Tag Archives: Amazon EventBridge

Accelerate security automation using Amazon CodeWhisperer

Post Syndicated from Brendan Jenkins original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/accelerate-security-automation-using-amazon-codewhisperer/

In an ever-changing security landscape, teams must be able to quickly remediate security risks. Many organizations look for ways to automate the remediation of security findings that are currently handled manually. Amazon CodeWhisperer is an artificial intelligence (AI) coding companion that generates real-time, single-line or full-function code suggestions in your integrated development environment (IDE) to help you quickly build software. By using CodeWhisperer, security teams can expedite the process of writing security automation scripts for various types of findings that are aggregated in AWS Security Hub, a cloud security posture management (CSPM) service.

In this post, we present some of the current challenges with security automation and walk you through how to use CodeWhisperer, together with Amazon EventBridge and AWS Lambda, to automate the remediation of Security Hub findings. Before reading further, please read the AWS Responsible AI Policy.

Current challenges with security automation

Many approaches to security automation, including Lambda and AWS Systems Manager Automation, require software development skills. Furthermore, the process of manually writing code for remediation can be a time-consuming process for security professionals. To help overcome these challenges, CodeWhisperer serves as a force multiplier for qualified security professionals with development experience to quickly and effectively generate code to help remediate security findings.

Security professionals should still cultivate software development skills to implement robust solutions. Engineers should thoroughly review and validate any generated code, as manual oversight remains critical for security.

Solution overview

Figure 1 shows how the findings that Security Hub produces are ingested by EventBridge, which then invokes Lambda functions for processing. The Lambda code is generated with the help of CodeWhisperer.

Figure 1: Diagram of the solution

Security Hub integrates with EventBridge so you can automatically process findings with other services such as Lambda. To begin remediating the findings automatically, you can configure rules to determine where to send findings. This solution will do the following:

  1. Ingest an Amazon Security Hub finding into EventBridge.
  2. Use an EventBridge rule to invoke a Lambda function for processing.
  3. Use CodeWhisperer to generate the Lambda function code.

It is important to note that there are two types of automation for Security Hub finding remediation:

  • Partial automation, which is initiated when a human worker selects the Security Hub findings manually and applies the automated remediation workflow to the selected findings.
  • End-to-end automation, which means that when a finding is generated within Security Hub, this initiates an automated workflow to immediately remediate without human intervention.

Important: When you use end-to-end automation, we highly recommend that you thoroughly test the efficiency and impact of the workflow in a non-production environment first before moving forward with implementation in a production environment.


To follow along with this walkthrough, make sure that you have the following prerequisites in place:

Implement security automation

In this scenario, you have been tasked with making sure that versioning is enabled across all Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets in your AWS account. Additionally, you want to do this in a way that is programmatic and automated so that it can be reused in different AWS accounts in the future.

To do this, you will perform the following steps:

  1. Generate the remediation script with CodeWhisperer
  2. Create the Lambda function
  3. Integrate the Lambda function with Security Hub by using EventBridge
  4. Create a custom action in Security Hub
  5. Create an EventBridge rule to target the Lambda function
  6. Run the remediation

Generate a remediation script with CodeWhisperer

The first step is to use VS Code to create a script so that CodeWhisperer generates the code for your Lambda function in Python. You will use this Lambda function to remediate the Security Hub findings generated by the [S3.14] S3 buckets should use versioning control.

Note: The underlying model of CodeWhisperer is powered by generative AI, and the output of CodeWhisperer is nondeterministic. As such, the code recommended by the service can vary by user. By modifying the initial code comment to prompt CodeWhisperer for a response, customers can change the corresponding output to help meet their needs. Customers should subject all code generated by CodeWhisperer to typical testing and review protocols to verify that it is free of errors and is in line with applicable organizational security policies. To learn about best practices on prompt engineering with CodeWhisperer, see this AWS blog post.

To generate the remediation script

  1. Open a new VS Code window, and then open or create a new folder for your file to reside in.
  2. Create a Python file called cw-blog-remediation.py as shown in Figure 2.
    Figure 2: New VS Code file created called cw-blog-remediation.py

    Figure 2: New VS Code file created called cw-blog-remediation.py

  3. Add the following imports to the Python file.
    import json
    import boto3

  4. Because you have the context added to your file, you can now prompt CodeWhisperer by using a natural language comment. In your file, below the import statements, enter the following comment and then press Enter.
    # Create lambda function that turns on versioning for an S3 bucket after the function is triggered from Amazon EventBridge

  5. Accept the first recommendation that CodeWhisperer provides by pressing Tab to use the Lambda function handler, as shown in Figure 3.
    Figure 3: Generation of Lambda handler

    Figure 3: Generation of Lambda handler

  6. To get the recommendation for the function from CodeWhisperer, press Enter. Make sure that the recommendation you receive looks similar to the following. CodeWhisperer is nondeterministic, so its recommendations can vary.
    import json
    import boto3
    # Create lambda function that turns on versioning for an S3 bucket after function is triggered from Amazon EventBridge
    def lambda_handler(event, context):
        s3 = boto3.client('s3')
        bucket = event['detail']['requestParameters']['bucketName']
        response = s3.put_bucket_versioning(
                'Status': 'Enabled'
        return {
            'statusCode': 200,
            'body': json.dumps('Versioning enabled for bucket ' + bucket)

  7. Take a moment to review the user actions and keyboard shortcut keys. Press Tab to accept the recommendation.
  8. You can change the function body to fit your use case. To get the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the S3 bucket from the EventBridge event, replace the bucket variable with the following line:
    bucket = event['detail']['findings'][0]['Resources'][0]['Id']

  9. To prompt CodeWhisperer to extract the bucket name from the bucket ARN, use the following comment:
    # Take the S3 bucket name from the ARN of the S3 bucket

    Your function code should look similar to the following:

    import json
    import boto3
    # Create lambda function that turns on versioning for an S3 bucket after function is triggered from Amazon EventBridge
    def lambda_handler(event, context):
        s3 = boto3.client('s3')
       bucket = event['detail']['findings'][0]['Resources'][0]['Id']
             # Take the S3 bucket name from the ARN of the S3 bucket
       bucket = bucket.split(':')[5]
        response = s3.put_bucket_versioning(
                'Status': 'Enabled'
        return {
            'statusCode': 200,
            'body': json.dumps('Versioning enabled for bucket ' + bucket)

  10. Create a .zip file for cw-blog-remediation.py. Find the file in your local file manager, right-click the file, and select compress/zip. You will use this .zip file in the next section of the post.

Create the Lambda function

The next step is to use the automation script that you generated to create the Lambda function that will enable versioning on applicable S3 buckets.

To create the Lambda function

  1. Open the AWS Lambda console.
  2. In the left navigation pane, choose Functions, and then choose Create function.
  3. Select Author from Scratch and provide the following configurations for the function:
    1. For Function name, select sec_remediation_function.
    2. For Runtime, select Python 3.12.
    3. For Architecture, select x86_64.
    4. For Permissions, select Create a new role with basic Lambda permissions.
  4. Choose Create function.
  5. To upload your local code to Lambda, select Upload from and then .zip file, and then upload the file that you zipped.
  6. Verify that you created the Lambda function successfully. In the Code source section of Lambda, you should see the code from the automation script displayed in a new tab, as shown in Figure 4.
    Figure 4: Source code that was successfully uploaded

    Figure 4: Source code that was successfully uploaded

  7. Choose the Code tab.
  8. Scroll down to the Runtime settings pane and choose Edit.
  9. For Handler, enter cw-blog-remediation.lambda_handler for your function handler, and then choose Save, as shown in Figure 5.
    Figure 5: Updated Lambda handler

    Figure 5: Updated Lambda handler

  10. For security purposes, and to follow the principle of least privilege, you should also add an inline policy to the Lambda function’s role to perform the tasks necessary to enable versioning on S3 buckets.
    1. In the Lambda console, navigate to the Configuration tab and then, in the left navigation pane, choose Permissions. Choose the Role name, as shown in Figure 6.
      Figure 6: Lambda role in the AWS console

      Figure 6: Lambda role in the AWS console

    2. In the Add permissions dropdown, select Create inline policy.
      Figure 7: Create inline policy

      Figure 7: Create inline policy

    3. Choose JSON, add the following policy to the policy editor, and then choose Next.
          "Version": "2012-10-17",
          "Statement": [
                  "Sid": "VisualEditor0",
                  "Effect": "Allow",
                  "Action": "s3:PutBucketVersioning",
                  "Resource": "*"

    4. Name the policy PutBucketVersioning and choose Create policy.

Create a custom action in Security Hub

In this step, you will create a custom action in Security Hub.

To create the custom action

  1. Open the Security Hub console.
  2. In the left navigation pane, choose Settings, and then choose Custom actions.
  3. Choose Create custom action.
  4. Provide the following information, as shown in Figure 8:
    • For Name, enter TurnOnS3Versioning.
    • For Description, enter Action that will turn on versioning for a specific S3 bucket.
    • For Custom action ID, enter TurnOnS3Versioning.
      Figure 8: Create a custom action in Security Hub

      Figure 8: Create a custom action in Security Hub

  5. Choose Create custom action.
  6. Make a note of the Custom action ARN. You will need this ARN when you create a rule to associate with the custom action in EventBridge.

Create an EventBridge rule to target the Lambda function

The next step is to create an EventBridge rule to capture the custom action. You will define an EventBridge rule that matches events (in this case, findings) from Security Hub that were forwarded by the custom action that you defined previously.

To create the EventBridge rule

  1. Navigate to the EventBridge console.
  2. On the right side, choose Create rule.
  3. On the Define rule detail page, give your rule a name and description that represents the rule’s purpose—for example, you could use the same name and description that you used for the custom action. Then choose Next.
  4. Scroll down to Event pattern, and then do the following:
    1. For Event source, make sure that AWS services is selected.
    2. For AWS service, select Security Hub.
    3. For Event type, select Security Hub Findings – Custom Action.
    4. Select Specific custom action ARN(s) and enter the ARN for the custom action that you created earlier.
    Figure 9: Specify the EventBridge event pattern for the Security Hub custom action workflow

    Figure 9: Specify the EventBridge event pattern for the Security Hub custom action workflow

    As you provide this information, the Event pattern updates.

  5. Choose Next.
  6. On the Select target(s) step, in the Select a target dropdown, select Lambda function. Then from the Function dropdown, select sec_remediation_function.
  7. Choose Next.
  8. On the Configure tags step, choose Next.
  9. On the Review and create step, choose Create rule.

Run the automation

Your automation is set up and you can now test the automation. This test covers a partial automation workflow, since you will manually select the finding and apply the remediation workflow to one or more selected findings.

Important: As we mentioned earlier, if you decide to make the automation end-to-end, you should assess the impact of the workflow in a non-production environment. Additionally, you may want to consider creating preventative controls if you want to minimize the risk of event occurrence across an entire environment.

To run the automation

  1. In the Security Hub console, on the Findings tab, add a filter by entering Title in the search box and selecting that filter. Select IS and enter S3 general purpose buckets should have versioning enabled (case sensitive). Choose Apply.
  2. In the filtered list, choose the Title of an active finding.
  3. Before you start the automation, check the current configuration of the S3 bucket to confirm that your automation works. Expand the Resources section of the finding.
  4. Under Resource ID, choose the link for the S3 bucket. This opens a new tab on the S3 console that shows only this S3 bucket.
  5. In your browser, go back to the Security Hub tab (don’t close the S3 tab—you will need to return to it), and on the left side, select this same finding, as shown in Figure 10.
    Figure 10: Filter out Security Hub findings to list only S3 bucket-related findings

    Figure 10: Filter out Security Hub findings to list only S3 bucket-related findings

  6. In the Actions dropdown list, choose the name of your custom action.
    Figure 11: Choose the custom action that you created to start the remediation workflow

    Figure 11: Choose the custom action that you created to start the remediation workflow

  7. When you see a banner that displays Successfully started action…, go back to the S3 browser tab and refresh it. Verify that the S3 versioning configuration on the bucket has been enabled as shown in figure 12.
    Figure 12: Versioning successfully enabled

    Figure 12: Versioning successfully enabled


In this post, you learned how to use CodeWhisperer to produce AI-generated code for custom remediations for a security use case. We encourage you to experiment with CodeWhisperer to create Lambda functions that remediate other Security Hub findings that might exist in your account, such as the enforcement of lifecycle policies on S3 buckets with versioning enabled, or using automation to remove multiple unused Amazon EC2 elastic IP addresses. The ability to automatically set public S3 buckets to private is just one of many use cases where CodeWhisperer can generate code to help you remediate Security Hub findings.

To sum up, CodeWhisperer acts as a tool that can help boost the productivity of security experts who have coding abilities, assisting them to swiftly write code to address security issues. However, security specialists should continue building their software development capabilities to implement robust solutions. Engineers should carefully review and test any generated code, since human oversight is still vital for security.

If you have feedback about this post, submit comments in the Comments section below. If you have questions about this post, contact AWS Support.

Brendan Jenkins

Brendan Jenkins

Brendan is a Solutions Architect at AWS who works with enterprise customers, providing them with technical guidance and helping them achieve their business goals. He specializes in DevOps and machine learning (ML) technology.

Chris Shea

Chris Shea

Chris is an AWS Solutions Architect serving enterprise customers in the PropTech and AdTech industry verticals, providing guidance and the tools that customers need for success. His areas of interest include AI for DevOps and AI/ML technology.

Tim Manik

Tim Manik

Tim is a Solutions Architect at AWS working with enterprise customers on migrations and modernizations. He specializes in cybersecurity and AI/ML and is passionate about bridging the gap between the two fields.

Angel Tolson

Angel Tolson

Angel is a Solutions Architect at AWS working with small to medium size businesses, providing them with technical guidance and helping them achieve their business goals. She is particularly interested in cloud operations and networking.

AWS Weekly Roundup: Amazon EC2 G6 instances, Mistral Large on Amazon Bedrock, AWS Deadline Cloud, and more (April 8, 2024)

Post Syndicated from Donnie Prakoso original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-mistral-large-aws-clean-rooms-ml-aws-deadline-cloud-and-more-april-8-2024/

We’re just two days away from AWS Summit Sydney (April 10–11) and a month away from the AWS Summit season in Southeast Asia, starting with the AWS Summit Singapore (May 7) and the AWS Summit Bangkok (May 30). If you happen to be in Sydney, Singapore, or Bangkok around those dates, please join us.

Last Week’s Launches
If you haven’t read last week’s Weekly Roundup yet, Channy wrote about the AWS Chips Taste Test, a new initiative from Jeff Barr as part of April’ Fools Day.

Here are some launches that caught my attention last week:

New Amazon EC2 G6 instances — We announced the general availability of Amazon EC2 G6 instances powered by NVIDIA L4 Tensor Core GPUs. G6 instances can be used for a wide range of graphics-intensive and machine learning use cases. G6 instances deliver up to 2x higher performance for deep learning inference and graphics workloads compared to Amazon EC2 G4dn instances. To learn more, visit the Amazon EC2 G6 instance page.

Mistral Large is now available in Amazon Bedrock — Veliswa wrote about the availability of the Mistral Large foundation model, as part of the Amazon Bedrock service. You can use Mistral Large to handle complex tasks that require substantial reasoning capabilities. In addition, Amazon Bedrock is now available in the Paris AWS Region.

Amazon Aurora zero-ETL integration with Amazon Redshift now in additional Regions — Zero-ETL integration announcements were my favourite launches last year. This Zero-ETL integration simplifies the process of transferring data between the two services, allowing customers to move data between Amazon Aurora and Amazon Redshift without the need for manual Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) processes. With this announcement, Zero-ETL integrations between Amazon Aurora and Amazon Redshift is now supported in 11 additional Regions.

Announcing AWS Deadline Cloud — If you’re working in films, TV shows, commercials, games, and industrial design and handling complex rendering management for teams creating 2D and 3D visual assets, then you’ll be excited about AWS Deadline Cloud. This new managed service simplifies the deployment and management of render farms for media and entertainment workloads.

AWS Clean Rooms ML is Now Generally Available — Last year, I wrote about the preview of AWS Clean Rooms ML. In that post, I elaborated a new capability of AWS Clean Rooms that helps you and your partners apply machine learning (ML) models on your collective data without copying or sharing raw data with each other. Now, AWS Clean Rooms ML is available for you to use.

Knowledge Bases for Amazon Bedrock now supports private network policies for OpenSearch Serverless — Here’s exciting news for you who are building with Amazon Bedrock. Now, you can implement Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) with Knowledge Bases for Amazon Bedrock using Amazon OpenSearch Serverless (OSS) collections that have a private network policy.

Amazon EKS extended support for Kubernetes versions now generally available — If you’re running Kubernetes version 1.21 and higher, with this Extended Support for Kubernetes, you can stay up-to-date with the latest Kubernetes features and security improvements on Amazon EKS.

AWS Lambda Adds Support for Ruby 3.3 — Coding in Ruby? Now, AWS Lambda supports Ruby 3.3 as its runtime. This update allows you to take advantage of the latest features and improvements in the Ruby language.

Amazon EventBridge Console Enhancements — The Amazon EventBridge console has been updated with new features and improvements, making it easier for you to manage your event-driven applications with a better user experience.

Private Access to the AWS Management Console in Commercial Regions — If you need to restrict access to personal AWS accounts from the company network, you can use AWS Management Console Private Access. With this launch, you can use AWS Management Console Private Access in all commercial AWS Regions.

From community.aws 
The community.aws is a home for us, builders, to share our learnings with building on AWS. Here’s my Top 3 posts from last week:

Other AWS News 
Here are some additional news items, open-source projects, and Twitch shows that you might find interesting:

Build On Generative AI – Join Tiffany and Darko to learn more about generative AI, see their demos and discuss different aspects of generative AI with the guest speakers. Streaming every Monday on Twitch, 9:00 AM US PT.

AWS open source news and updates – If you’re looking for various open-source projects and tools from the AWS community, please read the AWS open-source newsletter maintained by my colleague, Ricardo.

Upcoming AWS events
Check your calendars and sign up for these AWS events:

AWS Summits – Join free online and in-person events that bring the cloud computing community together to connect, collaborate, and learn about AWS. Register in your nearest city: Amsterdam (April 9), Sydney (April 10–11), London (April 24), Singapore (May 7), Berlin (May 15–16), Seoul (May 16–17), Hong Kong (May 22), Milan (May 23), Dubai (May 29), Thailand (May 30), Stockholm (June 4), and Madrid (June 5).

AWS re:Inforce – Explore cloud security in the age of generative AI at AWS re:Inforce, June 10–12 in Pennsylvania for two-and-a-half days of immersive cloud security learning designed to help drive your business initiatives.

AWS Community Days – Join community-led conferences that feature technical discussions, workshops, and hands-on labs led by expert AWS users and industry leaders from around the world: Poland (April 11), Bay Area (April 12), Kenya (April 20), and Turkey (May 18).

You can browse all upcoming in-person and virtual events.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Weekly Roundup!

— Donnie

This post is part of our Weekly Roundup series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Serverless ICYMI Q1 2024

Post Syndicated from Julian Wood original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/serverless-icymi-q1-2024/

Welcome to the 25th edition of the AWS Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap. Every quarter, we share all the most recent product launches, feature enhancements, blog posts, webinars, live streams, and other interesting things that you might have missed!

In case you missed our last ICYMI, check out what happened last quarter here.

2024 Q1 calendar

2024 Q1 calendar

Adobe Summit

At the Adobe Summit, the AWS Serverless Developer Advocacy team showcased a solution developed for the NFL using AWS serverless technologies and Adobe Photoshop APIs. The system automates image processing tasks, including background removal and dynamic resizing, by integrating AWS Step Functions, AWS Lambda, Amazon EventBridge, and AI/ML capabilities via Amazon Rekognition. This solution reduced image processing time from weeks to minutes and saved the NFL significant costs. Combining cloud-based serverless architectures with advanced machine learning and API technologies can optimize digital workflows for cost-effective and agile digital asset management.

Adobe Summit ServerlessVideo

Adobe Summit ServerlessVideo

ServerlessVideo is a demo application to stream live videos and also perform advanced post-video processing. It uses several AWS services, including Step Functions, Lambda, EventBridge, Amazon ECS, and Amazon Bedrock in a serverless architecture that makes it fast, flexible, and cost-effective. The team used ServerlessVideo to interview attendees about the conference experience and Adobe and partners about how they use Adobe. Learn more about the project and watch videos from Adobe Summit 2024 at video.serverlessland.com.

AWS Lambda

AWS launched support for the latest long-term support release of .NET 8, which includes API enhancements, improved Native Ahead of Time (Native AOT) support, and improved performance.

AWS Lambda .NET 8

AWS Lambda .NET 8

Learn how to compare design approaches for building serverless microservices. This post covers the trade-offs to consider with various application architectures. See how you can apply single responsibility, Lambda-lith, and read and write functions.

The AWS Serverless Java Container has been updated. This makes it easier to modernize a legacy Java application written with frameworks such as Spring, Spring Boot, or JAX-RS/Jersey in Lambda with minimal code changes.

AWS Serverless Java Container

AWS Serverless Java Container

Lambda has improved the responsiveness for configuring Event Source Mappings (ESMs) and Amazon EventBridge Pipes with event sources such as self-managed Apache Kafka, Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (MSK), Amazon DocumentDB, and Amazon MQ.

Chaos engineering is a popular practice for building confidence in system resilience. However, many existing tools assume the ability to alter infrastructure configurations, and cannot be easily applied to the serverless application paradigm. You can use the AWS Fault Injection Service (FIS) to automate and manage chaos experiments across different Lambda functions to provide a reusable testing method.

Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate

Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) now provides managed instance draining as a built-in feature of Amazon ECS capacity providers. This allows Amazon ECS to safely and automatically drain tasks from Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances that are part of an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling Group associated with an Amazon ECS capacity provider. This simplification allows you to remove custom lifecycle hooks previously used to drain Amazon EC2 instances. You can now perform infrastructure updates such as rolling out a new version of the ECS agent by seamlessly using Auto Scaling Group instance refresh, with Amazon ECS ensuring workloads are not interrupted.

Credentials Fetcher makes it easier to run containers that depend on Windows authentication when using Amazon EC2. Credentials Fetcher now integrates with Amazon ECS, using either the Amazon EC2 launch type, or AWS Fargate serverless compute launch type.

Amazon ECS Service Connect is a networking capability to simplify service discovery, connectivity, and traffic observability for Amazon ECS. You can now more easily integrate certificate management to encrypt service-to-service communication using Transport Layer Security (TLS). You do not need to modify your application code, add additional network infrastructure, or operate service mesh solutions.

Amazon ECS Service Connect

Amazon ECS Service Connect

Running distributed machine learning (ML) workloads on Amazon ECS allows ML teams to focus on creating, training and deploying models, rather than spending time managing the container orchestration engine. Amazon ECS provides a great environment to run ML projects as it supports workloads that use NVIDIA GPUs and provides optimized images with pre-installed NVIDIA Kernel drivers and Docker runtime.

See how to build preview environments for Amazon ECS applications with AWS Copilot. AWS Copilot is an open source command line interface that makes it easier to build, release, and operate production ready containerized applications.

Learn techniques for automatic scaling of your Amazon Elastic Container Service  (Amazon ECS) container workloads to enhance the end user experience. This post explains how to use AWS Application Auto Scaling which helps you configure automatic scaling of your Amazon ECS service. You can also use Amazon ECS Service Connect and AWS Distro for OpenTelemetry (ADOT) in Application Auto Scaling.

AWS Step Functions

AWS workloads sometimes require access to data stored in on-premises databases and storage locations. Traditional solutions to establish connectivity to the on-premises resources require inbound rules to firewalls, a VPN tunnel, or public endpoints. Discover how to use the MQTT protocol (AWS IoT Core) with AWS Step Functions to dispatch jobs to on-premises workers to access or retrieve data stored on-premises.

You can use Step Functions to orchestrate many business processes. Many industries are required to provide audit trails for decision and transactional systems. Learn how to build a serverless pipeline to create a reliable, performant, traceable, and durable pipeline for audit processing.

Amazon EventBridge

Amazon EventBridge now supports publishing events to AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs as native targets. The new integration allows you to publish events easily to a wider variety of consumers and simplifies updating clients with near real-time data.

Amazon EventBridge publishing events to AWS AppSync

Amazon EventBridge publishing events to AWS AppSync

Discover how to send and receive CloudEvents with EventBridge. CloudEvents is an open-source specification for describing event data in a common way. You can publish CloudEvents directly to EventBridge, filter and route them, and use input transformers and API Destinations to send CloudEvents to downstream AWS services and third-party APIs.

AWS Application Composer

AWS Application Composer lets you create infrastructure as code templates by dragging and dropping cards on a virtual canvas. These represent CloudFormation resources, which you can wire together to create permissions and references. Application Composer has now expanded to the VS Code IDE as part of the AWS Toolkit. This now includes a generative AI partner that helps you write infrastructure as code (IaC) for all 1100+ AWS CloudFormation resources that Application Composer now supports.

AWS AppComposer generate suggestions

AWS AppComposer generate suggestions

Amazon API Gateway

Learn how to consume private Amazon API Gateway APIs using mutual TLS (mTLS). mTLS helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and protects against threats such as impersonation attempts, data interception, and tampering.

Serverless at AWS re:Invent

Serverless at AWS reInvent

Serverless at AWS reInvent

Visit the Serverless Land YouTube channel to find a list of serverless and serverless container sessions from reinvent 2023. Hear from experts like Chris Munns and Julian Wood in their popular session, Best practices for serverless developers, or Nathan Peck and Jessica Deen in Deploying multi-tenant SaaS applications on Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate.

Serverless blog posts




Serverless container blog posts




Serverless Office Hours

Serverless Office Hours

Serverless Office Hours




Containers from the Couch

Containers from the Couch

Containers from the Couch




FooBar Serverless

FooBar Serverless

FooBar Serverless




Still looking for more?

The Serverless landing page has more information. The Lambda resources page contains case studies, webinars, whitepapers, customer stories, reference architectures, and even more Getting Started tutorials.

You can also follow the Serverless Developer Advocacy team on Twitter to see the latest news, follow conversations, and interact with the team.

And finally, visit the Serverless Land and Containers on AWS websites for all your serverless and serverless container needs.

Sending and receiving CloudEvents with Amazon EventBridge

Post Syndicated from David Boyne original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/sending-and-receiving-cloudevents-with-amazon-eventbridge/

Amazon EventBridge helps developers build event-driven architectures (EDA) by connecting loosely coupled publishers and consumers using event routing, filtering, and transformation. CloudEvents is an open-source specification for describing event data in a common way. Developers can publish CloudEvents directly to EventBridge, filter and route them, and use input transformers and API Destinations to send CloudEvents to downstream AWS services and third-party APIs.


Event design is an important aspect in any event-driven architecture. Developers building event-driven architectures often overlook the event design process when building their architectures. This leads to unwanted side effects like exposing implementation details, lack of standards, and version incompatibility.

Without event standards, it can be difficult to integrate events or streams of messages between systems, brokers, and organizations. Each system has to understand the event structure or rely on custom-built solutions for versioning or validation.

CloudEvents is a specification for describing event data in common formats to provide interoperability between services, platforms, and systems using Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) projects. As CloudEvents is a CNCF graduated project, many third-party brokers and systems adopt this specification.

Using CloudEvents as a standard format to describe events makes integration easier and you can use open-source tooling to help build event-driven architectures and future proof any integrations. EventBridge can route and filter CloudEvents based on common metadata, without needing to understand the business logic within the event itself.

CloudEvents support two implementation modes, structured mode and binary mode, and a range of protocols including HTTP, MQTT, AMQP, and Kafka. When publishing events to an EventBridge bus, you can structure events as CloudEvents and route them to downstream consumers. You can use input transformers to transform any event into the CloudEvents specification. Events can also be forwarded to public APIs, using EventBridge API destinations, which supports both structured and binary mode encodings, enhancing interoperability with external systems.

Standardizing events using Amazon EventBridge

When publishing events to an EventBridge bus, EventBridge uses its own event envelope and represents events as JSON objects. EventBridge requires that you define top-level fields, such as detail-type and source. You can use any event/payload in the detail field.

This example event shows an OrderPlaced event from the orders-service that is unstructured without any event standards. The data within the event contains the order_id, customer_id and order_total.

  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c57",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T11:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"

Publishers may also choose to add an additional metadata field along with the data field within the detail field to help define a set of standards for their events.

  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "metadata": {
      "idempotency_key": "29d2b068-f9c7-42a0-91e3-5ba515de5dbe",
      "correlation_id": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",
      "domain": "ORDERS",
      "time": "1707908605"
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"

This additional event information helps downstream consumers, improves debugging, and can manage idempotency. While this approach offers practical benefits, it duplicates solutions that are already solved with the CloudEvents specification.

Publishing CloudEvents using Amazon EventBridge

When publishing events to EventBridge, you can use CloudEvents structured mode. A structured-mode message is where the entire event (attributes and data) is encoded in the message body, according to a specific event format. A binary-mode message is where the event data is stored in the message body, and event attributes are stored as part of the message metadata.

CloudEvents has a list of required fields but also offers flexibility with optional attributes and extensions. CloudEvents also offers a solution to implement idempotency, requiring that the combination of id and source must uniquely identify an event, which can be used as the idempotency key in downstream implementations.

  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2023-05-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "specversion": "1.0",
    "id": "bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61",
    "source": "myapp.orders-service",
    "type": "OrderPlaced",
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    "time": "2024-01-01T17:31:00Z",
    "dataschema": "https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced",
    "correlationid": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",
    "domain": "ORDERS"

By incorporating the required fields, the OrderPlaced event is now CloudEvents compliant. The event also contains optional and extension fields for additional information. Optional fields such as dataschema can be useful for brokers and consumers to retrieve a URI path to the published event schema. This example event references the schema in the EventBridge schema registry, so downstream consumers can fetch the schema to validate the payload.

Mapping existing events into CloudEvents using input transformers

When you define a target in EventBridge, input transformations allow you to modify the event before it reaches its destination. Input transformers are configured per target, allowing you to convert events when your downstream consumer requires the CloudEvents format and you want to avoid duplicating information.

Input transformers allow you to map EventBridge fields, such as id, region, detail-type, and source, into corresponding CloudEvents attributes.

This example shows how to transform any EventBridge event into CloudEvents format using input transformers, so the target receives the required structure.

  "version": "0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "account": "1234567890",
  "time": "2024-01-23T12:38:46Z",
  "region": "us-east-1",
  "detail-type": "OrderPlaced",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "resources": [],
  "detail": {
    "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
    "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
    "order_total": "120.00"

Using this input transformer and input template EventBridge transforms the event schema into the CloudEvents specification for downstream consumers.

Input transformer for CloudEvents:

  "id": "$.id",
  "source": "$.source",
  "type": "$.detail-type",
  "time": "$.time",
  "data": "$.detail"

Input template for CloudEvents:

  "specversion": "1.0",
  "id": "<id>",
  "source": "<source>",
  "type": "<type>",
  "time": "<time>",
  "data": <data>

This example shows the event payload that is received by downstream targets, which is mapped to the CloudEvents specification.

  "specversion": "1.0",
  "id": "dbc1c73a-c51d-0c0e-ca61-ab9278974c58",
  "source": "myapp.orders-service",
  "type": "OrderPlaced",
  "time": "2024-01-23T12:38:46Z",
  "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"

For more information on using input transformers with CloudEvents, see this pattern on Serverless Land.

Transforming events into CloudEvents using API destinations

EventBridge API destinations allows you to trigger HTTP endpoints based on matched rules to integrate with third-party systems using public APIs. You can route events to APIs that support the CloudEvents format by using input transformations and custom HTTP headers to convert EventBridge events to CloudEvents. API destinations now supports custom content-type headers. This allows you to send structured or binary CloudEvents to downstream consumers.

Sending binary CloudEvents using API destinations

When sending binary CloudEvents over HTTP, you must use the HTTP binding specification and set the necessary CloudEvents headers. These headers tell the downstream consumer that the incoming payload uses the CloudEvents format. The body of the request is the event itself.

CloudEvents headers are prefixed with ce-. You can find the list of headers in the HTTP protocol binding documentation.

This example shows the Headers for a binary event:

POST /order HTTP/1.1 
Host: webhook.example.com
ce-specversion: 1.0
ce-type: OrderPlaced
ce-source: myapp.orders-service
ce-id: bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61
ce-time: 2024-01-01T17:31:00Z
ce-dataschema: https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced
correlationid: dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222
domain: ORDERS
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8

This example shows the body for a binary event:

  "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
  "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
  "order_total": "120.00"

For more information when using binary CloudEvents with API destinations, explore this pattern available on Serverless Land.

Sending structured CloudEvents using API destinations

To support structured mode with CloudEvents, you must specify the content-type as application/cloudevents+json; charset=UTF-8, which tells the API consumer that the payload of the event is adhering to the CloudEvents specification.

POST /order HTTP/1.1
Host: webhook.example.com
Content-Type: application/cloudevents+json; charset=utf-8
    "specversion": "1.0",
    "id": "bba4379f-b764-4d90-9fb2-9f572b2b0b61",
    "source": "myapp.orders-service",
    "type": "OrderPlaced",      
    "data": {
      "order_id": "c172a984-3ae5-43dc-8c3f-be080141845a",
      "customer_id": "dda98122-b511-4aaf-9465-77ca4a115ee6",
      "order_total": "120.00"
    "time": "2024-01-01T17:31:00Z",
    "dataschema": "https://us-west-2.console.aws.amazon.com/events/home?region=us-west-2#/registries/discovered-schemas/schemas/myapp.orders-service%40OrderPlaced",
    "correlationid": "dddd9340-135a-c8c6-95c2-41fb8f492222",


Carefully designing events plays an important role when building event-driven architectures to integrate producers and consumers effectively. The open-source CloudEvents specification helps developers to standardize integration processes, simplifying interactions between internal systems and external partners.

EventBridge allows you to use a flexible payload structure within an event’s detail property to standardize events. You can publish structured CloudEvents directly onto an event bus in the detail field and use payload transformations to allow downstream consumers to receive events in the CloudEvents format.

EventBridge simplifies integration with third-party systems using API destinations. Using the new custom content-type headers with input transformers to modify the event structure, you can send structured or binary CloudEvents to integrate with public APIs.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Gain insights from historical location data using Amazon Location Service and AWS analytics services

Post Syndicated from Alan Peaty original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/gain-insights-from-historical-location-data-using-amazon-location-service-and-aws-analytics-services/

Many organizations around the world rely on the use of physical assets, such as vehicles, to deliver a service to their end-customers. By tracking these assets in real time and storing the results, asset owners can derive valuable insights on how their assets are being used to continuously deliver business improvements and plan for future changes. For example, a delivery company operating a fleet of vehicles may need to ascertain the impact from local policy changes outside of their control, such as the announced expansion of an Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ). By combining historical vehicle location data with information from other sources, the company can devise empirical approaches for better decision-making. For example, the company’s procurement team can use this information to make decisions about which vehicles to prioritize for replacement before policy changes go into effect.

Developers can use the support in Amazon Location Service for publishing device position updates to Amazon EventBridge to build a near-real-time data pipeline that stores locations of tracked assets in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Additionally, you can use AWS Lambda to enrich incoming location data with data from other sources, such as an Amazon DynamoDB table containing vehicle maintenance details. Then a data analyst can use the geospatial querying capabilities of Amazon Athena to gain insights, such as the number of days their vehicles have operated in the proposed boundaries of an expanded ULEZ. Because vehicles that do not meet ULEZ emissions standards are subjected to a daily charge to operate within the zone, you can use the location data, along with maintenance data such as age of the vehicle, current mileage, and current emissions standards to estimate the amount the company would have to spend on daily fees.

This post shows how you can use Amazon Location, EventBridge, Lambda, Amazon Data Firehose, and Amazon S3 to build a location-aware data pipeline, and use this data to drive meaningful insights using AWS Glue and Athena.

Overview of solution

This is a fully serverless solution for location-based asset management. The solution consists of the following interfaces:

  • IoT or mobile application – A mobile application or an Internet of Things (IoT) device allows the tracking of a company vehicle while it is in use and transmits its current location securely to the data ingestion layer in AWS. The ingestion approach is not in scope of this post. Instead, a Lambda function in our solution simulates sample vehicle journeys and directly updates Amazon Location tracker objects with randomized locations.
  • Data analytics – Business analysts gather operational insights from multiple data sources, including the location data collected from the vehicles. Data analysts are looking for answers to questions such as, “How long did a given vehicle historically spend inside a proposed zone, and how much would the fees have cost had the policy been in place over the past 12 months?”

The following diagram illustrates the solution architecture.
Architecture diagram

The workflow consists of the following key steps:

  1. The tracking functionality of Amazon Location is used to track the vehicle. Using EventBridge integration, filtered positional updates are published to an EventBridge event bus. This solution uses distance-based filtering to reduce costs and jitter. Distanced-based filtering ignores location updates in which devices have moved less than 30 meters (98.4 feet).
  2. Amazon Location device position events arrive on the EventBridge default bus with source: ["aws.geo"] and detail-type: ["Location Device Position Event"]. One rule is created to forward these events to two downstream targets: a Lambda function, and a Firehose delivery stream.
  3. Two different patterns, based on each target, are described in this post to demonstrate different approaches to committing the data to a S3 bucket:
    1. Lambda function – The first approach uses a Lambda function to demonstrate how you can use code in the data pipeline to directly transform the incoming location data. You can modify the Lambda function to fetch additional vehicle information from a separate data store (for example, a DynamoDB table or a Customer Relationship Management system) to enrich the data, before storing the results in an S3 bucket. In this model, the Lambda function is invoked for each incoming event.
    2. Firehose delivery stream – The second approach uses a Firehose delivery stream to buffer and batch the incoming positional updates, before storing them in an S3 bucket without modification. This method uses GZIP compression to optimize storage consumption and query performance. You can also use the data transformation feature of Data Firehose to invoke a Lambda function to perform data transformation in batches.
  4. AWS Glue crawls both S3 bucket paths, populates the AWS Glue database tables based on the inferred schemas, and makes the data available to other analytics applications through the AWS Glue Data Catalog.
  5. Athena is used to run geospatial queries on the location data stored in the S3 buckets. The Data Catalog provides metadata that allows analytics applications using Athena to find, read, and process the location data stored in Amazon S3.
  6. This solution includes a Lambda function that continuously updates the Amazon Location tracker with simulated location data from fictitious journeys. The Lambda function is triggered at regular intervals using a scheduled EventBridge rule.

You can test this solution yourself using the AWS Samples GitHub repository. The repository contains the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) template and Lambda code required to try out this solution. Refer to the instructions in the README file for steps on how to provision and decommission this solution.

Visual layouts in some screenshots in this post may look different than those on your AWS Management Console.

Data generation

In this section, we discuss the steps to manually or automatically generate journey data.

Manually generate journey data

You can manually update device positions using the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) command aws location batch-update-device-position. Replace the tracker-name, device-id, Position, and SampleTime values with your own, and make sure that successive updates are more than 30 meters in distance apart to place an event on the default EventBridge event bus:

aws location batch-update-device-position --tracker-name <tracker-name> --updates "[{\"DeviceId\": \"<device-id>\", \"Position\": [<longitude>, <latitude>], \"SampleTime\": \"<YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ>\"}]"

Automatically generate journey data using the simulator

The provided AWS CloudFormation template deploys an EventBridge scheduled rule and an accompanying Lambda function that simulates tracker updates from vehicles. This rule is enabled by default, and runs at a frequency specified by the SimulationIntervalMinutes CloudFormation parameter. The data generation Lambda function updates the Amazon Location tracker with a randomized position offset from the vehicles’ base locations.

Vehicle names and base locations are stored in the vehicles.json file. A vehicle’s starting position is reset each day, and base locations have been chosen to give them the ability to drift in and out of the ULEZ on a given day to provide a realistic journey simulation.

You can disable the rule temporarily by navigating to the scheduled rule details on the EventBridge console. Alternatively, change the parameter State: ENABLED to State: DISABLED for the scheduled rule resource GenerateDevicePositionsScheduleRule in the template.yml file. Rebuild and re-deploy the AWS SAM template for this change to take effect.

Location data pipeline approaches

The configurations outlined in this section are deployed automatically by the provided AWS SAM template. The information in this section is provided to describe the pertinent parts of the solution.

Amazon Location device position events

Amazon Location sends device position update events to EventBridge in the following format:

    "detail-type":"Location Device Position Event",

You can optionally specify an input transformation to modify the format and contents of the device position event data before it reaches the target.

Data enrichment using Lambda

Data enrichment in this pattern is facilitated through the invocation of a Lambda function. In this example, we call this function ProcessDevicePosition, and use a Python runtime. A custom transformation is applied in the EventBridge target definition to receive the event data in the following format:


You could apply additional transformations, such as the refactoring of Latitude and Longitude data into separate key-value pairs if this is required by the downstream business logic processing the events.

The following code demonstrates the Python application logic that is run by the ProcessDevicePosition Lambda function. Error handling has been skipped in this code snippet for brevity. The full code is available in the GitHub repo.

import json
import os
import uuid
import boto3

# Import environment variables from Lambda function.
bucket_name = os.environ["S3_BUCKET_NAME"]
bucket_prefix = os.environ["S3_BUCKET_LAMBDA_PREFIX"]

s3 = boto3.client("s3")

def lambda_handler(event, context):
    key = "%s/%s/%s-%s.json" % (bucket_prefix,
    body = json.dumps(event, separators=(",", ":"))
    body_encoded = body.encode("utf-8")
    s3.put_object(Bucket=bucket_name, Key=key, Body=body_encoded)
    return {
        "statusCode": 200,
        "body": "success"

The preceding code creates an S3 object for each device position event received by EventBridge. The code uses the DeviceId as a prefix to write the objects to the bucket.

You can add additional logic to the preceding Lambda function code to enrich the event data using other sources. The example in the GitHub repo demonstrates enriching the event with data from a DynamoDB vehicle maintenance table.

In addition to the prerequisite AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions provided by the role AWSBasicLambdaExecutionRole, the ProcessDevicePosition function requires permissions to perform the S3 put_object action and any other actions required by the data enrichment logic. IAM permissions required by the solution are documented in the template.yml file.


Data pipeline using Amazon Data Firehose

Complete the following steps to create your Firehose delivery stream:

  1. On the Amazon Data Firehose console, choose Firehose streams in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Create Firehose stream.
  3. For Source, choose as Direct PUT.
  4. For Destination, choose Amazon S3.
  5. For Firehose stream name, enter a name (for this post, ProcessDevicePositionFirehose).
    Create Firehose stream
  6. Configure the destination settings with details about the S3 bucket in which the location data is stored, along with the partitioning strategy:
    1. Use <S3_BUCKET_NAME> and <S3_BUCKET_FIREHOSE_PREFIX> to determine the bucket and object prefixes.
    2. Use DeviceId as an additional prefix to write the objects to the bucket.
  7. Enable Dynamic partitioning and New line delimiter to make sure partitioning is automatic based on DeviceId, and that new line delimiters are added between records in objects that are delivered to Amazon S3.

These are required by AWS Glue to later crawl the data, and for Athena to recognize individual records.
Destination settings for Firehose stream

Create an EventBridge rule and attach targets

The EventBridge rule ProcessDevicePosition defines two targets: the ProcessDevicePosition Lambda function, and the ProcessDevicePositionFirehose delivery stream. Complete the following steps to create the rule and attach targets:

  1. On the EventBridge console, create a new rule.
  2. For Name, enter a name (for this post, ProcessDevicePosition).
  3. For Event bus¸ choose default.
  4. For Rule type¸ select Rule with an event pattern.
    EventBridge rule detail
  5. For Event source, select AWS events or EventBridge partner events.
    EventBridge event source
  6. For Method, select Use pattern form.
  7. In the Event pattern section, specify AWS services as the source, Amazon Location Service as the specific service, and Location Device Position Event as the event type.
    EventBridge creation method
  8. For Target 1, attach the ProcessDevicePosition Lambda function as a target.
    EventBridge target 1
  9. We use Input transformer to customize the event that is committed to the S3 bucket.
    EventBridge target 1 transformer
  10. Configure Input paths map and Input template to organize the payload into the desired format.
    1. The following code is the input paths map:
          EventType: $.detail.EventType
          TrackerName: $.detail.TrackerName
          DeviceId: $.detail.DeviceId
          SampleTime: $.detail.SampleTime
          ReceivedTime: $.detail.ReceivedTime
          Longitude: $.detail.Position[0]
          Latitude: $.detail.Position[1]

    2. The following code is the input template:
          "Position":[<Longitude>, <Latitude>]

  11. For Target 2, choose the ProcessDevicePositionFirehose delivery stream as a target.
    EventBridge target 2

This target requires an IAM role that allows one or multiple records to be written to the Firehose delivery stream:

    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
            "Action": [
            "Resource": [
            "Effect": "Allow"

Crawl and catalog the data using AWS Glue

After sufficient data has been generated, complete the following steps:

  1. On the AWS Glue console, choose Crawlers in the navigation pane.
  2. Select the crawlers that have been created, location-analytics-glue-crawler-lambda and location-analytics-glue-crawler-firehose.
  3. Choose Run.

The crawlers will automatically classify the data into JSON format, group the records into tables and partitions, and commit associated metadata to the AWS Glue Data Catalog.

  1. When the Last run statuses of both crawlers show as Succeeded, confirm that two tables (lambda and firehose) have been created on the Tables page.

The solution partitions the incoming location data based on the deviceid field. Therefore, as long as there are no new devices or schema changes, the crawlers don’t need to run again. However, if new devices are added, or a different field is used for partitioning, the crawlers need to run again.

You’re now ready to query the tables using Athena.

Query the data using Athena

Athena is a serverless, interactive analytics service built to analyze unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data where it is hosted. If this is your first time using the Athena console, follow the instructions to set up a query result location in Amazon S3. To query the data with Athena, complete the following steps:

  1. On the Athena console, open the query editor.
  2. For Data source, choose AwsDataCatalog.
  3. For Database, choose location-analytics-glue-database.
  4. On the options menu (three vertical dots), choose Preview Table to query the content of both tables.
    Preview table

The query displays 10 sample positional records currently stored in the table. The following screenshot is an example from previewing the firehose table. The firehose table stores raw, unmodified data from the Amazon Location tracker.
Query results
You can now experiment with geospatial queries.The GeoJSON file for the 2021 London ULEZ expansion is part of the repository, and has already been converted into a query compatible with both Athena tables.

  1. Copy and paste the content from the 1-firehose-athena-ulez-2021-create-view.sql file found in the examples/firehose folder into the query editor.

This query uses the ST_Within geospatial function to determine if a recorded position is inside or outside the ULEZ zone defined by the polygon. A new view called ulezvehicleanalysis_firehose is created with a new column, insidezone, which captures whether the recorded position exists within the zone.

A simple Python utility is provided, which converts the polygon features found in the downloaded GeoJSON file into ST_Polygon strings based on the well-known text format that can be used directly in an Athena query.

  1. Choose Preview View on the ulezvehicleanalysis_firehose view to explore its content.
    Preview view

You can now run queries against this view to gain overarching insights.

  1. Copy and paste the content from the 2-firehose-athena-ulez-2021-query-days-in-zone.sql file found in the examples/firehose folder into the query editor.

This query establishes the total number of days each vehicle has entered ULEZ, and what the expected total charges would be. The query has been parameterized using the ? placeholder character. Parameterized queries allow you to rerun the same query with different parameter values.

  1. Enter the daily fee amount for Parameter 1, then run the query.
    Query editor

The results display each vehicle, the total number of days spent in the proposed ULEZ, and the total charges based on the daily fee you entered.
Query results
You can repeat this exercise using the lambda table. Data in the lambda table is augmented with additional vehicle details present in the vehicle maintenance DynamoDB table at the time it is processed by the Lambda function. The solution supports the following fields:

  • MeetsEmissionStandards (Boolean)
  • Mileage (Number)
  • PurchaseDate (String, in YYYY-MM-DD format)

You can also enrich the new data as it arrives.

  1. On the DynamoDB console, find the vehicle maintenance table under Tables. The table name is provided as output VehicleMaintenanceDynamoTable in the deployed CloudFormation stack.
  2. Choose Explore table items to view the content of the table.
  3. Choose Create item to create a new record for a vehicle.
    Create item
  4. Enter DeviceId (such as vehicle1 as a String), PurchaseDate (such as 2005-10-01 as a String), Mileage (such as 10000 as a Number), and MeetsEmissionStandards (with a value such as False as Boolean).
  5. Choose Create item to create the record.
    Create item
  6. Duplicate the newly created record with additional entries for other vehicles (such as for vehicle2 or vehicle3), modifying the values of the attributes slightly each time.
  7. Rerun the location-analytics-glue-crawler-lambda AWS Glue crawler after new data has been generated to confirm that the update to the schema with new fields is registered.
  8. Copy and paste the content from the 1-lambda-athena-ulez-2021-create-view.sql file found in the examples/lambda folder into the query editor.
  9. Preview the ulezvehicleanalysis_lambda view to confirm that the new columns have been created.

If errors such as Column 'mileage' cannot be resolved are displayed, the data enrichment is not taking place, or the AWS Glue crawler has not yet detected updates to the schema.

If the Preview table option is only returning results from before you created records in the DynamoDB table, return the query results in descending order using sampletime (for example, order by sampletime desc limit 100;).
Query results
Now we focus on the vehicles that don’t currently meet emissions standards, and order the vehicles in descending order based on the mileage per year (calculated using the latest mileage / age of vehicle in years).

  1. Copy and paste the content from the 2-lambda-athena-ulez-2021-query-days-in-zone.sql file found in the examples/lambda folder into the query editor.
    Query results

In this example, we can see that out of our fleet of vehicles, five have been reported as not meeting emission standards. We can also see the vehicles that have accumulated high mileage per year, and the number of days spent in the proposed ULEZ. The fleet operator may now decide to prioritize these vehicles for replacement. Because location data is enriched with the most up-to-date vehicle maintenance data at the time it is ingested, you can further evolve these queries to run over a defined time window. For example, you could factor in mileage changes within the past year.

Due to the dynamic nature of the data enrichment, any new data being committed to Amazon S3, along with the query results, will be altered as and when records are updated in the DynamoDB vehicle maintenance table.

Clean up

Refer to the instructions in the README file to clean up the resources provisioned for this solution.


This post demonstrated how you can use Amazon Location, EventBridge, Lambda, Amazon Data Firehose, and Amazon S3 to build a location-aware data pipeline, and use the collected device position data to drive analytical insights using AWS Glue and Athena. By tracking these assets in real time and storing the results, companies can derive valuable insights on how effectively their fleets are being utilized and better react to changes in the future. You can now explore extending this sample code with your own device tracking data and analytics requirements.

About the Authors

Alan Peaty is a Senior Partner Solutions Architect at AWS. Alan helps Global Systems Integrators (GSIs) and Global Independent Software Vendors (GISVs) solve complex customer challenges using AWS services. Prior to joining AWS, Alan worked as an architect at systems integrators to translate business requirements into technical solutions. Outside of work, Alan is an IoT enthusiast and a keen runner who loves to hit the muddy trails of the English countryside.

Parag Srivastava is a Solutions Architect at AWS, helping enterprise customers with successful cloud adoption and migration. During his professional career, he has been extensively involved in complex digital transformation projects. He is also passionate about building innovative solutions around geospatial aspects of addresses.

Top Architecture Blog Posts of 2023

Post Syndicated from Andrea Courtright original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/architecture/top-architecture-blog-posts-of-2023/

2023 was a rollercoaster year in tech, and we at the AWS Architecture Blog feel so fortunate to have shared in the excitement. As we move into 2024 and all of the new technologies we could see, we want to take a moment to highlight the brightest stars from 2023.

As always, thanks to our readers and to the many talented and hardworking Solutions Architects and other contributors to our blog.

I give you our 2023 cream of the crop!

#10: Build a serverless retail solution for endless aisle on AWS

In this post, Sandeep and Shashank help retailers and their customers alike in this guided approach to finding inventory that doesn’t live on shelves.

Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Figure 1. Building endless aisle architecture for order processing

Check it out!

#9: Optimizing data with automated intelligent document processing solutions

Who else dreads wading through large amounts of data in multiple formats? Just me? I didn’t think so. Using Amazon AI/ML and content-reading services, Deependra, Anirudha, Bhajandeep, and Senaka have created a solution that is scalable and cost-effective to help you extract the data you need and store it in a format that works for you.

AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Figure 2: AI-based intelligent document processing engine

Check it out!

#8: Disaster Recovery Solutions with AWS managed services, Part 3: Multi-Site Active/Passive

Disaster recovery posts are always popular, and this post by Brent and Dhruv is no exception. Their creative approach in part 3 of this series is most helpful for customers who have business-critical workloads with higher availability requirements.

Warm standby with managed services

Figure 3. Warm standby with managed services

Check it out!

#7: Simulating Kubernetes-workload AZ failures with AWS Fault Injection Simulator

Continuing with the theme of “when bad things happen,” we have Siva, Elamaran, and Re’s post about preparing for workload failures. If resiliency is a concern (and it really should be), the secret is test, test, TEST.

Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Figure 4. Architecture flow for Microservices to simulate a realistic failure scenario

Check it out!

#6: Let’s Architect! Designing event-driven architectures

Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira weren’t content with their four top-10 spots last year – they’re back with some things you definitely need to know about event-driven architectures.

Let's Architect

Figure 5. Let’s Architect artwork

Check it out!

#5: Use a reusable ETL framework in your AWS lake house architecture

As your lake house increases in size and complexity, you could find yourself facing maintenance challenges, and Ashutosh and Prantik have a solution: frameworks! The reusable ETL template with AWS Glue templates might just save you a headache or three.

Reusable ETL framework architecture

Figure 6. Reusable ETL framework architecture

Check it out!

#4: Invoking asynchronous external APIs with AWS Step Functions

It’s possible that AWS’ menagerie of services doesn’t have everything you need to run your organization. (Possible, but not likely; we have a lot of amazing services.) If you are using third-party APIs, then Jorge, Hossam, and Shirisha’s architecture can help you maintain a secure, reliable, and cost-effective relationship among all involved.

Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Figure 7. Invoking Asynchronous External APIs architecture

Check it out!

#3: Announcing updates to the AWS Well-Architected Framework

The Well-Architected Framework continues to help AWS customers evaluate their architectures against its six pillars. They are constantly striving for improvement, and Haleh’s diligence in keeping us up to date has not gone unnoticed. Thank you, Haleh!

Well-Architected logo

Figure 8. Well-Architected logo

Check it out!

#2: Let’s Architect! Designing architectures for multi-tenancy

The practically award-winning Let’s Architect! series strikes again! This time, Luca, Laura, Vittorio, and Zamira were joined by Federica to discuss multi-tenancy and why that concept is so crucial for SaaS providers.

Let's Architect

Figure 9. Let’s Architect

Check it out!

And finally…

#1: Understand resiliency patterns and trade-offs to architect efficiently in the cloud

Haresh, Lewis, and Bonnie revamped this 2022 post into a masterpiece that completely stole our readers’ hearts and is among the top posts we’ve ever made!

Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Figure 10. Resilience patterns and trade-offs

Check it out!

Bonus! Three older special mentions

These three posts were published before 2023, but we think they deserve another round of applause because you, our readers, keep coming back to them.

Thanks again to everyone for their contributions during a wild year. We hope you’re looking forward to the rest of 2024 as much as we are!

Enhance container software supply chain visibility through SBOM export with Amazon Inspector and QuickSight

Post Syndicated from Jason Ng original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/enhance-container-software-supply-chain-visibility-through-sbom-export-with-amazon-inspector-and-quicksight/

In this post, I’ll show how you can export software bills of materials (SBOMs) for your containers by using an AWS native service, Amazon Inspector, and visualize the SBOMs through Amazon QuickSight, providing a single-pane-of-glass view of your organization’s software supply chain.

The concept of a bill of materials (BOM) originated in the manufacturing industry in the early 1960s. It was used to keep track of the quantities of each material used to manufacture a completed product. If parts were found to be defective, engineers could then use the BOM to identify products that contained those parts. An SBOM extends this concept to software development, allowing engineers to keep track of vulnerable software packages and quickly remediate the vulnerabilities.

Today, most software includes open source components. A Synopsys study, Walking the Line: GitOps and Shift Left Security, shows that 8 in 10 organizations reported using open source software in their applications. Consider a scenario in which you specify an open source base image in your Dockerfile but don’t know what packages it contains. Although this practice can significantly improve developer productivity and efficiency, the decreased visibility makes it more difficult for your organization to manage risk effectively.

It’s important to track the software components and their versions that you use in your applications, because a single affected component used across multiple organizations could result in a major security impact. According to a Gartner report titled Gartner Report for SBOMs: Key Takeaways You Should know, by 2025, 60 percent of organizations building or procuring critical infrastructure software will mandate and standardize SBOMs in their software engineering practice, up from less than 20 percent in 2022. This will help provide much-needed visibility into software supply chain security.

Integrating SBOM workflows into the software development life cycle is just the first step—visualizing SBOMs and being able to search through them quickly is the next step. This post describes how to process the generated SBOMs and visualize them with Amazon QuickSight. AWS also recently added SBOM export capability in Amazon Inspector, which offers the ability to export SBOMs for Amazon Inspector monitored resources, including container images.

Why is vulnerability scanning not enough?

Scanning and monitoring vulnerable components that pose cybersecurity risks is known as vulnerability scanning, and is fundamental to organizations for ensuring a strong and solid security posture. Scanners usually rely on a database of known vulnerabilities, the most common being the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) database.

Identifying vulnerable components with a scanner can prevent an engineer from deploying affected applications into production. You can embed scanning into your continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines so that images with known vulnerabilities don’t get pushed into your image repository. However, what if a new vulnerability is discovered but has not been added to the CVE records yet? A good example of this is the Apache Log4j vulnerability, which was first disclosed on Nov 24, 2021 and only added as a CVE on Dec 1, 2021. This means that for 7 days, scanners that relied on the CVE system weren’t able to identify affected components within their organizations. This issue is known as a zero-day vulnerability. Being able to quickly identify vulnerable software components in your applications in such situations would allow you to assess the risk and come up with a mitigation plan without waiting for a vendor or supplier to provide a patch.

In addition, it’s also good hygiene for your organization to track usage of software packages, which provides visibility into your software supply chain. This can improve collaboration between developers, operations, and security teams, because they’ll have a common view of every software component and can collaborate effectively to address security threats.

In this post, I present a solution that uses the new Amazon Inspector feature to export SBOMs from container images, process them, and visualize the data in QuickSight. This gives you the ability to search through your software inventory on a dashboard and to use natural language queries through QuickSight Q, in order to look for vulnerabilities.

Solution overview

Figure 1 shows the architecture of the solution. It is fully serverless, meaning there is no underlying infrastructure you need to manage. This post uses a newly released feature within Amazon Inspector that provides the ability to export a consolidated SBOM for Amazon Inspector monitored resources across your organization in commonly used formats, including CycloneDx and SPDX.

Figure 1: Solution architecture diagram

Figure 1: Solution architecture diagram

The workflow in Figure 1 is as follows:

  1. The image is pushed into Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR), which sends an Amazon EventBridge event.
  2. This invokes an AWS Lambda function, which starts the SBOM generation job for the specific image.
  3. When the job completes, Amazon Inspector deposits the SBOM file in an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket.
  4. Another Lambda function is invoked whenever a new JSON file is deposited. The function performs the data transformation steps and uploads the new file into a new S3 bucket.
  5. Amazon Athena is then used to perform preliminary data exploration.
  6. A dashboard on Amazon QuickSight displays SBOM data.

Implement the solution

This section describes how to deploy the solution architecture.

In this post, you’ll perform the following tasks:

  • Create S3 buckets and AWS KMS keys to store the SBOMs
  • Create an Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) repository
  • Deploy two AWS Lambda functions to initiate the SBOM generation and transformation
  • Set up Amazon EventBridge rules to invoke Lambda functions upon image push into Amazon ECR
  • Run AWS Glue crawlers to crawl the transformed SBOM S3 bucket
  • Run Amazon Athena queries to review SBOM data
  • Create QuickSight dashboards to identify libraries and packages
  • Use QuickSight Q to identify libraries and packages by using natural language queries

Deploy the CloudFormation stack

The AWS CloudFormation template we’ve provided provisions the S3 buckets that are required for the storage of raw SBOMs and transformed SBOMs, the Lambda functions necessary to initiate and process the SBOMs, and EventBridge rules to run the Lambda functions based on certain events. An empty repository is provisioned as part of the stack, but you can also use your own repository.

To deploy the CloudFormation stack

  1. Download the CloudFormation template.
  2. Browse to the CloudFormation service in your AWS account and choose Create Stack.
  3. Upload the CloudFormation template you downloaded earlier.
  4. For the next step, Specify stack details, enter a stack name.
  5. You can keep the default value of sbom-inspector for EnvironmentName.
  6. Specify the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the user or role to be the admin for the KMS key.
  7. Deploy the stack.

Set up Amazon Inspector

If this is the first time you’re using Amazon Inspector, you need to activate the service. In the Getting started with Amazon Inspector topic in the Amazon Inspector User Guide, follow Step 1 to activate the service. This will take some time to complete.

Figure 2: Activate Amazon Inspector

Figure 2: Activate Amazon Inspector

SBOM invocation and processing Lambda functions

This solution uses two Lambda functions written in Python to perform the invocation task and the transformation task.

  • Invocation task — This function is run whenever a new image is pushed into Amazon ECR. It takes in the repository name and image tag variables and passes those into the create_sbom_export function in the SPDX format. This prevents duplicated SBOMs, which helps to keep the S3 data size small.
  • Transformation task — This function is run whenever a new file with the suffix .json is added to the raw S3 bucket. It creates two files, as follows:
    1. It extracts information such as image ARN, account number, package, package version, operating system, and SHA from the SBOM and exports this data to the transformed S3 bucket under a folder named sbom/.
    2. Because each package can have more than one CVE, this function also extracts the CVE from each package and stores it in the same bucket in a directory named cve/. Both files are exported in Apache Parquet so that the file is in a format that is optimized for queries by Amazon Athena.

Populate the AWS Glue Data Catalog

To populate the AWS Glue Data Catalog, you need to generate the SBOM files by using the Lambda functions that were created earlier.

To populate the AWS Glue Data Catalog

  1. You can use an existing image, or you can continue on to create a sample image.
  2. Open an AWS Cloudshell terminal.
  3. Run the follow commands
    # Pull the nginx image from a public repo
    docker pull public.ecr.aws/nginx/nginx:1.19.10-alpine-perl
    docker tag public.ecr.aws/nginx/nginx:1.19.10-alpine-perl <ACCOUNT-ID>.dkr.ecr.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/sbom-inspector:nginxperl
    # Authenticate to ECR, fill in your account id
    aws ecr get-login-password --region us-east-1 | docker login --username AWS --password-stdin <ACCOUNT-ID>.dkr.ecr.us-east-1.amazonaws.com
    # Push the image into ECR
    docker push <ACCOUNT-ID>.dkr.ecr.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/sbom-inspector:nginxperl

  4. An image is pushed into the Amazon ECR repository in your account. This invokes the Lambda functions that perform the SBOM export by using Amazon Inspector and converts the SBOM file to Parquet.
  5. Verify that the Parquet files are in the transformed S3 bucket:
    1. Browse to the S3 console and choose the bucket named sbom-inspector-<ACCOUNT-ID>-transformed. You can also track the invocation of each Lambda function in the Amazon CloudWatch log console.
    2. After the transformation step is complete, you will see two folders (cve/ and sbom/)in the transformed S3 bucket. Choose the sbom folder. You will see the transformed Parquet file in it. If there are CVEs present, a similar file will appear in the cve folder.

    The next step is to run an AWS Glue crawler to determine the format, schema, and associated properties of the raw data. You will need to crawl both folders in the transformed S3 bucket and store the schema in separate tables in the AWS Glue Data Catalog.

  6. On the AWS Glue Service console, on the left navigation menu, choose Crawlers.
  7. On the Crawlers page, choose Create crawler. This starts a series of pages that prompt you for the crawler details.
  8. In the Crawler name field, enter sbom-crawler, and then choose Next.
  9. Under Data sources, select Add a data source.
  10. Now you need to point the crawler to your data. On the Add data source page, choose the Amazon S3 data store. This solution in this post doesn’t use a connection, so leave the Connection field blank if it’s visible.
  11. For the option Location of S3 data, choose In this account. Then, for S3 path, enter the path where the crawler can find the sbom and cve data, which is s3://sbom-inspector-<ACCOUNT-ID>-transformed/sbom/ and s3://sbom-inspector-<ACCOUNT-ID>-transformed/cve/. Leave the rest as default and select Add an S3 data source.
    Figure 3: Data source for AWS Glue crawler

    Figure 3: Data source for AWS Glue crawler

  12. The crawler needs permissions to access the data store and create objects in the Data Catalog. To configure these permissions, choose Create an IAM role. The AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role name starts with AWSGlueServiceRole-, and in the field, you enter the last part of the role name. Enter sbomcrawler, and then choose Next.
  13. Crawlers create tables in your Data Catalog. Tables are contained in a database in the Data Catalog. To create a database, choose Add database. In the pop-up window, enter sbom-db for the database name, and then choose Create.
  14. Verify the choices you made in the Add crawler wizard. If you see any mistakes, you can choose Back to return to previous pages and make changes. After you’ve reviewed the information, choose Finish to create the crawler.
    Figure 4: Creation of the AWS Glue crawler

    Figure 4: Creation of the AWS Glue crawler

  15. Select the newly created crawler and choose Run.
  16. After the crawler runs successfully, verify that the table is created and the data schema is populated.
    Figure 5: Table populated from the AWS Glue crawler

    Figure 5: Table populated from the AWS Glue crawler

Set up Amazon Athena

Amazon Athena performs the initial data exploration and validation. Athena is a serverless interactive analytics service built on open source frameworks that supports open-table and file formats. Athena provides a simplified, flexible way to analyze data in sources like Amazon S3 by using standard SQL queries. If you are SQL proficient, you can query the data source directly; however, not everyone is familiar with SQL. In this section, you run a sample query and initialize the service so that it can used in QuickSight later on.

To start using Amazon Athena

  1. In the AWS Management Console, navigate to the Athena console.
  2. For Database, select sbom-db (or select the database you created earlier in the crawler).
  3. Navigate to the Settings tab located at the top right corner of the console. For Query result location, select the Athena S3 bucket created from the CloudFormation template, sbom-inspector-<ACCOUNT-ID>-athena.
  4. Keep the defaults for the rest of the settings. You can now return to the Query Editor and start writing and running your queries on the sbom-db database.

You can use the following sample query.

select package, packageversion, cve, sha, imagearn from sbom
left join cve
using (sha, package, packageversion)
where cve is not null;

Your Athena console should look similar to the screenshot in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Sample query with Amazon Athena

Figure 6: Sample query with Amazon Athena

This query joins the two tables and selects only the packages with CVEs identified. Alternatively, you can choose to query for specific packages or identify the most common package used in your organization.

Sample output:

# package packageversion cve sha imagearn

Visualize data with Amazon QuickSight

Amazon QuickSight is a serverless business intelligence service that is designed for the cloud. In this post, it serves as a dashboard that allows business users who are unfamiliar with SQL to identify zero-day vulnerabilities. This can also reduce the operational effort and time of having to look through several JSON documents to identify a single package across your image repositories. You can then share the dashboard across teams without having to share the underlying data.

QuickSight SPICE (Super-fast, Parallel, In-memory Calculation Engine) is an in-memory engine that QuickSight uses to perform advanced calculations. In a large organization where you could have millions of SBOM records stored in S3, importing your data into SPICE helps to reduce the time to process and serve the data. You can also use the feature to perform a scheduled refresh to obtain the latest data from S3.

QuickSight also has a feature called QuickSight Q. With QuickSightQ, you can use natural language to interact with your data. If this is the first time you are initializing QuickSight, subscribe to QuickSight and select Enterprise + Q. It will take roughly 20–30 minutes to initialize for the first time. Otherwise, if you are already using QuickSight, you will need to enable QuickSight Q by subscribing to it in the QuickSight console.

Finally, in QuickSight you can select different data sources, such as Amazon S3 and Athena, to create custom visualizations. In this post, we will use the two Athena tables as the data source to create a dashboard to keep track of the packages used in your organization and the resulting CVEs that come with them.

Prerequisites for setting up the QuickSight dashboard

This process will be used to create the QuickSight dashboard from a template already pre-provisioned through the command line interface (CLI). It also grants the necessary permissions for QuickSight to access the data source. You will need the following:

  • AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) programmatic access with read and write permissions to QuickSight.
  • A QuickSight + Q subscription (only if you want to use the Q feature).
  • QuickSight permissions to Amazon S3 and Athena (enable these through the QuickSight security and permissions interface).
  • Set the default AWS Region where you want to deploy the QuickSight dashboard. This post assumes that you’re using the us-east-1 Region.

Create datasets

In QuickSight, create two datasets, one for the sbom table and another for the cve table.

  1. In the QuickSight console, select the Dataset tab.
  2. Choose Create dataset, and then select the Athena data source.
  3. Name the data source sbom and choose Create data source.
  4. Select the sbom table.
  5. Choose Visualize to complete the dataset creation. (Delete the analyses automatically created for you because you will create your own analyses afterwards.)
  6. Navigate back to the main QuickSight page and repeat steps 1–4 for the cve dataset.

Merge datasets

Next, merge the two datasets to create the combined dataset that you will use for the dashboard.

  1. On the Datasets tab, edit the sbom dataset and add the cve dataset.
  2. Set three join clauses, as follows:
    1. Sha : Sha
    2. Package : Package
    3. Packageversion : Packageversion
  3. Perform a left merge, which will append the cve ID to the package and package version in the sbom dataset.
    Figure 7: Combining the sbom and cve datasets

    Figure 7: Combining the sbom and cve datasets

Next, you will create a dashboard based on the combined sbom dataset.

Prepare configuration files

In your terminal, export the following variables. Substitute <QuickSight username> in the QS_USER_ARN variable with your own username, which can be found in the Amazon QuickSight console.

export ACCOUNT_ID=$(aws sts get-caller-identity --output text --query Account)
export TEMPLATE_ID=”sbom_dashboard”
export QS_USER_ARN=$(aws quicksight describe-user --aws-account-id $ACCOUNT_ID --namespace default --user-name <QuickSight username> | jq .User.Arn)
export QS_DATA_ARN=$(aws quicksight search-data-sets --aws-account-id $ACCOUNT_ID --filters Name="DATASET_NAME",Operator="StringLike",Value="sbom" | jq .DataSetSummaries[0].Arn)

Validate that the variables are set properly. This is required for you to move on to the next step; otherwise you will run into errors.

echo ACCOUNT_ID is $ACCOUNT_ID || echo ACCOUNT_ID is not set
echo TEMPLATE_ID is $TEMPLATE_ID || echo TEMPLATE_ID is not set

Next, use the following commands to create the dashboard from a predefined template and create the IAM permissions needed for the user to view the QuickSight dashboard.

cat < ./dashboard.json
    "SourceTemplate": {
      "DataSetReferences": [
          "DataSetPlaceholder": "sbom",
          "DataSetArn": $QS_DATA_ARN
      "Arn": "arn:aws:quicksight:us-east-1:293424211206:template/sbom_qs_template"

cat < ./dashboardpermissions.json
      "Principal": $QS_USER_ARN,
      "Actions": [

Run the following commands to create the dashboard in your QuickSight console.

aws quicksight create-dashboard --aws-account-id $ACCOUNT_ID --dashboard-id $ACCOUNT_ID --name sbom-dashboard --source-entity file://dashboard.json

Note: Run the following describe-dashboard command, and confirm that the response contains a status code of 200. The 200-status code means that the dashboard exists.

aws quicksight describe-dashboard --aws-account-id $ACCOUNT_ID --dashboard-id $ACCOUNT_ID

Use the following update-dashboard-permissions AWS CLI command to grant the appropriate permissions to QuickSight users.

aws quicksight update-dashboard-permissions --aws-account-id $ACCOUNT_ID --dashboard-id $ACCOUNT_ID --grant-permissions file://dashboardpermissions.json

You should now be able to see the dashboard in your QuickSight console, similar to the one in Figure 8. It’s an interactive dashboard that shows you the number of vulnerable packages you have in your repositories and the specific CVEs that come with them. You can navigate to the specific image by selecting the CVE (middle right bar chart) or list images with a specific vulnerable package (bottom right bar chart).

Note: You won’t see the exact same graph as in Figure 8. It will change according to the image you pushed in.

Figure 8: QuickSight dashboard containing SBOM information

Figure 8: QuickSight dashboard containing SBOM information

Alternatively, you can use QuickSight Q to extract the same information from your dataset through natural language. You will need to create a topic and add the dataset you added earlier. For detailed information on how to create a topic, see the Amazon QuickSight User Guide. After QuickSight Q has completed indexing the dataset, you can start to ask questions about your data.

Figure 9: Natural language query with QuickSight Q

Figure 9: Natural language query with QuickSight Q


This post discussed how you can use Amazon Inspector to export SBOMs to improve software supply chain transparency. Container SBOM export should be part of your supply chain mitigation strategy and monitored in an automated manner at scale.

Although it is a good practice to generate SBOMs, it would provide little value if there was no further analysis being done on them. This solution enables you to visualize your SBOM data through a dashboard and natural language, providing better visibility into your security posture. Additionally, this solution is also entirely serverless, meaning there are no agents or sidecars to set up.

To learn more about exporting SBOMs with Amazon Inspector, see the Amazon Inspector User Guide.

If you have feedback about this post, submit comments in the Comments section below. If you have questions about this post, contact AWS Support.

Jason Ng

Jason Ng

Jason is a Cloud Sales Center Solutions Architect at AWS. He works with enterprise and independent software vendor (ISV) greenfield customers in ASEAN countries and is part of the Containers Technical Field Community (TFC). He enjoys helping customers modernize their applications, drive growth, and reduce total cost of ownership.

How to automate rule management for AWS Network Firewall

Post Syndicated from Ajinkya Patil original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/security/how-to-automate-rule-management-for-aws-network-firewall/

AWS Network Firewall is a stateful managed network firewall and intrusion detection and prevention service designed for the Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). This post concentrates on automating rule updates in a central Network Firewall by using distributed firewall configurations. If you’re new to Network Firewall or seeking a technical background on rule management, see AWS Network Firewall – New Managed Firewall Service in VPC.

Network Firewall offers three deployment models: Distributed, centralized, and combined. Many customers opt for a centralized model to reduce costs. In this model, customers allocate the responsibility for managing the rulesets to the owners of the VPC infrastructure (spoke accounts) being protected, thereby shifting accountability and providing flexibility to the spoke accounts. Managing rulesets in a shared firewall policy generated from distributed input configurations of protected VPCs (spoke accounts) is challenging without proper input validation, state-management, and request throttling controls.

In this post, we show you how to automate firewall rule management within the central firewall using distributed firewall configurations spread across multiple AWS accounts. The anfw-automate solution provides input-validation, state-management, and throttling controls, reducing the update time for firewall rule changes from minutes to seconds. Additionally, the solution reduces operational costs, including rule management overhead while integrating seamlessly with the existing continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) processes.


For this walkthrough, the following prerequisites must be met:

  • Basic knowledge of networking concepts such as routing and Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) range allocations.
  • Basic knowledge of YAML and JSON configuration formats, definitions, and schema.
  • Basic knowledge of Suricata Rule Format and Network Firewall rule management.
  • Basic knowledge of CDK deployment.
  • AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions to bootstrap the AWS accounts using AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK).
  • The firewall VPC in the central account must be reachable from a spoke account (see centralized deployment model). For this solution, you need two AWS accounts from the centralized deployment model:
    • The spoke account is the consumer account the defines firewall rules for the account and uses central firewall endpoints for traffic filtering. At least one spoke account is required to simulate the user workflow in validation phase.
    • The central account is an account that contains the firewall endpoints. This account is used by application and the Network Firewall.
  • StackSets deployment with service-managed permissions must be enabled in AWS Organizations (Activate trusted access with AWS Organizations). A delegated administrator account is required to deploy AWS CloudFormation stacks in any account in an organization. The CloudFormation StackSets in this account deploy the necessary CloudFormation stacks in the spoke accounts. If you don’t have a delegated administrator account, you must manually deploy the resources in the spoke account. Manual deployment isn’t recommended in production environments.
  • A resource account is the CI/CD account used to deploy necessary AWS CodePipeline stacks. The pipelines deploy relevant cross-account cross-AWS Region stacks to the preceding AWS accounts.
    • IAM permissions to deploy CDK stacks in the resource account.

Solution description

In Network Firewall, each firewall endpoint connects to one firewall policy, which defines network traffic monitoring and filtering behavior. The details of the behavior are defined in rule groups — a reusable set of rules — for inspecting and handling network traffic. The rules in the rule groups provide the details for packet inspection and specify the actions to take when a packet matches the inspection criteria. Network Firewall uses a Suricata rules engine to process all stateful rules. Currently, you can create Suricata compatible or basic rules (such as domain list) in Network Firewall. We use Suricata compatible rule strings within this post to maintain maximum compatibility with most use cases.

Figure 1 describes how the anfw-automate solution uses the distributed firewall rule configurations to simplify rule management for multiple teams. The rules are validated, transformed, and stored in the central AWS Network Firewall policy. This solution isolates the rule generation to the spoke AWS accounts, but still uses a shared firewall policy and a central ANFW for traffic filtering. This approach grants the AWS spoke account owners the flexibility to manage their own firewall rules while maintaining the accountability for their rules in the firewall policy. The solution enables the central security team to validate and override user defined firewall rules before pushing them to the production firewall policy. The security team operating the central firewall can also define additional rules that are applied to all spoke accounts, thereby enforcing organization-wide security policies. The firewall rules are then compiled and applied to Network Firewall in seconds, providing near real-time response in scenarios involving critical security incidents.

Figure 1: Workflow launched by uploading a configuration file to the configuration (config) bucket

Figure 1: Workflow launched by uploading a configuration file to the configuration (config) bucket

The Network Firewall firewall endpoints and anfw-automate solution are both deployed in the central account. The spoke accounts use the application for rule automation and the Network Firewall for traffic inspection.

As shown in Figure 1, each spoke account contains the following:

  1. An Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket to store multiple configuration files, one per Region. The rules defined in the configuration files are applicable to the VPC traffic in the spoke account. The configuration files must comply with the defined naming convention ($Region-config.yaml) and be validated to make sure that only one configuration file exists per Region per account. The S3 bucket has event notifications enabled that publish all changes to configuration files to a local default bus in Amazon EventBridge.
  2. EventBridge rules to monitor the default bus and forward relevant events to the custom event bus in the central account. The EventBridge rules specifically monitor VPCDelete events published by Amazon CloudTrail and S3 event notifications. When a VPC is deleted from the spoke account, the VPCDelete events lead to the removal of corresponding rules from the firewall policy. Additionally, all create, update, and delete events from Amazon S3 event notifications invoke corresponding actions on the firewall policy.
  3. Two AWS Identity and Access Manager (IAM) roles with keywords xaccount.lmb.rc and xaccount.lmb.re are assumed by RuleCollect and RuleExecute functions in the central account, respectively.
  4. A CloudWatch Logs log group to store event processing logs published by the central AWS Lambda application.

In the central account:

  1. EventBridge rules monitor the custom event bus and invoke a Lambda function called RuleCollect. A dead-letter queue is attached to the EventBridge rules to store events that failed to invoke the Lambda function.
  2. The RuleCollect function retrieves the config file from the spoke account by assuming a cross-account role. This role is deployed by the same stack that created the other spoke account resources. The Lambda function validates the request, transforms the request to the Suricata rule syntax, and publishes the rules to an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) first-in-first-out (FIFO) queue. Input validation controls are paramount to make sure that users don’t abuse the functionality of the solution and bypass central governance controls. The Lambda function has input validation controls to verify the following:
    • The VPC ID in the configuration file exists in the configured Region and the same AWS account as the S3 bucket.
    • The Amazon S3 object version ID received in the event matches the latest version ID to mitigate race conditions.
    • Users don’t have only top-level domains (for example, .com, .de) in the rules.
    • The custom Suricata rules don’t have any as the destination IP address or domain.
    • The VPC identifier matches the required format, that is, a+(AWS Account ID)+(VPC ID without vpc- prefix) in custom rules. This is important to have unique rule variables in rule groups.
    • The rules don’t use security sensitive keywords such as sid, priority, or metadata. These keywords are reserved for firewall administrators and the Lambda application.
    • The configured VPC is attached to an AWS Transit Gateway.
    • Only pass rules exist in the rule configuration.
    • CIDR ranges for a VPC are mapped appropriately using IP set variables.

    The input validations make sure that rules defined by one spoke account don’t impact the rules from other spoke accounts. The validations applied to the firewall rules can be updated and managed as needed based on your requirements. The rules created must follow a strict format, and deviation from the preceding rules will lead to the rejection of the request.

  3. The Amazon SQS FIFO queue preserves the order of create, update, and delete operations run in the configuration bucket of the spoke account. These state-management controls maintain consistency between the firewall rules in the configuration file within the S3 bucket and the rules in the firewall policy. If the sequence of updates provided by the distributed configurations isn’t honored, the rules in a firewall policy might not match the expected ruleset.

    Rules not processed beyond the maxReceiveCount threshold are moved to a dead-letter SQS queue for troubleshooting.

  4. The Amazon SQS messages are subsequently consumed by another Lambda function called RuleExecute. Multiple changes to one configuration are batched together in one message. The RuleExecute function parses the messages and generates the required rule groups, IP set variables, and rules within the Network Firewall. Additionally, the Lambda function establishes a reserved rule group, which can be administered by the solution’s administrators and used to define global rules. The global rules, applicable to participating AWS accounts, can be managed in the data/defaultdeny.yaml file by the central security team.

    The RuleExecute function also implements throttling controls to make sure that rules are applied to the firewall policy without reaching the ThrottlingException from Network Firewall (see common errors). The function also implements back-off logic to handle this exception. This throttling effect can happen if there are too many requests issued to the Network Firewall API.

    The function makes cross-Region calls to Network Firewall based on the Region provided in the user configuration. There is no need to deploy the RuleExecute and RuleCollect Lambda functions in multiple Regions unless a use case warrants it.


The following section guides you through the deployment of the rules management engine.

  • Deployment: Outlines the steps to deploy the solution into the target AWS accounts.
  • Validation: Describes the steps to validate the deployment and ensure the functionality of the solution.
  • Cleaning up: Provides instructions for cleaning up the deployment.


In this phase, you deploy the application pipeline in the resource account. The pipeline is responsible for deploying multi-Region cross-account CDK stacks in both the central account and the delegated administrator account.

If you don’t have a functioning Network Firewall firewall using the centralized deployment model in the central account, see the README for instructions on deploying Amazon VPC and Network Firewall stacks before proceeding. You need to deploy the Network Firewall in centralized deployment in each Region and Availability Zone used by spoke account VPC infrastructure.

The application pipeline stack deploys three stacks in all configured Regions: LambdaStack and ServerlessStack in the central account and StacksetStack in the delegated administrator account. It’s recommended to deploy these stacks solely in the primary Region, given that the solution can effectively manage firewall policies across all supported Regions.

  • LambdaStack deploys the RuleCollect and RuleExecute Lambda functions, Amazon SQS FIFO queue, and SQS FIFO dead-letter queue.
  • ServerlessStack deploys EventBridge bus, EventBridge rules, and EventBridge Dead-letter queue.
  • StacksetStack deploys a service-managed stack set in the delegated administrator account. The stack set includes the deployment of IAM roles, EventBridge rules, an S3 Bucket, and a CloudWatch log group in the spoke account. If you’re manually deploying the CloudFormation template (templates/spoke-serverless-stack.yaml) in the spoke account, you have the option to disable this stack in the application configuration.
    Figure 2: CloudFormation stacks deployed by the application pipeline

    Figure 2: CloudFormation stacks deployed by the application pipeline

To prepare for bootstrapping

  1. Install and configure profiles for all AWS accounts using Amazon Command Line Interface (AWS CLI)
  2. Install the Cloud Development Kit (CDK)
  3. Install Git and clone the GitHub repo
  4. Install and enable Docker Desktop

To prepare for deployment

  1. Follow the README and cdk bootstrapping guide to bootstrap the resource account. Then, bootstrap the central account and delegated administrator account (optional if StacksetStack is deployed manually in the spoke account) to trust the resource account. The spoke accounts don’t need to be bootstrapped.
  2. Create a folder to be referred to as <STAGE>, where STAGE is the name of your deployment stage — for example, local, dev, int, and so on — in the conf folder of the cloned repository. The deployment stage is set as the STAGE parameter later and used in the AWS resource names.
  3. Create global.json in the <STAGE> folder. Follow the README to update the parameter values. A sample JSON file is provided in conf/sample folder.
  4. Run the following commands to configure the local environment:
    npm install
    export STAGE=<STAGE>
    export AWS_REGION=<AWS_Region_to_deploy_pipeline_stack>

To deploy the application pipeline stack

  1. Create a file named app.json in the <STAGE> folder and populate the parameters in accordance with the README section and defined schema.
  2. If you choose to manage the deployment of spoke account stacks using the delegated administrator account and have set the deploy_stacksets parameter to true, create a file named stackset.json in the <STAGE> folder. Follow the README section to align with the requirements of the defined schema.

    You can also deploy the spoke account stack manually for testing using the AWS CloudFormation template in templates/spoke-serverless-stack.yaml. This will create and configure the needed spoke account resources.

  3. Run the following commands to deploy the application pipeline stack:
    export STACKNAME=app && make deploy

    Figure 3: Example output of application pipeline deployment

    Figure 3: Example output of application pipeline deployment

After deploying the solution, each spoke account is required to configure stateful rules for every VPC in the configuration file and upload it to the S3 bucket. Each spoke account owner must verify the VPC’s connection to the firewall using the centralized deployment model. The configuration, presented in the YAML configuration language, might encompass multiple rule definitions. Each account must furnish one configuration file per VPC to establish accountability and non-repudiation.


Now that you’ve deployed the solution, follow the next steps to verify that it’s completed as expected, and then test the application.

To validate deployment

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console using the resource account and go to CodePipeline.
  2. Verify the existence of a pipeline named cpp-app-<aws_ organization_scope>-<project_name>-<module_name>-<STAGE> in the configured Region.
  3. Verify that stages exist in each pipeline for all configured Regions.
  4. Confirm that all pipeline stages exist. The LambdaStack and ServerlessStack stages must exist in the cpp-app-<aws_organization_scope>-<project_name>-<module_name>-<STAGE> stack. The StacksetStack stage must exist if you set the deploy_stacksets parameter to true in global.json.

To validate the application

  1. Sign in and open the Amazon S3 console using the spoke account.
  2. Follow the schema defined in app/RuleCollect/schema.json and create a file with naming convention ${Region}-config.yaml. Note that the Region in the config file is the destination Region for the firewall rules. Verify that the file has valid VPC data and rules.
    Figure 4: Example configuration file for eu-west-1 Region

    Figure 4: Example configuration file for eu-west-1 Region

  3. Upload the newly created config file to the S3 bucket named anfw-allowlist-<AWS_REGION for application stack>-<Spoke Account ID>-<STAGE>.
  4. If the data in the config file is invalid, you will see ERROR and WARN logs in the CloudWatch log group named cw-<aws_organization_scope>-<project_name>-<module_name>-CustomerLog-<STAGE>.
  5. If all the data in the config file is valid, you will see INFO logs in the same CloudWatch log group.
    Figure 5: Example of logs generated by the anfw-automate in a spoke account

    Figure 5: Example of logs generated by the anfw-automate in a spoke account

  6. After the successful processing of the rules, sign in to the Network Firewall console using the central account.
  7. Navigate to the Network Firewall rule groups and search for a rule group with a randomly assigned numeric name. This rule group will contain your Suricata rules after the transformation process.
    Figure 6: Rules created in Network Firewall rule group based on the configuration file in Figure 4

    Figure 6: Rules created in Network Firewall rule group based on the configuration file in Figure 4

  8. Access the Network Firewall rule group identified by the suffix reserved. This rule group is designated for administrators and global rules. Confirm that the rules specified in app/data/defaultdeny.yaml have been transformed into Suricata rules and are correctly placed within this rule group.
  9. Instantiate an EC2 instance in the VPC specified in the configuration file and try to access both the destinations allowed in the file and any destination not listed. Note that requests to destinations not defined in the configuration file are blocked.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring future charges, remove all stacks and instances used in this walkthrough.

  1. Sign in to both the central account and the delegated admin account. Manually delete the stacks in the Regions configured for the app parameter in global.json. Ensure that the stacks are deleted for all Regions specified for the app parameter. You can filter the stack names using the keyword <aws_organization_scope>-<project_name>-<module_name> as defined in global.json.
  2. After deleting the stacks, remove the pipeline stacks using the same command as during deployment, replacing cdk deploy with cdk destroy.
  3. Terminate or stop the EC2 instance used to test the application.


This solution simplifies network security by combining distributed ANFW firewall configurations in a centralized policy. Automated rule management can help reduce operational overhead, reduces firewall change request completion times from minutes to seconds, offloads security and operational mechanisms such as input validation, state-management, and request throttling, and enables central security teams to enforce global firewall rules without compromising on the flexibility of user-defined rulesets.

In addition to using this application through S3 bucket configuration management, you can integrate this tool with GitHub Actions into your CI/CD pipeline to upload the firewall rule configuration to an S3 bucket. By combining GitHub actions, you can automate configuration file updates with automated release pipeline checks, such as schema validation and manual approvals. This enables your team to maintain and change firewall rule definitions within your existing CI/CD processes and tools. You can go further by allowing access to the S3 bucket only through the CI/CD pipeline.

Finally, you can ingest the AWS Network Firewall logs into one of our partner solutions for security information and event management (SIEM), security monitoring, threat intelligence, and managed detection and response (MDR). You can launch automatic rule updates based on security events detected by these solutions, which can help reduce the response time for security events.

If you have feedback about this post, submit comments in the Comments section below. If you have questions about this post, contact AWS Support.

Ajinkya Patil

Ajinkya Patil

Ajinkya is a Security Consultant at Amazon Professional Services, specializing in security consulting for AWS customers within the automotive industry since 2019. He has presented at AWS re:Inforce and contributed articles to the AWS Security blog and AWS Prescriptive Guidance. Beyond his professional commitments, he indulges in travel and photography.

Stephan Traub

Stephan Traub

Stephan is a Security Consultant working for automotive customers at AWS Professional Services. He is a technology enthusiast and passionate about helping customers gain a high security bar in their cloud infrastructure. When Stephan isn’t working, he’s playing volleyball or traveling with his family around the world.

AWS Weekly Roundup — Happy Lunar New Year, IaC generator, NFL’s digital athlete, AWS Cloud Clubs, and more — February 12, 2024

Post Syndicated from Channy Yun original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-happy-lunar-new-year-iac-generator-nfls-digital-athlete-aws-cloud-clubs-and-more-february-12-2024/

Happy Lunar New Year! Wishing you a year filled with joy, success, and endless opportunities! May the Year of the Dragon bring uninterrupted connections and limitless growth 🐉 ☁

In case you missed it, here’s outstanding news you need to know as you plan your year in early 2024.

AWS was named as a Leader in the 2023 Magic Quadrant for Strategic Cloud Platform Services. AWS is the longest-running Magic Quadrant Leader, with Gartner naming AWS a Leader for the thirteenth consecutive year. See Sebastian’s blog post to learn more. AWS has been named a Leader for the ninth consecutive year in the 2023 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems, and we have been positioned highest for ability to execute by providing a comprehensive set of services for your data foundation across all workloads, use cases, and data types. See Rahul Pathak’s blog post to learn more.

AWS also has been named a Leader in data clean room technology according to the IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Data Clean Room Technology 2024 Vendor Assessment (January 2024). This report evaluated data clean room technology vendors for use cases across industries. See the AWS for Industries Blog channel post to learn more.

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that got my attention:

A new Local Zone in Houston, Texas – Local Zones are an AWS infrastructure deployment that places compute, storage, database, and other select services closer to large population, industry, and IT centers where no AWS Region exists. AWS Local Zones are available in the US in 15 other metro areas and globally in an additional 17 metros areas, allowing you to deliver low-latency applications to end users worldwide. You can enable the new Local Zone in Houston (us-east-1-iah-2a) from the Zones tab in the Amazon EC2 console settings.

AWS CloudFormation IaC generator – You can generate a template using AWS resources provisioned in your account that are not already managed by CloudFormation. With this launch, you can onboard workloads to Infrastructure as Code (IaC) in minutes, eliminating weeks of manual effort. You can then leverage the IaC benefits of automation, safety, and scalability for the workloads. Use the template to import resources into CloudFormation or replicate resources in a new account or Region. See the user guide and blog post to learn more.

A new look-and-feel of Amazon Bedrock console – Amazon Bedrock now offers an enhanced console experience with updated UI improves usability, responsiveness, and accessibility with more seamless support for dark mode. To get started with the new experience, visit the Amazon Bedrock console.


One-click WAF integration on ALB – Application Load Balancer (ALB) now supports console integration with AWS WAF that allows you to secure your applications behind ALB with a single click. This integration enables AWS WAF protections as a first line of defense against common web threats for your applications that use ALB. You can use this one-click security protection provided by AWS WAF from the integrated services section of the ALB console for both new and existing load balancers.

Up to 49% price reduction for AWS Fargate Windows containers on Amazon ECS – Windows containers running on Fargate are now billed per second for infrastructure and Windows Server licenses that their containerized application requests. Along with the infrastructure pricing for on-demand, we are also reducing the minimum billing duration for Windows containers to 5 minutes (from 15 minutes) for any Fargate Windows tasks starting February 1st, 2024 (12:00am UTC). The infrastructure pricing and minimum billing period changes will automatically reflect in your monthly AWS bill. For more information on the specific price reductions, see our pricing page.

Introducing Amazon Data Firehose – We are renaming Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose to Amazon Data Firehose. Amazon Data Firehose is the easiest way to capture, transform, and deliver data streams into Amazon S3, Amazon Redshift, Amazon OpenSearch Service, Splunk, Snowflake, and other 3rd party analytics services. The name change is effective in the AWS Management Console, documentations, and product pages.

AWS Transfer Family integrations with Amazon EventBridge – AWS Transfer Family now enables conditional workflows by publishing SFTP, FTPS, and FTP file transfer events in near real-time, SFTP connectors file transfer event notifications, and Applicability Statement 2 (AS2) transfer operations to Amazon EventBridge. You can orchestrate your file transfer and file-processing workflows in AWS using Amazon EventBridge, or any workflow orchestration service of your choice that integrates with these events.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other updates and news that you might have missed:

NFL’s digital athlete in the Super Bowl – AWS is working with the National Football League (NFL) to take player health and safety to the next level. Using AI and machine learning, they are creating a precise picture of each player in training, practice, and games. You could see this technology in action, especially with the Super Bowl on the last Sunday!

Amazon’s commiting the responsible AI – On February 7, Amazon joined the U.S. Artificial Intelligence Safety Institute Consortium, established by the National Institute of Standards of Technology (NIST), to further our government and industry collaboration to advance safe and secure artificial intelligence (AI). Amazon will contribute compute credits to help develop tools to evaluate AI safety and help the institute set an interoperable and trusted foundation for responsible AI development and use.

Compliance updates in South Korea – AWS has completed the 2023 South Korea Cloud Service Providers (CSP) Safety Assessment Program, also known as the Regulation on Supervision on Electronic Financial Transactions (RSEFT) Audit Program. AWS is committed to helping our customers adhere to applicable regulations and guidelines, and we help ensure that our financial customers have a hassle-free experience using the cloud. Also, AWS has successfully renewed certification under the Korea Information Security Management System (K-ISMS) standard (effective from December 16, 2023, to December 15, 2026).

Join AWS Cloud Clubs CaptainsAWS Cloud Clubs are student-led user groups for post-secondary level students and independent learners. Interested in founding or co-founding a Cloud Club in your university or region? We are accepting applications from February 5-18, 2024.

Upcoming AWS Events
Check your calendars and sign up for upcoming AWS events:

AWS Innovate AI/ML and Data Edition – Join our free online conference to learn how you and your organization can leverage the latest advances in generative AI. You can register upcoming AWS Innovate Online event that fits your timezone in Asia Pacific & Japan (February 22), EMEA (February 29), and Americas (March 14).

AWS Public Sector events – Join us at the AWS Public Sector Symposium Brussels (March 12) to discover how the AWS Cloud can help you improve resiliency, develop sustainable solutions, and achieve your mission. AWS Public Sector Day London (March 19) gathers professionals from government, healthcare, and education sectors to tackle pressing challenges in United Kingdom public services.

Kicking off AWS Global Summits – AWS Summits are a series of free online and in-person events that bring the cloud computing community together to connect, collaborate, and learn about AWS. Below is a list of available AWS Summit events taking place in April:

You can browse all upcoming AWS-led in-person and virtual events, and developer-focused events such as AWS DevDay.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— Channy

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Build real-time applications with Amazon EventBridge and AWS AppSync

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/build-real-time-applications-with-amazon-eventbridge-and-aws-appsync/

This post is written by Josh Kahn, Tech Leader, Serverless.

Amazon EventBridge now supports publishing events to AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs as native targets. The new integration enables builders to publish events easily to a wider variety of consumers and simplifies updating clients with near real-time data. You can use EventBridge and AWS AppSync to build resilient, subscription-based event-driven architectures across consumers.

To illustrate using EventBridge with AWS AppSync, consider a simplified airport operations scenario. In this example, airlines publish flight events (for example, boarding, push back, gate changes, and delays) to a service that maintains flight status on in-airport displays. Airlines also publish events that are useful for other entities at the airport, such as baggage handlers and maintenance, but not to passengers. This depicts a conceptual view of the system:

Conceptual view of the system

Passengers want the in-airport displays to be up-to-date and accurate. There are a number of ways to design the display application so that data remains up-to-date. Broadly, these include the application polling some API or the application subscribing to data changes.

Subscriptions for this scenario are better as the data changes are small and incremental relative to the large amount of information displayed. In a delay, for example, the display updates the status and departure time but no other details of a single flight among a larger list of flight information.

Flight board

AWS AppSync can enable clients to listen for real-time data changes through the use of GraphQL subscriptions. These are implemented using a WebSocket connection between the client and the AWS AppSync service. The display application client invokes the GraphQL subscription operation to establish a secure connection. AWS AppSync will automatically push data changes (or mutations) via the GraphQL API to subscribers using that connection.

Previously, builders could use EventBridge API Destinations to wire events published and routed through EventBridge to AWS AppSync, as described in an earlier blog post, and available in Serverless Land patterns (API Key, OAuth). The approach is useful for dealing with “out-of-band” updates in which data changes outside of an AWS AppSync mutation. Out-of-band updates generally require a NONE data source in AWS AppSync to notify subscribers of changes, as described in the AWS re:Post Knowledge Center. The addition of AWS AppSync as a target for EventBridge simplifies these use cases as you can now trigger a mutation in response to an event without additional code.

Airport Operations Events

Expanding the scenario, airport operations events look like this:

  "flightNum": 123,
  "carrierCode": "JK",
  "date": "2024-01-25",
  "event": "FlightDelayed",
  "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
  "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"

The event field identifies the type of event and if it is relevant to passengers. The event details provide further information about the event, which varies based on the type of event. The airport publishes a variety of events but the airport displays only need a subset of those changes.

AWS AppSync GraphQL APIs start with a GraphQL schema that defines the types, fields, and operations available in that API. AWS AppSync documentation provides an overview of schema and other GraphQL essentials. The partial GraphQL schema for the airport scenario is as follows:

type DelayEventInfo implements EventInfo {
	message: String
	delayMinutes: Int
	newDepTime: AWSDateTime

interface EventInfo {
	message: String

enum StatusEvent {

type StatusUpdate {
	num: Int!
	carrier: String!
	date: AWSDate!
	event: StatusEvent!
	info: EventInfo

input StatusUpdateInput {
	num: Int!
	carrier: String!
	date: AWSDate!
	event: StatusEvent!
	message: String
	extra: AWSJSON

type Mutation {
	updateFlightStatus(input: StatusUpdateInput!): StatusUpdate!

type Query {
	listStatusUpdates(by: String): [StatusUpdate]

type Subscription {
	onFlightStatusUpdate(date: AWSDate, carrier: String): StatusUpdate
		@aws_subscribe(mutations: ["updateFlightStatus"])

schema {
	query: Query
	mutation: Mutation
	subscription: Subscription

Connect EventBridge to AWS AppSync

EventBridge allows you to filter, transform, and route events to a number of targets. The airport display service only needs events that directly impact passengers. You can define a rule in EventBridge that routes only those events (included in the preceding GraphQL schema) to the AWS AppSync target. Other events are routed elsewhere, as defined by other rules, or dropped. Details on creating EventBridge rules and the event matching pattern format can be found in EventBridge documentation.

The previous flight delayed event would be delivered using EventBridge as follows:

  "id": "b051312994104931b0980d1ad1c5340f",
  "detail-type": "Operations: Flight delayed",
  "source": "airport-operations",
  "time": "2024-01-25T16:58:37Z",
  "detail": {
    "flightNum": 123,
    "carrierCode": "JK",
    "date": "2024-01-25",
    "event": "FlightDelayed",
    "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
    "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"

In this scenario, there is a specific list of events of interest, but EventBridge provides a flexible set of operations to match patterns, inspect arrays, and filter by content using prefix, numerical, or other matching. Some organizations will also allow subscribers to define their own rules on an EventBridge event bus, allowing targets to subscribe to events via self-service.

The following event pattern matches on the events needed for the airport display service:

  "source": [ "airport-operations" ],
  "detail": {
    "event": [ "FlightArrived", "FlightBoarding", "FlightCancelled", ... ]

To create a new EventBridge rule, you can use the AWS Management Console or infrastructure as code. You can find the CloudFormation definition for the completed rule, with the AWS AppSync target, later in this post.

Console view

Create the AWS AppSync target

Now that EventBridge is configured to route selected events, define AWS AppSync as the target for the rule. The AWS AppSync API must support IAM authorization to be used as an EventBridge target. AWS AppSync supports multiple authorization types on a single GraphQL type, so you can also use OpenID Connect, Amazon Cognito User Pools, or other authorization methods as needed.

To configure AWS AppSync as an EventBridge target, define the target using the AWS Management Console or infrastructure as code. In the console, select the Target Type as “AWS Service” and Target as “AppSync.” Select your API. EventBridge parses the GraphQL schema and allows you to select the mutation to invoke when the rule is triggered.

When using the AWS Management Console, EventBridge will also configure the necessary AWS IAM role to invoke the selected mutation. Remember to create and associate a role with an appropriate trust policy when configuring with IaC.

EventBridge target types

EventBridge supports input transformation to customize the contents of an event before passing the information as input to the target. Configure the input transformer to extract needed values from the event using JSON path and a template in the input format expected by the AWS AppSync API. EventBridge provides a handy utility in the Console to pass and test the output of a sample event.

Target input transformer

Finally, configure the selection set to include the response from the AWS AppSync API. These are the fields that will be returned to EventBridge when the mutation is invoked. While the result returned to EventBridge is not overly useful (aside from troubleshooting), the mutation selection set will also determine the fields available to subscribers to the onFlightStatusUpdate subscription.

Configuring the selection set

Define the EventBridge to AWS AppSync rule in CloudFormation

Infrastructure as code templates, including AWS CloudFormation and AWS CDK, are useful for codifying infrastructure definitions to deploy across Regions and accounts. While you can write CloudFormation by hand, EventBridge provides a useful CloudFormation export in the AWS Management Console. You can use this feature to export the definition for a defined rule.

Export definition

This is the CloudFormation for the previous configured rule and AWS AppSync target. This snippet includes both the rule definition and the target configuration.

    Type: AWS::Events::Rule
      Description: Route passenger related events to the display service endpoint
      EventBusName: eb-to-appsync
          - airport-operations
            - FlightArrived
            - FlightBoarding
            - FlightCancelled
            - FlightDelayed
            - FlightGateChanged
            - FlightLanded
            - FlightPushBack
            - FlightTookOff
      Name: passenger-events-to-display-service
      State: ENABLED
        - Id: 12344535353263463
          Arn: <AppSync API GraphQL API ARN>
          RoleArn: <EventBridge Role ARN (defined elsewhere)>
              carrier: $.detail.carrierCode
              date: $.detail.date
              event: $.detail.event
              extra: $.detail.info
              message: $.detail.message
              num: $.detail.flightNum
            InputTemplate: |-
                "input": {
                  "num": <num>,
                  "carrier": <carrier>,
                  "date": <date>,
                  "event": <event>,
                  "message": "<message>",
                  "extra": <extra>
            GraphQLOperation: >-
                info {
                  ... on DelayEventInfo {

The ARN of the AWS AppSync API follows the form arn:aws:appsync:<AWS_REGION>:<ACCOUNT_ID>:endpoints/graphql-api/<GRAPHQL_ENDPOINT_ID>. The ARN is available in CloudFormation (see GraphQLEndpointArn return value) or can be created using the identifier found in the AWS AppSync GraphQL endpoint. The ARN included in the EventBridge execution role policy is the AWS AppSync API ARN (a different ARN).

The AppSyncParameters field includes the GraphQL operation for EventBridge to invoke on the AWS AppSync API. This must be well formatted and match the GraphQL schema. Include any fields that must be available to subscribers in the selection set.

Testing subscriptions

AWS AppSync is now configured as a target for the EventBridge rule. The real-life display application would use a GraphQL library, such as AWS Amplify, to subscribe to real-time data changes. The AWS Management Console provides a useful utility to test. Navigate to the AWS AppSync console and select Queries in the menu for your API. Enter the following query and choose Run to subscribe for data changes:

subscription MySubscription {
  onFlightStatusUpdate {
    info {
      … on DelayEventInfo {

In a separate browser tab, navigate to the EventBridge console, and choose Send events. On the Send events page, select the required event bus and set the Event source to “airport-operations.” Then enter a detail type of your choice. Finally, paste the following as the Event detail, then choose Send.

  "id": "b051312994104931b0980d1ad1c5340f",
  "detail-type": "Operations: Flight delayed",
  "source": "airport-operations",
  "time": "2024-01-25T16:58:37Z",
  "detail": {
    "flightNum": 123,
    "carrierCode": "JK",
    "date": "2024-01-25",
    "event": "FlightDelayed",
    "message": "Delayed 15 minutes, late aircraft",
    "info": "{ \"newDepTime\": \"2024-01-25T13:15:00Z\", \"delayMinutes\": 15 }"

Return to the AWS AppSync tab in your browser to see the changed data in the result pane:

Result pane


Directly invoking AWS AppSync GraphQL API targets from EventBridge simplifies and streamlines integration between these two services, ideal for notifying a variety of subscribers of data changes in event-driven workloads. You can also take advantage of other features available from the two services. For example, use AWS AppSync enhanced subscription filtering to update only airport displays in the terminal in which they are located.

To learn more about serverless, visit Serverless Land for a wide array of reusable patterns, tutorials, and learning materials. Newly added to the pattern library is an EventBridge to AWS AppSync pattern similar to the one described in this post. Visit EventBridge documentation for more details.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Disaster recovery strategies for Amazon MWAA – Part 1

Post Syndicated from Parnab Basak original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/disaster-recovery-strategies-for-amazon-mwaa-part-1/

In the dynamic world of cloud computing, ensuring the resilience and availability of critical applications is paramount. Disaster recovery (DR) is the process by which an organization anticipates and addresses technology-related disasters. For organizations implementing critical workload orchestration using Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow (Amazon MWAA), it is crucial to have a DR plan in place to ensure business continuity.

In this series, we explore the need for Amazon MWAA disaster recovery and prescribe solutions that will sustain Amazon MWAA environments against unintended disruptions. This lets you to define, avoid, and handle disruption risks as part of your business continuity plan. This post focuses on designing the overall DR architecture. A future post in this series will focus on implementing the individual components using AWS services.

The need for Amazon MWAA disaster recovery

Amazon MWAA, a fully managed service for Apache Airflow, brings immense value to organizations by automating workflow orchestration for extract, transform, and load (ETL), DevOps, and machine learning (ML) workloads. Amazon MWAA has a distributed architecture with multiple components such as scheduler, worker, web server, queue, and database. This makes it difficult to implement a comprehensive DR strategy.

An active Amazon MWAA environment continuously parses Airflow Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs), reading them from a configured Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket. DAG source unavailability due to network unreachability, unintended corruption, or deletes leads to extended downtime and service disruption.

Within Airflow, the metadata database is a core component storing configuration variables, roles, permissions, and DAG run histories. A healthy metadata database is therefore critical for your Airflow environment. As with any core Airflow component, having a backup and disaster recovery plan in place for the metadata database is essential.

Amazon MWAA deploys Airflow components to multiple Availability Zones within your VPC in your preferred AWS Region. This provides fault tolerance and automatic recovery against a single Availability Zone failure. For mission-critical workloads, being resilient to the impairments of a unitary Region through multi-Region deployments is additionally important to ensure high availability and business continuity.

Balancing between costs to maintain redundant infrastructures, complexity, and recovery time is essential for Amazon MWAA environments. Organizations aim for cost-effective solutions that minimize their Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO) to meet their service level agreements, be economically viable, and meet their customers’ demands.

Detect disasters in the primary environment: Proactive monitoring through metrics and alarms

Prompt detection of disasters in the primary environment is crucial for timely disaster recovery. Monitoring the Amazon CloudWatch SchedulerHeartbeat metric provides insights into Airflow health of an active Amazon MWAA environment. You can add other health check metrics to the evaluation criteria, such as checking the availability of upstream or downstream systems and network reachability. Combined with CloudWatch alarms, you can send notifications when these thresholds over a number of time periods are not met. You can add alarms to dashboards to monitor and receive alerts about your AWS resources and applications across multiple Regions.

AWS publishes our most up-to-the-minute information on service availability on the Service Health Dashboard. You can check at any time to get current status information, or subscribe to an RSS feed to be notified of interruptions to each individual service in your operating Region. The AWS Health Dashboard provides information about AWS Health events that can affect your account.

By combining metric monitoring, available dashboards, and automatic alarming, you can promptly detect unavailability of your primary environment, enabling proactive measures to transition to your DR plan. It is critical to factor in incident detection, notification, escalation, discovery, and declaration into your DR planning and implementation to provide realistic and achievable objectives that provide business value.

In the following sections, we discuss two Amazon MWAA DR strategy solutions and their architecture.

DR strategy solution 1: Backup and restore

The backup and restore strategy involves generating Airflow component backups in the same or different Region as your primary Amazon MWAA environment. To ensure continuity, you can asynchronously replicate these to your DR Region, with minimal performance impact on your primary Amazon MWAA environment. In the event of a rare primary Regional impairment or service disruption, this strategy will create a new Amazon MWAA environment and recover historical data to it from existing backups. However, it’s important to note that during the recovery process, there will be a period where no Airflow environments are operational to process workflows until the new environment is fully provisioned and marked as available.

This strategy provides a low-cost and low-complexity solution that is also suitable for mitigating against data loss or corruption within your primary Region. The amount of data being backed up and the time to create a new Amazon MWAA environment (typically 20–30 minutes) affects how quickly restoration can happen. To enable infrastructure to be redeployed quickly without errors, deploy using infrastructure as code (IaC). Without IaC, it may be complex to restore an analogous DR environment, which will lead to increased recovery times and possibly exceed your RTO.

Let’s explore the setup required when your primary Amazon MWAA environment is actively running, as shown in the following figure.

Backup and Restore - Pre

The solution comprises three key components. The first component is the primary environment, where the Airflow workflows are initially deployed and actively running. The second component is the disaster monitoring component, comprised of CloudWatch and a combination of an AWS Step Functions state machine and a AWS Lambda function. The third component is for creating and storing backups of all configurations and metadata that is required to restore. This can be in the same Region as your primary or replicated to your DR Region using S3 Cross-Region Replication (CRR). For CRR, you also pay for inter-Region data transfer out from Amazon S3 to each destination Region.

The first three steps in the workflow are as follows:

  1. As part of your backup creation process, Airflow metadata is replicated to an S3 bucket using an export DAG utility, run periodically based on your RPO interval.
  2. Your existing primary Amazon MWAA environment automatically emits the status of its scheduler’s health to the CloudWatch SchedulerHeartbeat metric.
  3. A multi-step Step Functions state machine is triggered from a periodic Amazon EventBridge schedule to monitor the scheduler’s health status. As the primary step of the state machine, a Lambda function evaluates the status of the SchedulerHeartbeat metric. If the metric is deemed healthy, no action is taken.

The following figure illustrates the additional steps in the solution workflow.

Backup and Restore post

  1. When the heartbeat count deviates from the normal count for a period of time, a series of actions are initiated to recover to a new Amazon MWAA environment in the DR Region. These actions include starting creation of a new Amazon MWAA environment, replicating the primary environment configurations, and then waiting for the new environment to become available.
  2. When the environment is available, an import DAG utility is run to restore the metadata contents from the backups. Any DAG runs that were interrupted during the impairment of the primary environment need to be manually rerun to maintain service level agreements. Future DAG runs are queued to run as per their next configured schedule.

DR strategy solution 2: Active-passive environments with periodic data synchronization

The active-passive environments with periodic data synchronization strategy focuses on maintaining recurrent data synchronization between an active primary and a passive Amazon MWAA DR environment. By periodically updating and synchronizing DAG stores and metadata databases, this strategy ensures that the DR environment remains current or nearly current with the primary. The DR Region can be the same or a different Region than your primary Amazon MWAA environment. In the event of a disaster, backups are available to revert to a previous known good state to minimize data loss or corruption.

This strategy provides low RTO and RPO with frequent synchronization, allowing quick recovery with minimal data loss. The infrastructure costs and code deployments are compounded to maintain both the primary and DR Amazon MWAA environments. Your DR environment is available immediately to run DAGs on.

The following figure illustrates the setup required when your primary Amazon MWAA environment is actively running.

Active Passive pre

The solution comprises four key components. Similar to the backup and restore solution, the first component is the primary environment, where the workflow is initially deployed and is actively running. The second component is the disaster monitoring component, consisting of CloudWatch and a combination of a Step Functions state machine and Lambda function. The third component creates and stores backups for all configurations and metadata required for the database synchronization. This can be in the same Region as your primary or replicated to your DR Region using Amazon S3 Cross-Region Replication. As mentioned earlier, for CRR, you also pay for inter-Region data transfer out from Amazon S3 to each destination Region. The last component is a passive Amazon MWAA environment that has the same Airflow code and environment configurations as the primary. The DAGs are deployed in the DR environment using the same continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline as the primary. Unlike the primary, DAGs are kept in a paused state to not cause duplicate runs.

The first steps of the workflow are similar to the backup and restore strategy:

  1. As part of your backup creation process, Airflow metadata is replicated to an S3 bucket using an export DAG utility, run periodically based on your RPO interval.
  2. Your existing primary Amazon MWAA environment automatically emits the status of its scheduler’s health to CloudWatch SchedulerHeartbeat metric.
  3. A multi-step Step Functions state machine is triggered from a periodic Amazon EventBridge schedule to monitor scheduler health status. As the primary step of the state machine, a Lambda function evaluates the status of the SchedulerHeartbeat metric. If the metric is deemed healthy, no action is taken.

The following figure illustrates the final steps of the workflow.

Active Passive post

  1. When the heartbeat count deviates from the normal count for a period of time, DR actions are initiated.
  2. As a first step, a Lambda function triggers an import DAG utility to restore the metadata contents from the backups to the passive Amazon MWAA DR environment. When the imports are complete, the same DAG can un-pause the other Airflow DAGs, making them active for future runs. Any DAG runs that were interrupted during the impairment of the primary environment need to be manually rerun to maintain service level agreements. Future DAG runs are queued to run as per their next configured schedule.

Best practices to improve resiliency of Amazon MWAA

To enhance the resiliency of your Amazon MWAA environment and ensure smooth disaster recovery, consider implementing the following best practices:

  • Robust backup and restore mechanisms – Implementing comprehensive backup and restore mechanisms for Amazon MWAA data is essential. Regularly deleting existing metadata based on your organization’s retention policies reduces backup times and makes your Amazon MWAA environment more performant.
  • Automation using IaC – Using automation and orchestration tools such as AWS CloudFormation, the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK), or Terraform can streamline the deployment and configuration management of Amazon MWAA environments. This ensures consistency, reproducibility, and faster recovery during DR scenarios.
  • Idempotent DAGs and tasks – In Airflow, a DAG is considered idempotent if rerunning the same DAG with the same inputs multiple times has the same effect as running it only once. Designing idempotent DAGs and keeping tasks atomic decreases recovery time from failures when you have to manually rerun an interrupted DAG in your recovered environment.
  • Regular testing and validation – A robust Amazon MWAA DR strategy should include regular testing and validation exercises. By simulating disaster scenarios, you can identify any gaps in your DR plans, fine-tune processes, and ensure your Amazon MWAA environments are fully recoverable.


In this post, we explored the challenges for Amazon MWAA disaster recovery and discussed best practices to improve resiliency. We examined two DR strategy solutions: backup and restore and active-passive environments with periodic data synchronization. By implementing these solutions and following best practices, you can protect your Amazon MWAA environments, minimize downtime, and mitigate the impact of disasters. Regular testing, validation, and adaptation to evolving requirements are crucial for an effective Amazon MWAA DR strategy. By continuously evaluating and refining your disaster recovery plans, you can ensure the resilience and uninterrupted operation of your Amazon MWAA environments, even in the face of unforeseen events.

For additional details and code examples on Amazon MWAA, refer to the Amazon MWAA User Guide and the Amazon MWAA examples GitHub repo.

About the Authors

Parnab Basak is a Senior Solutions Architect and a Serverless Specialist at AWS. He specializes in creating new solutions that are cloud native using modern software development practices like serverless, DevOps, and analytics. Parnab works closely in the analytics and integration services space helping customers adopt AWS services for their workflow orchestration needs.

Chandan Rupakheti is a Solutions Architect and a Serverless Specialist at AWS. He is a passionate technical leader, researcher, and mentor with a knack for building innovative solutions in the cloud and bringing stakeholders together in their cloud journey. Outside his professional life, he loves spending time with his family and friends besides listening and playing music.

Vinod Jayendra is a Enterprise Support Lead in ISV accounts at Amazon Web Services, where he helps customers in solving their architectural, operational, and cost optimization challenges. With a particular focus on Serverless technologies, he draws from his extensive background in application development to deliver top-tier solutions. Beyond work, he finds joy in quality family time, embarking on biking adventures, and coaching youth sports team.

Rupesh Tiwari is a Senior Solutions Architect at AWS in New York City, with a focus on Financial Services. He has over 18 years of IT experience in the finance, insurance, and education domains, and specializes in architecting large-scale applications and cloud-native big data workloads. In his spare time, Rupesh enjoys singing karaoke, watching comedy TV series, and creating joyful moments with his family.

AWS Weekly Roundup—Amazon Route53, Amazon EventBridge, Amazon SageMaker, and more – January 15, 2024

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-amazon-route53-amazon-eventbridge-amazon-sagemaker-and-more-january-15-2024/

We are in January, the start of a new year, and I imagine many of you have made a new year resolution to learn something new. If you want to learn something new and get a free Amazon Web Services (AWS) Learning Badge, check out the new Events and Workflows Learning Path. This learning path will teach you everything you need to know about AWS Step Functions, Amazon EventBridge, event-driven architectures, and serverless, and when you finish the learning path, you can take an assessment. If you pass the assessment, you get an AWS Learning Badge, credited by Credly, that you can share in your résumé and social media profiles.

Events and workflows learning path badge

Last Week’s Launches
Here are some launches that got my attention during the previous week.

Amazon Route 53 – Now you can enable Route 53 Resolver DNS Firewall to filter DNS traffic based on the query type contained in the question section of the DNS query format. In addition, Route 53 now supports geoproximity routing as an additional routing policy for DNS records. Expand and reduce the geographic area from which traffic is routed to a resource by changing the record’s bias value. This is really helpful for industries that need to deliver highly responsive digital experiences.

Amazon CloudWatch LogsCloudWatch Logs now support creating account-level subscription filters. This capability allows you to forward all the logs groups from an account to other services like Amazon OpenSearch Service or Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose.

Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) Amazon ECS now integrates with Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), allowing you to provision and attach EBS volumes to Amazon ECS tasks running on both AWS Fargate and Amazon Elastic Cloud Compute (Amazon EC2). Read the blog post Channy wrote where he shows this feature in action.

Amazon EventBridgeEventBridge now supports AWS AppSync as a target of EventBridge buses. This enables you to stream real-time updates from your backend applications to your front-end clients. For example, you can get notifications in your mobile application from an order you did when the order status changes on the backend.

Amazon SageMakerSageMaker now supports M7i, C7i, and R7i instances for machine learning (ML) inference. These instances are powered by custom 4th generation Intel Xeon scalable processors and deliver up to 15 percent better price performance than their previous generations.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other updates and news that you may have missed:

If you are a serverless enthusiast, this week, the AWS Compute Blog published the Serverless ICYMI (in case you missed it) quarterly recap for the last quarter of 2023. This post compiles the announcements made during the months of October, November, and December, with all the relevant content that was produced by AWS Developer Advocates during that time. In addition to that blog post, you can learn about ServerlessVideo, a new demo application that we launched at AWS re:Invent 2023.


This week there were also a couple of really interesting blog posts that explain how to solve very common challenges that customers face. The first one is the blog post in the AWS Security Blog that explains how to customize access tokens in Amazon Cognito user pools. And the second one is from the AWS Database Blog, which explains how to effectively sort data with Amazon DynamoDB.

The Official AWS Podcast – Listen each week for updates on the latest AWS news and deep dives into exciting use cases. There are also official AWS podcasts in several languages. Check out the ones in FrenchGermanItalian, and Spanish.

AWS open source newsletter – This is a newsletter curated by my colleague Ricardo to bring you the latest open source projects, posts, events, and more.

For our customers in Turkey, on January 1, 2024, AWS Turkey Pazarlama Teknoloji ve Danışmanlık Hizmetleri Limited Şirketi (AWS Turkey) replaced AWS EMEA SARL (AWS Europe) as the contracting party and service provider to customers in Türkiye. This enables AWS customers in Türkiye to transact in their local currency (Turkish Lira) and with a local bank. For more information on AWS Turkey, visit the FAQ page.

Upcoming AWS Events
The beginning of the year is the season of AWS re:Invent recaps, which are happening all around the globe during the next two months. You can check the recaps page to find the one closest to you.

You can browse all upcoming AWS led in-person and virtual events, as well as developer-focused events such as AWS DevDay.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— Marcia

This post is part of our Weekly Roundup series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

Enable metric-based and scheduled scaling for Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink

Post Syndicated from Francisco Morillo original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/enable-metric-based-and-scheduled-scaling-for-amazon-managed-service-for-apache-flink/

Thousands of developers use Apache Flink to build streaming applications to transform and analyze data in real time. Apache Flink is an open source framework and engine for processing data streams. It’s highly available and scalable, delivering high throughput and low latency for the most demanding stream-processing applications. Monitoring and scaling your applications is critical to keep your applications running successfully in a production environment.

Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink is a fully managed service that reduces the complexity of building and managing Apache Flink applications. Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink manages the underlying Apache Flink components that provide durable application state, metrics, logs, and more.

In this post, we show a simplified way to automatically scale up and down the number of KPUs (Kinesis Processing Units; 1 KPU is 1 vCPU and 4 GB of memory) of your Apache Flink applications with Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink. We show you how to scale by using metrics such as CPU, memory, backpressure, or any custom metric of your choice. Additionally, we show how to perform scheduled scaling, allowing you to adjust your application’s capacity at specific times, particularly when dealing with predictable workloads. We also share an AWS CloudFormation utility to help you implement auto scaling quickly with your Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink applications.

Metric-based scaling

This section describes how to implement a scaling solution for Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink based on Amazon CloudWatch metrics. Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink comes with an auto scaling option out of the box that scales out when container CPU utilization is above 75% for 15 minutes. This works well for many use cases; however, for some applications, you may need to scale based on a different metric, or trigger the scaling action at a certain point in time or by a different factor. You can customize your scaling policies and save costs by right-sizing your Amazon Managed Apache Flink applications the deploying this solution.

To perform metric-based scaling, we use CloudWatch alarms, Amazon EventBridge, AWS Step Functions, and AWS Lambda. You can choose from metrics coming from the source such as Amazon Kinesis Data Streams or Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK), or metrics from the Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application. You can find these components in the CloudFormation template in the GitHub repo.

The following diagram shows how to scale an Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application in response to a CloudWatch alarm.

This solution uses the metric selected and creates two CloudWatch alarms that, depending on the threshold you use, trigger a rule in EventBridge to start running a Step Functions state machine. The following diagram illustrates the state machine workflow.

Note: Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics was renamed to Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink August 2023

The Step Functions workflow consists of the following steps:

  1. The state machine describes the Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application, which will provide information related to the current number of KPUs in the application, as well if the application is being updated or is it running.
  2. The state machine invokes a Lambda function that, depending on which alarm was triggered, will scale the application up or down, following the parameters set in the CloudFormation template. When scaling the application, it will use the increase factor (either add/subtract or multiple/divide based on that factor) defined in the CloudFormation template. You can have different factors for scaling in or out. If you want to take a more cautious approach to scaling, you can use add/subtract and use an increase factor for scaling in/out of 1.
  3. If the application has reached the maximum or minimum number of KPUs set in the parameters of the CloudFormation template, the workflow stops. Keep in mind that Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink applications have a default maximum of 64 KPUs (you can request to increase this limit). Do not specify a maximum value above 64 KPUs if you have not requested to increase the quota, because the scaling solution will get stuck by failing to update.
  4. If the workflow continues, because the allocated KPUs haven’t reached the maximum or minimum values, the workflow will wait for a period of time you specify, and then describe the application and see if it has finished updating.
  5. The workflow will continue to wait until the application has finished updating. When the application is updated, the workflow will wait for a period of time you specify in the CloudFormation template, to allow the metric to fall within the threshold and have the CloudWatch rule change from ALARM state to OK.
  6. If the metric is still in ALARM state, the workflow will start again and continue to scale the application either up or down. If the metric is in OK state, the workflow will stop.

For applications that read from a Kinesis Data Streams source, you can use the metric millisBehindLatest. If using a Kafka source, you can use records lag max for scaling events. These metrics capture how far behind your application is from the head of the stream. You can also use a custom metric that you have registered in your Apache Flink applications.

The sample CloudFormation template allows you to select one of the following metrics:

  • Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application metrics – Requires an application name:
    • ContainerCPUUtilization – Overall percentage of CPU utilization across task manager containers in the Flink application cluster.
    • ContainerMemoryUtilization – Overall percentage of memory utilization across task manager containers in the Flink application cluster.
    • BusyTimeMsPerSecond – Time in milliseconds the application is busy (neither idle nor back pressured) per second.
    • BackPressuredTimeMsPerSecond – Time in milliseconds the application is back pressured per second.
    • LastCheckpointDuration – Time in milliseconds it took to complete the last checkpoint.
  • Kinesis Data Streams metrics – Requires the data stream name:
    • MillisBehindLatest – The number of milliseconds the consumer is behind the head of the stream, indicating how far behind the current time the consumer is.
    • IncomingRecords – The number of records successfully put to the Kinesis data stream over the specified time period. If no records are coming, this metric will be null and you won’t be able to scale down.
  • Amazon MSK metrics – Requires the cluster name, topic name, and consumer group name):
    • MaxOffsetLag – The maximum offset lag across all partitions in a topic.
    • SumOffsetLag – The aggregated offset lag for all the partitions in a topic.
    • EstimatedMaxTimeLag – The time estimate (in seconds) to drain MaxOffsetLag.
  • Custom metrics – Metrics you can define as part of your Apache Flink applications. Most common metrics are counters (continuously increase) or gauges (can be updated with last value). For this solution, you need to add the kinesisAnalytics dimension to the metric group. You also need to provide the custom metric name as a parameter in the CloudFormation template. If you need to use more dimensions in your custom metric, you need to modify the CloudWatch alarm so it’s able to use your specific metric. For more information on custom metrics, see Using Custom Metrics with Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink.

The CloudFormation template deploys the resources as well as the auto scaling code. You only need to specify the name of the Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application, the metric to which you want to scale your application in or out, and the thresholds for triggering an alarm. The solution by default will use the average aggregation for metrics and a period duration of 60 seconds for each data point. You can configure the evaluation periods and data points to alarm when defining the CloudFormation template.

Scheduled scaling

This section describes how to implement a scaling solution for Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink based on a schedule. To perform scheduled scaling, we use EventBridge and Lambda, as illustrated in the following figure.

These components are available in the CloudFormation template in the GitHub repo.

The EventBridge scheduler is triggered based on the parameters set when deploying the CloudFormation template. You define the KPU of the applications when running at peak times, as well as the KPU for non-peak times. The application runs with those KPU parameters depending on the time of day.

As with the previous example for metric-based scaling, the CloudFormation template deploys the resources and scaling code required. You only need to specify the name of the Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink application and the schedule for the scaler to modify the application to the set number of KPUs.

Considerations for scaling Flink applications using metric-based or scheduled scaling

Be aware of the following when considering these solutions:

  • When scaling Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink applications in or out, you can choose to either increase the overall application parallelism or modify the parallelism per KPU. The latter allows you to set the number of parallel tasks that can be scheduled per KPU. This sample only updates the overall parallelism, not the parallelism per KPU.
  • If SnapshotsEnabled is set to true in ApplicationSnapshotConfiguration, Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink will automatically pause the application, take a snapshot, and then restore the application with the updated configuration whenever it is updated or scaled. This process may result in downtime for the application, depending on the state size, but there will be no data loss. When using metric-based scaling, you have to choose a minimum and a maximum threshold of KPU the application can have. Depending on by how much you perform the scaling, if the new desired KPU is bigger or lower than your thresholds, the solution will update the KPUs to be equal to your thresholds.
  • When using metric-based scaling, you also have to choose a cooling down period. This is the amount of time you want your application to wait after being updated, to see if the metric has gone from ALARM status to OK status. This value depends on how long are you willing to wait before another scaling event to occur.
  • With the metric-based scaling solution, you are limited to choosing the metrics that are listed in the CloudFormation template. However, you can modify the alarms to use any available metric in CloudWatch.
  • If your application is required to run without interruptions for periods of time, we recommend using scheduled scaling, to limit scaling to non-critical times.


In this post, we covered how you can enable custom scaling for Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink applications using enhanced monitoring features from CloudWatch integrated with Step Functions and Lambda. We also showed how you can configure a schedule to scale an application using EventBridge. Both of these samples and many more can be found in the GitHub repo.

About the Authors

Deepthi Mohan is a Principal PMT on the Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink team.

Francisco Morillo is a Streaming Solutions Architect at AWS. Francisco works with AWS customers, helping them design real-time analytics architectures using AWS services, supporting Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK) and Amazon Managed Service for Apache Flink.

AWS Weekly Roundup — AWS Lambda, AWS Amplify, Amazon OpenSearch Service, Amazon Rekognition, and more — December 18, 2023

Post Syndicated from Donnie Prakoso original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/aws-weekly-roundup-aws-lambda-aws-amplify-amazon-opensearch-service-amazon-rekognition-and-more-december-18-2023/

My memories of Amazon Web Services (AWS) re:Invent 2023 are still fresh even when I’m currently wrapping up my activities in Jakarta after participating in AWS Community Day Indonesia. It was a great experience, from delivering chalk talks and having thoughtful discussions with AWS service teams, to meeting with AWS Heroes, AWS Community Builders, and AWS User Group leaders. AWS re:Invent brings the global AWS community together to learn, connect, and be inspired by innovation. For me, that spirit of connection is what makes AWS re:Invent always special.

Here’s a quick look of my highlights at AWS re:Invent and AWS Community Day Indonesia:

If you missed AWS re:Invent, you can watch the keynotes and sessions on demand. Also, check out the AWS News Editorial Team’s Top announcements of AWS re:Invent 2023 for all the major launches.

Recent AWS launches
Here are some of the launches that caught my attention in the past two weeks:

Query MySQL and PostgreSQL with AWS Amplify – In this post, Channy wrote how you can now connect your MySQL and PostgreSQL databases to AWS Amplify with just a few clicks. It generates a GraphQL API to query your database tables using AWS CDK.

Migration Assistant for Amazon OpenSearch Service – With this self-service solution, you can smoothly migrate from your self-managed clusters to Amazon OpenSearch Service managed clusters or serverless collections.

AWS Lambda simplifies connectivity to Amazon RDS and RDS Proxy – Now you can connect your AWS Lambda to Amazon RDS or RDS proxy using the AWS Lambda console. With a guided workflow, this improvement helps to minimize complexities and efforts to quickly launch a database instance and correctly connect a Lambda function.

New no-code dashboard application to visualize IoT data – With this announcement, you can now visualize and interact with operational data from AWS IoT SiteWise using a new open source Internet of Things (IoT) dashboard.

Amazon Rekognition improves Face Liveness accuracy and user experience – This launch provides higher accuracy in detecting spoofed faces for your face-based authentication applications.

AWS Lambda supports additional concurrency metrics for improved quota monitoring – Add CloudWatch metrics for your Lambda quotas, to improve visibility into concurrency limits.

AWS Malaysia now supports 3D-Secure authentication – This launch enables 3DS2 transaction authentication required by banks and payment networks, facilitating your secure online payments.

Announcing AWS CloudFormation template generation for Amazon EventBridge Pipes – With this announcement, you can now streamline the deployment of your EventBridge resources with CloudFormation templates, accelerating event-driven architecture (EDA) development.

Enhanced data protection for CloudWatch Logs – With the enhanced data protection, CloudWatch Logs helps identify and redact sensitive data in your logs, preventing accidental exposure of personal data.

Send SMS via Amazon SNS in Asia Pacific – With this announcement, now you can use SMS messaging across Asia Pacific from the Jakarta Region.

Lambda adds support for Python 3.12 – This launch brings the latest Python version to your Lambda functions.

CloudWatch Synthetics upgrades Node.js runtime – Now you can use Node.js 16.1 runtimes for your canary functions.

Manage EBS Volumes for your EC2 fleets – This launch simplifies attaching and managing EBS volumes across your EC2 fleets.

See you next year!
This is the last AWS Weekly Roundup for this year, and we’d like to thank you for being our wonderful readers. We’ll be back to share more launches for you on January 8, 2024.

Happy holidays!


Introducing support for read-only management events in Amazon EventBridge

Post Syndicated from Eric Johnson original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-support-for-read-only-management-events-in-amazon-eventbridge/

This post is written by Pawan Puthran, Principal Specialist TAM, Serverless and Heeki Park, Principal Solutions Architect, Serverless

Today, AWS is announcing support for read-only management events in Amazon EventBridge. This feature enables customers to build rich event-driven responses from any action taken on AWS infrastructure to detect security vulnerabilities or identify suspicious activity in near real-time. You can now gain insight into all activity across all your AWS accounts and respond to those events as is appropriate.


EventBridge is a serverless event bus used to decouple event producers and consumers. Event producers publish events onto an event bus, which then uses rules to determine where to send those events. The rules determine the downstream targets that receive and process the events, and EventBridge routes the events accordingly.

EventBridge allows customers to monitor, audit, and react, in near real-time, to changes in their AWS environments through events generated by AWS CloudTrail for AWS API calls. CloudTrail records actions taken by a user, role, or an AWS service as events in a trail. Events include actions taken in the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), and AWS SDKs and APIs.

Previously, only mutating API calls are published from CloudTrail to EventBridge for control plane changes. Events for mutating API calls include those that create, update, or delete resources. Control plane changes are also referred to as management events. EventBridge now supports non-mutating or read-only API calls for management events at no additional cost. These include those that list, get, or describe resources.

CloudTrail events in EventBridge enable you to build rich event-driven responses from any action taken on AWS infrastructure in real time. Previously, customers and partners often used a polling model to iterate over a batch of CloudTrail logs from Amazon S3 buckets to detect issues, making it slower to respond. The launch of read-only management events enables you to detect and remediate issues in near real-time and thus improve the overall security posture.

Enabling read-only management events

You can start receiving read-only management events if a CloudTrail is configured in your account and if the event selector for that CloudTrail is configured with ReadWriteType of either All or ReadOnly. This ensures that the read-only management events are logged in the CloudTrail and are then passed to EventBridge.

For example, you can receive an alert if a production account lists resources from an IP address outside of your VPC. Another example could be if an entity, such as a principal (AWS account root user, IAM role, or IAM user), calls the ListInstanceProfilesForRole or DescribeInstances APIs without any prior record of doing so. A malicious actor could use stolen credentials for conducting this reconnaissance to find more valuable credentials or determine the capabilities of the credentials they have.

To enable read-only management events with an EventBridge rule, in addition to the existing mutating events, use the new ENABLED_WITH_ALL_CLOUDTRAIL_MANAGEMENT_EVENTS state when creating the rule.

    Type: 'AWS::Events::Rule'
      Description: 'Example for enabling read-only management events'
          - aws.s3
          - AWS API Call via CloudTrail
        - Arn: 'arn:aws:sns:us-east-1:123456789012:notificationTopic'
          Id: 'NotificationTarget'

You can also create a rule on an event bus to specify a particular API action by using the eventName attribute under the detail key:

aws events put-rule --name "SampleTestRule" \
--event-pattern '{"detail": {"eventName": ["ListBuckets"]}}' \

Common scenarios and use-cases

The following section describes a couple of the scenarios where you can set up EventBridge rules and take actions on non-mutating or read-only management events.

Detecting anomalous Secrets Manager GetSecretValue API Calls

Consider the security team of your organization that wants a notification whenever GetSecretValue API calls for AWS Secrets Manager are made through the CLI. They can then investigate if these calls are made by entities outside their organization or by an unauthorized user and take corrective actions to deny such requests.

When the application calls the GetSecretValue API to retrieve the secrets via a CLI, it generates an event like this:

    "version": "0",
    "id": "d3368cc1-e6d6-e4bf-e58e-030f03b6eae3",
    "detail-type": "AWS API Call via CloudTrail",
    "source": "aws.secretsmanager",
    "account": "111111111111",
    "time": "2023-11-08T19:58:38Z",
    "region": "us-east-1",
    "resources": [],
    "detail": {
        "eventVersion": "1.08",
        "userIdentity": {
            "type": "IAMUser",
            "principalId": "AAAAAAAAAAAAA",
            "arn": "arn:aws:iam:: 111111111111:user/USERNAME"
            // ... additional detail fields
        "eventTime": "2023-11-08T19:58:38Z",
        "eventSource": "secretsmanager.amazonaws.com",
        "eventName": "GetSecretValue",
        "awsRegion": "us-east-1",
        "userAgent": "aws-cli/2.13.15 Python/3.11.4 Darwin/22.6.0 exe/x86_64 prompt/off command/secretsmanager.get-secret-value"
        // ... additional detail fields

You set the following event pattern on the rule to filter incoming events to specific consumers. This example also uses the recently launched wildcard filter for event matching.

    "source": [
    "detail-type": [
        "AWS API Call via CloudTrail"
    "detail": {
        "eventName": [
        "userAgent": [
                "wildcard": "aws-cli/*"

You can create a rule matching a combination of these event properties. In this case, you are matching for aws.secretsmanager as source, AWS API Call via CloudTrail as detail-type, GetSecretValue as detail.eventName and wildcard pattern on detail.userAgent for aws-cli/*. You can filter detail.userAgent with a wildcard to catch events that come from a particular application or user.

You can then route these events to a target like an Amazon CloudWatch Logs stream to record the change. You can also route them to Amazon SNS to get notified via email subscription. You can alternatively route them to an AWS Lambda function in which you perform custom business logic.

Creating an EventBridge rule for read-only management events

  1. Create a rule on the default event bus using the new state ENABLED_WITH_ALL_CLOUDTRAIL_MANAGEMENT_EVENTS.
    aws events put-rule --name "monitor-secretsmanager" \
    --event-pattern '{"source": ["aws.secretsmanager"], "detail-type": ["AWS API Call via CloudTrail"], "detail": {"eventName": ["GetSecretValue"], "userAgent": [{ "wildcard": "aws-cli/*"} ]}}' \

    Rule details

    Rule details

  2. Configure a target. In this case, the target service is CloudWatch Logs but you can configure any of the supported targets.
    aws events put-targets --rule monitor-secretsmanager --targets Id=1,Arn=arn:aws:logs:us-east-1:ACCOUNT_ID:log-group:/aws/events/getsecretvaluelogs --region us-east-1

    Target details

    Target details

You can then use CloudWatch Log Insights to search and analyze log data using the CloudWatch Log Insights query syntax where you can retrieve the user who performed these calls.

Identifying suspicious data exfiltration behavior

Consider the security or data perimeter team who wants to secure data residing in Amazon S3 buckets. The team requires notifications whenever API calls to list S3 buckets or to list S3 objects are made.

When a user or application calls the ListBuckets API to discover the available buckets, it generates the following CloudTrail event:

    "version": "0",
    "id": "345ca690-6510-85b2-ff02-090493a33cf1",
    "detail-type": "AWS API Call via CloudTrail",
    "source": "aws.s3",
    "account": "111111111111",
    "time": "2023-11-14T17:25:30Z",
    "region": "us-east-1",
    "resources": [],
    "detail": {
        "eventVersion": "1.09",
        "userIdentity": {
            "type": "IAMUser",
            "principalId": "principal-identity-uuid",
            "arn": "arn:aws:iam::111111111111:user/exploited-user",
            "accountId": "111111111111",
            "accessKeyId": "AAAABBBBCCCCDDDDEEEE",
            "userName": "exploited-user"
        "eventTime": "2023-11-14T17:25:30Z",
        "eventSource": "s3.amazonaws.com",
        "eventName": "ListBuckets",
        "awsRegion": "us-east-1",
        "sourceIPAddress": "",
        "userAgent": "[aws-cli/2.13.29 Python/3.11.6 Darwin/22.6.0 exe/x86_64 prompt/off command/s3api.list-buckets]",
        "requestParameters": {
            "Host": "s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com"
        "readOnly": true,
        "eventType": "AwsApiCall",
        "managementEvent": true
        // additional detail fields

In this scenario, you can create an EventBridge rule matching for aws.s3 for the source field, and ListBuckets for the eventName.

    "source": [
    "detail-type": [
        "AWS API Call via CloudTrail"
    "detail": {
        "eventName": [
            "ListBuckets "

However, listing objects alone might only be the beginning of a potential data exfiltration attempt. You may also want to check for ListObjects or ListObjectsV2 as the next action, followed by a large number of GetObject API calls. You can create the following rule to match those actions.

    "source": [
    "detail-type": [
        "AWS API Call via CloudTrail"
    "detail": {
        "eventName": [

You could potentially forward this log information to your central security logging solution or use anomaly detection machine learning models to evaluate these events to determine the appropriate response to these events.

Configuring cross-account and cross-Region event routing

You can also create rules to receive the read-only events to cross account or cross-Region to centralize your AWS events into one Region or one AWS account for auditing and monitoring purposes. For example, capture all workload events from multiple Regions in eu-west-1 for compliance reporting.

Cross Account example for default event bus and custom event bus

Cross Account example for default event bus and custom event bus

To do this, create a rule using the new ENABLED_WITH_ALL_CLOUDTRAIL_MANAGEMENT_EVENTS state on the default bus of the source account or the Region, targeting either default event bus or a custom event bus of the target account or Region. You must also ensure you have a rule configured with ENABLED_WITH_ALL_CLOUDTRAIL_MANAGEMENT_EVENTS to be able to invoke the targets in the destination account or Region.

Cross-Region setup for CloudTrail read-only events

Cross-Region setup for CloudTrail read-only events


This blog shows how customers can build rich event-driven responses with the newly launched support for read-only events. You can now observe events as potential signals of reconnaissance and data exfiltration activities from any action taken on AWS infrastructure in near real time. You can also use the cross-Region and cross-account functionality to deliver the read-only events to a centralized AWS account or Region, enhancing the capability for auditing and monitoring across all your AWS environments.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Introducing the AWS Integrated Application Test Kit (IATK)

Post Syndicated from James Beswick original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/aws-integrated-application-test-kit/

This post is written by Dan Fox, Principal Specialist Solutions Architect, and Brian Krygsman, Senior Solutions Architect.

Today, AWS announced the public preview launch of the AWS Integrated Application Test Kit (IATK). AWS IATK is a software library that helps you write automated tests for cloud-based applications. This blog post presents several initial features of AWS IATK, and then shows working examples using an example video processing application. If you are getting started with serverless testing, learn more at serverlessland.com/testing.


When you create applications composed of serverless services like AWS Lambda, Amazon EventBridge, or AWS Step Functions, many of your architecture components cannot be deployed to your desktop, but instead only exist in the AWS Cloud. In contrast to working with applications deployed locally, these types of applications benefit from cloud-based strategies for performing automated tests. For its public preview launch, AWS IATK helps you implement some of these strategies for Python applications. AWS IATK will support other languages in future launches.

Locating resources for tests

When you write automated tests for cloud resources, you need the physical IDs of your resources. The physical ID is the name AWS assigns to a resource after creation. For example, to send requests to Amazon API Gateway you need the physical ID, which forms the API endpoint.

If you deploy cloud resources in separate infrastructure as code stacks, you might have difficulty locating physical IDs. In CloudFormation, you create the logical IDs of the resources in your template, as well as the stack name. With IATK, you can get the physical ID of a resource if you provide the logical ID and stack name. You can also get stack outputs by providing the stack name. These convenient methods simplify locating resources for the tests that you write.

Creating test harnesses for event driven architectures

To write integration tests for event driven architectures, establish logical boundaries by breaking your application into subsystems. Your subsystems should be simple enough to reason about, and contain understandable inputs and outputs. One useful technique for testing subsystems is to create test harnesses. Test harnesses are resources that you create specifically for testing subsystems.

For example, an integration test can begin a subsystem process by passing an input test event to it. IATK can create a test harness for you that listens to Amazon EventBridge for output events. (Under the hood, the harness is composed of an EventBridge Rule that forwards the output event to Amazon Simple Queue Service.) Your integration test then queries the test harness to examine the output and determine if the test passes or fails. These harnesses help you create integration tests in the cloud for event driven architectures.

Establishing service level agreements to test asynchronous features

If you write a synchronous service, your automated tests make requests and expect immediate responses. When your architecture is asynchronous, your service accepts a request and then performs a set of actions at a later time. How can you test for the success of an activity if it does not have a specified duration?

Consider creating reasonable timeouts for your asynchronous systems. Document timeouts as service level agreements (SLAs). You may decide to publish your SLAs externally or to document them as internal standards. IATK contains a polling feature that allows you to establish timeouts. This feature helps you to test that your asynchronous systems complete tasks in a timely manner.

Using AWS X-Ray for detailed testing

If you want to gain more visibility into the interior details of your application, instrument with AWS X-Ray. With AWS X-Ray, you trace the path of an event through multiple services. IATK provides conveniences that help you set the AWS X-Ray sampling rate, get trace trees, and assert for trace durations. These features help you observe and test your distributed systems in greater detail.

Learn more about testing asynchronous architectures at aws-samples/serverless-test-samples.

Overview of the example application

To demonstrate the features of IATK, this post uses a portion of a serverless video application designed with a plugin architecture. A core development team creates the primary application. Distributed development teams throughout the organization create the plugins. One AWS CloudFormation stack deploys the primary application. Separate stacks deploy each plugin.

Communications between the primary application and the plugins are managed by an EventBridge bus. Plugins pull application lifecycle events off the bus and must put completion notification events back on the bus within 20 seconds. For testing, the core team has created an AWS Step Functions workflow that mimics the production process by emitting properly formatted example lifecycle events. Developers run this test workflow in development and test environments to verify that their plugins are communicating properly with the event bus.

The following demonstration shows an integration test for the example application that validates plugin behavior. In the integration test, IATK locates the Step Functions workflow. It creates a test harness to listen for the event completion notification to be sent by the plugin. The test then runs the workflow to begin the lifecycle process and start plugin actions. Then IATK uses a polling mechanism with a timeout to verify that the plugin complies with the 20 second service level agreement. This is the sequence of processing:

Sequence of processing

  1. The integration test starts an execution of the test workflow.
  2. The workflow puts a lifecycle event onto the bus.
  3. The plugin pulls the lifecycle event from the bus.
  4. When the plugin is complete, it puts a completion event onto the bus.
  5. The integration test polls for the completion event to determine if the test passes within the SLA.

Deploying and testing the example application

Follow these steps to review this application, build it locally, deploy it in your AWS account, and test it.

Downloading the example application

  1. Open your terminal and clone the example application from GitHub with the following command or download the code. This repository also includes other example patterns for testing serverless applications.
    git clone https://github.com/aws-samples/serverless-test-samples
  2. The root of the IATK example application is in python-test-samples/integrated-application-test-kit. Change to this directory:
    cd serverless-test-samples/python-test-samples/integrated-application-test-kit

Reviewing the integration test

Before deploying the application, review how the integration test uses the IATK by opening plugins/2-postvalidate-plugins/python-minimal-plugin/tests/integration/test_by_polling.py in your text editor. The test class instantiates the IATK at the top of the file.

iatk_client = aws_iatk.AwsIatk(region=aws_region)

In the setUp() method, the test class uses IATK to fetch CloudFormation stack outputs. These outputs are references to deployed cloud components like the plugin tester AWS Step Functions workflow:

stack_outputs = self.iatk_client.get_stack_outputs(

The test class attaches a listener to the default event bus using an Event Rule provided in the stack outputs. The test uses this listener later to poll for events.

add_listener_output = self.iatk_client.add_listener(

The test class cleans up the listener in the tearDown() method.


Once the configurations are complete, the method test_minimal_plugin_event_published_polling() implements the actual test.

The test first initializes the trigger event.

trigger_event = {
    "eventHook": "postValidate",
    "pluginTitle": "PythonMinimalPlugin"

Next, the test starts an execution of the plugin tester Step Functions workflow. It uses the plugin_tester_arn that was fetched during setUp.


The test polls the listener, waiting for the plugin to emit events. It stops polling once it hits the SLA timeout or receives the maximum number of messages.

poll_output = self.iatk_client.poll_events(

Finally, the test asserts that it receives the right number of events, and that they are well-formed.

self.assertEqual(len(poll_output.events), 1)
self.assertEqual(received_event["source"], "video.plugin.PythonMinimalPlugin")
self.assertEqual(received_event["detail-type"], "plugin-complete")

Installing prerequisites

You need the following prerequisites to build this example:

Build and deploy the example application components

  1. Use AWS SAM to build and deploy the plugin tester to your AWS account. The plugin tester is the Step Functions workflow shown in the preceding diagram. During the build process, you can add the --use-container flag to the build command to instruct AWS SAM to create the application in a provided container. You can accept or override the default values during the deploy process. You will use “Stack Name” and “AWS Region” later to run the integration test.
    cd plugins/plugin_tester # Move to the plugin tester directory
    sam build --use-container # Build the plugin tester

    sam build

  2. Deploy the tester:
    sam deploy --guided # Deploy the plugin tester

    Deploy the tester

  3. Once the plugin tester is deployed, use AWS SAM to deploy the plugin.
    cd ../2-postvalidate-plugins/python-minimal-plugin # Move to the plugin directory
    sam build --use-container # Build the plugin

    Deploy the plugin

  4. Deploy the plugin:
    sam deploy --guided # Deploy the plugin

Running the test

You can run tests written with IATK using standard Python test runners like unittest and pytest. The example application test uses unittest.

    1. Use a virtual environment to organize your dependencies. From the root of the example application, run:
      python3 -m venv .venv # Create the virtual environment
      source .venv/bin/activate # Activate the virtual environment
    2. Install the dependencies, including the IATK:
      cd tests 
      pip3 install -r requirements.txt
    3. Run the test, providing the required environment variables from the earlier deployments. You can find correct values in the samconfig.toml file of the plugin_tester directory.

      cd integration
      PLUGIN_TESTER_STACK_NAME=video-plugin-tester \
      AWS_REGION=us-west-2 \
      python3 -m unittest ./test_by_polling.py

You should see output as unittest runs the test.

Open the Step Functions console in your AWS account, then choose the PluginLifecycleWorkflow-<random value> workflow to validate that the plugin tester successfully ran. A recent execution shows a Succeeded status:

Recent execution status

Review other IATK features

The example application includes examples of other IATK features like generating mock events and retrieving AWS X-Ray traces.

Cleaning up

Use AWS SAM to clean up both the plugin and the plugin tester resources from your AWS account.

  1. Delete the plugin resources:
    cd ../.. # Move to the plugin directory
    sam delete # Delete the plugin

    Deleting resources

  2. Delete the plugin tester resources:
    cd ../../plugin_tester # Move to the plugin tester directory
    sam delete # Delete the plugin tester

    Deleting the tester

The temporary test harness resources that IATK created during the test are cleaned up when the tearDown method runs. If there are problems during teardown, some resources may not be deleted. IATK adds tags to all resources that it creates. You can use these tags to locate the resources then manually remove them. You can also add your own tags.


The AWS Integrated Application Test Kit is a software library that provides conveniences to help you write automated tests for your cloud applications. This blog post shows some of the features of the initial Python version of the IATK.

To learn more about automated testing for serverless applications, visit serverlessland.com/testing. You can also view code examples at serverlessland.com/testing/patterns or at the AWS serverless-test-samples repository on GitHub.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Introducing shared VPC support on Amazon MWAA

Post Syndicated from John Jackson original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/big-data/introducing-shared-vpc-support-on-amazon-mwaa/

In this post, we demonstrate automating deployment of Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow (Amazon MWAA) using customer-managed endpoints in a VPC, providing compatibility with shared, or otherwise restricted, VPCs.

Data scientists and engineers have made Apache Airflow a leading open source tool to create data pipelines due to its active open source community, familiar Python development as Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) workflows, and extensive library of pre-built integrations. Amazon MWAA is a managed service for Airflow that makes it easy to run Airflow on AWS without the operational burden of having to manage the underlying infrastructure. For each Airflow environment, Amazon MWAA creates a single-tenant service VPC, which hosts the metadatabase that stores states and the web server that provides the user interface. Amazon MWAA further manages Airflow scheduler and worker instances in a customer-owned and managed VPC, in order to schedule and run tasks that interact with customer resources. Those Airflow containers in the customer VPC access resources in the service VPC via a VPC endpoint.

Many organizations choose to centrally manage their VPC using AWS Organizations, allowing a VPC in an owner account to be shared with resources in a different participant account. However, because creating a new route outside of a VPC is considered a privileged operation, participant accounts can’t create endpoints in owner VPCs. Furthermore, many customers don’t want to extend the security privileges required to create VPC endpoints to all users provisioning Amazon MWAA environments. In addition to VPC endpoints, customers also wish to restrict data egress via Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queues, and Amazon SQS access is a requirement in the Amazon MWAA architecture.

Shared VPC support for Amazon MWAA adds the ability for you to manage your own endpoints within your VPCs, adding compatibility to shared and otherwise restricted VPCs. Specifying customer-managed endpoints also provides the ability to meet strict security policies by explicitly restricting VPC resource access to just those needed by your Amazon MWAA environments. This post demonstrates how customer-managed endpoints work with Amazon MWAA and provides examples of how to automate the provisioning of those endpoints.

Solution overview

Shared VPC support for Amazon MWAA allows multiple AWS accounts to create their Airflow environments into shared, centrally managed VPCs. The account that owns the VPC (owner) shares the two private subnets required by Amazon MWAA with other accounts (participants) that belong to the same organization from AWS Organizations. After the subnets are shared, the participants can view, create, modify, and delete Amazon MWAA environments in the subnets shared with them.

When users specify the need for a shared, or otherwise policy-restricted, VPC during environment creation, Amazon MWAA will first create the service VPC resources, then enter a pending state for up to 72 hours, with an Amazon EventBridge notification of the change in state. This allows owners to create the required endpoints on behalf of participants based on endpoint service information from the Amazon MWAA console or API, or programmatically via an AWS Lambda function and EventBridge rule, as in the example in this post.

After those endpoints are created on the owner account, the endpoint service in the single-tenant Amazon MWAA VPC will detect the endpoint connection event and resume environment creation. Should there be an issue, you can cancel environment creation by deleting the environment during this pending state.

This feature also allows you to remove the create, modify, and delete VPCE privileges from the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) principal creating Amazon MWAA environments, even when not using a shared VPC, because that permission will instead be imposed on the IAM principal creating the endpoint (the Lambda function in our example). Furthermore, the Amazon MWAA environment will provide the SQS queue Amazon Resource Name (ARN) used by the Airflow Celery Executor to queue tasks (the Celery Executor Queue), allowing you to explicitly enter those resources into your network policy rather than having to provide a more open and generalized permission.

In this example, we create the VPC and Amazon MWAA environment in the same account. For shared VPCs across accounts, the EventBridge rule and Lambda function would exist in the owner account, and the Amazon MWAA environment would be created in the participant account. See Sending and receiving Amazon EventBridge events between AWS accounts for more information.


You should have the following prerequisites:

  • An AWS account
  • An AWS user in that account, with permissions to create VPCs, VPC endpoints, and Amazon MWAA environments
  • An Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket in that account, with a folder called dags

Create the VPC

We begin by creating a restrictive VPC using an AWS CloudFormation template, in order to simulate creating the necessary VPC endpoint and modifying the SQS endpoint policy. If you want to use an existing VPC, you can proceed to the next section.

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Create stack and choose With new resources (standard).
  2. Under Specify template, choose Upload a template file.
  3. Now we edit our CloudFormation template to restrict access to Amazon SQS. In cfn-vpc-private-bjs.yml, edit the SqsVpcEndoint section to appear as follows:
     Type: AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint
       ServiceName: !Sub "com.amazonaws.${AWS::Region}.sqs"
       VpcEndpointType: Interface
       VpcId: !Ref VPC
       PrivateDnsEnabled: true
        - !Ref PrivateSubnet1
        - !Ref PrivateSubnet2
        - !Ref SecurityGroup
         - Effect: Allow
           Principal: '*'
           Action: '*'
           Resource: []

This additional policy document entry prevents Amazon SQS egress to any resource not explicitly listed.

Now we can create our CloudFormation stack.

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Create stack.
  2. Select Upload a template file.
  3. Choose Choose file.
  4. Browse to the file you modified.
  5. Choose Next.
  6. For Stack name, enter MWAA-Environment-VPC.
  7. Choose Next until you reach the review page.
  8. Choose Submit.

Create the Lambda function

We have two options for self-managing our endpoints: manual and automated. In this example, we create a Lambda function that responds to the Amazon MWAA EventBridge notification. You could also use the EventBridge notification to send an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) message, such as an email, to someone with permission to create the VPC endpoint manually.

First, we create a Lambda function to respond to the EventBridge event that Amazon MWAA will emit.

  1. On the Lambda console, choose Create function.
  2. For Name, enter mwaa-create-lambda.
  3. For Runtime, choose Python 3.11.
  4. Choose Create function.
  5. For Code, in the Code source section, for lambda_function, enter the following code:
    import boto3
    import json
    import logging
    logger = logging.getLogger()
    def lambda_handler(event, context):
        if event['detail']['status']=="PENDING":
            # MWAA does not need to store the VPC ID, but we can get it from the subnets
            client = boto3.client('ec2')
            response = client.describe_subnets(SubnetIds=subnetIds)
            logger.info("vpcId: " + vpcId)       
            if detail['webserverAccessMode']=="PRIVATE_ONLY":
            response = client.describe_vpc_endpoints(
                    {"Name": "vpc-id", "Values": [vpcId]},
                    {"Name": "service-name", "Values": ["*.sqs"]},
            for r in response['VpcEndpoints']:
                if subnetIds[0] in r['SubnetIds'] or subnetIds[0] in r['SubnetIds']:
                    # We are filtering describe by service name, so this must be SQS
            if sqsVpcEndpoint:
                logger.info("Found SQS endpoint: " + sqsVpcEndpoint['VpcEndpointId'])
                pd = json.loads(sqsVpcEndpoint['PolicyDocument'])
                for s in pd['Statement']:
                    if s['Effect']=='Allow':
                        resource = s['Resource']
                        if '*' in resource:
                            logger.info("'*' already allowed")
                        elif celeryExecutorQueue in resource: 
                            logger.info("'"+celeryExecutorQueue+"' already allowed")                
                            logger.info("Updating SQS policy to " + str(pd))
            # create MWAA database endpoint
            logger.info("creating endpoint to " + databaseVpcEndpointService)
            response = client.create_vpc_endpoint(
                        "ResourceType": "vpc-endpoint",
                        "Tags": [
                                "Key": "Name",
                                "Value": endpointName
            logger.info("created VPCE: " + response['VpcEndpoint']['VpcEndpointId'])
            # create MWAA web server endpoint (if private)
            if webserverVpcEndpointService:
                logger.info("creating endpoint to " + webserverVpcEndpointService)
                response = client.create_vpc_endpoint(
                            "ResourceType": "vpc-endpoint",
                            "Tags": [
                                    "Key": "Name",
                                    "Value": endpointName
                logger.info("created VPCE: " + response['VpcEndpoint']['VpcEndpointId'])
        return {
            'statusCode': 200,
            'body': json.dumps(event['detail']['status'])

  6. Choose Deploy.
  7. On the Configuration tab of the Lambda function, in the General configuration section, choose Edit.
  8. For Timeout, increate to 5 minutes, 0 seconds.
  9. Choose Save.
  10. In the Permissions section, under Execution role, choose the role name to edit the permissions of this function.
  11. For Permission policies, choose the link under Policy name.
  12. Choose Edit and add a comma and the following statement:
    		"Sid": "Statement1",
    		"Effect": "Allow",

The complete policy should look similar to the following:

	"Version": "2012-10-17",
	"Statement": [
			"Effect": "Allow",
			"Action": "logs:CreateLogGroup",
			"Resource": "arn:aws:logs:us-east-1:112233445566:*"
			"Effect": "Allow",
			"Action": [
			"Resource": [
			"Sid": "Statement1",
			"Effect": "Allow",
			"Action": [
			"Resource": [
  1. Choose Next until you reach the review page.
  2. Choose Save changes.

Create an EventBridge rule

Next, we configure EventBridge to send the Amazon MWAA notifications to our Lambda function.

  1. On the EventBridge console, choose Create rule.
  2. For Name, enter mwaa-create.
  3. Select Rule with an event pattern.
  4. Choose Next.
  5. For Creation method, choose User pattern form.
  6. Choose Edit pattern.
  7. For Event pattern, enter the following:
      "source": ["aws.airflow"],
      "detail-type": ["MWAA Environment Status Change"]

  8. Choose Next.
  9. For Select a target, choose Lambda function.

You may also specify an SNS notification in order to receive a message when the environment state changes.

  1. For Function, choose mwaa-create-lambda.
  2. Choose Next until you reach the final section, then choose Create rule.

Create an Amazon MWAA environment

Finally, we create an Amazon MWAA environment with customer-managed endpoints.

  1. On the Amazon MWAA console, choose Create environment.
  2. For Name, enter a unique name for your environment.
  3. For Airflow version, choose the latest Airflow version.
  4. For S3 bucket, choose Browse S3 and choose your S3 bucket, or enter the Amazon S3 URI.
  5. For DAGs folder, choose Browse S3 and choose the dags/ folder in your S3 bucket, or enter the Amazon S3 URI.
  6. Choose Next.
  7. For Virtual Private Cloud, choose the VPC you created earlier.
  8. For Web server access, choose Public network (Internet accessible).
  9. For Security groups, deselect Create new security group.
  10. Choose the shared VPC security group created by the CloudFormation template.

Because the security groups of the AWS PrivateLink endpoints from the earlier step are self-referencing, you must choose the same security group for your Amazon MWAA environment.

  1. For Endpoint management, choose Customer managed endpoints.
  2. Keep the remaining settings as default and choose Next.
  3. Choose Create environment.

When your environment is available, you can access it via the Open Airflow UI link on the Amazon MWAA console.

Clean up

Cleaning up resources that are not actively being used reduces costs and is a best practice. If you don’t delete your resources, you can incur additional charges. To clean up your resources, complete the following steps:

  1. Delete your Amazon MWAA environment, EventBridge rule, and Lambda function.
  2. Delete the VPC endpoints created by the Lambda function.
  3. Delete any security groups created, if applicable.
  4. After the above resources have completed deletion, delete the CloudFormation stack to ensure that you have removed all of the remaining resources.


This post described how to automate environment creation with shared VPC support in Amazon MWAA. This gives you the ability to manage your own endpoints within your VPC, adding compatibility to shared, or otherwise restricted, VPCs. Specifying customer-managed endpoints also provides the ability to meet strict security policies by explicitly restricting VPC resource access to just those needed by their Amazon MWAA environments. To learn more about Amazon MWAA, refer to the Amazon MWAA User Guide. For more posts about Amazon MWAA, visit the Amazon MWAA resources page.

About the author

John Jackson has over 25 years of software experience as a developer, systems architect, and product manager in both startups and large corporations and is the AWS Principal Product Manager responsible for Amazon MWAA.

Converting Apache Kafka events from Avro to JSON using EventBridge Pipes

Post Syndicated from Pascal Vogel original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/converting-apache-kafka-events-from-avro-to-json-using-eventbridge-pipes/

This post is written by Pascal Vogel, Solutions Architect, and Philipp Klose, Global Solutions Architect.

Event streaming with Apache Kafka has become an important element of modern data-oriented and event-driven architectures (EDAs), unlocking use cases such as real-time analytics of user behavior, anomaly and fraud detection, and Internet of Things event processing. Stream producers and consumers in Kafka often use schema registries to ensure that all components follow agreed-upon event structures when sending (serializing) and processing (deserializing) events to avoid application bugs and crashes.

A common schema format in Kafka is Apache Avro, which supports rich data structures in a compact binary format. To integrate Kafka with other AWS and third-party services more easily, AWS offers Amazon EventBridge Pipes, a serverless point-to-point integration service. However, many downstream services expect JSON-encoded events, requiring custom, and repetitive schema validation and conversion logic from Avro to JSON in each downstream service.

This blog post shows how to reliably consume, validate, convert, and send Avro events from Kafka to AWS and third-party services using EventBridge Pipes, allowing you to reduce custom deserialization logic in downstream services. You can also use EventBridge event buses as targets in Pipes to filter and distribute events from Pipes to multiple targets, including cross-account and cross-Region delivery.

This blog describes two scenarios:

  1. Using Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK) and AWS Glue Schema Registry.
  2. Using Confluent Cloud and the Confluent Schema Registry.

See the associated GitHub repositories for Glue Schema Registry or Confluent Schema Registry for full source code and detailed deployment instructions.

Kafka event streaming and schema validation on AWS

To build event streaming applications with Kafka on AWS, you can use Amazon MSK, offerings such as Confluent Cloud, or self-hosted Kafka on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances.

To avoid common issues in event streaming and event-driven architectures, such as data inconsistencies and incompatibilities, it is a recommended practice to define and share event schemas between event producers and consumers. In Kafka, schema registries are used to manage, evolve, and enforce schemas for event producers and consumers. The AWS Glue Schema Registry provides a central location to discover, manage, and evolve schemas. In the case of Confluent Cloud, the Confluent Schema Registry serves the same role. Both the Glue Schema Registry and the Confluent Schema Registry support common schema formats such as Avro, Protobuf, and JSON.

To integrate Kafka with AWS services, third-party services, and your own applications, you can use EventBridge Pipes. EventBridge Pipes helps you create point-to-point integrations between event sources and targets with optional filtering, transformation, and enrichment. EventBridge Pipes reduces the amount of integration code that you have to write and maintain when building EDAs.

Many AWS and third-party services expect JSON-encoded payloads (events) as input, meaning they cannot directly consume Avro or Protobuf payloads. To replace repetitive Avro-to-JSON validation and conversion logic in each consumer, you can use the EventBridge Pipes enrichment step. This solution uses an AWS Lambda function in the enrichment step to deserialize and validate Kafka events with a schema registry, including error handling with dead-letter queues, and convert events to JSON before passing them to downstream services.

Solution overview

Architecture overview of the solution

The solution presented in this blog post consists of the following key elements:

  1. The source of the pipe is a Kafka cluster deployed using MSK or Confluent Cloud. EventBridge Pipes reads events from the Kafka stream in batches and sends them to the enrichment function (see here for an example event).
  2. The enrichment step (Lambda function) deserializes and validates the events against the configured schema registry (Glue or Confluent), converts events from Avro to JSON with integrated error handling, and returns them to the pipe.
  3. The target of this example solution is an EventBridge custom event bus that is invoked by EventBridge Pipes with JSON-encoded events returned by the enrichment Lambda function. EventBridge Pipes supports a variety of other targets, including Lambda, AWS Step Functions, Amazon API Gateway, API destinations, and more, enabling you to build EDAs without writing integration code.
  4. In this sample solution, the event bus sends all events to Amazon CloudWatch Logs via an EventBridge rule. You can extend the example to invoke additional EventBridge targets.

Optionally, you can add OpenAPI 3 or JSONSchema Draft 4 schemas for your events in the EventBridge schema registry by either manually generating it from the Avro schema or using EventBridge schema discovery. This allows you to download code bindings for the JSON-converted events for various programming languages, such as JavaScript, Python, and Java, to correctly use them in your EventBridge targets.

The remainder of this blog post describes this solution for the Glue and Confluent schema registries with code examples.

EventBridge Pipes with the Glue Schema Registry

This section describes how to implement event schema validation and conversion from Avro to JSON using EventBridge Pipes and the Glue Schema Registry. You can find the source code and detailed deployment instructions on GitHub.


You need an Amazon MSK serverless cluster running and the Glue Schema registry configured. This example includes a Avro schema and a Glue Schema Registry. See the following AWS blog post for an introduction to schema validation with the Glue Schema Registry: Validate, evolve, and control schemas in Amazon MSK and Amazon Kinesis Data Streams with AWS Glue Schema Registry.

EventBridge Pipes configuration

Use the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) template provided in the GitHub repository to deploy:

  1. An EventBridge pipe that connects to your existing Amazon MSK Serverless Kafka topic as the source via AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) authentication.
  2. EventBridge Pipes reads events from your Kafka topic using the Amazon MSK source type.
  3. An enrichment Lambda function in Java to perform event deserialization, validation, and conversion from Avro to JSON.
  4. An Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) dead letter queue to hold events for which deserialization failed.
  5. An EventBridge custom event bus as the pipe target. An EventBridge rule sends all incoming events into a CloudWatch Logs log group.

For MSK-based sources, EventBridge supports configuration parameters, such as batch window, batch size, and starting position, which you can set using the parameters of the CfnPipe class in the example CDK stack.

The example EventBridge pipe consumes events from Kafka in batches of 10 because it is targeting an EventBridge event bus, which has a max batch size of 10. See batching and concurrency in the EventBridge Pipes User Guide to choose an optimal configuration for other targets.

EventBridge Pipes with the Confluent Schema Registry

This section describes how to implement event schema validation and conversion from Avro to JSON using EventBridge Pipes and the Confluent Schema Registry. You can find the source code and detailed deployment instructions on GitHub.


To set up this solution, you need a Kafka stream running on Confluent Cloud as well as the Confluent Schema Registry set up. See the corresponding Schema Registry tutorial for Confluent Cloud to set up a schema registry for your Confluent Kafka stream.

To connect to your Confluent Cloud Kafka cluster, you need an API key for Confluent Cloud and Confluent Schema Registry. AWS Secrets Manager is used to securely store your Confluent secrets.

EventBridge Pipes configuration

Use the AWS CDK template provided in the GitHub repository to deploy:

  1. An EventBridge pipe that connects to your existing Confluent Kafka topic as the source via an API secret stored in Secrets Manager.
  2. EventBridge Pipes reads events from your Confluent Kafka topic using the self-managed Apache Kafka stream source type, which includes all non-MSK Kafka clusters.
  3. An enrichment Lambda function in Python to perform event deserialization, validation, and conversion from Avro to JSON.
  4. An SQS dead letter queue to hold events for which deserialization failed.
  5. An EventBridge custom event bus as the pipe target. An EventBridge rule writes all incoming events into a CloudWatch Logs log group.

For self-managed Kafka sources, EventBridge supports configuration parameters, such as batch window, batch size, and starting position, which you can set using the parameters of the CfnPipe class in the example CDK stack.

The example EventBridge pipe consumes events from Kafka in batches of 10 because it is targeting an EventBridge event bus, which has a max batch size of 10. See batching and concurrency in the EventBridge Pipes User Guide to choose an optimal configuration for other targets.

Enrichment Lambda functions

Both of the solutions described previously include an enrichment Lambda function for schema validation and conversion from Avro to JSON.

The Java Lambda function integrates with the Glue Schema Registry using the AWS Glue Schema Registry Library. The Python Lambda function integrates with the Confluent Schema Registry using the confluent-kafka library and uses Powertools for AWS Lambda (Python) to implement Serverless best practices such as logging and tracing.

The enrichment Lambda functions perform the following tasks:

  1. In the events polled from the Kafka stream by the EventBridge pipe, the key and value of the event are base64 encoded. Therefore, for each event in the batch passed to the function, the key and the value are decoded.
  2. The event key is assumed to be serialized by the producer as a string type.
  3. The event value is deserialized using the Glue Schema registry Serde (Java) or the confluent-kafka AvroDeserializer (Python).
  4. The function then returns the successfully converted JSON events to the EventBridge pipe, which then invokes the target for each of them.
  5. Events for which Avro deserialization failed are sent to the SQS dead letter queue.


This blog post shows how to implement event consumption, Avro schema validation, and conversion to JSON using Amazon EventBridge Pipes, Glue Schema Registry, and Confluent Schema Registry.

The source code for the presented example is available in the AWS Samples GitHub repository for Glue Schema Registry and Confluent Schema Registry. For more patterns, visit the Serverless Patterns Collection.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

Introducing logging support for Amazon EventBridge Pipes

Post Syndicated from David Boyne original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/introducing-logging-support-for-amazon-eventbridge-pipes/

Today, AWS is announcing support for logging with EventBridge Pipes. Amazon EventBridge Pipes is a point to point integration solution that connects event producers and consumers with optional filter, transform, and enrichment steps. EventBridge Pipes reduces the amount of integration code builders must write and maintain when building event-driven applications. Popular integrations include connecting Amazon Kinesis streams together with filtering, Amazon DynamoDB direct integrations with Amazon EventBridge, and Amazon SQS integrations with AWS Step Functions.

Amazon EventBridge Pipes

EventBridge Pipes logging introduces insights into different stages of the pipe execution. It expands on the Amazon CloudWatch metrics support, and provides you with additional methods for troubleshooting and debugging.

You can now gain insights into various successful and failure scenarios within the pipe execution steps. When event transformation or enrichment succeeds or fails, you can use logs to delve deeper and initiate troubleshooting for any issues with their configured pipes.

EventBridge Pipes execution steps

Understanding pipes execution steps can assist you in selecting the appropriate log level, which determines how much information is logged.

A pipe execution is an event or batch of events received by a pipe that travel from the source to the target. As events travel through a pipe, they can be filtered, transformed, or enriched using AWS Step Functions, AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and EventBridge API Destinations.

A pipe execution consists of two main stages: the enrichment and target. Both of these stages encompass transformation and invocation steps.

You can use input transformers, enabling modification to the payload of the event before the events undergo enrichment or get dispatched to the downstream target. This gives you fine-grained control over the manipulation of event data during the execution of their configured pipes.

When the pipe execution starts, the execution enters the enrichment stage. If you don’t configure an enrichment stage, the execution proceeds to the target stage.

At the pipe execution, transformation, enrichment, and target phases EventBridge can log information to help debug or troubleshoot. Pipes logs can include payloads, errors, transformations, AWS requests, and AWS responses.

To learn more about pipe executions, read this documentation.

Configuring log levels with EventBridge Pipes

When logging is enabled for your pipe, EventBridge produces a log entry for every execution step and sends these logs to the specified log destinations.

EventBridge Pipes supports three log destinations: Amazon CloudWatch Logs, Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose stream, and Amazon S3. The records sent can be customized by configuring the log level of the pipe (OFF, ERROR, INFO, TRACE).

  • OFF – EventBridge does not send any records.
  • ERROR – EventBridge sends records related to errors generated during the pipe execution. Examples include Execution Failed, Execution Timeout and Enrichment Failures.
  • INFO – EventBridge sends records related to errors and selected information performed during pipe execution. Examples include Execution Started, Execution Succeeded and Enrichment Stage Succeeded.
  • TRACE – EventBridge sends any record generated during any step in the pipe execution.

The ERROR log level proves beneficial in gaining insights into the reasons behind a failed pipe execution. Pipe executions may encounter failure due to various reasons, such as timeouts, enrichment failure, transformation failure, or target invocation failure. Enabling ERROR logging allows you to learn more about the specific cause of the pipe error, facilitating the resolution of the issue.

The INFO log level supplements ERROR information with additional details. It not only informs about errors but also provides insights into the commencement of the pipe execution, entry into the enrichment phase, progression into the transformation phase, and the initiation and successful completion of the target stage.

For a more in-depth analysis, you can use the TRACE log level to obtain comprehensive insights into a pipe execution. This encompasses all supported pipe logs, offering a detailed view beyond the INFO and ERROR logs. The TRACE log level reveals crucial information, such as skipped pipe execution stages and the initiation of transformation and enrichment processes.

For more details on the log levels and what logs are sent, you can read the documentation.

Including execution data with EventBridge Pipes logging

To help with further debugging, you can choose to include execution data within the pipe logs. This data comprises event payloads, AWS requests, and responses sent to and received from configured enrichment and target components.

You can also use the execution data to gain further insights into the payloads, requests, and responses sent to AWS services during the execution of the pipe.

Incorporating execution data can enhance understanding of the pipe execution, providing deeper insights and aiding in the debugging of any encountered issues.

Execution data within a log contains three parts:

  • payload: The content of the event itself. The payload of the event may contain sensitive information and EventBridge makes no attempt to redact the contents. Including execution data is optional and can be turned off.
  • awsRequest: The request sent to the enrichment or target in serialized JSON format. For API destinations this includes the HTTP request sent to that endpoint.
  • awsResponse: The response returned by the enrichment or target in JSON format. For API Destinations, this is the response returned from the configured endpoint.

The payload of the event is populated when the event itself can be updated. These stages include the initial pipe execution, enrichment phase, and target phase. The awsRequest and awsResponse are both generated at the final steps of enrichment and targeting.

For more information on log levels and execution data, visit this documentation.

Getting started with EventBridge Pipes logs

This example creates a pipe with logging enabled and includes execution data. The pipe connects two Amazon SQS queues using an input transformer on the target with no enrichment step. The input transformer customizes the payload of the event before reaching the target.

  1. Creating the source and target queues
# Create a queue for the source
aws sqs create-queue --queue-name pipe-source

# Create a queue for the target
aws sqs create-queue --queue-name pipe-target

2. Navigate to EventBridge Pipes and choose Create pipe.

3. Select SQS as the Source and select pipe-source as the SQS Queue.

4. Skip the filter and enrichment phase and add a new Target. Select SQS as the Target service and pipe-target as the Queue.

5. Open Target Input Transformer section and enter the transformer code into the Transformer field.


  "body": "Favorite food is <$.body>"


6. Choose Pipe settings to configure the log group for the new pipe.

7. Verify that CloudWatch Logs is set as the log destination, and select Trace as the log level. Check the “Include execution data” check box. This logs all traces to the new CloudWatch log group and includes the SQS messages that are sent on the pipe.

8. Choose Create Pipe.

9. Send an SQS message to the source queue.

# Get the Queue URL

aws sqs get-queue-url --queue-name pipe-source

# Send a message to the queue using the URL

aws sqs send-message --queue-url {QUEUE_URL} --message-body "pizza"

10. All trace logs are shown in the monitoring tab, use CloudWatch Logs section for more information.


EventBridge Pipes enables point-to-point integration between event producers and consumers. With logging support for EventBridge Pipes, you can now gain insights into various stages of the pipe execution. Pipe log destinations can be configured to CloudWatch Logs, Kinesis Data Firehose, and Amazon S3.

EventBridge Pipes supports three log levels. The ERROR log level configures EventBridge to send records related to errors to the log destination. The INFO log level configures EventBridge to send records related to errors and selected information during the pipe execution. The TRACE log level sends any record generated to the log destination, useful for debugging and gaining further insights.

You can include execution data in the logs, which includes the event itself, and AWS requests and responses made to AWS services configured in the pipe. This can help you gain further insights into the pipe execution. Read the documentation to learn more about EventBridge Pipes Logs.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.

The serverless attendee’s guide to AWS re:Invent 2023

Post Syndicated from Marcia Villalba original https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/compute/the-serverless-attendees-guide-to-aws-reinvent-2023/

AWS re:Invent 2023 is fast approaching, bringing together tens of thousands of Builders in Las Vegas in November. However, even if you can’t attend in person, you can catch up with sessions on-demand.

Breakout sessions are lecture-style 60-minute informative sessions presented by AWS experts, customers, or partners. These sessions cover beginner (100 level) topics to advanced and expert (300–400 level) topics. The sessions are recorded and uploaded a few days after to the AWS Events YouTube channel.

This post shares the “must watch” breakout sessions related to serverless architectures and services.

Sessions related to serverless architecture


SVS401 | Best practices for serverless developers
Provides architectural best practices, optimizations, and useful shortcuts that experts use to build secure, high-scale, and high-performance serverless applications.

Chris Munns, Startup Tech Leader, AWS
Julian Wood, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

SVS305 | Refactoring to serverless
Shows how you can refactor your application to serverless with real-life examples.

Gregor Hohpe, Senior Principal Evangelist, AWS
Sindhu Pillai, Senior Solutions Architect, AWS

SVS308 | Building low-latency, event-driven applications
Explores building serverless web applications for low-latency and event-driven support. Marvel Snap share how they achieve low-latency in their games using serverless technology.

Marcia Villalba, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS
Brenna Moore, Second Dinner

SVS309 | Improve productivity by shifting more responsibility to developers
Learn about approaches to accelerate serverless development with faster feedback cycles, exploring best practices and tools. Watch a live demo featuring an improved developer experience for building serverless applications while complying with enterprise governance requirements.

Heeki Park, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS
Sam Dengler, Capital One

GBL203-ES | Building serverless-first applications with MAPFRE
This session is delivered in Spanish. Learn what modern, serverless-first applications are and how to implement them with services such as AWS Lambda or AWS Fargate. Find out how MAPFRE have adopted and implemented a serverless strategy.

Jesus Bernal, Senior Solutions Architect, AWS
Iñigo Lacave, MAPFRE
Mat Jovanovic, MAPFRE

Sessions related to AWS Lambda


BOA311 | Unlocking serverless web applications with AWS Lambda Web Adapter
Learn about the AWS Lambda Web Adapter and how it integrates with familiar frameworks and tools. Find out how to migrate existing web applications to serverless or create new applications using AWS Lambda.

Betty Zheng, Senior Developer Advocate, AWS
Harold Sun, Senior Solutions Architect, AWS

OPN305 | The pragmatic serverless Python developer
Covers an opinionated approach to setting up a serverless Python project, including testing, profiling, deployments, and operations. Learn about many open source tools, including Powertools for AWS Lambda—a toolkit that can help you implement serverless best practices and increase developer velocity.

Heitor Lessa, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS
Ran Isenberg, CyberArk

XNT301 | Build production-ready serverless .NET apps with AWS Lambda
Explores development and architectural best practices when building serverless applications with .NET and AWS Lambda, including when to run ASP.NET on Lambda, code structure, and using native AOT to massively increase performance.

James Eastham, Senior Cloud Architect, AWS
Craig Bossie, Solutions Architect, AWS

COM306 | “Rustifying” serverless: Boost AWS Lambda performance with Rust
Discover how to deploy Rust functions using AWS SAM and cargo-lambda, facilitating a smooth development process from your local machine. Explore how to integrate Rust into Python Lambda functions effortlessly using tools like PyO3 and maturin, along with the AWS SDK for Rust. Uncover how Rust can optimize Lambda functions, including the development of Lambda extensions, all without requiring a complete rewrite of your existing code base.

Efi Merdler-Kravitz, Cloudex

COM305 | Demystifying and mitigating AWS Lambda cold starts
Examines the Lambda initialization process at a low level, using benchmarks comparing common architectural patterns, and then benchmarking various RAM configurations and payload sizes. Next, measure and discuss common mistakes that can increase initialization latency, explore and understand proactive initialization, and learn several strategies you can use to thaw your AWS Lambda cold starts.

AJ Stuyvenberg, Datadog

Sessions related to event-driven architecture


API302 | Building next gen applications with event driven architecture
Learn about common integration patterns and discover how you can use AWS messaging services to connect microservices and coordinate data flow using minimal custom code. Learn and plan for idempotency, handling duplicating events and building resiliency into your architectures.

Eric Johnson, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

API303 | Navigating the journey of serverless event-driven architecture
Learn about the journey businesses undertake when adopting EDAs, from initial design and implementation to ongoing operation and maintenance. The session highlights the many benefits EDAs can offer organizations and focuses on areas of EDA that are challenging and often overlooked. Through a combination of patterns, best practices, and practical tips, this session provides a comprehensive overview of the opportunities and challenges of implementing EDAs and helps you understand how you can use them to drive business success.

David Boyne, Senior Developer Advocate, AWS

API309 | Advanced integration patterns and trade-offs for loosely coupled apps
In this session, learn about common design trade-offs for distributed systems, how to navigate them with design patterns, and how to embed those patterns in your cloud automation.

Dirk Fröhner, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS
Gregor Hohpe, Senior Principal Evangelist, AWS

SVS205 | Getting started building serverless event-driven applications
Learn about the process of prototyping a solution from concept to a fully featured application that uses Amazon API Gateway, AWS Lambda, Amazon EventBridge, AWS Step Functions, Amazon DynamoDB, AWS Application Composer, and more. Learn why serverless is a great tool set for experimenting with new ideas and how the extensibility and modularity of serverless applications allow you to start small and quickly make your idea a reality.

Emily Shea, Head of Application Integration Go-to-Market, AWS
Naren Gakka, Solutions Architect, AWS

API206 | Bringing workloads together with event-driven architecture
Attend this session to learn the steps to bring your existing container workloads closer together using event-driven architecture with minimal code changes and a high degree of reusability. Using a real-life business example, this session walks through a demo to highlight the power of this approach.

Dhiraj Mahapatro, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS
Nicholas Stumpos, JPMorgan Chase & Co

COM301 | Advanced event-driven patterns with Amazon EventBridge
Gain an understanding of the characteristics of EventBridge and how it plays a pivotal role in serverless architectures. Learn the primary elements of event-driven architecture and some of the best practices. With real-world use cases, explore how the features of EventBridge support implementing advanced architectural patterns in serverless.

Sheen Brisals, The LEGO Group

Sessions related to serverless APIs


SVS301 | Building APIs: Choosing the best API solution and strategy for your workloads
Learn about access patterns and how to evaluate the best API technology for your applications. The session considers the features and benefits of Amazon API Gateway, AWS AppSync, Amazon VPC Lattice, and other options.

Josh Kahn, Tech Leader Serverless, AWS
Arthi Jaganathan, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS

SVS323 | I didn’t know Amazon API Gateway did that
This session provides an introduction to Amazon API Gateway and the problems it solves. Learn about the moving parts of API Gateway and how it works, including common and not-so-common use cases. Discover why you should use API Gateway and what it can do.

Eric Johnson, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

FWM201 | What’s new with AWS AppSync for enterprise API developers
Join this session to learn about all the exciting new AWS AppSync features released this year that make it even more seamless for API developers to realize the benefits of GraphQL for application development.

Michael Liendo, Senior Developer Advocate, AWS
Brice Pellé, Principal Product Manager, AWS

FWM204 | Implement real-time event patterns with WebSockets and AWS AppSync
Learn how the PGA Tour uses AWS AppSync to deliver real-time event updates to their app users; review new features, like enhanced filtering options and native integration with Amazon EventBridge; and provide a sneak peek at what’s coming next.

Ryan Yanchuleff, Senior Solutions Architect, AWS
Bill Fine, Senior Product Manager, AWS
David Provan, PGA Tour

Sessions related to AWS Step Functions


API401 | Advanced workflow patterns and business processes with AWS Step Functions
Learn about architectural best practices and repeatable patterns for building workflows and cost optimizations, and discover handy cheat codes that you can use to build secure, high-scale, high-performance serverless applications

Ben Smith, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

BOA304 | Using AI and serverless to automate video production
Learn how to use Step Functions to build workflows using AI services and how to use Amazon EventBridge real-time events.

Marcia Villalba, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

SVS204 | Building Serverlesspresso: Creating event-driven architectures
This session explores the design decisions that were made when building Serverlesspresso, how new features influenced the development process, and lessons learned when creating a production-ready application using this approach. Explore useful patterns and options for extensibility that helped in the design of a robust, scalable solution that costs about one dollar per day to operate. This session includes examples you can apply to your serverless applications and complex architectural challenges for larger applications.

James Beswick, Senior Manager Developer Advocacy, AWS

API310 | Scale interactive data analysis with Step Functions Distributed Map
Learn how to build a data processing or other automation once and readily scale it to thousands of parallel processes with serverless technologies. Explore how this approach simplifies development and error handling while improving speed and lowering cost. Hear from an AWS customer that refactored an existing machine learning application to use Distributed Map and the lessons they learned along the way.

Adam Wagner, Principal Solutions Architect, AWS
Roberto Iturralde, Vertex Pharmaceuticals

Sessions related to handling data using serverless services and serverless databases


SVS307 | Scaling your serverless data processing with Amazon Kinesis and Kafka
Explore how to build scalable data processing applications using AWS Lambda. Learn practical insights into integrating Lambda with Amazon Kinesis and Apache Kafka using their event-driven models for real-time data streaming and processing.

Julian Wood, Principal Developer Advocate, AWS

DAT410 | Advanced data modeling with Amazon DynamoDB
This session shows you advanced techniques to get the most out of DynamoDB. Learn how to “think in DynamoDB” by learning the DynamoDB foundations and principles for data modeling. Learn practical strategies and DynamoDB features to handle difficult use cases in your application.

Alex De Brie – Independent consultant

COM308 | Serverless data streaming: Amazon Kinesis Data Streams and AWS Lambda
Explore the intricacies of creating scalable, production-ready data streaming architectures using Kinesis Data Streams and Lambda. Delve into tips and best practices essential to navigating the challenges and pitfalls inherent to distributed systems that arise along the way, and observe how AWS services work and interact.

Anahit Pogosova, Solita

Additional resources

If you are attending the event, there are many chalk talks, workshops, and other sessions to visit. See ServerlessLand for a full list of all the serverless sessions and also the Serverless Hero, Danielle Heberling’s Serverless re:Invent attendee guide for her top picks.

Visit us in the AWS Village in the Expo Hall where you can find the Serverless and Containers booth and enjoy a free cup of coffee at Serverlesspresso.

For more serverless learning resources, visit Serverless Land.