before you can use the Toolkit for Visual Studio, you must provide a set of valid AWS credentials. In this step, we set up a profile that has access to interact with CodeArtifact. For instructions, see Providing AWS Credentials.

Visual Studio Toolkit for AWS Account Profile Setup

Figure: Visual Studio Toolkit for AWS Account Profile Setup

Copying the NuGet source endpoint

After you set up your profile, you can see your provisioned repositories.

  1. In the AWS Explorer pane, navigate to the repository you want to connect to.
  2. Choose your repository (right-click).
  3. Choose Copy NuGet Source Endpoint.
AWS CodeArtifact repositories shown in the AWS Explorer

Figure: AWS CodeArtifact repositories shown in the AWS Explorer


You use the source endpoint later to configure your NuGet package sources.

Setting the package source using the source endpoint

Now that you have your source endpoint, you can set up the NuGet package source.

  1. In Visual Studio, under Tools, choose Options.
  2. Choose NuGet Package Manager.
  3. Under Options, choose the + icon to add a package source.
  4. For Name , enter codeartifact.
  5. For Source, enter the source endpoint you copied from the previous step.
Configuring Nuget package sources for AWS CodeArtifact

Figure: Configuring NuGet package sources for AWS CodeArtifact


Adding packages via your CodeArtifact repository

After the package source is configured against your team repository, you can pull packages via the upstream connection to the shared repository.

  1. Choose Manage NuGet Packages for your project.
    • You can now see packages from nuget.org.
  2. Choose any package to add it to your project.
Exploring packages while connected to a AWS CodeArtifact repository

Exploring packages while connected to a AWS CodeArtifact repository

Viewing packages stored in your CodeArtifact team repository

Packages are stored in a repository you pull from, or referenced via the upstream connection. Because we’re pulling packages from nuget.org through an external connection, you can see cached copies of those packages in your repository. To view the packages, navigate to your repository on the CodeArtifact console.

Packages stored in a AWS CodeArtifact repository

Packages stored in a AWS CodeArtifact repository

Cleaning Up

When you’re finished with this walkthrough, you may want to remove any provisioned resources. To remove the resources that the CloudFormation template created, navigate to the stack on the AWS CloudFormation console and choose Delete Stack. It may take a few minutes to delete all provisioned resources.

After the resources are deleted, there are no more cleanup steps.


We have shown you how to set up CodeArtifact in minutes and easily integrate it with NuGet. You can build and push your package faster, from hours or days to minutes. You can also integrate CodeArtifact directly in your Visual Studio environment with four simple steps. With CodeArtifact repositories, you inherit the durability and security posture from the underlying storage of CodeArtifact for your packages.

As of November 2020, CodeArtifact is available in the following AWS Regions:

  • US: US East (Ohio), US East (N. Virginia), US West (Oregon)
  • AP: Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo)
  • EU: Europe (Frankfurt), Europe (Ireland), Europe (Stockholm)

For an up-to-date list of Regions where CodeArtifact is available, see AWS CodeArtifact FAQ.

About the Authors

John Standish

John Standish is a Solutions Architect at AWS and spent over 13 years as a Microsoft .Net developer. Outside of work, he enjoys playing video games, cooking, and watching hockey.

Nuatu Tseggai

Nuatu Tseggai is a Cloud Infrastructure Architect at Amazon Web Services. He enjoys working with customers to design and build event-driven distributed systems that span multiple services.

Neha Gupta

Neha Gupta is a Solutions Architect at AWS and have 16 years of experience as a Database architect/ DBA. Apart from work, she’s outdoorsy and loves to dance.

Elijah Batkoski

Elijah is a Technical Writer for Amazon Web Services. Elijah has produced technical documentation and blogs for a variety of tools and services, primarily focused around DevOps.

Modernizing and containerizing a legacy MVC .NET application with Entity Framework to .NET Core with Entity Framework Core: Part 2

Post Syndicated from Pratip Bagchi original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/devops/modernizing-and-containerizing-a-legacy-mvc-net-application-with-entity-framework-to-net-core-with-entity-framework-core-part-2/

This is the second post in a two-part series in which you migrate and containerize a modernized enterprise application. In Part 1, we walked you through a step-by-step approach to re-architect a legacy ASP.NET MVC application and ported it to .NET Core Framework. In this post, you will deploy the previously re-architected application to Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) and run it as a task with AWS Fargate.

Overview of solution

In the first post, you ported the legacy MVC ASP.NET application to ASP.NET Core, you will now modernize the same application as a Docker container and host it in the ECS cluster.

The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

Architecture Diagram


You first launch a SQL Server Express RDS (1) instance and create a Cycle Store database on that instance with tables of different categories and subcategories of bikes. You use the previously re-architected and modernized ASP.NET Core application as a starting point for this post, this app is using AWS Secrets Manager (2) to fetch database credentials to access Amazon RDS instance. In the next step, you build a Docker image of the application and push it to Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) (3). After this you create an ECS cluster (4) to run the Docker image as a AWS Fargate task.


For this walkthrough, you should have the following prerequisites:

This post implements the solution in Region us-east-1.

Source Code

Clone the source code from the GitHub repo. The source code folder contains the re-architected source code and the AWS CloudFormation template to launch the infrastructure, and Amazon ECS task definition.

Setting up the database server

To make sure that your database works out of the box, you use a CloudFormation template to create an instance of Microsoft SQL Server Express and AWS Secrets Manager secrets to store database credentials, security groups, and IAM roles to access Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) and Secrets Manager. This stack takes approximately 15 minutes to complete, with most of that time being when the services are being provisioned.

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Create stack.
  2. For Prepare template, select Template is ready.
  3. For Template source, select Upload a template file.
  4. Upload SqlServerRDSFixedUidPwd.yaml, which is available in the GitHub repo.
  5. Choose Next.
    Create AWS CloudFormation stack
  6. For Stack name, enter SQLRDSEXStack.
  7. Choose Next.
  8. Keep the rest of the options at their default.
  9. Select I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources with custom names.
  10. Choose Create stack.
    Add IAM Capabilities
  11. When the status shows as CREATE_COMPLETE, choose the Outputs tab.
  12. Record the value for the SQLDatabaseEndpoint key.
    CloudFormation output
  13. Connect the database from the SQL Server Management Studio with the following credentials:User id: DBUserand Password:DBU$er2020

Setting up the CYCLE_STORE database

To set up your database, complete the following steps:

  1. On the SQL Server Management console, connect to the DB instance using the ID and password you defined earlier.
  2. Under File, choose New.
  3. Choose Query with Current Connection.Alternatively, choose New Query from the toolbar.
    Run database restore script
  4. Open CYCLE_STORE_Schema_data.sql from the GitHub repository and run it.

This creates the CYCLE_STORE database with all the tables and data you need.

Setting up the ASP.NET MVC Core application

To set up your ASP.NET application, complete the following steps:

  1. Open the re-architected application code that you cloned from the GitHub repo. The Dockerfile added to the solution enables Docker support.
  2. Open the appsettings.Development.json file and replace the RDS endpoint present in the ConnectionStrings section with the output of the AWS CloudFormation stack without the port number which is :1433 for SQL Server.

The ASP.NET application should now load with bike categories and subcategories. See the following screenshot.

Final run

Setting up Amazon ECR

To set up your repository in Amazon ECR, complete the following steps:

  1. On the Amazon ECR console, choose Repositories.
  2. Choose Create repository.
  3. For Repository name, enter coretoecsrepo.
  4. Choose Create repository Create repositiory
  5. Copy the repository URI to use later.
  6. Select the repository you just created and choose View push commands.View Push Commands
  7. In the folder where you cloned the repo, navigate to the AdventureWorksMVCCore.Web folder.
  8. In the View push commands popup window, complete steps 1–4 to push your Docker image to Amazon ECR. Push to Amazon Elastic Repository

The following screenshot shows completion of Steps 1 and 2 and ensure your working directory is set to AdventureWorksMVCCore.Web as below.

The following screenshot shows completion of Steps 3 and 4.

Amazon ECR Push

Setting up Amazon ECS

To set up your ECS cluster, complete the following steps:

    1. On the Amazon ECS console, choose Clusters.
    2. Choose Create cluster.
    3. Choose the Networking only cluster template.
    4. Name your cluster cycle-store-cluster.
    5. Leave everything else as its default.
    6. Choose Create cluster.
    7. Select your cluster.
    8. Choose Task Definitions and choose Create new Task Definition.
    9. On the Select launch type compatibility page choose FARGATE and click Next step.
    10. On the Configure task and container definitions page, scroll to the bottom of the page and choose Configure via JSON.
    11. In the text area, enter the task definition JSON (task-definition.json) provided in the GitHub repo. Make sure to replace [YOUR-AWS-ACCOUNT-NO] in task-definition.json with your AWS account number on the line number 44, 68 and 71. The task definition file assumes that you named your repository as coretoecsrepo. If you named it something else, modify this file accordingly. It also assumes that you are using us-east-1 as your default region, so please consider replacing the region in the task-definition.json on line number 15 and 44 if you are not using us-east-1 region. Replace AWS Account number
    12. Choose Save.
    13. On the Task Definitions page, select cycle-store-td.
    14. From the Actions drop-down menu, choose Run Task.Run task
    15. Choose Launch type is equal to Fargate.
    16. Choose your default VPC as Cluster VPC.
    17. Select at least one Subnet.
    18. Choose Edit Security Groups and select ECSSecurityGroup (created by the AWS CloudFormation stack).Select security group
    19. Choose Run Task

Running your application

Choose the link under the task and find the public IP. When you navigate to the URL http://your-public-ip, you should see the .NET Core Cycle Store web application user interface running in Amazon ECS.

See the following screenshot.

Final run

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring future charges, delete the stacks you created for this post.

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Stacks.
  2. Select SQLRDSEXStack.
  3. In the Stack details pane, choose Delete.


This post concludes your journey towards modernizing a legacy enterprise MVC ASP.NET web application using .NET Core and containerizing using Amazon ECS using the AWS Fargate compute engine on a Linux container. Portability to .NET Core helps you run enterprise workload without any dependencies on windows environment and AWS Fargate gives you a way to run containers directly without managing any EC2 instances and giving you full control. Additionally, couple of recent launched AWS tools in this area.

About the Author

Saleha Haider is a Senior Partner Solution Architect with Amazon Web Services.
Pratip Bagchi is a Partner Solutions Architect with Amazon Web Services.